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LABORATORY DETERMINATION OF

CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO


STANDARD
IS: 2720 (Part 16) 1979.
DEFINITION
California bearing ratio is the ratio of force per unit area reuire!
to penetrate in to a soil "ass #ith a circular plunger of $0""
!ia"eter at the rate of 1.2$"" % "in.
APPARTUS
&oul!s 22$0cc capacit' #ith base plate( sta' ro! an! #ing nut
con)r"ing to *.1( *.+ an! *.* of
IS: 9669,19-0.
Collar con)r"ing to *.2 of IS: 9669,19-0.
Spacer .isc con)r"ing to *.* of IS: 9669,19-0.
&etal ra""er con)r"ing to IS: 91-9,1979.
/0pansion "easuring apparatus #ith the a!1ustable ste"(
perforate! plates( tripo! con)r"ing an! to #eights con)r"ing to
*.* of IS: 9669,19-0.
2oa!ing "achine ha3ing a capacit' of at least $0004g an!
euippe! #ith a "o3able hea! or base that tra3els at a unifor"
rate of 1.2$"" % "in for use in forcing the penetration plunger in
to the speci"en.
Penetration plunger con)r"ing to *.* of IS: 9669,19-0.
.ial gauge t#o nu"bers rea!ing to 0.01"".
IS sie3es +7.$0 or 22.$0 or 19"" an! *.7$"".
&iscellaneous apparatus such as "i0ing bo#l( straight e!ge(
scales( soa4ing tan4( !r'ing o3en( )lter paper( !ishes an!
calibrate! "easuring 1ar.
PROCEDURE
5here are t#o t'pes of "etho!s in co"pacting soil speci"en in
the C67 "oul!s
i. Static Co"paction "etho!.
ii. .'na"ic Co"paction "etho!.
5he "aterial use! in the abo3e t#o "etho!s shall pass 19""
sie3e for )ne graine! soils an! +7.$0"" sie3e for coarse
"aterials up to +7.$0"".
7eplace the "aterial retaine! on 19"" sie3e b' an eual
a"ount of "aterial passing 19"" sie3e an! retaine! on
*.7$"" sie3e
7eplace the "aterial retaine! on +7.$0"" sie3e b' an eual
a"ount of "aterial passing +7.$0"" sie3e an! retaine! on
*.7$"" sie3e.
Static Compaction
In this "etho! calculate the "ass of #et soil at reuire! "oisture
content to gi3e a !esire! !ensit' #hen co"pacte! in a stan!ar!
test "oul! as gi3en belo#
8olu"e of "oul! 9 22$0cc.
:eight of !r' soil (:) 9 22$0 0 &...
"
:eight of #et soil 91; ,,,,,,,,,, 0 :
100
:eight of #ater 9 :eight of #et soil , :eight of !r' soil.
" 9 <pti"u" "oisture content obtaine! fro" the laborator'
co"paction test.
5a4e o3en !rie! soil sa"ple of calculate! #eight an! thoroughl'
"i0 #ith #ater (<&C) as obtaine! fro" the abo3e euation.
7ecor! the e"pt' #eight of the "oul! #ith base plate( #ith
e0tension collar re"o3e! ("
1
).
Place the correct "ass of the #et soil in to the "oul! in )3e
la'ers.
=entl' co"pact each la'er #ith the spacer !isc.
Place a )lter paper on top of the soil follo#e! b' a $c"s
!isplacer !isc.
Co"pact the "oul! b' pressing it in bet#een the platens of the
co"pression testing "achine until the top of the spacer !isc
co"es >ush #ith the top of the "oul!.
?el! the loa! for about +0 secon!s an! then release.
In so"e soil t'pes #here a certain a"ount of reboun! occurs( it
"a' be necessar' to reappl' loa! to force the !isplacer !isc
slightl' belo# the top of the "oul! so that on reboun! the right
3olu"e is obtaine!.
7e"o3e the "oul! fro" the co"pression testing "achine.
7e"o3e the spacer !isc an! #eigh the "oul! #ith co"pacte!
soil ("
2
).
7eplace the e0tension collar of the "oul!.
Prepare t#o "ore speci"ens in the sa"e proce!ure as !escribe!
abo3e.
Dynamic Compaction
5a4e representati3e sa"ple of soil #eighing appro0i"atel' 64g
an! "i0 thoroughl' at <&C.
7ecor! the e"pt' #eight of the "oul! #ith base plate( #ith
e0tension collar re"o3e! ("
1
).
7eplace the e0tension collar of the "oul!.
Insert a spacer !isc o3er the base plate an! place a coarse )lter
paper on the top of the spacer !isc.
Place the "oul! on a soli! base such as a concrete >oor or plinth
an! co"pact the #et soil in to the "oul! in )3e la'ers of
appro0i"atel' eual "ass each la'er being gi3en $6 blo#s #ith
*.904g ha""er euall' !istribute! an! !roppe! fro" a height of
*$0 "" abo3e the soil.
5he a"ount of soil use! shall be su@cient to )ll the "oul!(
lea3ing not "ore than about 6"" to be struc4 oA #hen the
e0tension collar is re"o3e!.
