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Dait-ry Aiki-jjutsu
()
Family crest of t he Takeda clan.
Also
known as
Dait-ry; Dait-ry Jujutsu
Date
founded
c.1900
Country of
origin
Japan
Founder Takeda Sokaku
( Takeda Skaku, October 10,
1859April 25, 1943)
Current
head
Multiple independent branches
Arts taught Aiki-jjutsu
Descendant
arts
Aikido, Hakko Ryu and Hapkido
Ancestor
schools
Hzin-ry Kashima Shinden
Jikishinkage-ry Kyoshin Meichi-ry
Ono-ha Itt-ry Oshikiuchi Sumo
Dait-ry Aiki-jjutsu
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Dait-ry Aiki-jjutsu (), originally
called Dait-ry Jujutsu ( Dait-ry
Jjutsu), is a Japanese martial art that first became
widely known in the early 20th century under the
headmastership of Takeda Sokaku. Takeda had
extensive training in several martial arts (including
Kashima Shinden Jikishinkage-ry and sumo) and
referred to the style he taught as "Dait-ry" (literally,
"Great Eastern School"). Although the school's traditions
claim to extend back centuries in Japanese history there
are no known extant records regarding the ry before
Takeda. Whether Takeda is regarded as either the
restorer or the founder of the art, the known history of
Dait-ry begins with him.
[1]
Takeda's best-known
student was Morihei Ueshiba, the founder of aikido.
Contents
1 History
2 Aiki-jjutsu
3 Branches
3.1 Tokimune
3.2 Hisa
3.3 Horikawa
3.4 Sagawa
4 Aiki concept
5 Classification of techniques
6 Influence
7 Related arts
8 See also
9 References
10 Further reading
11 External links
History
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Family tree of the Seiwa Genji.
The origins of Dait-ry maintain a direct lineage extending approximately 900 years, originating with Shinra Sabur
Minamoto no Yoshimitsu ( , 10451127), who was a Minamoto clan samurai and member of
the Seiwa Genji (the branch of the Minamoto family descended from the 56th imperial ruler of Japan, Emperor
Seiwa).
[2]
Dait-ry takes its name from the mansion that Yoshimitsu lived in as a child, called "Dait" (), in
mi Province (modern day Shiga Prefecture).
[3]
According to legend, Yoshimitsu dissected the corpses of men
killed in battle, studying their anatomy for the purpose of learning techniques for joint-locking and vital point striking
(kyusho-jitsu).
[4]
Yoshimitsu had previously studied the empty-
handed martial art of tegoi, an ancestor of the
Japanese national sport of sumo, and added what
he learned to the art. He eventually settled down in
Kai Province (modern day Yamanashi Prefecture),
and passed on what he learned within his family.
Kage Yoshimitsu travelled to Europe in the mid-
15th century and met William Vorilong, a western
philosopher who befriended him and learned some
eastern philosophy, unarmed combat, and melee
weapon fighting under his guidance. Ultimately,
Yoshimitsu's great-grandson Nobuyoshi adopted
the surname "Takeda," which has been the name of
the family to the present day. The Takeda family
remained in Kai Province until the time of Takeda
Shingen ( , 15211573). Shingen
opposed Tokugawa Ieyasu and Oda Nobunaga in
their campaign to unify and control all of Japan.
With the death of Shingen and his heir, Takeda
Katsuyori ( , 15461582), the Takeda
family relocated to the Aizu domain (an area
comprising the western third of modern day Fukushima Prefecture).
[3]
Though these events caused the Takeda family to lose some of its power and influence, it remained intertwined with
the ruling class of Japan. More importantly, the move to Aizu and subsequent events profoundly shaped what
would emerge as Dait-ry Aiki-jjutsu in the 19th century. One important event was the adoption of Tokugawa
Ieyasu's grandson, Komatsumaru (16111673), by Takeda Kenshoin (fourth daughter of Takeda Shingen).
