You are on page 1of 29

Toxic QRAs

8/7/2014

Fig. 1: Logic Diagram For Toxic Mini-QRA


Start at
Tab QRA

Tab QRA
Select
Toxic Chemical (1 - 20)
4 Scenario Descriptions
4 Release Durations
4 Generic Failure Rates
Auto Sort Fatality Data
Determine IR Data
Determine Societal Risk

Tab VM
Select Vulnerability Model
1 = CPQRA
2 = TNO
3 = Specific Rat Data
4 = Manual Input of k1, k2 & n

Tab VM
Obtain 4
LC50 Concentrations

Tab FR
Select Failure
Rates For 4
Generic Systems

Tab IR
Plot Individual Risk to 1E-06 and 1E-08 Fatalities/Yr

Tab SR
Plot Societal Risk vs Dutch QRA Criteria

Tab PP
Select Physical
Properties

Tabs S1 - S9
Select Source Term Models - Delivers Rate Of Discharge and Release Durations
S1 =
2 Liquid and 2 Vapour Orifice Calculations - Sonic & Sub-Sonic Flow
S2 =
Source Term Model - 2 Liquid and 2 Vapour Models + Logistics
S3 =
Evaporation Rate From Un-Restrained Pool Spreading - Transient Release
S4 =
Evaporation Rate From Restrained Pool Spreading - Transient release
S5 =
Evaporation Rate From Volatile Liquid Below Boiling Point - Steady State Release
S6 =
Depressurization of a Pressurized Vessel - Transient Release
S7 =
Release From PSV of a Vessel Containing Toxic Liquid Under Fire or Reactive Chemical Conditions
S8 =
A Generalized Correlation for Flashing Choked Flow of Initially Subcooled Liquid
S9 =
Release of Heavy Toxic gases From Elevated Stacks or PSVs.

Tabs GC & GI
Select Dispersion Model - Yields LC50 Distances & Durations For 4 Selected Scenarios
GC = Continuous Gaussian Model + Vulnerability Data
GI =
Instantaneous Gaussian Model + Vulnerability Data

R.A. Hawrelak (PERCS Inc. 519-542-8832)

240621230.xls.ms_office

Mini QRA For MIC Storage

8/7/2014

MIC Plant Under Poor Safety Management System (CPQRA Vulnerability Model)

Basis

Release and Dispersion Summary

Based on a Continuous Gaussian Dispersion Model, CPQRA Vulnerability Probit Constants and Selected Source Term Models

BHOPAL - Incidents From One

Incident
1
2
3
4

Scenario
Description
2" Liq Leak
1/2" Liq Leak
Runaway Rx
Tank Rupture

Dischg Rate
kgm - kgm/s
15.4353
1.54
3.6936
30.8739

90,000

lb Storage Tank

Duration
Minutes
60
60
100
85

Select (1 - 20) =

Chemical =

MIC

Select Model (1 - 2)

Gaussian

Dispersion

LC50
ppmv
39.86
39.86
18.23
23.38

Gaussian
LC50 Dist, m
2,172
545
1,869
4,355

Source
Term Tab
Tab S4
Tab S4
Tab S7 & S9
Tab S3

Source Term
Description
Into 1,000 sm Dyked Area
Into 100 sm Restricted Curb Area
PSV to 8 Inch Stack 108' High
Into 1,670 sm Unrestricted Area

Events/yr
1.00E-04
1.00E-05
2.60E-07
1.35E-05

No. In
System
10
1
1
1

Frequency
Failure/Yr
1.00E-03
1.00E-05
2.60E-07
1.35E-05
1.02E-03

Source
Fr FR database
Technica
CPQRA
CPQRA, P-459
Technica

No. In
System
10
1
1
1
0

Frequency
Failure/Yr
1.00E-03
6.60E-04
4.00E-04
1.00E-04
0.00E+00
2.16E-03

Source

Frequency
Failure/Yr
1.02E-03
2.16E-03
4.00E-07
1.35E-05

Failure Frequency For System Components

2" Liq Leak

Incident No. 1 - Generic System For


Failure Rate
No.
34
35
54
48

Generic System For


Incident 1 2" Liq Leak
Valve or Flange Leak
Impact Failure Of Pipe
Med Pipe Rupt >2" <6" / m
Leak Errosion / Mech Stress
Total

1/2" Liq Leak

Incident No. 2 - Generic System For


Failure Rate
No.
34
39
22
36
99

Generic System For


Incident 2 1/2" Liq Leak
Valve or Flange Leak
Pump Seal Leakage
Pipe Splits - 1/2 Inch
PSV Leakage at Norm Press
0
Total

Phase Of
Leak
Vap or Liq
Liquid
Liquid
Vap or Liq
0.00E+00

Failure Rate Generic System For


No.
Incident 3 Runaway Rx
MIC Flows To Atm Fr Top VGS

Phase Of
Leak

Generic System For


Incident 4 Tank Rupture
Leak Errosion / Mech Stress
0
0
0
0
Total

R.A. Hawrelak

See FT Tab For Details


No. In
System

Events/yr

Frequency
Failure/Yr

Vapor

Phase Of
Leak
Vap or Liq
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00

Summary Of Representative Frequency Estimates


Description
2" Liq Leak
1/2" Liq Leak
Runaway Rx
Tank Rupture

Technica
Technica
Nussey HSE
CPQRA

4.00E-07

Source

Fault Tree (FT)

Tank Rupture

Incident No. 4 - Generic System For

Incident
1
2
3
4

Events/yr
1.00E-04
6.60E-04
4.00E-04
1.00E-04
0.00E+00

Runaway Rx

Incident No. 3 - Generic System For

Failure Rate
No.
48
99
99
99
99

Phase Of
Leak
Vap or Liq
Vap or Liq
Vap or Liq
Vap or Liq

Frequency/Yr
1.02E-03
2.16E-03
4.00E-07
1.35E-05

No. In
System
1
1
1
1
0

Events/yr
1.35E-05
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00

Frequency
Failure/Yr
1.35E-05
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
1.35E-05

Source
Technica
0
0
0
0

BHOPAL - Incidents From One


Frequency Basis
Generic System
Generic System
Fault Tree
Generic System

Source
see above
see above
see below
see above

7:48 PM

Gaussian Dist, m
2,172
545
1,869
4,355

Manually Det'd
BM + Gauss, m
2,405
531
1,911
4,777

..

240621230.xls.ms_office

Toxic Chemical Vulnerability Model

8/7/2014

Case

Vulnerability Model (VM)

Toxic Basis
Select 1 to 20
Time =
Avg Conc'n =
Avg Conc'n =
% Fatality =
Risk Message

1
(1 = CPQRA, 2 = TNO, 3 = Rat Data, 4 = Manual Input k1, k2, & n)
4
MIC
STEL 15 min. =
? ppmv
CPQRA Probits
100
minutes
Pr = k1 + (k2)[LN(Dose)] =
4.9999
Dose =S(C^n)(t)=
18.23
ppmv
6.66E+02
42.52
mgm/m3 @ t =
25.00
C
n=
0.6530
50.16%
51.78%
49.97%
k1 =
-5.6420
Fatality Potential Dose
k2 =
1.6370
MW =
57.1

Fatality =
Probit =
Minutes
1
2
5
10
60
85
100

IDLH
1.6462
Avg ppmv
914.16
316.25
77.74
26.89
1.73
1.01
0.79

Basis =

LC1
2.67
Avg ppmv
2,382.19
824.10
202.57
70.08
4.51
2.64
2.06

CPQRA Probits

LC10
3.72
Avg ppmv
6,361.61
2,200.76
540.96
187.14
12.04
7.06
5.51

LC50
5
Avg ppmv
21,066.96
7,287.97
1,791.45
619.74
39.86
23.38
18.23

LC90
6.28
Avg ppmv
69,764.87
24,134.67
5,932.51
2,052.31
132.00
77.43
60.37

MIC

CPQRA Probits

(Page down)

Lethal Toxicity Chart For

FATALITY CHART FOR SELECTED CHEMICAL

eg, LC50 = 50% Fatality


1,000,000.00
100,000.00
A
V
G

LC01
LC10

10,000.00

LC50
LC90

1,000.00
P
P
M
V

LC99

100.00

IDLH
Data Pt.

