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Chapter 1 Trigonometry

1 TRIGONOMETRY
Objectives
After studying this chapter you should

be able to handle with confidence a wide range of


trigonometric identities;

be able to express linear combinations of sine and cosine in


any of the forms Rsin( ) or R cos( ) ;

know how to find general solutions of trigonometric equations;

be familiar with inverse trigonometric functions and the


associated calculus.

1.0

Introduction

In the first Pure Mathematics book in this series, you will have
encountered many of the elementary results concerning the
trigonometric functions. These will, by and large, be taken as
read in this chapter. However, in the first few sections there is
some degree of overlap between the two books: this will be good
revision for you.

1.1

Sum and product formulae

You may recall that


sin( A + B) = sin A cos B + cos Asin B
sin( A B) = sin A cos B cos Asin B
Adding these two equations gives
sin( A + B) + sin( A B) = 2 sin A cos B

(1)

Let C = A + B and D = A B,
then C + D = 2 A and C D = 2B. Hence
A=

C+D
2

, B=

CD
2

and (1) can be written as

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

sin C + sin D = 2 sin C + D cos C D


2
2
This is more easily remembered as
'sine plus sine = twice sine( half the sum ) cos( half the difference)'

Activity 1
In a similar way to above, derive the formulae for
(a) sin C sin D (b) cos C + cos D (c) cos C cos D
By reversing these formulae, write down further formulae for
(a) 2 sin E cos F

(b) 2 cos E cos F

(c) 2 sin E sin F

Example
Show that cos 59 +sin 59 = 2 cos14 .
Solution
Firstly,

So

sin 59 = cos 31 , since sin = cos( 90 )


LHS = cos 59 + cos 31
59 + 31
59 31
= 2 cos
cos

2
2
= 2 cos 45 cos14
=2

2
2

cos14

= 2 cos14
= RHS

Example
Prove that sin x + sin 2x + sin 3x = sin 2x (1 + 2 cos x ).
Solution
LHS = sin 2x + (sin x + sin 3x )
3x + x
3x x
cos

2
2
= sin 2x + 2 sin 2x cos x
= sin 2x + 2 sin

= sin 2x (1 + 2 cos x )

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

Example
Write cos 4x cos x sin 6x sin 3x as a product of terms.
Solution

1
{cos( 4x + x ) + cos( 4x x )}
2
1
1
= cos 5x + cos 3x
2
2

Now

cos 4x cos x =

and

sin 6x sin 3x =

Thus,

LHS =
=
=

1
{cos(6x 3x ) cos(6x + 3x )}
2

1
1
cos 3x cos 9x
2
2

1
1
1
1
cos 5x + cos 3x cos 3x + cos 9x
2
2
2
2
1
2

(cos 5x + cos 9x)

1
5x + 9x
5x 9x
2 cos
cos
2
2
2

= cos 7x cos 2x
The sum formulae are given by

sin A + sin B = 2 sin

A + B
A B
cos
2
2

sin A sin B = 2 cos

A + B
A B
sin

2
2

cos A + cos B = 2 cos

A + B
A B
cos
2
2

cos A cos B = 2 sin

A + B
A B
sin

2
2

and the product formulae by


1
(sin( A + B) + sin( A B))
2
1
cos A cos B = (cos( A + B) + cos( A B))
2
1
sin Asin B = (cos( A B) cos( A + B))
2

sin A cos B =

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

Exercise 1A
1. Write the following expressions as products:

4. Establish the following identities:

(a) cos5x cos3x

(b) sin11x sin 7x

(a) cos cos3 = 4sin cos

(c) cos2 x + cos9x

(d) sin 3x + sin13x

(b) sin 6 x + sin 4 x sin 2 x = 4 cos3x sin 2 x cos x

(e) cos

14
4
8
2
+ cos
+ cos
+ cos
15
15
15
15

(c)

(f) sin 40 + sin 50 + sin 60


(d)

(g) cos114 + sin 24


2. Evaluate in rational/surd form

sin75 + sin15
3. Write the following expressions as sums or
differences:
(a) 2 cos 7x cos5x
5x
1
(b) 2 cos x cos
2
2

(e)

2sin 4 A + sin 6 A + sin 2 A


2sin 4 A sin 6 A sin 2 A

sin ( A + B ) + sin ( A B )
= tan A
cos( A + B ) + cos( A B )
cos( + 30 ) + cos( + 60 )
sin ( + 30 ) + sin ( + 60 )

1 tan
1 + tan

6. Express cos3x cos x cos 7x cos5x as a product of


terms.

(d) 2sin165cos105

Linear combinations of sin


and cos

Expressions of the form a cos + b sin , for constants a and b,


involve two trig functions which, on the surface, makes them
difficult to handle. After working through the following
activity, however, you should be able to see that such
expressions (called linear combinations of sin and cos linear
since they involve no squared terms or higher powers) can be
written as a single trig function. By re-writing them in this way
you can deduce many results from the elementary properties of
the sine or cosine function, and solve equations, without having
to resort to more complicated techniques.
For this next activity you will find it very useful to have a graph
plotting facility. Remember, you will be working in radians.

Activity 2
Sketch the graph of a function of the form

y = a sin x + b cos x
(where a and b are constants) in the range x .
4

5. Write cos12 x + cos6 x + cos 4 x + cos2 x as a product


of terms.