7e"o3e the e0tension collar an! carefull' le3el the co"pacte!
soil to the top of the "oul! b' "eans of a straight e!ge.
7e"o3e the spacer !isc b' in3erting the "oul! an! #eigh the
"oul! #ith co"pacte! soil ("
2
).
Place a )lter paper bet#een the base plate an! the in3erte!
"oul!.
7eplace the e0tension collar of the "oul!.
Prepare t#o "ore speci"ens in the sa"e proce!ure as !escribe!
abo3e.
In both the cases of co"paction( if the sa"ple is to be soa4e!(
ta4e representati3e sa"ples of the "aterial at the beginning of
co"paction an! another sa"ple of re"aining "aterial after
co"paction for the !eter"ination of "oisture content.
/ach sa"ple shall #eigh not less than 100g for )ne,graine! soils
an! not less than $00 for granular soils.
Place the a!1ustable ste" an! perforate! plate on the
co"pacte! soil speci"en in the "oul!.
Place the #eights to pro!uce a surcharge eual to the #eight of
base "aterial an! pa3e"ent to the nearest 2.$4g on the
perforate! plate.
I""erse the #hole "oul! an! #eights in a tan4 of #ater
allo#ing free access of #ater to the top an! botto" of speci"en
for 96 hours.
Test fo S!e""in#
5his test is optional an! "a' be o"itte! if not necessar'.
.eter"ine the initial height of speci"en (h) in "".
&ount the e0pansion,"easuring !e3ice along #ith the tripo! on
the e!ge of the "oul! an! recor! the initial !ial gauge rea!ing
(!
s
).
Beep this set up as such un!isturbe! for 96 hours noting !o#n
the rea!ings e3er' !a' against the ti"e of rea!ing.
&aintain a constant #ater le3el through out the perio! of
soa4ing.
Cote the )nal rea!ing of the !ial gauge at the en! of soa4ing
perio! (!
h
).
Ca"c$"ations fo S!e""in#
!
f
,!
s
/0pansion ratio 9 ,,,,,,,,,,, 0 100
h
!
s
9 Initial !ial gauge rea!ing in ""
!
f
9 )nal !ial gauge rea!ing in ""
h 9 initial height of speci"en in ""
Penetation Test
Dfter 96 hours of soa4ing ta4e out the speci"en fro" the #ater
an! re"o3e the e0tension collar( perforate! !isc( surcharge
#eights an! )lter paper.
.rain oA the e0cess #ater b' placing the "oul! incline! for
about 1$ "inutes an! #eigh the "oul!.
5esting of C67 speci"en
Place the "oul! on the lo#er plate of the testing "achine #ith
top face e0pose!
5o pre3ent uphea3al of soil in to the hole of surcharge #eights(
place 2.$4g annular #eights on the soil surface prior to seating
the penetration plunger after #hich place the re"in!er of the
surcharge #eights.
Set the plunger un!er a loa! of * 4g so that full contact is
establishe! bet#een the surface of the speci"en an! the
plunger.
Set the stress an! strain gauges to Eero.
Consi!er the initial loa! applie! to the plunger as the Eero loa!.
Dppl' the loa! at the rate of 1.2$ "" % "in.
5a4e the rea!ings of the loa! at penetration of 0( 0.$( 1.0( 1.$(
2.0( 2.$( +.0( *( $( 7.$( 10 an! 12.$.
7aise the plunger an! !etach the "oul! fro" the loa!ing
euip"ent.
Collect the sa"ple of about 20 to $0g"s of soil fro" the top
+0"" la'er of speci"en an! !eter"ine the #ater content in
accor!ance #ith IS: 2720 (Part *) 197+.
/0a"ine the speci"en carefull' after the test is co"plete! for
the presence of an' o3er siEe soil particles( #hich are li4el' to
aAect the results if the' happen to be locate! !irectl' belo# the
penetration plunger.
CALCULATION OF CBR FROM LOAD PENETRATION CUR%E
Plot the loa! penetration cur3e in natural scale( loa! on F , a0is
an! penetration on G H a0is as sho#n in Iig: 2.9.2.
If the cur3e is unifor"l' con3e0 up#ar!s although the initial
portion of the cur3e "a' be conca3e up#ar!s !ue to surface
irregularities "a4e correction b' !ra#ing a tangent to the upper
cur3e at the point of contra >e0ure as belo#
0
2.$0 $.00
7.$0 10.00
12.$0
2oa! 3s.
Penetration cur3e
5a4e the intersection point of the tangent an! the G H a0is as the
origin.
Calculate the C67 3alues for penetration of 2.$0"" an!
$.00"".
Penetration in mm
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
NO CORRECTION
REQUIRED
CORRECTED 5mm
PENETRATION
CORRECTED 2.5mm
PENETRATION
CORRECTED OR CONCA!E
UP"ARD #$APE
%
o
a
&