10.00

ERPG2

ERPG3

1.00
0.10
1

10

100

EXPOSURE DURATION, MINUTES

R.A. Hawrelak

7:48 PM

240621230.xls.ms_office

Toxic Chemical Vulnerability Model

8/7/2014

ppmv - min.

LC99.9
8.09
Avg ppmv
379,313.68
131,220.93
32,255.24
11,158.48
717.71
421.02
328.26

LC01
LC10

LC50
LC90
LC99

IDLH
Data Pt.
ERPG2

ERPG3

R.A. Hawrelak

7:48 PM

240621230.xls.ms_office

Failure Rates For Database LOOKUP

No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46

Description
Instantaneous Vessel Rupture
Instantaneous Vessel Rupture
Vessel Leakage
Vessel Leakage
Catastrophic Dist'n Tower
Serious Dist'n Tower Leak
2 Inch Hole In Pipe
1 Inch Hole In Pipe
1/2 Inch Hole In Pipe
1/4 Inch Hole In Pipe
2 Inch Hole In Pipe
1 Inch Hole In Pipe
1/2 Inch Hole In Pipe
1/4 Inch Hole In Pipe
Gillotine 1 Inch
Gillotine 1/2 Inch
Gillotine 1/4 Inch
Gillotine 1 Inch
Gillotine 1/2 Inch
Gillotine 1/4 Inch
Pipe Splits - 1 Inch
Pipe Splits - 1/2 Inch
Pipe Splits - /4 Inch
Pipe Splits - 1 Inch
Pipe Splits - 1/2 Inch
Pipe Splits - 1/4 Inch
Gasket (3mm thk) 1/4 Dia
Gasket (3mm thk) 1/4 Dia
Gasket (1.6mm thk) 1/4 Dia
Gasket (1.6mm thk) 1/4 Dia
Tanker Cplg Transfer Hose
Tanker Cplg Transfer Hose
Tanker Cplg Transfer Hose
Valve or Flange Leak
Impact Failure Of Pipe
PSV Leakage at Norm Press
PSV Under Fire
Pump Case Rupture
Pump Seal Leakage
Compressor Seal Leakage
Compressor Case Rupture
Filter Vessel Rupture
Filter Seal or Flange Leakage
Adjacent Line Jet Fire
Crane Impact on Transf Line
Nozzle Leak

Case =

Phase
Liquid
Vapor
Liquid
Vapor
Vap or Liq
Vap or Liq
Liquid
Liquid
Liquid
Liquid
Vapor
Vapor
Vapor
Vapor
Liquid
Liquid
Liquid
Vapor
Vapor
Vapor
Liquid
Liquid
Liquid
Vapor
Vapor
Vapor
Liquid
Vapor
Liquid
Vapor
Liquid
Vapor
Liquid
Vap or Liq
Vap or Liq
Vap or Liq
Vap or Liq
Liquid
Liquid
Vapor
Vapor
Vap or Liq
Vap or Liq
Vap or Liq
Vap or Liq
Vap or Liq

Failure Rate
Per Year
1.00E-06
1.00E-06
2.40E-05
3.60E-05
6.50E-06
1.00E-05
1.60E-06
3.20E-06
4.00E-06
1.60E-05
2.40E-06
4.80E-06
6.00E-06
2.40E-05
1.20E-07
4.00E-05
1.60E-04
1.80E-07
6.00E-05
2.40E-04
1.20E-06
4.00E-04
1.60E-03
1.80E-06
6.00E-04
2.40E-03
2.00E-06
3.00E-06
1.20E-06
1.80E-06
1.20E-06
1.80E-06
5.00E-04
1.00E-04
1.00E-05
1.00E-04
3.00E-06
6.60E-05
6.60E-04
9.20E-06
9.20E-05
1.30E-05
9.70E-04
5.00E-06
4.40E-05
6.00E-07

Source
Nussey HSE
Nussey HSE
Nussey HSE
Nussey HSE
CPQRA, p-459
CPQRA, p-459
Nussey HSE
Nussey HSE
Nussey HSE
Nussey HSE
Nussey HSE
Nussey HSE
Nussey HSE
Nussey HSE
Nussey HSE
Nussey HSE
Nussey HSE
Nussey HSE
Nussey HSE
Nussey HSE
Nussey HSE
Nussey HSE
Nussey HSE
Nussey HSE
Nussey HSE
Nussey HSE
Nussey HSE
Nussey HSE
Nussey HSE
Nussey HSE
Nussey HSE
Nussey HSE
CPQRA
Technica
CPQRA
CPQRA
CPQRA
Technica
Technica
Technica
Technica
Technica
Technica
Technica
Technica
Technica

95% Confidence Limits Of Fail


Basis: CPQRA, Page 351
Upper Confidence Limit
f1 = 2(x + 1)
f2 = 2(n - x)
Where

Upper Confidence Limit = (x + 1)

Lower Limit of Confidence = x / [

Where F1 and F2 = value of F-di


Typically, 95% confidence level is
Example:

Item
1
2
3
4
5
6

Upper Confidence limit,

Eqn 5.5.21

Lower Confidence Limit,

47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70

Complete Nipple Screw Fail


Leak Errosion / Mech Stress
Pipe Rup Along Transfer Line
Coll'n Vehicle to Pipe support
Sight Glass failure
Small Pipe Rupt <=1" / meter
Small Pipe Leak <=1" / meter
Med Pipe Rupt >2" <6" / m
Med Pipe Leak >2" <6" / m
Large Pipe Rupt > 6" / meter
Large Pipe Leak > 6" / meter
Brittle Vessel Failure

Vap or Liq
Vap or Liq
Vap or Liq
Vap or Liq
Vap or Liq
Vap or Liq
Vap or Liq
Vap or Liq
Vap or Liq
Vap or Liq
Vap or Liq
Vap or Liq

5.00E-03
1.35E-05
6.70E-05
4.40E-06
4.50E-02
8.80E-07
8.80E-06
2.60E-07
5.30E-06
8.80E-08
2.60E-06
6.30E-04

Technica
Technica
Technica
Technica
Technica
CPQRA, P-459
CPQRA, P-459
CPQRA, P-459
CPQRA, P-459
CPQRA, P-459
CPQRA, P-459
ADL - FT

Eqn 5.5.24

Estimate the Frequency of Leaks and Catastrophic Rupture For An LPG Storage Sphere

5% Confidence Limits Of Failure Rate Data - For

asis: CPQRA, Page 351

PV Catastrophic Rupture Failure

See allso V.C. Marshall, Major Chemical Hazards, P-71

per Confidence Limit

Lower Confidence Limit


f3 = 2(2 - x + 1)
f4 = 2(x)

Eqn 5.5.22
Eqn 5.5.23

Eqn 5.5.25
Eqn 5.5.26

x = number of observations of failure


n = sample size, vessel years

pper Confidence Limit = (x + 1)F1 / [(n-x) + (x + 1)F1]

Eqn 5.5.21

with f1 and f2

ower Limit of Confidence = x / [(n-x + 1)F2 + x]