Komatsumaru devoted himself to the study of the Takeda family's martial arts, and was subsequently adopted by
Hoshina Masamitsu. Komatsumaru changed his name to Hoshina Masayuki ( ), and in 1644 was
appointed the governor of Aizu. As governor, he mandated that all subsequent rulers of Aizu study the arts of Ono-
ha Itt-ry (which he himself had mastered), as well as the art of oshikiuchi, a martial art which he developed for
shogunal counselors and retainers, tailored to conditions within the palace. These arts became incorporated into and
comingled with the Takeda family martial arts.
[3]
According to the traditions of Dait-ry, it was these arts which Takeda Sokaku began teaching to non-members
of the family in the late 19th century. Takeda had also studied swordsmanship and spearmanship with his father,
Takeda Sokichi, as well as Kashima Shinden Jikishinkage-ry as an uchi-deshi (live-in student) under the
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Retouched photograph of Takeda
Sokaku, c.1888.
renowned swordsman Sakakibara Kenkichi.
[5]
During his life, Sokaku traveled extensively to attain his goal of
preserving his family's traditions by spreading Dait-ry throughout Japan.
[4]
Takeda Sokaku's third son, Tokimune Takeda ( Takeda Tokimune, 19161993), became the
headmaster of the art following Sokaku's death in 1943. Tokimune taught what he called "Dait-ry Aikibud" (
), an art that included the sword techniques of the Ono-ha Itt-ry along with the traditional
techniques of Dait-ry Aiki-jjutsu. It was also under Tokimune's headmastership that modern dan rankings were
first created and awarded to the students of Dait-ry. Tokimune Takeda died in 1993 leaving no official
successor, but a few of his high-ranking students, such as Katsuyuki Kondo ( Kond Katsuyuki,
1945) and Shigemitsu Kato, now head their own Dait-ry Aiki-jjutsu organizations.
[6]
Aiki-jjutsu
Aiki-jjutsu can be broken into three styles: jujutsu (hard); aiki no jutsu (soft); and the combined aikijujutsu
(hard/soft). Modern Japanese jujutsu and aikido both originated in
aikijujutsu, which emphasizes "an early neutralization of an attack."
[7]
Like other forms of jujutsu, it emphasizes throwing techniques and joint
manipulations to effectively subdue or injure an attacker. Of particular
importance is the timing of a defensive technique either to blend or to
neutralize an attack's effectiveness and to use the force of the attacker's
movement against him. Dait-ry is characterized by ample use of atemi,
or the striking of vital areas, to set up jointlocking or throwing tactics.
Some of the art's striking methods employ the swinging of the
outstretched arms to create power and to hit with the fists at deceptive
angles, as may be observed in techniques such as the atemi that sets up
gyaku ude-dori (reverse elbow lock). Tokimune Takeda regarded one
of the unique characteristics of the art to be its preference for controlling
a downed attacker's joints with one's knee to leave one's hands free to
access weapons or to deal with the threat of other attackers.
[8]
Branches
Currently, there are a number of organizations that teach Dait-ry, each
tracing their lineage back to Takeda Sokaku through one of four of his
students. Those four students are: Takeda Tokimune, the progenitor of
the Tokimune branch; Takuma Hisa ( Hisa Takuma, 18951980), of the Hisa branch; Kd Horikawa
( Horikawa Kd, 18941980), of the Horikawa branch; and Yukiyoshi Sagawa (Sagawa Yukiyoshi,
19021998), of the Sagawa branch.
[9]
Tokimune
The Tokimune branch descends from the teachings of Tokimune Takeda, the son of Takeda Sokaku, and
designated successor of Dait-ry upon the father's death. When Tokimune died, he had not appointed a
successor; there are two main groups that carry on his teachings.
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The Asahi Newspaper
office in Osaka, Japan,
where many Dait-ry
techniques were
preserved on film as
originally taught by both
Morihei Ueshiba and
Takeda Sokaku.
The first group is led by Katsuyuki Kondo, who began his training under Tsunejiro Hosono and continued training
under Ktar Yoshida ( Yoshida Ktar, 18831966) for a time, before being introduced to
Tokimune. On the basis of the high level teaching licenses Kondo was granted by Tokimune, his followers represent
his school as the Dait-ry 'mainline.' He has much support in the martial arts community for this. Kondo has done
much to increase the visibility of the art by hosting seminars both in Tokyo and abroad, especially in the United
States.