(c) 2sin 3 cos +


4

1.2

= cot 2 A

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

From the graph, you must identify the amplitude of the function
and the x-coordinates of
(i)

the crossing point on the x-axis nearest to the origin, and

(ii) the first maximum of the function


as accurately as you can.
y
R

An example has been done for you; for y = sin x + cos x , you can
see that amplitude R 1. 4
crossing point nearest to the origin O at x = =
4
maximum occurs at x = =
4
Try these for yourself :
(a) y = 3sin x + 4 cos x

(b) y = 12 cos x 5sin x

(c) y = 9 cos x + 12 sin x

(d) y = 15sin x 8 cos x

(e) y = 2 sin x + 5 cos x

(f) y = 3cos x 2 sin x

-1

In each case, make a note of


R, the amplitude;
, the crossing point nearest to O;

, the x -coordinate of the maximum.

In each example above, you should have noticed that the curve is
itself a sine/cosine 'wave'. These can be obtained from the curves
of either y = sin x or y = cos x by means of two simple
transformations (taken in any order).
1. A stretch parallel to the y-axis by a factor of R,
the amplitude, and
2. A translation parallel to the x-axis by either
or (depending on whether you wish to start
with sin x or cos x as the original function).
Consider, for example y = sin x + cos x. This can be written in the
form y = Rsin ( x + ), since
Rsin(x + ) = R{sin x cos + cos x sin }
= R cos sin x + Rsin cos x

The R( > 0 ) and should be chosen so that this expression is the


same as sin x + cos x.
5

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

Thus

R cos = 1 and Rsin = 1


Dividing these terms gives

tan = 1 =

Squaring and adding the two terms gives


R2 cos2 + R2 sin2 = 12 + 12
R2( cos2 + sin2 ) = 2
Since cos2 + sin2 = 1,

R2 = 2 R = 2
Thus

sin x + cos x = 2 sin x +

Activity 3
Express the function sin x + cos x in the form
sin x + cos x = R cos(x )
Find suitable values for R and using the method shown above.

Another way of obtaining the result in Activity 3 is to note that

sin = cos
2

so that

sin x + cos x = 2 sin x +


= 2 cos x +
4
2

= 2 cos x
4

= 2 cos x

4
since cos( ) = cos .

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

Example
Write 7sin x 4 cos x in the form Rsin( x )
where R > 0 and 0 < < 2 .
Solution
Assuming the form of the result,
7sin x 4 cos x = Rsin(x )
= Rsin x cos Rcos x sin

To satisfy the equation, you need

R cos = 7
Rsin = 4
Squaring and adding, as before, gives
2

R = 7 + 4 = 65
Thus
7
4
4
, sin =
or tan =

65
65
7
= 0.519 radians, to 3 sig. figs.
cos =

so

7sin x 4 cos x = 65 sin(x 0.519)

Exercise 1B
Write (in each case, R > 0 and 0 < < 2 )

5. 20sin x 21cos x in the form Rsin ( x )

1. 3sin x + 4 cos x in the form Rsin( x + )

6. 14 cos x + sin x in the form Rcos( x )

2. 4 cos x + 3sin x in the form Rcos ( x )

7. 2 cos2 x sin 2 x in the form Rcos( 2 x + )

3. 15sin x 8cos x in the form Rsin ( x )

8. 3cos 12 x + 5sin 12 x in the form Rsin ( 12 x + )

4. 6 cos x 2sin x in the form Rcos( x + )

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

1.3

Linear trigonometric
equations

In this section you will be looking at equations of the form

a cos x + b sin x = c
for given constants a, b and c.

Example
Solve 3cos x + sin x = 2 for 0 x 360 .
Solution
Method 1
Note that cos2 x and sin2 x are very simply linked using

cos 2 x + sin 2 x = 1 so a 'rearranging and squaring' approach


would seem in order.
3cos x = 2 sin x

Rearranging:

9 cos 2 x = 4 4 sin x + sin 2 x

Squaring:

9 1 sin 2 x = 4 4 sin x + sin 2 x

0 = 10 sin 2 x 4 sin x 5

The quadratic formula now gives sin x =

4 216
20

and

sin x 0.934 85 or 0.534 847

giving

x = 69.2, 110.8 or 212.3, 327. 7 (1 d.p.)

Method 2
Write 3cos x + sin x as R cos( x ) (or Rsin( x ) )

3cos x + sin x = R cos( x )


Firstly,

R = 32 + 12 = 10

so

1
3cos x + sin x = 10
cos x +
sin x
10

10
10 ( cos x cos + sin x sin )

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

Thus cos =

3
7
1
or tan = => = 18. 43
or sin =
10
10
3

The equation 3cos x + sin x = 2 can now be written as


10 cos( x 18. 43) = 2

cos( x 18. 43) =

2
10

2
x 18. 43 = cos 1

10

x 18. 43 = 50. 77 or 309.23

and
x = 50. 77 +18. 43 or 309.23 +18. 43
x = 69.2 or 327. 7 (1 d.p.)

The question now arises as to why one method yields four answers,
the other only two. If you check all four answers you will find that
the two additional solutions in Method 1 do not fit the equation
3cos x + sin x = 2 . They have arisen as extra solutions created by
the squaring process. (Think of the difference between the
equations x = 2 and x 2 = 4 : the second one has two solutions.) If
Method 1 is used, then the final answers always need to be checked
in order to discard the extraneous solutions.

Exercise 1C
1. By writing 7sin x + 6 cos x in the form
Rsin ( x + )( R > 0,0< < 90 ) solve the equation
7sin x + 6 cos x = 9 for values of x between
0 and 360 .

3. Write

3 cos + sin as Rcos( ) ,

where R > 0 and 0 < <

and hence solve


2

3 cos + sin = 2 for 0 2 .

2. Use the 'rearranging and squaring' method to solve 4. Solve


(a) 4 cos + 3sin = 2

(a) 7cos x 6sin x = 4

for 180 x 180

(b) 3sin 2 cos = 1

(b) 6sin + 8cos = 7

for 0 180

for 0 360 .