Eqn 5.5.24

with f3 and f4

here F1 and F2 = value of F-distribution with degrees of freedom f1 and f2


ypically, 95% confidence level is used.
Data Of Smith and Warwick, 1983, CPQRA, page 358
20,000
pressure vessels with an exposure of n =
This includes pipe failures and vessel failures.
Failures
PV Catastrophic Rupture Failure
2
Catastrophic Pipework Failure
10
Pipe Work Leaks
34
Vessel Leaks
42
1 - 2 Inch Leak Size Failures
25
2 - 6 Inch leak Size Failures
153
Select 1 to 4

f1 =
f2 =

Upper Confidence Limit =


8,760

Table 4: F1
2.1
1.55
1.30
1.28
1.35
1.00

Table 4: F2
5.63
1.84
1.37
1.33
1.45
1.00

20.32E-06

/vessel yr
Eqn 5.5.22
Eqn 5.5.23

F1 =

2.10

2
=x/n
f1 = 2(x + 1)
f2 = 2(n - x)
Table 4, p-258

PV Catastrophic Rupture Failure / vessel-yrs

hours per years

Failure per 1E06 Hours =

wer Confidence Limit,

6.45E-06

6
619996

From Table VII of Hald (1952a) for P = 0.95,

For

vessel years = n

Observed Failures, x =

PV Catastrophic Rupture Failure / vessel yr =

per Confidence limit,

310,000

2.32E-03
f3 =
f4 =

619998
4

Eqn 5.5.25
Eqn 5.5.26

f3 = 2(2 - x + 1)
f4 = 2(x)

From Table VII of Hald (1952a) for P = 0.95,

F2 =

5.63

Table 4, p-258

Lower Confidence Limit =

1.15E-06

PV Catastrophic Rupture Failure / vessel-yrs

Failure per 1E06 Hours =

1.31E-04

PERD Lower = 0.00E+00

The analyst can be 95% certain the value for


falls in the range
failures per vessel year

Lower Limit =

Index =
PV Catastrophic Rupture Failure / vessel yr =
Failure Rate Within 95% Confidence Limits

PERD page =

PV Catastrophic Rupture Failure


1.15E-06

to Upper L =

1.00

2.03E-05
17.73

1.15E-06

6.45E-06

2.03E-05

1.00

5.63

17.73

Hole In Pipe - Liq Phase


Inch
Fail/Yr
Inch
2.00
2.40E-06
1.00
4.80E-06
0.50
6.00E-06
0.25
2.40E-05

2
1
0.50
0.25

Slope m Constant b
-1.02877 -12.3186
Fail/Yr
2.19E-06
4.47E-06
9.12E-06
1.86E-05

Hole In Pipe - Liq Phase


Inch
Fail/Yr
2 1.60E-06
1 3.20E-06
0.5 4.00E-06
0.25 1.60E-05

1.00E+00
1.00E-01
1.00E-02

Series1

1.00E-03

Series2

1.00E-04
1.00E-05
1.00E-06
0.10

1.00

10.00

Hole In Pipe - Vapor Phase


Inch
Fail/Yr
2.00
2.40E-06
1.00
4.80E-06
0.50
6.00E-06
0.25
2.40E-05

2
1
0.5
0.25

Slope m Constant b
-1.02877
-12.724
Fail/Yr
1.46E-06
2.98E-06
6.08E-06
1.24E-05

2
1
0.50
0.25

Slope m Constant b
-1.02877 -12.3186
Fail/Yr
2.19E-06
4.47E-06
9.12E-06
1.86E-05

pe - Liq Phase
Inch

pe - Vapor Phase
Inch

Incident No. 3 - Estimated Fault Tree Analysis For BHOPAL Event - Poor Safety Management System
MIC Flows To Atm Fr Top VGS
E6 = E5*P5 = 4.00E-07

per Yr

And

MIC Flows To Flare Stack


E5 =P4*E4 = 4.00E-06

per Yr

Flare Stack Not Available Due To


Line Maintenance
P5 = 0.1

And

VGS Pump Fails to Start


VGS On Standby
Est'd P4 = 0.01

MIC Flows To Off Line VGS


E4 = E3*P3 = 4.00E-04

per Yr

And

Tank At Amb Temp & Runaway


Reaction Starts Very Fast
E3=E1+E2 = 2.00E-03

per Yr

Operator Does Not Control


Runaway
P3=P1+P2 = 0.20

Or

Water Fr N2 Header
Operator error
E1/Yr = 1.00E-03

Water Enters By Sabotage


Disgruntled Employee
E2/Yr = 1.00E-03

Or

Inst Alarms & Oprs Do Not


Respond. Incorrect Set Pt.
Prob P1=
0.10

Operators Fail To Notice Alarms


Runaway Takes Off
Prob P2=
0.10

IR

Individual Risk
1.00E+00

Data Pts.
Best Fit

1.00E-01

Accumulated Risk Per Year

1.00E-02

1.00E-03

1.00E-04

1.00E-05

1.00E-06

1.00E-07

1.00E-08
0

1,000

2,000

3,000

4,000

5,000

Distance, Meters

Page 13

6,000

7,000

8,000

Societal F_N Curve

8/7/2014

Societal F-N Curve For MIC Storage Area


Dutch Criteria For Acceptable To Unacceptable - BM - HSE Escape Model
1.00E-02

1.00E-03
Acceptable
Unacceptable

Unacceptable

1.00E-04

Case Study

Freq Of N or More
Fatalities/Yr
1.00E-05
Mitig'n
Reqd
1.00E-06

1.00E-07
1
Acceptable

R.A. Hawrelak

10

100

1000

10000

No. Fatalities, N

7:48 PM

240621230.xls.ms_office

Physical Properties
Chemical =

MIC

Vessel Pressure at Failure =.


7.02
barg
Press, P =
Vessel Temp. at Failure, T =
115.56 C
T=
Atm Boiling Point, Tnb =
38.89
C
Tnb =
Mol Wt. =
57.1
Atm Press. =
UEL, vol % =
%
Relative Humidity, RH =
LEL, vol % =
%
Heat Of Combustion, HC =
4.4.E+05 J/kgm
HC =
Spec Heat Ratio, Cp/Cv =
1.146
Ideal Gas Cp-Cv = 2
Cp =
Liquid Density @ atm bp =
977.10 kgm.cu.m.
DL =
Latent Ht @ atm bp, L =
4.03E+05 J/kgm
L=
Liq Heat Capacity, CpL =
1,800
J/kgm/K
CpL =
Vapor Pressure, vp =
7.02
barg
Vapor Pressure, vp =
Ambient Temperature =
293.00 K
68.00 F
Liquid Head, hL =
6.10
meters
hL =
TNT Equivalent Heat Of Combustion, HC
4.65E+06
=
J/kgm
TNT HC =
Vessel Failure During =
PSV Flow See Tab S7
Special Conditions =
Nitrogen Pad Lost

Basis

116.35
240
102
14.696
50.00%
189
15.71
61
173.3
0.43
116.35
20.00
20
2,000

Engineering Data Book - Natural Gas Process Suppliers Association - 9th Edition - 1972 - Chapter 16

Antoinne Constants
Not added to PP yet
vp, psi =10^(A+B/(C+C))
psia
C =
115.56
F
A=
5.01922143
F
B=
-976.81162
psia
C=
215.1785
Default = 50%
BTU/lb
BTU/lb mole/F
lb/cf
BTU/lb
BTU/lb/F
psia
C
ft.
BTU/lb (Default = 2,000)

- 1972 - Chapter 16

Screen 4

Calculation of Source Terms

(See Tab PID for Typical Credible Scenarios)

Liquid Leaks For Vessel Holes, Full Bore and Partial Pipe Diameter Breaks
Basis = Eqn 2.1.7 CPQRA, P449
Scenario =
1
2" Liq Leak
Scenario =
2
1/2" Liq Leak
Dia. =
0.0508 meters
Dia. =
0.0127 meters
Area =
0.0020 sq.m.
Area =
0.00013 sq.m.
GL =
47.67 kg/sec
GL =
2.98
kg/sec
Drain Time =
14.27 minutes
Drain Time=
228.35 minutes
Type =
Long Term - Continuous
Type =
Long Term - Continuous
Determine % Flash

If Flash is less than 10%, assume rainout will occur and special pool dispersion is necessary.