[10]
The second group from the Tokimune branch is headed by Shigemitsu Kato and Gunpachi Arisawa, who are long-
time students and teachers from Tokimune's original Daitokan headquarters in Hokkaid. This organization is called
the Nihon Daito Ryu Aikibudo Daito Kai ( Nihon Dait-ry Aikibud Dait
Kai). They maintain a smaller organization in Hokkaid, with strong connections to practitioners in Europe
(especially Italy), the United States, and Brazil.
[11]
Hisa
The second major branch of Dait-ry is represented by students of Takuma Hisa.
His students banded together and founded the Takumakai (). They have a
wealth of materials in the form of film and still photographs, taken at the Asahi
Newspaper dojo, recording the Dait-ry techniques taught to them, first by Morihei
Ueshiba and then later by Takeda Sokaku directly. One of their major training
manuals, called the Sden, features techniques taught to them by both masters.
[12]
The Takumakai represents the second largest aiki-jjutsu organization. In the
1980s, led by Shogen Okabayashi (Okabayashi Shogen, born 1949), who was
sent by the elderly Hisa to train under the headmaster, the Takumakai made a move
to implement the forms for teaching the fundamentals of the art as originally
established by Tokimune Takeda. This move upset some preservers of Hisa's
original teaching method, leading to the formation of a new organization called the
Daibukan, founded by a long term student of Hisa, Kenkichi Ohgami (gami
Kenkichi, born 1936).
[13]
Later, in order to implement greater changes to the
curriculum, Okabayashi himself chose to separate from the Takumakai and formed the Hakuho-ryu.
[14]
Horikawa
The Horikawa branch descends from the teachings of Kd Horikawa, who is regarded as a talented innovator in
the art. A few organizations have been formed based on his teachings.
The Kodokai ( Kdkai) was founded by students of Horikawa, whose distinctive interpretation of aiki
movements can be seen in the movements of his students.
[15]
The Kodokai is located in Hokkaid and is headed
by Yusuke Inoue (Inoue Yasuke, born 1932). Both Inoue's father and his main teacher, Horikawa, were direct
students of Takeda Sokaku. Inoue received his teaching license (Menkyo Kaiden) in accordance with Horikawa's
final wishes.
There are two major teachers who branched off from the Kodokai to establish their own traditions. The first was
Seig Okamoto ( Okamoto Seig, born 1925) who founded the Daito-ryu Aikijujutsu Roppokai (
Dait-ry Aiki-jjutsu Roppkai). His interpretation of aiki and minimal movement throws
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The University of Tsukuba, where
members of the Sagawa branch teach
aiki-jjutsu, today.
have proved very popular. The organization has a great following abroad, especially in the United States and
Europe.
[16][17]
The other group was that of Katsumi Yonezawa ( Yonezawa Katsumi, 19371998),
who founded his own organization, called the Bokuykan (). In the early 1970s, while Yonezawa was still a
senior teacher at the Kodokai, he was the first person to bring Dait-ry Aiki-jjutsu to the United States and
Canada.
[18]
The Bokuykan is currently run by his son Hiromitsu Yonezawa (Yonezawa Hiromitsu),
headquartered in Hokkaid, with a following at the Yonezawa dojo and several branches in the United States, as
well as a dojo in Germany.
[19]
Sagawa
The last major group consists of students of Yukiyoshi Sagawa (
, Sagawa Yukiyoshi, 19021998), who was once considered to be
the successor to Takeda Sokaku (should Tokimune not have survived
World War II). Sagawa ran only a single dojo and taught a relatively
small number of students. He began studying Dait-ry under Takeda
Sokaku in 1914 after first learning the art from his father, Sagawa
Nenokichi (18671950), who was also a student of Sokaku and a
holder of a kyoju dairi (teaching license) in the system. Although
considered by many to be one of the most accomplished students of
Sokaku,
[20]
Yukiyoshi Sagawa received the kyoju dairi in 1932but
did not receive the menkyo kaiden (certificate of mastery) of the
system's secrets, as during the time he practised under Takeda Sokaku,
the highest licence was not the menkyo kaiden. Sagawa often served as
a teaching assistant to Takeda and traveled with him to various locations
in Japan teaching Daito-ryu. He further developed the art of applying Aiki and is said to have remained powerful
until very late in life, and - as a consequence of the success of Transparent Power - was featured in a series of
articles in the Aiki News magazines prior to his death in 1998.
