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Mari a Sarkar

Copyright Maria Sarkar



The right of Maria Sarkar to be identified as author of this work has
been asserted by her in accordance with section 77 and 78 of the
Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,
stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any
means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise,
without the prior permission of the publishers.

Any person who commits any unauthorized act in relation to this
publication may be liable to criminal prosecution and civil claims for
damages.

A CIP catalogue record for this title is available from the British
Library.

ISBN 978 1 84963 497 7

www.austinmacauley.com

First Published (2014)
Austin Macauley Publishers Ltd.
25 Canada Square
Canary Wharf
London
E14 5LB







Printed and bound in Great Britain





About the author

Maria Sarkar, a graduate from the University of Hong Kong, with an
MA from the University of Grenoble, has taught English and French
in Hong Kong, India and the United Kingdom. After having
specialized in the teaching of English to speakers of other languages,
she has been teaching English to adults as well as children for the last
26 years. Speaking four languages herself, she has always had a
penchant for words and feels passionate about motivating learners to
imbibe the vast spectrum of words that the English language offers.


Acknowledgements

I would especially like to thank my niece, Mubaraka, for her design of
Buz and the general layout of the chapters; my niece, Naqiya, for
typing out the chapters and her suggestions; and last but not least my
family for their help in proof-reading, editing, and overall support.







Contents

Introduction i
1. ADJECTIVES Words that describe 9
2. SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS 15
3. NOUNS Words that name 20
4. VERBS Words that express actions and states 24
5. ROOTS, PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES 27
6. ADVERBS Words that add information about an action 31
7. ABSTRACT NOUNS Words that describe what you think and feel 35
8. ADJECTIVES Words that desribe (Feelings) 39
9. GUESSING THE MEANING OF WORDS 43
10. USING A DICTIONARY 47
11. IDIOMS 54
12. PHRASAL VERBS 61
13. COLLOCATIONS Word partners 65
14. GEOGRAPHICAL TERMS 67
15. NAUTICAL TERMS 71
16. USE IT OR LOSE IT 73




Introduction
























lexical sets
e.g. vegetables: carrot, potato
ways of talking: say, speak

single words
e.g. talk, car, lovely

parts of speech
how words are used
in a sentence
e.g. noun, verb,
adjective,
adverb

collocations
words that go together
e.g. tell a story
tell a lie
tell a joke
synonyms /
antonyms


compound words
e.g. alarm clock
speed limit
dependent prepositions
e.g. listen to (verb & preposition)
interested in (adjective & preposition)


idioms
e.g. under the weather
over the top

phrasal verbs
e.g. break up
break off
break into


[WORD
BANK]
word
families


VOCABULARY
Hey, Im Buz.
Im going to be your guide on an amazing voyage of
discovery. Are you sitting comfortably? We are
embarking on a journey which will take you into the
exciting land of vocabulary. So hold on tight and here we
go!
So, what is vocabulary? Vocabulary does not only refer
to single words; it is much more than that. Have a look:
roots and derivatives
e.g. enjoy:
enjoyment
enjoyable
unenjoyable







When you learn a new word, what is important? Number the following in order of
importance to you.

understand the meaning of the word
know which situation to use it in
know how formal or informal it is
know which words are usually used with it
be able to spell it
be able to pronounce it correctly
know if it has a positive or negative meaning
know the origin of the word
recognize and know the meaning of the root
know what part of speech it is
know its synonyms, antonyms, and other related words












Dont worry if this is a bit much! Well take it one
step at a time. Using this book, you will be able to
fill your treasure chest, allowing your word bank to
become bigger and more powerful. Youll know all
of it in no time.
So, what does to know a word mean to you?
We will take most of these points into consideration in this book. Each
chapter has a set target vocabulary. You will first learn the meanings of the
word and use them in the practice activities. The signal strength bars show
how easy or difficult the exercises are. By the end of each chapter you will
have acquired the target vocabulary and increased your word bank.
When you meet a new word you have two tasks to perform: you must find
out what meanings it can have, and you must learn how to use it
appropriately. Learning vocabulary is all about using the APT word, i.e. the
appropriate word.
Words, it is said, are the tools of thought. If you do nothing, you will learn
about 25-30 words a year; but with conscious effort, the skys the limit.
Dont just do the exercises hurriedly; be super-conscious of the words. They
will only become yours when you start using them. Say them aloud,
participate actively and, above all, have fun!

























