(c) 4 cos x + 2sin x = 5

for 0 x 360

(d) sec x + 5tan x + 12 = 0 for 0 x 2

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

1.4

More demanding equations

In this section you will need to keep in mind all of the identities
that you have encountered so far including the Addition
Formulae, the Sum and Product Formulae and the Multiple
Angle Identities in order to solve the given equations.

Example
Solve cos 5 + cos = cos 3 for 0 180
Solution
cos A + cos B = 2 cos

Using

A + B
A B
cos

2
2

LHS = 2 cos 3 cos 2


2 cos 3 cos 2 = cos 3

Thus

cos 3 ( 2 cos 2 1) = 0

Then
(a) cos 3 = 0

3 = 90, 270, 450

= 30, 90, 150

or
(b) 2 cos 2 1 = 0

cos 2 =

1
2

2 = 60, 300

= 30, 150 as already found.

Solutions are = 30(twice), 90, 150(twice) .


[Remember, for final solutions in range 0 180 , solutions
for 3 must be in range 0 3 180 = 540 .]

Exercise 1D
1. Solve for 0 180 :
(a) cos + cos3 = 0
(c) sin + sin 3 = sin 2 .

10

2. Find all the values of x satisfying the equation


(b) sin 4 + sin 3 = 0

sin x = 2sin x for 0 x 2 .


3

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

3. By writing 3 as 2 + , show that

6. Find the solution x in the range 0 x 360 for


which sin 4 x + cos3x = 0 .

cos3 = 4 cos 3 3cos

7. (a) Given t = tan 12 , write down tan in terms of


t and show that

and find a similar expresion for sin 3 in terms of


powers of sin only.
Use these results to solve, for 0 360 ,

cos =

(a) cos3 + 2 cos = 0

1 t2
1+ t2

Find also a similar expression for sin in


terms of t.

(b) sin 3 = 3sin 2


(c) cos cos3 = tan 2

(b) Show that 2sin tan =

4. Show that tan x + cot x = 2cosec2 x . Hence solve


tan x + cot x = 8cos2 x for 0 x .

2t
1 3t 2
1 t4

(c) Hence solve 2sin tan = 6 cot 12 for values


of in the range 0< < 360 .

5. Solve the equation

sin 2 x + sin 3x + sin 5x = 0 for 0 x 180

1.5

The inverse trigonometric


functions

In the strictest sense, for a function f to have an inverse it has to


be 11 ('one-to-one'). Now the three trigonometric functions
sine, cosine and tangent are each periodic. Thus the equation
sin x = k, for k 1, has infinitely many solutions x. A sketch of
the graph of y = sin x is shown opposite.

y
y = sin x

-2

-1
1

When working on your calculator, if you find sin 0.5 , say, a


single answer is given, despite there being infinitely many to
choose from. In order to restrict a 'many-to-one' function of this
kind into a 11 function, so that the inverse function gives a
unique answer , the range of values is restricted. This can be
done in a number of ways, but the most sensible way is to
choose a range of values x which includes the acute angles. This
is shown on the diagram opposite.

y
1

Thus for 1 k 1,
sin x = k x = sin 1 k

x :
2
2
these are the principal values of the inverse-sine function.
will be assigned a unique value of x in the range

Activity 4
By drawing the graphs y = cos x and y = tan x , find the ranges of
principal values of the inverse-cosine and inverse-tangent
functions. (These should include the acute angles of x.)

11

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

Note that the inverse functions are denoted here by


sin 1 x, cos 1 , tan 1 x

These are not the same as

(sin x )1 =

1
, etc.
sin x

and to avoid this confusion, some texts denote the inverse


functions as

arcsin x, arccos x, arctan x.

1.6

General solutions

Up until now you have been asked for solutions of trigonometric


equations within certain ranges. For example:
Solve sin 3x =

1
2

for 0 < x < 180

or
Find the values of for which sin 2 + sin 2 = 0
with 0 2 .
At the same time, you will have been aware that even the simplest
trig equation can have infinitely many solutions: sin = 0
( radians) is true when = 0, , 2 ,3 , K and also for all
negative multiples of as well.
Overall, one could say that the equation sin = 0 has general
solution = n where n is an integer. Moreover, there are no
values of which satisfy this equation that do not take this form.
Thus, ' = n ' describes all the values of satisfying ' sin = 0 '
as n is allowed to take any integer value. This is what is meant by
a general solution.

General solution for the cosine function


For 900 x 900 (radians can come later), the graph of
y = cos x is shown below.
y

P. V.

-720

-1

12

y=k

-360

y = cos x

360

720

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

The line y = k (k is chosen as positive here, but as long as


1 k 1, the actual value is immaterial) is also drawn on the
sketch.
The principal value of x for which x = cos 1 k (representing the
point when y = k and y = cos x intersect) is circled and labelled
'P.V.' Since the cosine function is periodic with period 360 , all
other solutions to the equation cos x = k corresponding to this
principal value are obtained by adding, or subtracting, a
multiple of 360 to it. The points of intersection of the two
graphs representing these solutions are circled also.
Now the cosine curve here is symmetric in the y-axis. So if is
the principal value of x for which cos x = k , then is also a
solution, and this is not obtained by adding, or subtracting, a
multiple of 360 to, or from, . All the remaining solutions of
the equation can be obtained by adding or subtracting a multiple
of 360 to or from .
The general solution of the equation
cos x = k

( 1 k 1)

x = 360n

is then

= cos 1 k

where

is the principal value of the inverse cosine function and n is an


integer.
In radians, using 360 2 radians, the general solution looks
like

x = 2n , n an integer.