[20]
Tatsuo Kimura ( Kimura Tatsuo, born 1947), a former mathematics professor at the University of
Tsukuba and a senior student of Sagawa, ran a small aiki-jjutsu study group at that institution. He retired from his
professorship there in June 2013, and has retired from public instruction of Daito Ryu. He now privately instructs a
small group of students. He has written two books about his training under Sagawa: Transparent Power and
Discovering Aiki.
[21]
Aiki concept
Takeda Sokaku defined aiki in the following way:

The secret of aiki is to overpower the opponent mentally at a glance and to win without fighting.
[22]

Tokimune Takeda, speaking on the same subject during an interview, said:

Could you explain in a little more detail about the concept of aiki?
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Aiki is to pull when you are pushed, and to push when you are pulled. It is the spirit of slowness
and speed, of harmonizing your movement with your opponent's ki. Its opposite, kiai, is to push to
the limit, while aiki never resists.
The term aiki has been used since ancient times and is not unique to Daito-ryu. The ki in aiki is go
no sen, meaning to respond to an attack.
... Daito-ryu is all go no senyou first evade your opponent's attack and then strike or control
him. Likewise, Itto-ryu is primarily go no sen. You attack because an opponent attacks you. This
implies not cutting your opponent. This is called katsujinken (life-giving sword). Its opposite is
called setsuninken (death-dealing sword).
Aiki is different from the victory of sen sen, and is applied in situations of go no sen, such as when
an opponent thrusts at you. Therein lies the essence of katsujinken and setsuninken. You block the
attack when an opponent approaches; at his second attack you break his sword and spare his life.
This is katsujinken. When an opponent strikes at you and your sword pierces his stomach it is
setsuninken. These two concepts are the essence of the sword.
[8]

Classification of techniques
Dait-ry techniques involve both jujutsu and aiki-jjutsu applications. Techniques are broken up into specific lists
which are trained sequentially; that is, a student will not progress to the next "catalogue" of techniques until he/she
has mastered the previous one. Upon completion of each catalogue, a student is awarded a certificate or scroll that
lists all of the techniques of that level. These act as levels of advancement within the school, and was a common
system among classical Japanese martial arts schools before the era of belts, grades, and degrees.
[23]
The first category of techniques in the system, the shoden waza, is not devoid of aiki elements, though it
emphasizes the more direct jujutsu joint manipulation techniques. The second group of techniques, the aiki-no-
jutsu, tends to emphasize the utilization of one's opponent's movement or intention in order to subdue him/her
usually with a throwing or a pinning technique. A list of the catalogues in the Tokimune branch's system and the
number of techniques contained within follows:
[23]
Catalogue Name No. of Techniques
1 Secret Syllabus ( Hiden Mokuroku) 118
2 The Science of Joining Spirit ( Aiki-no-jutsu) 53
3
Inner Mysteries ( Hiden gi)
[24]
36
4
Techniques of Self Defense ( Goshin'y-no-te)
[25]
84
5 Explanation of the Inheritance ( Kaishaku Sden) 477
6 License of Complete Transmission (Menkyo Kaiden) 88
Officially, the Dait-ry system is said to comprise thousands of techniques, divided into omote and ura (literally,
'front' and 'back' versions), but many of these could be seen as variations upon the core techniques. In addition,
Sokaku and Tokimune awarded scrolls denoting certain portions of the curriculum, such as techniques utilizing the
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long and short sword.
To the list above, the Takumakai adds the "Daito-ryu Aiki Nito-ryu Hiden".