Frac Flashed = 1-EXP(-CpL*(T - Tnb) / L) =

28.99%

> 10%, Assume No Rainout for Any Liquid R

Vapor Leaks For vessel Holes, Full Bore and Partial Pipe Diameter Breaks
Basis = Eqn 2.1.1 Page 450 CPQRA
Scenario 3 =
2 Inch Vapor leak
Case =
25% Dia., m
Dia. =
0.0508 meters
Dia =
0.0127 meters
Area =
0.00203 sq.m.
Area =
0.000127 sq.m.
Critical Ratio =
1.74
Crit Ratio =
1.74
DP Ratio =
8.02
DP Ratio =
8.02
Is Flow Sonic?
Sonic
Is Flow Sonic?
Sonic
Flow factor =
0.68
Flow factor
0.68
Alpha
221.04
Alpha =
221.04
GV for 2 Vapor Lines =
10.05 kg/s
Gv =
0.63
kg/sec
Frac Flashed as above =
28.99%
Frac Flshd=
28.99%
Flash Vapor wo Entrain't =
26,095 kgms
Q wo Ent =
26,095 kgms
Time to Depressure =
43.29 minutes
Time to Dep
692.65 minutes
Type For 1 Lines =
Long Term - Continuous Type =
Long Term - Continuous

1/2" Liq Leak


0.50

Inch

Note

m - Continuous

pecial pool dispersion is necessary.


( Note)

Assume No Rainout for Any Liquid Releases & Assume 100% vapor

To be checked out

0.50

Inch

Note
Assumes constant flash vapor rate.

Representative Set Of Source Terms

8/7/2014

Turbulent Free Jets


New TNO Yellow Book, Chapter 3
Example , Part 6, Page 22
Data

Chemical
MW =
Cp/Cv =
Ves Press =
Atm Press =
Amb Temp =
Hole Dia =
Flow Coeff =
Viscosity =
LEL =
UEL =

MIC
57.1
1.30
72.1
14.7
77
2.00
0.60
0.0083
2.10%
9.50%

Turbulent Free Jet

Outflow =

Upwards

ideal gas where Cp-Cv = 2


psia
497,057.40
psia
101,341.80
F
298.20
inches
5.08

pascals
pascals
K
cm

4.97
1.01

Hole area, Ao =0.00202688 sq.m.

centipoise

Concentration Profile in the Free jet


0.80

Test For Sonic Flow


Wo =15,363
lb/hr
MW Air =
28.84
21% O2
Pr/Pa =
4.90
[Pr/Pa]^(1/k)=
3.40
Crit Ratio =
1.83
Note
Pr/Pa > Crit Press Ratio - Sonic Flow

0.60
Jet Width, Meters

TNO Initial Flow Rate, mo =


1.94
Ambient Air density =
1.18
Gas Density In Vessel, Dg,r =
11.44
Gas expansion factor =
0.63
Gas Density at Opening, Dg,o = 7.18
Gas Velocity at Opening, Uo =
221.61

bar abs
bar abs

kg/sec
kg/m3
kgm/m3

0.40
LEL

0.20

LEL

0.00
-0.200.00

10.00

20.00

UEL
UEL

-0.40
-0.60
-0.80

kgm/m3
m/s

Jet length, Meters

Test For turbulence - Re No. greater than 2.5E+04


Re No. =

7.54E+06

Gas Dens After Expan'n, Do,eq = 3.37

kgm/m3

Equivalent Dia., deq =

meters

2.26

inches

106.93

Eqn (6), p-12, Constant for the velocity distribution

b2 =

104.18

Eqn (7), p-12, Constant for the concentration distribution.

1.97

Density of Gas relative to air =


Rela gas density after exp =
0.32 denominator term =

R.A. Hawrelak

0.0575

b1 =

(b1+b2)/b1=

Eqn 14, p-14


Eqn 14, p-14

Re > 25000 - Turbulent Flow - Eqns apply.

At LEL, jm =
At UEL, jm =

2.10%
9.50%

1.98
2.86
0.37
x/deq =
x/deq =

Relative Density Outside 0.14 to 1.53 Limits - Extrapolations Are Approximate


Eqn 8, p-13

253.46
58.06

7:48 PM

x LEL =
x UEL =

14.56
3.34

meters
meters

240621230.xls.ms_office

Representative Set Of Source Terms

8/7/2014

Calculation Of Jet Footprint at LEL


x/deq Incs = 22.33
x/deq
Conc'n, Jm
y/deq
253.46
2.10%
0.00
231.13
2.31%
6.91
208.81
2.55%
9.06
186.48
2.86%
10.18
164.16
3.26%
10.67
141.83
3.78%
10.66
119.51
4.51%
10.23
97.18
5.57%
9.40
74.86
7.29%
8.18
52.53
10.55%
6.54
30.21
19.09%
4.40
7.88
100.00%
1.52

7.88224006

Calculation Of Jet Footprint at UEL


x/deq Incs = 4.56
x/deq
Conc'n, Jm
y/deq
58.06
9.50%
0.00
53.50
10.35%
1.54
48.94
11.37%
2.03
44.38
12.61%
2.31
39.82
14.16%
2.46
35.25
16.14%
2.51
30.69
18.76%
2.48
26.13
22.40%
2.37
21.57
27.79%
2.19
17.01
36.60%
1.94
12.44
53.59%
1.60
7.88
100.00%
1.18

7.88224006

x, meters
14.56
13.28
12.00
10.72
9.43
8.15
6.87
5.58
4.30
3.02
1.74
0.45

x, meters
3.34
3.07
2.81
2.55
2.29
2.03
1.76
1.50
1.24
0.98
0.72
0.45

y, meters
0.00
0.40
0.52
0.59
0.61
0.61
0.59
0.54
0.47
0.38
0.25
0.09

-y,meters
0.00
-0.40
-0.52
-0.59
-0.61
-0.61
-0.59
-0.54
-0.47
-0.38
-0.25
-0.09

y, meters
0.00
0.09
0.12
0.13
0.14
0.14
0.14
0.14
0.13
0.11
0.09
0.07

-y,meters
0
-0.09
-0.12
-0.13
-0.14
-0.14
-0.14
-0.14
-0.13
-0.11
-0.09
-0.07

b3
0
0.0299126
0.04337723
0.05460403
0.06499374
0.07517899
0.08561338
0.09676832
0.10931158
0.12448862
0.14556116
0.19257183

x"
#DIV/0!
13.2820663
11.999155
10.7162437
9.43333244
8.15042114
6.86750985
5.58459855
4.30168725
3.01877596
1.73586466
0.45295336

0.035

0.04

Calculation Of Volume Of Gas Between UEL and LEL by Eqn 19, p-16
1 to LEL
(a) = /3/b2 =
(b) = 2nd term =
(a)(b) =
(c) = 3rd term =
(d) = 1/jh^2-1
(e) = (c)(d) =
(f) = 4th term =
(g) = 5th term =
(h) = 6th term =
(e) - (f) + (g) + (h) = (i) =
(i)(a)(b)=Vg,Gas Vol, Eq19=

>>>

Vgas 1-2
Vgas/javg
Sum (V/j)
Avg Conc =
V total
V total
lbs In Flam =

0.021

0.0225

0.025

0.0275

0.03

0.045

0.010052249 0.01005225 0.01005225 0.01005225 0.01005225 0.01005225 0.01005225 0.01005225


0.003604627 0.00360463 0.00360463 0.00360463 0.00360463 0.00360463 0.00360463 0.00360463
3.62346E-05 3.6235E-05 3.6235E-05 3.6235E-05 3.6235E-05 3.6235E-05 3.6235E-05 3.6235E-05
3.847577893 3.84757789 3.84757789 3.84757789 3.84757789 3.84757789 3.84757789 3.84757789
2266.573696 1974.30864
1599 1321.31405 1110.11111 815.326531
624
492.82716
8720.818846 7596.30628 6152.27705 5083.85873 4271.23897 3137.03233 2400.88861 1896.19089
-534.1622151 -497.787532 -446.862977 -405.197431 -370.476143 -315.914119 -274.992601 -243.164754
21.97008552 21.5777252 20.9785432 20.4365172 19.9416862
19.065036 18.3056471 17.6358186
0.921114028 0.91970272 0.91735054 0.91499836 0.91264618 0.90794181 0.90323745 0.89853309
9277.872261 8116.59125 6621.03592 5510.40767 4662.56945 3472.91943 2695.09009 2157.88999
0.3362
0.04
1.93
10.34
3.06%
0.32
0.32
1.07

0.2941

0.2399

0.1997

0.1689

0.05
0.04
0.03
0.04
2.28
1.53
1.07
1.33
m3 total volume of gas
By Simple Inc'ts, Vol. Gas =
Vol %
m3
incremental Volume Of Flammable
m3
Vol LEl - Vol UEL
kgms
2.35
lbs

Gravity Effects (Page 24)

Flow is

Eta =
Fr =
Io =
Xc =
X LEL =
Xc/XLEL =

p-24
p-24
p-24
meters
Culmination Height
p-24
meters
LEL Ht wo Gravity Effects
Xc/XLEL >= 1.5 - Culmination Cloud Is Not Explosive.