Activity 5
Use the graphs of y = tan x and y = sin x to find the general
solutions of the equations (in degrees) of the equations
tan x = k

( < k < )

sin x = k

( 1 k 1) .

and

In each case, let be the principal value concerned, let n be an


integer, and express the general solutions in terms of radians
once the results have been found in terms of degrees.
13

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

These results are summarised as follows:


In radians

In degrees

If sin = sin , then

= n + ( 1)
n

If sin = sin , then

= 180n + ( 1)n

If cos = cos , then


= 2n

If cos = cos , then


= 360n

If tan = tan , then


= n +

If tan = tan , then


= 180n +

[In each case, n is an integer.]


The AEB's Booklet of Formulae gives only the set of results for
, in radians, but you should be able to convert the results into
degrees without any difficulty by remembering that
180 radians, etc.

Example
Find the general solution, in degrees, of the equation

tan 3 = 3
Solution
tan 3 = 3

tan 3 = tan 60
3 = 180n + 60 quoting the above result

= (60n + 20 )

[K; n = 1 = 40; n = 0 = 20; n = 1 0 = 80; K]


Sometimes, you may have to do some work first.

Example
Find the general solution, in radians, of the equation
8sin + 15 cos = 6 .

14

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

Solution
Rewriting the LHS of this equation in the form Rsin( + ) , for
instance, gives R = 82 + 152 = 17 and cos =

8
15
or sin =
17
17

15
so that 1.081 radians. [Check this working
8
through to make sure you can see where it comes from.]

or tan =

The equation can now be written as


17sin( + 1.081) = 6

sin( + 1.081) =

6
= sin 0.3607
17

(principal value of sin 1

6
)
17

+ 1.081 = n + ( 1)n 0.3607

= n + ( 1)n 0.3607 1.081

One could proceed to make this more appealing to the eye by


considering the cases n even and n odd separately, but there is
little else to be gained by proceeding in this way.
Note on accuracy: although final, non-exact numerical answers
are usually required to three significant places, the 0.3607 and
1.081 in the answer above are really intermediate answers and
hence are given to 4 significant figure accuracy. However,
unless a specific value of n is to be substituted in order to
determine an individual value of , you will not be penalised
for premature rounding provided your working is clear and the
answers correspond appropriately.
This final example illustrates the sort of ingenuity you might
have to employ in finding a general solution of some equation.

Example
Find the values of x for which cos x sin 4x = 0 .
Solution

Using the result sin A = cos A , the above equation can be


2

written as

cos x = cos 4x
2

whence

x = 2n 4x
2

15

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

i.e.

4x or
2

x = 2n +

5x = 2n +

x = 2n


+
5 10

or

x = 2n

+ 4x
2

3x = 2n +

or

x = 2n


+
3 6

Wait a moment! Although the second solution is correct, n is


merely an indicator of some integer; positive, negative or zero. It
is immaterial then, whether it is denoted as positive or negative:

you could write this solution as x = 2k +
( k = n) for some
3 6

integer k, or alternatively, as x = 2n + .
3 6
In this case, the general solution takes two forms. An alternative
approach could have re-written the equation as

sin 4x = sin x
2

n
4x = n + ( 1) x
2

When n is odd

4x = n

+x
2

3x = n

x=n

= ( 2n 1)
3 6
6

(n odd)

and when n is even

16

4x = n +

x
2

5x = n +

x=n

+
= ( 2n + 1)
5 10
10

(n even)

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

The very first way might be considered preferable since the


general solution for cos is less clumsy than that for sin.
This example also highlights another important point: two
equivalent sets of answers may look very different from each
other and yet still both be correct.

Exercise 1E
1. Find the general solutions, in degrees, of the
equations

(e)

6 sin 2 cos = 2

(f) 10 cos 24sin = 13

(a) sin x = 0.766

1
(b) tan ( 45) =
3

(c) cos x = 0.17

(d) cot ( 60 2 ) = 3

(e) 5sin x + 3cos x = 4

(f) 4 cos + 3sin = 2

[Note: cot A = tan A and tan ( A ) = tan A ]


2

(g) cos3 + cos = 0

(h) tan 2 4 x = 3

(i) 3tan 2 + 5sec + 1 = 0

(i) sin 7x sin x = cos 4 x


2. Find the general solutions, in radians, of the
equations
(a) tan x = 2

(b) cos 2 x + = 1

(c) sin x = 0.35

1
(d) sec x + = 2
2
4

1.7

(g) cos x cos3x = 0


(h) tan x + cot 2 x = 0

(j) cos 4 x + cos6 x = cos5x


3. Prove the identity cos 4 x + 4 cos2 x = 8cos 4 x 3 .
Hence find the general solution, in radians, of
the equation 2 cos 4 + 8cos2 = 3 .

Calculus of the inverse


trigonometric functions

The prospect of having to differentiate the function y = sin 1 x


may seem rather daunting. However, we can write y = sin 1 x as

y
2
2
ensures that this can be done.) Then, using the Chain Rule for
differentiation,
sin y = x . (Taking the principal range values

d
dy
d
dy
(sin y ) = (sin y ) = cos y
dx
dx
dy
dx
so that sin y = x differentiates to give

cos y

dy
=1
dx
dy
1
=
dx cos y
17

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

Now, using
cos 2 y = 1 sin 2 y ,
cos 2 y = 1 sin 2 y = 1 x 2

so that

dy
1
=
dx
1 x2

A quick look at the graph of sin 1 x shows that the gradient of


the inverse-sine curve is always positive (technically speaking,
infinitely so at x = 1 ) and so y = sin 1 x differentiates to
dy
1
=
dx
1 x2

Activity 6
Use the above approach to find

dy
when y = tan 1 x .
dx

Find the derivative of cos 1 x also, and decide why it is not


necessary to learn this result as well as the result for the
derivative of sin 1 x when reversing the process and integrating.