[26]
The Takumai also makes substantial
use of the photographic documents of techniques taught at the Asahi Newspaper dojo by Morihei Ueshiba and
Takeda Sokaku, which are compiled into a series of 11 training manuals called the Sden.
[27]
Influence
The significant interest in this martial art,
[28]
which has much in common with the many less popular classical
Japanese jujutsu schools, is probably due largely to the success of Takeda Sokaku's student Morihei Ueshiba, and
the art that he founded, aikido. Aikido is practised internationally and has hundreds of thousands of adherents.
[29]
Many of those interested in aikido have traced the art's origins back to Dait-ry, which has increased the level of
interest in an art which was otherwise virtually unknown a few decades before.
Aikido's influence was significant even in its early years, prior to World War II, when Ueshiba was teaching a more
overtly combative form closer to Dait-ry. One of the main conduits of the influence of Ueshiba's pre-war aiki-
jjutsu was Kenji Tomiki, founder of Shodokan Aikido.
[30][31]
Tomiki was already ranked 5th dan in judo when he
began studying under Ueshiba. Today's goshin jutsu kata, or "forms of self defense" (created in 1956 by a team of
experts after Kan Jigor's death, and thus not belonging to original judo), preserve these teachings, as does
Tomiki's own organization of Shodokan Aikido.
[32][33]
Related arts
The concept of aiki is an old one, and was common to other classical Japanese schools of armed combat.
[22]
There are some other styles of Japanese jujutsu that use the term aiki-jjutsu, but there are no records of its use
prior to the Meiji era.
[22]
Many modern schools influenced by aikido presently utilize the term to describe their use
of aikido-like techniques with a more combative mindset.
There are a number of martial arts in addition to aikido which appear, or claim, to be descended from the art of
Dait-ry or the teachings of Takeda Sokaku. Among them are: the Korean martial art of hapkido founded by
Choi Yong Sul, who as an orphan in Japan was trained and raised under Takeda Sokaku;
[34]
Hakk-ry, founded
by Okuyama Yoshiharu, who trained under Takeda Sokaku; and Shorinji Kempo, founded by Nakano Michiomi
(later known as So Doshin), who is known to have trained under Okuyama. Many techniques from Hakko-ryu are
similar to the techniques of Daito-ryu.
[22]
Numerous other schools of aiki-jjutsu (or the variation aikijutsu) also
claim some sort of lineage to Takeda Sokaku or Dait-ry.
See also
Japanese martial arts
References
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Kodansha International. ISBN 978-4-7700-2619-4.
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3. ^
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b

c
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Retrieved 2007-07-18.
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Encyclopedia of Aikido. Retrieved 2007-07-20.
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Further reading
(http://www.aikidojournal.com/article?articleID=402&highlight=kodokai). Aiki News 84. Retrieved 2007-07-20.
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Information. www.daitoryu-roppokai.org. Retrieved 2007-07-20.
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Encyclopedia of Aikido. Retrieved 2007-07-20.
19. ^ Tung, Tim (2005). "Links" (http://TungBudo.com/links.htm). TungBudo.com. Cat and Moon Productions.
Retrieved 2007-07-20.
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Pranin, Stanley (2006). "Sagawa, Yukiyoshi" (http://www.aikidojournal.com/encyclopedia?entryID=563).
Encyclopedia of Aikido. Retrieved 2007-07-20.
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articleID=242). Aikido Journal. Retrieved 2007-07-20.
22. ^
a

b

c

d
Draeger, Donn F. (February 1, 1996). Modern Bujutsu & Budo: The Martial Arts and Ways of Japan,
Volume Three. Boston, Massachusetts: Weatherhill. ISBN 978-0-8348-0351-0.
23. ^
a

b
Pranin, Stanley (Summer 1992). "Interview with Katsuyuki Kondo (2)"
(http://www.aikidojournal.com/article.php?articleID=311). Aiki News 92. Retrieved 2007-07-21.
24. ^ Pranin, Stanley (2007). "Hiden Ogi (No Koto)" (http://www.aikidojournal.com/encyclopedia?entryID=260).
Encyclopedia of Aikido. Retrieved 2007-08-01.