2.21
1.34E+05
428.97
46.50
14.56
3.19

0.1258
0.03
0.75
10.07
m3

0.0977

0.0782

0.02
0.46

0.01
0.30

Upwards

Based On Calm Weather


If there is wind, the suitability of the calculation method is determined by the
velocity of outflow and the ut / Uo ratio. See Introduction Re17 and on.

R.A. Hawrelak

7:48 PM

240621230.xls.ms_office

Methodology For Evaporation From Unrestricted Spill

8/7/2014

Summary Table, Evaporation of Refrigerated


CASE 1:

BHOPAL - Incident No. 4 - Loss Of Refrigerated MIC

Unrestrained Circular Pool On


Total Spill
40,824
Flash Liq
40,824
Flash Vap
0
Wind
11.18
Ground at
21.11

kgms
kgms
kgms
mph
deg C

SEE TABLE 4, Page 7

Time Fr, sec


0.00
16.47
60.00
120.00
180.00
240.00
300.00
360.00
420.00
480.00
540.00
600.00
660.00
720.00

Time to, sec


16.47
60.00
120.00
180.00
240.00
300.00
360.00
420.00
480.00
540.00
600.00
660.00
720.00
5,112.00

Time To Evaporate Spill =

Initial rate =
Avg rate =
Dispn rate =
Dispn rate =

R.A. Hawrelak

MIC

3,225.72
479.15
1,852.44
30.87

Average Soil
Pool Ht, mm
25
From Pool of Area =
During First Minute of Spill
Atmospheric Stability =

Neutral

Wind
Convection
Evaporation
kgm.
0.00
138.77
191.26
191.26
191.26
191.26
191.26
191.26
191.26
191.26
191.26
191.26
191.26
14,000.59

Incremental
Ground
Conduction
Evaporation
kgm.
898.01
2,188.94
1,186.79
866.87
717.62
626.18
562.74
515.39
478.30
448.22
423.19
401.94
383.60
14,882.57

85.20

Minutes

Total Lost To Atm in Ist Min =


Total Lost To Atm in Ist Min =
% Vaporzd in ist Minute =

426,569
63,363
244,966

lb/hr
lb/hr
lb/hr

kgm/min.
kgm/min.
kgm/min.
kgms/sec

Total Ground
Conduction
From Maxim
Pool Formed
kgm.
0.00
2,188.94
3,375.72
4,242.59
4,960.21
5,586.39
6,149.13
6,664.52
7,142.82
7,591.05
8,014.24
8,416.18
8,799.78
23,682.36

Surface is
Penetrable
Rough Sand or Gravel
1,670.37
sq. m.

7:48 PM

Incremental
MIC
Lost To
Atmosphere
kgm.
898.01
2,327.71
1,378.05
1,058.13
908.88
817.45
754.01
706.66
669.57
639.49
614.46
593.21
574.87
28,883.17

Conditions

Total
MIC
Lost To
Atmosphere
kgm
898.01
3,225.72
4,603.77
5,661.90
6,570.78
7,388.23
8,142.23
8,848.89
9,518.46
10,157.95
10,772.41
11,365.61
11,940.48
40,823.65

Total
MIC
Remaining
In Spill Area
kgm.
39,925.99
37,598.28
36,220.23
35,162.10
34,253.22
33,435.77
32,681.77
31,975.11
31,305.54
30,666.05
30,051.59
29,458.39
28,883.52
0.35

3,225.72
7,111
7.90%

kgms.
lbs

1056.34
lb/min.
1/2 way between initial and avg rate

240621230.xls.ms_office

Methodology For Major Spill Into Dyked Area

8/7/2014

Summary Table, Evaporation of Refrigerated


CASE

BHOPAL - Scenario 1 - Leak Into 1,000 m2 Restricted Area

Bunded Circular Pool On


Total Spill
40,824
Flash Liq
40,824
Flash Vap
0
Wind
11.18
Ground at
21.44

kgms
kgms
kgms
mph
deg C

See Table 5, Page


0.016666667
Time fr, hour
0.00
0.02
0.03
0.05
0.07
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.13
0.15
0.17
0.18

Time to, hour


0.0167
0.0333
0.0500
0.0667
0.0833
0.1000
0.1167
0.1333
0.1500
0.1667
0.1833
3.22

Time To Evaporate Spill =

Leak Rate and Source term

R.A. Hawrelak

MIC

Wind
Convection
Evaporation
kgm.
100.42
100.42
100.42
100.42
100.42
100.42
100.42
100.42
100.42
100.42
100.42
18,296.38
3.22

Average Soil
Dyke Dia =
35.84
From Pool of Area =
During First Minute of Spill
Atmospheric Stability =

Incremental
Ground
Conduction
Evaporation
kgm.
1,540.51
638.10
489.63
412.78
363.67
328.78
302.34
281.41
264.31
249.99
237.77
16,303.29
Hours

Total Ground
Conduction
From Maxim
Pool Formed
kgm.
1,540.51
2,178.62
2,668.25
3,081.03
3,444.69
3,773.47
4,075.82
4,357.23
4,621.54
4,871.53
5,109.31
21,412.59

Surface is
Tank Dia =
1,001.32
Neutral

meters

Conditions

Total
MIC
Lost To
Atmosphere
kgm
1,640.93
2,379.45
2,969.51
3,482.71
3,946.79
4,375.99
4,778.75
5,160.59
5,525.32
5,875.73
6,213.92
40,813.59

Total
MIC
Remaining
In Spill Area
kgm.
39,183.07
38,444.55
37,854.49
37,341.29
36,877.21
36,448.01
36,045.25
35,663.41
35,298.68
34,948.27
34,610.08
10.41

Total Lost To Atm in Ist Min =


Loss To Atm in 2nd Min. =

1,640.93
738.52

kgms.
kgms

Initial Rate =
Avg Rate =
Disp'n Rate =
Disp'n Rate =

a
b
(a+b)/2
(a+b)/2

1,640.93
211.30
926.12
15.44

kgm/min.
kgm/min.
kgm/min.
kgm/sec

Initial Rate =
Avg Rate =
Disp'n Rate =
Disp'n Rate =

a
b
(a+b)/2
(a+b)/2

3,617.60
465.84
2,041.72
122,503.31

lb/min.
lb/min.
lb/min.
lb/hr

7:48 PM

Incremental
MIC
Lost To
Atmosphere
kgm.
1,640.93
738.52
590.05
513.20
464.09
429.20
402.76
381.83
364.73
350.41
338.19
34,599.67

Penetrable
3
sq. m.