The results

d
1
sin 1 x =
dx
1 x2
d
( tan1 x ) = 1 +1x2
dx
and the corresponding integrations

1
dx = sin1 x + C
2
1 x

1 + x dx = tan
1

x+C

are special cases of the more general results:

18

(C constant)

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

x
= sin 1 + C

a
a x

dx

a +x
dx

1 1 x
tan
+ C for constant C.
a
a

The results, in this form, are given in the AEB's Booklet of


Formulae, and may be quoted when needed.

Activity 7
(a) Use the substitution x = a sin to prove the result
x
= sin 1 + C .

a
a x

dx

(b) Use the substitution x = a tan to prove the result

dx
x
1
= tan 1 + C .
a
+ x2 a

Example
Evaluate

1
4

dx
1 4x 2

Solution
Now

so that

1 4x 2 = 4

1
4

1
1
x2 = 2
x2
4
4

1
dx
=
2
2
1 4x

1
4

dx
1
x2
4

(and this is now the standard


1
format, with a = )
2

x4
1
= sin 1 1
2
2
0

1
4
0

1
sin 1 2x
2

1 1 1
sin
sin 1 0

2
2

1
0

26

12
19

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

Example

Evaluate

3dx
,
2 + x2

giving your answer correct to 4 decimal places.


Solution

3dx
=3
2 + x2

( 2)
1

dx
2

[so a = 2 here]

+ x2
2

1
x
= 3
tan 1

2 1
2
=

1
3 1
2 tan 1
tan

2
2

3
(0.95532 0.615 48)
2

= 0. 7209

[Important note: work in radians]

(4 d.p.)

Exercise 1F
Evaluate the following integrals, giving your
answers to four significant figures. [Remember to
work in radians.]
1
8

1.

2.

8+ x

dx
1 8x

1
4

3.

4.

dx

dx
5 + 9x 2
7
7 x2

6.

7.

8.
dx

9.

3
2
6

5
2

5.

20

3
dx
6 + 2x2

*10.

dx
6 + x2

dx

5 2x2

dx

Evaluate the following integrals exactly:

3 x2

2dx

4 3x 2

1 x2

2 dx
1 1 + x

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

1.8

The 't = tan 12 A' substitution

You will have already encountered the result:


tan 2 =

2 tan
1 tan 2

which arises from the identity


tan ( A + B) =

Setting =

tan A + tan B
1 tan A tan B

1
A then yields the result
2
tan A =

2t
1
where t = tan A
1 t2
2

2t
, and the
1 t2
hypotenuse, h, is given by Pythagoras' theorem:

In the triangle shown opposite, tan A =

h = 1 t
2

) + (2t )

2t

A
1t2

= 1 2t 2 + t 4 + 4t 2
= 1 + 2t 2 + t 4

= 1 + t2

So h = 1 + t 2 and

sin A =

2t
1 t2
and
cos
A
=
1 + t2
1 + t2

This would seem, at first sight, to be merely an exercise in


trigonometry manipulation, but these results (which are given in
the AEB's Booklet of Formulae) have their uses, particularly in
handling some otherwise tricky trigonometric integrations.
Incidentally, the above working pre-supposes that angle A is
acute, and this is generally the case in practice. The identities
are valid, however, for all values of A in the range 0 A 2
(and hence all values of A).
1
1

A = , 3 , K tan A is not defined, the
2 2
2
2
limiting values of sin A, cos A and tan A are still correct.
Although, when

21

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

Example
Use the substitution t = tan

1
x to show that the indefinite
2

1
integral of sec x is ln tan + x .
4 2
Solution
t = tan

1
x
2

dt 1 2 1
= sec x
dx 2
2

1
2dt = sec2 x dx

1
2dt = 1 + tan 2 x dx

2dt
= dx
1 + t2

Also, sec x =

1
1 + t2
, using one of the above results.
=
cos x 1 t 2

Then

sec x dx =

1 + t 2 2dt
.
1 t2 1 + t2

1 t

(1 t )(1 + t ) dt

dt

1
1
=
+
dt by partial fractions
1 + t 1 t

= ln 1 + t ln 1 t
= ln

Now

1+ t
1 t

1
tan + tan x
1
1+ t
2
4

tan
+ x =
=

1
4 2
1 tan tan x 1 t
2
4

so that

sec x dx = ln tan 4 + 2 x

22

(since tan

= 1)
4

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

Activity 8
Use the above identities for cos x and tan x to prove that
1
x
2
sec x + tan x =
1
1 tan x
2
1 + tan

1
The results sec x dx = ln sec x + tan x = ln tan + x are
4 2
given in the AEB's Booklet of Formulae, as is the result

cosec x dx = ln tan 2 x
1

Since this latter result is much easier to establish, it has been set
as an exercise below.

Example
1
Use the substitution t = tan to evaluate exactly
2

d
4 cos + 3sin

Solution

1
1
dt 1
2dt
t = tan
= sec 2
= d
2
2
d 2
1 + t2
Also,

2t
1 t2
and sin =
1 + t2
1 + t2
Changing the limits:
cos =

= 0 t = 0 and =

t = tan = 1
2
4

so
, 0,1
( )
2
Thus

1
2dt
d
2

=
.