o
n

P
i
'
t
o
n

i
n

(
)
*
C
m
2
+0
100
100
Correspon!ing to the penetration 3alue at #hich C67 is to be
!esire!( ta4e the correcte! loa! 3alues fro" the loa! penetration
cur3e an! calculate the C67 fro" the euation
P
5
0 C
f
California 6earing 7atio 9 ,,,,,,,,,,,,, 0 100.
P
S
P
5
9

Correcte! unit test loa! correspon!ing to the chosen
penetration fro" loa!
penetration cur3e
P
S
9 5otal stan!ar! loa! for the sa"e !epth of penetration(
#hich can be ta4en fro" the 5able belo#
C
f
9 Pro3ing ring correction factor.
Stan&a& "oa&s at speci'e& penetations

REPORT
7eport the C67 3alue to the nearest secon! !eci"al.
5a4e the a3erage of three test speci"ens as the C67 3alue of the
test.
=enerall'( the C67 3alue at 2.$0"" penetration #ill be greater
than that at $.00"" penetration an! in such case ta4e the 3alue
at 2.$0"" as the C67 3alue.
Penetration
!epth
("")
Jnit Stan!ar! loa!
Bgf% c"
2
5otal Stan!ar!
loa!
(Bgf)
2.$0 70 1+70
$.00 10$ 20$$
7.$0 1+* 26+0
10.00 162 +1-0
12.$0 1-+ +600
If the C67 3alue correspon!ing to a penetration of $.00""
e0cee!s that of 2.$0""(repeat the test.
If the i!entical results follo#( ta4e the 3alue correspon!ing to
$.00"" as the C67 3alue.
PRECAUTIONS
Clean the holes of the base plate an! that of perforate! !isc
thoroughl'.
Dlign the surcharge #eight #ith the plunger so that the plunger
penetrates freel' in to the soil.
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