Do you often make people laugh?
Does your mood change often and suddenly?
Can people depend on you?
Do you like other peoples company?
Are you usually a happy person?
Do you always look at the bright side of things?
Are you strong and good at sports?
Do you have good manners?
Are you kind and caring and give easily?
Are you careful to do your work properly?
Do you do what you are told?
Are you lively?
Are you very proud of how you look and of your other qualities?
Do you lack confidence?
ADJECTIVES
Words that describe
Answer the following questions. Put Y for Yes, N
for No or S for Sometimes.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Now what about you?
Hey, let me tell you a little about what kind of
chap I am. Im a happy, cheerful and bubbly
sort of character, quite optimistic really. I am
funny and humorous, always making people
laugh at my jokes. I love sports and am pretty
athletic.
I am also sociable, reliable and generous and
have many friends who can depend on me if
they need anything. I work hard too and am
conscientious. Sometimes though I can be lazy
and rather moody when I am not allowed to do
what I want.














vain

moody
athletic
timid
polite
bubbly
obedient
sociable
cheerful
optimistic
conscientious
reliable
generous
humorous





































If you answered yes or sometimes, which of
the following adjectives define the questions in
part A? Fill in the numbers.
Put the above words in the appropriate column
depending on what you think.
Words very often suggest positive
(good), negative (bad) or neutral
(neither good nor bad) meanings.
Practice
Words used to
describe people,
places and things are
called adjectives
POSITIVE NEUTRAL NEGATIVE







Can you remember the words
and their meanings?

Think of a friend who is on all the
sports teams at school.

h
i l c

t
a
t
e

athletic







D









1. One who thinks s/he is very good-looking

n
i

a

v

2. One who does everything the teacher tells her to


n
b e
o

t
i e
d



3. One who shares hi s favourite sweets with you



g
r s
u

e
n e
o

Unscramble the letters to create an adjective to
describe people.
a
Further Practice
13



4. One who makes you laugh

o
r o
u

s
m u
h







5. One who thinks anything can be done

s
i t
i

c
p

m
i t
o



6. One who is always at a party on weekends


o
c b
e

i
s a
l






7. One who gets upset easily

y
o

d
o
m





9. One who will always phone to tell you what happened
at school when you were absent

r
l i
a

e
b l
e

14

o
o
s


10. One who talks excitedly all the time

b
u

b
l
y
b



11. One who is always smiling

r
l c
e

e
f u
h





12. One who says please and thank-you

l
e


t
p
i



13. One who always does homework with great
care

i
u n
o
c
c
i
n
t e
s



4. One who will never put up his hands in class

t
m

d
i
i





14
b

u

Thank you!
15










































Which two adjectives in the list are already
opposites?
A useful way to increase your bank of
words is to think of opposites.
Can you think of the opposites of these
adjectives? For some of them, you can
use un- im- and dis-, for example, as in
unreliable, but for others youll have to
think of another word.
More to think about
There could be more than one
word that applies. If you need
help look up the dictionary.
ADJECTIVE OPPOSITE
16










(A)
Paired words Synonyms Antonyms
assist hinder
indolent lazy
kind cruel
private confidential
victory defeat
courteous polite
abundance plenty
contract expand
sharp blunt
enigma puzzle
fresh stale
interior exterior
comprehend understand
guilt innocence
abbreviate shorten
solid hollow
Synonyms are words with the same, or
nearly the same, meaning.
Antonyms are opposites.
By adding synonyms and antonyms to your word bank,
your vocabulary credit can soar easily and quickly.
A good practice to adopt is to refer to a thesaurus if you
want to find a synonym. A thesaurus is a reference book
in which words of similar meanings are grouped
together.
Identify and tick whether the pairs of words in
this list are antonyms or synonyms.
SYNONYMS AND
ANTONYMS
17