0 4 cos + 3sin 4 4t2 + 6t


1 + t2
0
2
2
1+ t
1+ t
1

23

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

4 4t

2dt
2
+ 6t

dt
2 + 3t 2t 2

2
1
5

=
+ 5 dt
2 t 1 + 2t

1
1
= ln 2 t + ln 1 + t
5
5
0
1
1
1
1
= ln1 + ln 3 ln 2 ln1
5
5
5
5
=

1
ln 6
5

In the following exercise, you may have to use the tan 1 or sin 1
integrals from the previous section.

Exercise 1G
1
1. Use the substitution t = tan x to evaluate
2

dx
, giving your answer to 4 decimal
1 + sin 2 x

places.
2. By writing t = tan

1
x , show that
2

(a)

cosec x dx = ln tan 2 x + C

(b)

(c)

cos 1 x

1
d
3 + 5sin

2t
where
1 t2

1
t = tan A , and setting A = , show that
6
2

4. (a) By using the identity tan A =

tan

=2 3
12

(b) Evaluate, to four decimal places, the integral

dx
1
= tan x + C
1 + cos x
2
dx

(c)

1
= 2sin 1 tan x + C
2

cos x

d
2 + cos

5. By setting t = tan

sec 2 x
1

1
3. Use the t = tan substitution to evaluate exactly
2
the integrals

(a)

2
3

24

d
5 + 4 cos

(b)

1
tan
2
d
5 + 4 cos

1
x , find the indefinite integral
2
1 cos x dx

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

1.9

Harder integrations

In this final section of the chapter, all of the integrations involve


the standard results for sin1 and tan1, but you may have to do
some work to get them into the appropriate form.
Before you start, here are a few reminders of the algebraic
techniques which you will need, and also one or two calculus
results. To give you a clear idea of how they work out in
practice, they are incorporated into the following set of
examples.

Example
By writing

x 2 + 7x + 2
in terms of partial fractions, show that
1 + x 2 (2 x )

x 2 + 7x + 2

dx = ln 2
2
2
4
1 + x (2 x )

(
0

Solution
x 2 + 7x + 2
Ax + B
C

2 +
2
2x
1 + x (2 x ) 1 + x

Multiplying throughout by the denominator

x 2 + 7x + 2 ( Ax + B)( 2 x ) + C 1 + x 2

Substituting x = 2 gives

20 = 5C

C=4

Substituting x = 0 gives

2 = 2B + 4

B = 1

Comparing x2 coefficients:
1 = A + 4

x 2 + 7x + 2
3x 1
4

2 +
2
1
+
x
2

x
1 + x (2 x )

Thus

1 3x
1 1
1 1
x2 + 7x + 2
dx =
dx
dx + 4
dx
2
2
2
0 (1 + x )( 2 x )
01 + x
01 + x
02 x
1

Then

A=3

25

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

The reason for splitting the integration up in this way is to


separate the directly integrable bits. Note that

f ( x )
dx = ln f ( x ) + constant
f ( x)

i.e. when the 'top' is exactly the differential of the 'bottom', the
d
integral is natural log of the 'bottom'. Now
1 + x 2 = 2x and
dx
d
(2 x ) = 1 , so the constants in the numerators need jiggling
dx
but, apart from this, you should see that the three integrals are
log, tan1 and log respectively:

1+ x
2x

3
2

3
ln x 2 + 1
2

dx

[ (

1+ x
1

dx 4

)] [tan x ]
1

1
0

1
dx
0 2x

4[ ln ( 2 x )]0
1

[Strictly speaking, the log integrals should be x 2 + 1 and


2 x , but 1 + x 2 is always positive and 2 x is positive for x
between
0 and 1.]

3
( ln 2 ln1) tan 1 1 tan 1 0 4( ln1 ln 2 )
2

3
ln 2 + 4 ln 2
4
2

11
ln 2
4
2

Example
Evaluate

1
3

3x + 1

1 3x 2
significant figures.

dx , giving your answer correct to three

Solution

1
3

3x + 1
1 3x

dx =

1
3

3x
1 3x

dx +

1
3

1
1 3x 2

dx

Now the second integral on the RHS is clearly a sin1 integral.


What about the first one?
26

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

You might just recognise where the x in the numerator comes from
if you think about it long enough. To save time: try calling

u = 1 3x 2 = 1 3x 2

1
2;

du 1
= (1 3x2 ) 2 ( 6x ) using the Chain Rule
dx 2

then

3x

So

3x
1 3x

1 3x 2

dx = 1 3x 2

[This method is referred to as


'integration by recognition']

and

1
3

3x + 1
1 3x

dx =

1
3

3x

1
dx +
2
3
1 3x

= 1 3x

1
2 3
0

1
3

dx
1
3

x2
1

3
1 1 x
sin 1
+
3
3 0

2
1 1 1
=
+ 1 +
sin1 0
sin

3
3
3

= 0.539 (to 3 s. f.)

Example
Integrate exactly the integrals
(a)

dx
3x 6x + 4

(b)

3
2

dx
2 + 5x 2x 2

(a)

[Now x 2 2x + 43 = ( x 1) + 13
by completing the square: the
factor of 3 was taken out first
in order to make this easier to
cope with.]
2

Solution
dx
1
=
3x 6x + 4 3
2

1
=
3

dx
x 2 2x +

4
3

dx
1 + x 1 2
(
)
3

dx
1
2 with a =
+x
3
and 'x' = x 1 , which is allowed
when a single x is involved.]
[This is

27

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

x 1
1 1
= 1 tan 1 1
3 3
3 1

(b)

)]1

3
tan 1 [ x 1] 3
3

3
tan 1 3 tan 1 0
3

3
0

3 3

=
3
2

3
9

dx

1
=
2
2
2 + 5x 2x

3
2

dx
1 + 25 x x 2

Completing the square:


1 +

5
5
x x 2 = x 2 x + 1 = x

2
2

2
5
25

+ 1

4
16

9
x
16

5
4

This gives
integral =

1
2

3
2

( ) (x )
dx

5 2
4

3 2
4

1 1 ( x
=
sin 3
2
4

5
4

) 2

1 1 ( 4x 5) 2
=

sin
3 1
2
=

1 1 1
1
sin 1
sin
3
3
2

1
1
2 sin 1
3
2

= 2 sin 1

28

1
3

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

Exercise 1H
3x + 10
(2 x ) 4 + x 2

1. By expressing

in terms of partial

6. Show that

3x + 10

(2 x )( 4 + x )dx

(1 + x )(2 + x )dx

2. Show that

2
3
4
3x + 2
dx = ln +
.
18
4 3
9 + 2x2

3. Given that y = 4 x 2 , find an expression for


dy
and deduce that
dx

2x 3
4 x2

3
2
1
2

2x x

2
3

dx

(e)

4 + 3x x 2
dx
2 + x2

9. Determine the values of the constants A, B and C


for which
f (x) =

C
x2 + 2x 4
2x 2
+
A + B 2
x 2x + 4 x2 2x + 4
x2 2x + 4

f (x).

1 + 2 x 3x
dx

xx

(b)

x
0

dx
x +1

(d) 2 x 2 2 x + 5

(f)

x
0

4x
3
dx = 2 ln .
2
5 + x2

4x + 2
dx ,
5 + x2
giving your answer correct to 3 decimal
places.

* 11. Show that

3x dx
1 + 6 x 3x 2

*12. Show that

3
2

1+ x3

10. (a) Prove that

x2 + 2x + 7
dx = 3 1 + ln 2 +
2
1+ x2

dx

(b)

(b) Use the result of (a) to evaluate

5. By 'completing the square' in each of the


following cases, evaluate exactly the integrals:

5x + 4
dx
x2 + 4

Show that

(c)

Hence evaluate

x2 + 2x + 7
Bx
C
A+
+
1+ x2
1+ x2 1+ x2

(a)

dx

4. Determine the values of the constants A, B and C


such that

(a)

8. Evaluate the following integrals:

dx = C 4 x 2
4 x2
for some constant C. Hence evaluate exactly

giving your answer to three significant figures.


3
2

2 1
4 3x
dx =
ln13 .
4 + 3x 2
3 3 2

7. Use partial fractions to help evaluate the integral

fractions, evaluate
1

[Hint:

x3
1 x2

1 x2

dx =

dx = x 2

1 .
3

1
(8 + 5) .
24

x
1 x2

dx ]

dx
+ 6 x + 10

29

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

1.10 Miscellaneous Exercises


1. Prove the identity tan + cot 2cosec2 . Find,
in radians, all the solutions of the equation
tan x + cot x = 8cos2 x in the interval 0 < x < .
(AEB)

12. Express f ( x ) =

3+ x
in partial
1 + x 2 (1 + 2 x )

fractions. Prove that the area of the region


enclosed by the curve with equation y = f ( x ) , the

2. Find, in radians, the general solution of the


equation 6 tan 2 = 4sin 2 + 1 .

(AEB)

3. Prove the identity cot 2 + tan cosec2 . Hence


find the values of , in the interval 0< < 180
for which 3( cot 2 + tan ) = 4 .
2

(AEB)

4. Find, in terms of , the general solution of the


equation tan 4 x 4 tan 2 x + 3 = 0 .

(AEB)

5. Solve the equation 3 tan sec = 1 ,giving all


(AEB)
solutions in the interval 0< < 360 .

coordinate axes and the line x = 1 is

13. Express 5cos + 2sin in the form Rsin ( + ) ,


where R > 0 and 0< < 90 . The function f is
defined by f ( ) = 6 5cos 2sin for

0 360 . State the greatest and least values


of f and the values of , correct to the nearest
0.1 , at which these occur.
1

6. By expanding cos( 60 ) , express

14. Show that

equation 7cos + 8cos( 60 ) = 6.5 in the

7. Find all solutions in the interval 0 360 of


the equation sin cos = k when
(a) k = 0 , and

(b) k = 1 .

(AEB)

8. Find the general solution of the equation

sin 2 x + 2 cos 2 x = 0 for x radians.

(AEB)

9. Show that
sin 2 x + sin 4 x + sin 6 x sin 4 x (1 + 2 cos2 x )
Hence prove the identity

1
.
6+ 2

(AEB)

10. Prove the identity

( cos A + cos B)2 + (sin A + sin B)2 2 + 2 cos( A B) .


Hence solve the equation

( cos 4 + cos )2 + (sin 4 + sin )2 = 2

3 sin 3
giving the general solution in degrees.
11. Given that 1 < x, y < 1 , prove that
x+y
tan 1 x + tan 1 y = tan 1

1 xy
Deduce the value of tan 1 12 + tan 1 15 + tan 1 18
(AEB)

30

1
ln 2 . Hence using
2
1

tan

x dx . (AEB)

16 x

( 2 x )(3 + x2 )

in partial fractions.

Hence show that


1

16 x

5
3

(2 x )(3 + x ) dx = ln 3 + 6
0

16

(AEB)

sin 3
in terms of cos . Hence show
sin
that if sin 3 = sin 2 , where is a constant,

16. Express

then either sin = 0 or 4 cos 2 2 cos 1 = 0 .