240621230.xls.ms_office

Methodology for Liquid Evaporation Rate - Non Boiling Liquids

8/7/2014

CONVECTIVE EVAPORATION OF VOLATILE LIQUIDS FROM RECTANGULAR POOLS


Basis: Lihou Course, p-4, Clancy V.J. Chem Proc Hazards, 1974, p-80, IChemE Symp. Ser. No. 39a
Liquid =
Acrylonitrile U.S. EPA Example 4
Vapor Mol Wt =
53.1
If multicomponent, evaporation rate may be unsteady state
Liq Temp, T =
77
deg F
298.00
deg K
25.00
deg C
VP at T, Ps =
2.06
psia
0.1420
bar
Pool width, y =
110.43
feet
33.66
meters
Area, sf =
12195.00
Pool Length, x =
110.43
feet
33.66
meters, (wind across this dimension)
Wind Speed, U =
3.355
mph
1.50
meters/sec
Calculations per equations 9, Page 4
Satd Vap Density

0.018984

lb/cu. ft.

0.3041

n factor
K factor

Unstable
0.2
0.001278

Neutral
0.25
0.00157

Stable
0.2
0.001786

Rate, kgm/s =

0.44562

0.50161

0.62275

Rate, kgm/min

26.74

30.10

37.36

Rate, lb/min =

58.94

66.35

82.37

3,536.64

3,981.03

4,942.44

Rate, lb/hr =

kgm/cu. m

Eqn 9

RHOS = MW*VP/(10.73*R)

No Conduction

CONVECTIVE EVAPORATION OF VOLATILE LIQUIDS FROM CIRCULAR POOLS


Basis: Clancy V.J. Chem Proc Hazards, 1974, p-80, IChemE Symp. Ser. No. 39a
Liquid =
Acrylonitrile Example 2, Page 4, Lihou Course
Vapor Mol Wt =
53.1
If multicomponent, evaporation rate may be unsteady state
Liq Temp, T =
77
deg F
298.00
deg K
25.00
VP at T, Ps =
2.06
psia
0.1420
bar
Pool Radius, r =
62.30
feet
18.99
meters
Area, sf =
Wind Speed, U =
3.355
mph
1.50
meters/sec

deg C
12,195.00

Calculations per equations 10, Page 4


Satd Vap Density

0.018984

lb/cu. ft.

0.3041

n factor
K' factor

Unstable
0.2
0.003846

Neutral
0.25
0.004685

Stable
0.2
0.005285

Rate, kgm/s =

0.44966

0.50775

0.61791

Rate, kgm/min

26.98

30.46

37.07

Rate, lb/min. =

59.48

67.16

81.73

3,568.76

4,029.73

4,904.03

Rate, lb/hr =

Leak Rate =
Duration =
Dens =
Vol =
Area =
Liq Ht =

R.A. Hawrelak

4,904.03
4.08
50
400.00
12,195
0.39

lb/hr
hr
lb/cf
cf
sf
inches

7:48 PM

kgm/cu. m

Eqn 10

RHOS = MW*VP/(10.73*R)

No Conduction

Stable Conditions
20,000 Lb Tank Load

1.00 cm

240621230.xls.ms_office

TIME TO DEPRESSURE A VESSEL WITH LIQUID AT ITS BOILING POINT

Case No.

8/7/2014

Chlorine 90 Ton Tank Car Example


Flow

Phys Properties of
Starting Liq Temp =
Starting Psia
Final Psia
Number Incs
Dp/Inc
Number of Nozzles
Flow Coeff Assumed =
Nozzle Dia., inches

CHLORINE
77.00
112.90
14.70
20
4.91
1
1.0000
2.00

F
Vap Press

No Inert Gas Pad


Vessel Dia., ft
10
Tan-Tan L, ft
40
% Full
66.00%
Vessel Vol., cf
3,142
Liq cf=
2,073
Vapor cf
1,068
Cp/Cv =

1.36

Vapor Rate
lb/hr

Vessel Press
Psia

Flow
Condition

Liq In Vessel
Lbs

0.00
1.46
3.04
4.76
6.64
8.71
11.00
13.54
16.36
19.53
23.10
27.14
31.73
37.00
43.09
50.20
58.60
68.67
81.07
97.57
126.99

48,154
46,091
44,045
41,997
39,947
37,897
35,844
33,789
31,732
29,671
27,608
25,541
23,471
21,396
19,317
17,233
15,143
13,048
10,844
7,858
3,048

112.90
107.99
103.08
98.17
93.26
88.35
83.44
78.53
73.62
68.71
63.80
58.89
53.98
49.07
44.16
39.25
34.34
29.43
24.52
19.61
14.70

Sonic
Sonic
Sonic
Sonic
Sonic
Sonic
Sonic
Sonic
Sonic
Sonic
Sonic
Sonic
Sonic
Sonic
Sonic
Sonic
Sonic
Sonic
Sub Sonic
Sub Sonic
Sub Sonic

181,077
179,972
178,828
177,638
176,397
175,102
173,746
172,325
170,835
169,270
167,626
165,900
164,087
162,186
160,192
158,103
155,919
153,638
151,259
148,783
146,211

Overall Mass Balance

Vapor Lost to Accumulated


Atmos., lbs.
lbs Vapor
0
1,145
1,187
1,234
1,286
1,343
1,405
1,473
1,545
1,621
1,703
1,788
1,877
1,970
2,066
2,165
2,265
2,367
2,469
2,572
2,673

0
1,145
2,331
3,565
4,851
6,194
7,599
9,072
10,616
12,238
13,940
15,728
17,606
19,576
21,643
23,807
26,072
28,439
30,908
33,480
36,153

Dispersion Modeling Of Transient Conditions


Initial
181,077
1,671
0
182,747

% of Total Lost to Atm =


Time to Vent to Atm Press =

R.A. Hawrelak

m3
lbs
lbs

Conservative

Time
Minutes

Lb in Liquid =
Lb in Vapor =
Lb Lost To Atm =
Totals =

89
181,077
1,671

Final
146,211
383
36,153
182,747
19.78%
126.99
2.12

Initial lb/hr =
Avg lb/hr =
Final lb/hr =

48,154
17,082
3,048

Sonic
Sonic
Sub Sonic

For Disp'n, lb/hr = 1/2(Init'l + Avg Rates)

min.
hr.

7:48 PM

Disp'n, lb/hr=
Disp'n Time =

32,618
66.50

Sonic
min.

240621230.xls.ms_office

SIZING AND COST OF FARRIS PSV SYSTEMS

8/7/2014

PSV SIZING FOR FIRE CODITIONS

Chemical
Mol Wt
Method (1=NFPA,2=API-520)
Orientation
(1=H,2=V)
Diameter
Tan to Tan
Max Liq Height
Tot Vessel Area
Wetted Area =
Heat Input, Q =
Gas Constant
Atmospheric Pressure =
Credit Factor =(1 to 5)
NFPA Protection factor =
Operating Pressure =
Design pressure =
PSV Set Pressure =
PSV Flow factor For Fire =
PSV Flow Pressure =
PSV Flow Temp =
Latent Heat at Flow Temp, L =
Vapor Density at Flow Temp =
Ideal Vap Den @ Flow Temp =
Compress Factor @ Flow Temp=
Flow Factor For Max PSV Cap =
Vapor Flow = Q/L
Back Press < 55% flow Press ?
Kb, Back Press factor =
PSV Oficie Area Req'd
Select PSV Class =
Selected Orifice Area =
Estimated Inlet Size =
Estimated Outlet Size =

MIC
57.1
1
1
8
40
6
1,125.95
844.46
2,710,643
315
14.7
3
0.3
14.7
40
75.4545455
1.21
106
240
173.3
1.03
0.8058
0.7824
1.8741
29,314
1
1
2.8530
L
2.853
3
4

Orifice Selection
Class
D
E
F
G
H
J
K
L
M
N
P
Q
R
T

R.A. HAWRELAK

Sq. in.
0.110
0.196
0.307
0.503
0.785
1.287
1.838
2.853
3.600
4.340
6.380
11.050
16.000
26.000

Selection
Sq. in.