Paired words Synonyms Antonyms
endeavour try
squander waste
fiction fact
irritate soothe





Across Down
3.
6.
7.
9.
11.
12.
13.
15.
16.
Antonym for guilt
Antonym for assist
Antonym for fresh
Synonym for try
Antonym for sharp
Synonym for waste
Synonym for speed
Synonym for private
Antonym for victory
1.
2.
4.
5.
8.
10.
14.
Synonym for shorten
Synonym for lazy
Synonym for polite
Antonym for kind
Synonym for plenty
Antonym for flow
Synonym for puzzle

Do the crossword on the next page using the
clues below to fill in the different synonyms and
antonyms.
Practice
18



19












1. The knife was not sharp.
2. The boy was lazy and reluctant to help around the house.
3. Robert did not like his name being shortened to Bob.
4. The lotion did not irritate my skin.
5. He tried to keep up with his brother who ran much faster than him.
6. The cake was not fresh.
7. She was wasting her talents because she had got into bad company.
8. The puzzle of the missing watch was never solved.

______________
______________
______________
______________
______________
______________
______________
______________



If you practice the skill of editing
your work, you can improve your
writing by using a better or more
appropriate word.
Even though words have a similar
meaning they cannot always be
used to replace each other. So when
you use a thesaurus you still have to
be careful to choose the right word.
Use another word from this chapter for the
underlined words.
Further Practice
20








Sentence Synonym/Antonym /
1. We hired a private room for the party. confidential
2. Unlike her mother, she did not have a sharp tongue. had a blunt
3. She did not look fresh after her holiday. looked stale
4. The jurys verdict was that the defendant was innocent. not guilty
5. It was felt that her speech did not flow. ebbed
6. What he was saying was difficult to understand. comprehend
7. Vikram tried to help his brother with his homework. endeavoured
8. Their time there had been wasted. squandered

In the following sentences, check whether the
synonym or antonym can replace the underlined
words without affecting the meaning of the
sentence.
More to think about
1
















1
NOUNS
Words that name










Find the words for general
categories in the word
puzzle.



Z

S

T

S

C

S

L

J

S

D

O

B

M

Y

S

S

N

C

S

O
K

H

L

O

L

C

E

L

F

C

L

I

R

U

X

E

L

L

D

K

P

S

I

A

N

A

I

M

C

B

I

N

A

S

K

E

E

O

I

A

Y

N

X

C

R

S

E

U

A

B

R

S

M

N

K

R

H

T

U

Q

S

Y

J

N

N

E

P

R

R

G

R

T

S

F

I

T

U

H

Q

X

O

L

D

E

F

A

N

V

E

A

J

R

O

S

R

M

D

E

I

N

D

F

T

U

T

P

V

I

B

C

Y

U

S

E

P

A

A

S

L

M

Z

U

F

I

S

H

E

S

M

E

J

M

N

L

Z

H

B

L

F

L

L

L

O

S

E

L

B

A

T

E

G

E

V

I

H

A

F

L

S

X

R

N

R

A

K

S

P

F

N

S

N

N

S

T

Q

W

O

T

B

S

S

N

V

E

H

I

C

L

E

S

F

T

F

P

R

W

I

X

I

S

S

T

C

E

S

N

I

D

A

Y

K

S

L

E

E

U

P

A

R

Y

S

J

F

W

N

F

Y

J

M

C

I

A

C

R

R

Q

F

P

D

A

P

Y

T

D

V

Q

P

V

H

E

E

P

S

F

S

P

I

H

S

G

D

O

B

J

K

E

Z

J

G

F

H

S

P

M

X

K

R

E

K

J




Whats more, some nouns can be put
together in lexical sets (categories).
E.g. Potatoes and tomatoes are
vegetables; sweaters and trousers are
clothes.
Nouns are the
names of things,
people, and places.






































































bluebell carnation poppy tulip daffodil buttercup
Name these birds.
Hint: magpie, blackbird, robin, dove,
sparrow, kestrel
What are these flowers?
Practice