Determine the general solution, in degrees, of the
equation sin 3 = 3sin 2 .
(AEB)
17. Express 3cos x 4sin x in the form Acos( x + ) ,

sin 3x sin 4 x (sin 2 x + sin 4 x + sin 6 x ) sin x

Deduce that sin =


12

x dx

integration by parts, evaluate


15. Express

interval 0< < 360 , giving your answer to the


(AEB)
nearest 0.1 .

1+ x
0

7cos + 8cos( 60 ) in the form 13sin ( + ) ,

where 0< < 90 , and state the value of to


the nearest 0.1 . Hence find the solutions of the

1 9
.
+ ln
4 2 2
(AEB)

where A > 0 and is acute, stating the value of


to the nearest 0.1 .
(a) Given that f ( x ) =

24
:
3cos x 4sin x + 7

(i) Write down the greatest and least values of


f(x) and the values of x to the nearest 0.1 in
the interval 180< x < 180 at which these
occur;
(ii) Find the general solution, in degrees, of the
16
.
equation f ( x ) =
3
(b) Solve the equation 3cos x 4sin x = 5cos3x ,
giving your answers to the nearest 0.1 in
the interval 0< x < 180 .
(Oxford)

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

18. Given that 3cos + 4sin Rcos( ) , where

R > 0 and 0 , state the value of R and the


2
value of tan .
(a) For each of the following equations, solve for
in the interval 0 2 and give your
answers in radians correct to one decimal
place:
(i) 3cos + 4sin = 2

A + B
A B
prove that cos A + cos B = 2 cos
.
cos
2
2
Hence find, in terms of , the general solution
of the equation cos5 + cos = cos3 .

Using both the identity for cos A + cos B , and the


corresponding identity for sin A sin B , show that

cos5 sin = 2sin ( cos 4 + cos2 ) .


The triangle PQR has angle QPR = ( 0 ) , angle

(ii) 3cos2 + 4sin 2 = 5cos .


(b) The curve with equation
10
y=
, between x = and
3cos x + 4sin x + 7
x = , cuts the y-axis at A, has a maximum
point at B and a minimum point at C. Find
the coordinates of A, B and C.
(AEB)

19. Given that f ( x ) = 9sin x + + 5cos x + , use

6
3
the formulae for sin ( A + B ) and cos( A + B ) to
express f(x) in the form C cos x + D 3 sin x , where
C and D are integers. Hence show that f(x) can
be written in the form 61 cos( x ) giving a
value for in radians to three significant figures.
(Oxford)
20. Prove the identity 1 + sin 2

22. Use identities for cos( C + D ) and cos( C D ) to

(1 + tan )2
1 + tan
2

. By

using the substitution t = tan , or otherwise, find


the general solution, in radians, of the equation

( 2 tan )(1 + sin 2 ) = 2 .

(AEB)

21. (a) Starting from the identity

cos( A + B ) cos Acos B sin Asin B ,


prove the identity
cos2 2 cos 2 1 .

(b) Find the general solution of the equation


sin + tan cos2 = 0 , giving your answer in
radians in terms of .

PQR = 5 and RP = 3RQ . Show that


sin 5 = 3sin and deduce that cos 4 + cos2 = 1 .
By solving a quadratic equation in cos2 , or
otherwise, find the value of , giving your
answer to the nearest 0.1 .
(AEB)

23. Given that

7x x 2
A
Bx + C

+
,
(2 x ) x 2 + 1 2 x x 2 + 1

determine the values of A, B and C. A curve has


equation y =

7x x 2
. Prove that the area
(2 x ) x 2 + 1

of the region enclosed by the curve, the x-axis

7
and the line x = 1 is ln 2 .
(AEB)
4
2
24. Use the substitution x = 1 + 2 tan to evaluate the

x
dx giving your answer
x2 2x + 5
correct to two decimal places.
(AEB)

integral

and other similar


2
expressions as the difference of two sines, prove
the identity

7
( 2 cos3 + 2 cos2 + 2 cos + 1) sin sin .
2
2

25. By expressing 2 cos3 sin

Express cos3 and cos2 in terms of cos and


deduce the identity

7
.
8cos 3 + 4 cos 2 4 cos 1 sin sin
2
2

(c) Prove the identity


Hence, or otherwise, show that cos

2 cos 2 2 cos 2 2 cos2 cos 4 .

(d) By substituting =

in the identity in (c),


5

2 1
= .
prove that cos cos
5
5 2

2
4
, cos
7
7

6
are the roots of the equation
7
3
2
8x + 4 x 4 x 1 = 0 .

and cos

(AEB)

26. Assuming the identities

(e) Hence find the value of cos in the form


5

sin 3 3sin 4sin 3 and


cos3 4 cos 3 3cos
prove that

cos5 5cos 20 cos 3 + 16 cos 5 .

a + b 5 , stating the values of a and b.


(AEB)

31

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

(a) Find the set of values of in the interval

0 < < for which cos5 > 16 cos 5 .


(b) Find the general solution, in radians, of the
(AEB)
equation cos x + 3cos3x + cos5x = 0 .
27. Express f ( ) = 4 cos + 3sin in the form

.
2
(a) A rectangle OABC is formed from the origin,
the point A( 4 cos , 0 ) , the point B, and the
Rcos( ) where R > 0 and 0 < <

point C ( 0, 3sin ) . State the coordinates of B


and express the perimeter of the rectangle in
terms of f ( ) . Hence find the greatest

perimeter of the rectangle as varies in the

range 0
and state the coordinates of B
2
for which this greatest perimeter occurs.
(b) A curve has the equation
y=

1
0 x . Show that
2
( 4 cos x + 3sin x )2

the region enclosed by the curve, the x-axis,


1

and the lines x = 0 and x =


has area
.
12
2
(AEB)

32