25. ^ Pranin, Stanley (2007). "Goshin'yo No Te" (http://www.aikidojournal.com/encyclopedia?entryID=229).
Encyclopedia of Aikido. Retrieved 2007-08-01.
26. ^ Daito Ryu Aiki Jujutsu Takumakai. "Techniques" (http://www.asahi-net.or.jp/~DE6S-UMI/tkm05.htm). The
System of Techniques of Daito-ryu Aiki Jujutsu. www.asahi-net.or.jp. Retrieved 2007-07-21.
27. ^ Pranin, Stanley (2006). "Soden" (http://www.aikidojournal.com/encyclopedia?entryID=844). Encyclopedia of
Aikido. Retrieved 2007-07-21.
28. ^ Pranin, Stanley (January 1989). "Daito-Ryu Aiki Jujutsu: The Present State of Affairs"
(http://www.aikidojournal.com/article?articleID=439). Aiki News 79. Retrieved 2007-07-21.
29. ^ Pranin, Stanley (2007). "Preface to the Print Edition" (http://www.aikidojournal.com/encyclopedia).
Encyclopedia of Aikido. Retrieved 2007-07-21.
30. ^ Shodokan Aikido International Headquarters (2007). "Morihei Ueshiba and Kenji Tomiki"
(http://homepage2.nifty.com/shodokan/en/rekishi3.html). History of aikido. Shodokan HQ. Retrieved 2007-07-21.
31. ^ Pranin, Stanley (2006). "Tomiki, Kenji" (http://www.aikidojournal.com/encyclopedia?entryID=704).
Encyclopedia of Aikido. Retrieved 2007-07-21.
32. ^ Ohlenkamp, Neil; Allen Gordon (2005). "Forms of Self Defense: Kodokan Goshin Jutsu"
(http://www.judoinfo.com/katagosh.htm). JudoInfo Online Dojo. Retrieved 2007-07-20.
33. ^ Shodokan Aikido International Headquarters (2007). "Shodokan and the Japan Aikido Association"
(http://homepage2.nifty.com/shodokan/en/jaa.html). Shodokan HQ. Retrieved 2007-07-20.
34. ^ Pranin, Stanley (2007). "Choi, Yong Sul" (http://www.aikidojournal.com/encyclopedia?entryID=119).
Encyclopedia of Aikido. Retrieved 2007-07-21.
8/8/2014 Dait-ry Aiki-jjutsu - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dait%C5%8D-ry%C5%AB_Aiki-j%C5%ABjutsu 10/10
Profiles of several teachers mentioned above. (http://www.daitoryu.net/daito-ryu-history.html)
Essay on Daito-ryu Aikijujutsu succession (PDF) (http://www.daito-
do.it/sito/images/An%20essay%20on%20Daito.pdf)
On training with Yukiyoshi Sagawa (http://www.aikidojournal.com/article.php?articleID=179)
Kimura, Tatsuo. "Transparent Power - A Secret Teaching Revealed; The Extraordinary Martial Artist
Yukiyoshi Sagawa." MAAT Press, 2009
External links
Daito-ryu Aikijujutsu - Katsuyuki Kondo's organization (http://www.daito-ryu.org/en/)
Takumakai - Takuma Hisa's organization (http://www.asahi-net.or.jp/~DE6S-UMI/index.htm)
Daitokai - Shigemitsu Kato's organization (http://www.daito-ryu.com)
Daibukan - Kenkichi Ohgami's organization (http://www14.ocn.ne.jp/~daibukan/index.html)
Hakuho-ryu - Shogen Okabayashi's organization (http://hakuhoryu.whiteoakdojo.com/)
Daito-ryu Aikijujutsu Roppokai - Seigo Okamoto's organization (http://www.daitoryu-roppokai.org)
Documentary on the Tokyo branch of the Daito-ryu Aikijujutsu Takumakai
(http://www.guillaumeerard.com/en/aikido/videos/documentary-on-daito-ryu-aiki-jujutsu-takumakai.html)
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dait-ry_Aiki-jjutsu&oldid=607483889"
Categories: Jujutsu Japanese martial arts
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