2.853
3.6
4.34
6.38
11.05
16
26

PSV 109

V-11

Horrizontal Vessel Fator for Wetted Area = 0.75


ft.
ft.
ft.
sq. ft
sf to max 50 ft. if Vertical
BTU/Hr
(If unknown, set = 315, See Area_Phys_Prop)
psia
Insulation in accordance with 2-2.5.7 (generally only double steel walled)
psia
psig
psig

Design = 40 psig

psia
Set pressure adjusted so that Temp > 212F to boil cooling water applied to vessel
F From Phys Props
BTU/lb
Fr Phys Prop
lb/cf
Fr Phys Prop
lb/cf
Assume 1.0 if unknown
Set at 1 for design. Adjust for max PSV flow capacity
lb/hr
G=
3.6936
kgms/sec
1 = yes, 2 = 0 Vaiable or fixed?
See Farris , p-3.06 Sizing Section
Sq. inches
Adjust till Area Req'd = Selected Area
sq. in.
inches (Check DP less 3% of set pressure to prevent chattering)
inches (Check DP less 10% of set pressure to prevent chattering for conventional PSV type)
Note: to overcome chattering use a balanced bellows PSV

Typical Inlet Typical Outlet


Size
Size
Inches
Inches
1
2
1
2
1.5
2
1.5
2.5
1.5
3
2
3
3
4
3
4
4
6
4
6
4
6
6
8
6
8
8
10

7:48 PM

240621230.xls.ms_office

Fauske Generalized Correlation For Flashing Choked Flow

8/7/2014

A Generalized Correlation for Flashing Choked Flow of Initially Subcooled Liquid


J.C. Leung, M.A. Grolmes, Fauske & Associates, Inc., AICheE Journal, April 1988, Vol. 34, No. 4, P-688
Fauske Example, P-690
Initial Liq Temp, To =
Initial Vessel Pressure, Po =
Vapor Pressure at T, Ps =
Liquid Density, rfo =
Vapor Density, rgo =
Liquid Latent Heat, hfgo =
Liquid Specific Heat, Cfo =

512.06
798
760
48.26
1.6794
697.72
1.2035

F
PSIA
PSIA
lb/cf
lb/cf
btu/lb
btu/lb/F

Omega, w = Cfo*To*Ps*((vfo-vgo)/hfgo)^2/vfo =

540
5.50
5.24
773.00
26.90
1,622.90
5,039.00

K
MPa
MPa
kg/cu.m.
kgm/cu.m.
kJ/kg
J/kg/K

5.39

Eqn 5

vfo = 1/ rfo = 0.001294


vgo = 1/rgo = 0.037175

ns = Ps / Po, by definition, the saturation pressure ratio =

0.9524

nct = (2*Omega-1)/(2*Omega) =

0.9072

Eqn 11

Is ns>=nct? If true, Eqn 10 can be used, =

TRUE

Eqn 10 can be used

nc = ns*(1/nct)*(1-(1-nct/ns)^0.5) =

0.8211

Eqn 10

Gc* = nc / (Omega*ns)^0.5 = critical mass velocity =

0.3625

Eqn 9a,

Po in psia to kgm/sq.m.*g = psia*703*9.81 = Po' =


Gc = (Gc*)(Po'*rfo)^0.5

5.50E+06

1.74E+07 lb/hr/sf

23,644

(kgm/sq.m.)(m/sec^2)
kgm/sq.m./s by Eqn 9a and 9b

If, for example, the hole diameter is 1.0 inch, calculate the rate of two phase flow?
Orifice Dia =
Orifice Area =
D^2/4 =
2 Flow Rate = (Gc)(A) =

1.00
inch
5.45E-03 sf
95,086.03 lb/hr

2.54E-02 meter
5.07E-04 sq.m.
11.98 kgm/sec

This paper gives a generalized correlation for flashing choked flow of an initially subcooled liquid.
The model assumptions are:
1. Piping resistance are not included, the release is from a hole in the vessel.
2. Isentropic flow.
3. Thermal equilibrium.
4. Equal phase velocities once saturation is reached.
The model is a limiting case, without consideration of nonequilibrium effects.
In this regard, it gives a lower-bound estimate for the mass flow rate and should be a
useful tool for many engineering applications.
For Two Phase Flow With Piping Resistance, 1987 Boston Vapor Cloud Conference, p-257.
To account for piping resistance, Fauske determined a flow reduction factor, FR = 1.9454*(L/D equivalent)^-0.2091
Determine the equivalent length in the usual manner, determine the flow, as above, and multiply by the flow reduction
factor, FR.
For example:

R.A. Hawrelak

Eq Len, L/D
0
50
100
200
400

FR calc'd
1.00
0.8585
0.7427
0.6425
0.5558

FR by Fauske
1.00
0.85
0.75
0.65
0.55

7:48 PM

240621230.xls.ms_office

Touchdown Distance by Hoot and Meroney as presented by Gerry Havens, 1987 VC Conference In Boston, p-568
Also, Chapter 3, Page 18, Workbook Of Test Cases For Vapor Cloud Source Models / CCPS / AIChE
Bordurtha Eq (1) Max Conc =
Havens Touchdown Distance, X =
Havens Touchdown Conc =
Havens Horizontal Froud No., Frh =
Havens Xbar =
Bordurtha Plume Rise =
Bordurtha Froud No. Fr =
Source Richardson No. =
u* =
Wind Velocity, Ua =
Initial Jet Velocity, Vs = Uj =
RHO, Initial Jet Density
RHO air =
Jet Diameter, Dj
Bordurtha Froude No., Fr =
Havens Horizontal Froude No. = Ffh =
Havens & Bordurtha Plume Rise, H =
Havens X bar, Dist To Max =
Existing Stack Height, hs =
Havens C.L. Touchdown Distance
Bordurtha Conc'n at Touchdown =
Havens Concentration at Touchdown =
Source Richardson No. =
Exit Nozzle Reynolds No. =

Xbar, m =

3.44*Cs*100*[D/(2*H + hs)]^1.95*vs/U*0.000001
0.56*Dj*{(H/Dj)^3*[(2+hs/H)^3-1]*Ua/Uj}^0.5*Frh+Xbar
3.1*(Q/U/Dj^2)*((2*H+hs)/Dj)^-1.95/Dv*1000000
Ua/((g*Dj*(RHOj-RHOa)/RHOa))^0.5
(Dj*Ua/Uj)*Fr^2
1.32*D*(Vs/U)^0.333*SG^0.333*Fr^0.667*0.001
31.62*Vs/(9.806*D*(SG-1)/SG)^0.5
[g(Dg-Da)/Da](p/4)(Dj)(Uj) / {(Ua)(u*)^2}
(R2) p-20
(0.065)(Ua)=
0.3250
m/sec
(R2) p-20
5.00
63.64
1.7896
1.1786
0.2032
77.15
4.92
13.05
95.03
32.92
866.96
488
488
97.86
2.31E+06

(R1)
(R2)

(R1) p-576
(R1) p-576
(R1) p-576
(R1) p-576

m/s
g=
9.815
m/s
Q=
3.693564
kgms/sec
kgm/cu.m.
kgm/cu.m.
meters
D=
203.20 mm
Within HMP Froude No. Range 115.01 to 52.03
Within HMP Horizontal Froude No. Range 5.44 to 0.88
meters max ht
42.80
ft.
meters downwind distance to max rise
311.76
meters
108
ft.
meters
ppmv
ppmv
Rio > 10 and Dense Gas Model Justified
Re = 6.31(W)/(d)/(Visc cP) (Min.=2.5E04 by Oohms)

95.03
Xbar
2,397 ppmv at stack exit elevation

14 m

108 Ft. Stack Ht.


32 m

488.09

ppmv Concentration at Touchdown


A grade level virtual distance will
be established at this concentration
in a heavy gas model.

(x,y) coords at base of stack=(0,0)


Touchdown Dis, X
866.96
meters
2,844.31
ft.

TD Radius =
TD Area =

14.39
650.20

meters
m2

8.00

CPQRA Simplified Approaches

8/7/2014

All in one eqn with wind at 2m, z = 0 and H = 0


TNO Disp'n Coefficients
ppmv = 1/((Dis+VS)^(b+d)/(kgm/s/(PI()*m/s*a*Avg Time Factor*(MW*Atm Press/14.7/1000000/0.082/K Vap)*c)))
Meters = (kgm/s/(PI()*U2*a*ATCF*(ppm*MW*AtmP/14.7/1000000/0.082/K)*c))^(1/(b+d))-Virt Dis

kgms/s =
3.6936
Wind meas'd @
10.00
U10 =
5.00
Wind at =
2.00
Wind Corect'n =
0.15
U2 =
3.93
a=
0.128
b=
0.905
c=
0.2
d=
0.76
MW =
57.1
Probit Constant, k1 = -5.64
Probit Constant, k2 = 1.64
Probit "n" Constant = 0.65
Probit =
5.00
Atm P =
14.7
K=
293.3
TD Distance =
866.96
TD Conc =
488.09
Virt Dist =
192.69
Sample Time =
100.00
ATCF =
1.5849
Conc =
18.23
Try Conc =
18.23
TD - VD =
674.27
Dis Fr Virt Dis =
1,195
ppmv =
18.23

R.A. Hawrelak

Senario 1
15.44
10.00
5.00
2.00
0.15
3.93
0.128
0.905
0.20
0.76
57.1
-5.64
1.64
0.65
5.00
14.70
293.30
0.00
1.00E+06
4.96
60.00
1.431
39.86
18.23
2,172

Scenario 2
1.54
10.00
5.00
2.00
0.15
3.93
0.128
0.905
0.20
0.76
57.1
-5.64
1.64
0.65
5.00
14.70
293.30
0.00
1.00E+06
1.24
60.00
1.431
39.86

545
Dis fr Stk =

Scenario 3
3.69
10.00
5.00
2.00
0.15
3.93
0.128
0.905
0.20
0.76
57.1
-5.64
1.64
0.65
5.00
14.70
293.30
866.96
488.09
192.69
100.00
1.585
18.23

Scenario 4
30.8739
10.00
5.00
2.00
0.15
3.93
0.128
0.905
0.20
0.76
57.1
-5.64
1.64
0.65
5.00
14.70
293.30
0.00
1.00E+06
7.22
85.00
1.534
23.38

674.27
1,195
1,869

7:48 PM

4,355

ft.
m/s
(1) Wind Speed at 2 meters = U2 = U10(2/10)^p
CPQRA Table 2.3, p-83
Corrected to
2
meters height
Stab (1 - 6) =
4
Rough (1 - 5) =
2

(2.67 = LC01, 3.72 = LC10, 5 = LC50)

meters
ppmv
meters, (Can set conc = 1,000,000 ppmv and determine Virtual Dist)
minutes
average time correction factor.
ppmv
ppmv
Dist By CPQRA =
meters
3920.92 ft.
Fr All In One Eqn. as a check

240621230.xls.ms_office

EPA and TNO Instantaneous Release Consequence Analysis

8/7/2014

EPA PUFF and TNO Point Source Methods For Instantaneous Releases
Basis: TNO 1979 Yellow Book, EPA Report 600/3-82-078, Wind Corrctd to 2 Meters Ht.

Risk Class
Consequence Zone Description
1
100% Certain Fatality
2
Wounded / Req Hospitaization
Case Study: BHOPAL AS AN INSTANTANEOUS RELEASE FR PRESSURED VESSEL
3
May Require Hospitalization
4
Coughing, Choking, Vomiting
5
No Serious Problems
Input Data
Units
Consequences For Special Areas Of Concern (AOCs)
Chemical Code No. (1-20) =
4
MIC
Risk Class =
5
2
3
30 Minute IDLH =
5
ppmv fr database
Location =
Risk Class 1
Risk Class 2
Risk Class 3
IDLH Probit Value =
1.6462
fr database
Dist Of Concern=
534
3,362
7,549
60 Minute ERPG2 =
1.00
ppmv fr database
Vir Dis @ 100%
0
0
0
ERPG2 Probit =
1.0604
fr database
Dist For Dispn =
534
3,362
7,549
Tons of Product Released =
45
Tons
Peak C.L. Conc =
66,434.56
585.86
73.28
Atmospheric Pressure =
14.7
psia
Avg Conc =
37,505
331
41
Amount Vaporized at Atm =
1
Wt. Frac <1.0 to 0.01>
Exposure Min. =
0.69
3.63
7.55
Temp Of Flash Vapor =
77
F <Default to Amb Temp> Dose(C^n)(t)=
6.66E+02
1.60E+02
8.58E+01
MW of Vapor =
57.1
fr database
Probit =
5.0000
2.6700
1.6462
Std Deviations For Cloud =
2.15
< 2.15 For 90% of cloud > % Fatality =
50.17%
0.94%
0.00%
Initial Dilution =
1.0000
Vol Frac <1.0 to 0.01>
Risk Conseq =
No Problems
Wounded>Hospit May Req Hospit
PUFF Methodology =
1
(EPA = 1, TNO = 2)
Cld Arriv Time=
2.26
14.27
32.03
k1 Dose Constant =
-5.642
fr database
Consequence Summary (With Virtual Distance, If Any)
k2 Dose Constant
1.637
fr database
n Dose Constant =
0.653
fr database
Consequence
EPA Dist Fr
Peak C.L.
Ambient Temp =
77
F < Cloud Temp Default >
% Fatality
Source, m
Conc, ppmv
Avg PPMV
Wind Speed Referenced at =
10
Meter Height
100
50
Out Of Range
Out Of Range
Wind Speed At Ref Ht. =
11.1835
mph
m/s=
5.00
90
194
893,514
504,426
Wind Speed Correctd to 2m =
8.78
mph
m/s=
3.93
80
275
365,686
206,445
LC50 Peak Concentration =
66,434.56 ppmv (for Briggs Only)
70
354
190,955
107,802
Stability Class A,B,C,D,or F
D
Stabil Class =4
60
438
110,368
62,308
Ground Roughness (1 to 5) =
2
Rural, Zo = 0.1m
50
534
66,435
37,505
Wind Variation, +/-
20.00
+/- Degrees
40
650
39,989
22,576
Wind Speed Ht Corr Factor =
0.15
CPQRA, Table 2.3, p-83
30
805
23,113
13,048
20
1,036
12,069
6,814
Alternate Disp'n Coeff'ts
10
1,467
4,940
2,789
Briggs Dispn Checking
Only For Checking Dist
1
3,362
586
331
Initialization Counter
2
1 resets Newton Rapson
IDLH
7,549
73
41
Distance to LC50 Conc =
0.5722
km. - Briggs Disp'n Coef
ERPG2
11,992
22.31
13

R.A. Hawrelak

7:48 PM

Logic
> 50% Fatality
Betwenn 1% & 50% Fatality
Between 1% Fatal & IDLH Pr
Between IDLH Pr & ERPG2 Pr
Less Than ERPG2 Probit
Methodology =
EPA
4
Risk Class 4
Units
11,992
meters
0
meters
11,992
meters
22.31
ppmv
13
ppmv
11.47
minutes
6.00E+01
ppmv-min
1.0604
Probit
0.00%
Fr Probits
Cough/Chkg/Vom See Above
50.88
min., W@ 2m
Methodology =
EPA
2 m Wind Vel
Fixed on C.L.
Cloud Time Of
Exp Min.
Arrival, Min.
Out Of Range
0.21
0.27
0.82
0.38
1.17
0.47
1.50
0.57
1.86
0.69
2.26
0.82
2.76
1.00
3.41
1.25
4.40
1.71
6.22
3.63
14.27
7.55
32.03
11.47
50.88

240621230.xls.ms_office