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ORIENTALIA LOVANIENSIA

ANALECTA
204
UITGEVERIJ PEETERS en DEPARTEMENT OOSTERSE STUDIES
LEUVEN PARIS WALPOLE, MA
2011
UNDER THE POTTERS TREE
Studies on Ancient Egypt
Presented to Janine Bourriau
on the Occasion of her 70th Birthday
edited by
DAVID ASTON, BETTINA BADER, CARLA GALLORINI,
PAUL NICHOLSON and SARAH BUCKINGHAM
CONTENTS
EDITORIAL FOREWORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XI
H.S. SMITH Janine A Teachers Tribute . . . . . . . XIII
P.G. FRENCH Janine A Husbands View . . . . . . . XV
Elham Ahmed EL-TAWEIL, Mahmoud Mohamed EL-SHAFEI, Mohamed
ALI ABD EL-HAKIEM, Mohamed Naguib REDA, Nermeen Shaa-
ban ABAYAZEED, Shaimaa Rasheed SALEM, and Sherif Mohamed
ABD EL-MONAEM Mother of the Ceramicists
Umm El Fakharyien A Students Tribute . . . . . . XIX
TABULA GRATULATORIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXI
JANINES BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXV
ARTICLES IN HONOUR OF JANINE BOURRIAU
Susan J. ALLEN
Fish Dishes at Dahshur . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Sally-Ann ASHTON
Ancient Egyptian Hair-Combs in the Fitzwilliam Museum
Cambridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
David ASTON
t prt wty. The Saqqara Embalmers Caches Reconsidered;
Typology and Chronology . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Marie-Pierre AUBRY, Christian DUPUIS, Holeil GHALY, Christopher
KING, Robert KNOX, William A. BERGGREN, Christina KARLSHAUSEN
and Members of the TIGA Project
Geological Setting of the Theban Necropolis: Implications for
the Preservation of the West Bank Monuments . . . . . 81
Bettina BADER
Vessels in Ceramics and Stone: The Problem of the Chicken
and the Egg? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
VI CONTENTS
Donald M. BAILEY
Wine Containers: Aswan Flasks . . . . . . . . . . 173
Pascale BALLET
Les ateliers hellnistiques de Bouto (Tell el-Farain) et le
dcor surpeint (Overpainted) . . . . . . . . . . 189
Daphna BEN-TOR
Political Implications of New Kingdom Scarabs in Palestine
during the Reigns of Tuthmosis III and Ramesses II . . . . 201
Elizabeth BETTLES, with a contribution by Olaf E. KAPER
The Divine Potters of Kellis . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Charles BONNET
La Nubie face la puissance gyptienne . . . . . . . 253
Rosalie DAVID
Ancient Egyptian Medicine: An Appraisal Based on Scientic
Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
Catherine DEFERNEZ
Four Bes Vases from Tell el-Herr (North-Sinai): Analytical
Description and Correlation with the Goldsmiths Art of
Achaemenid Tradition . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
Jacobus VAN DIJK
The Date of the Gebel Barkal Stela of Seti I . . . . . . 325
Aidan DODSON
Two Mummy-Masks from the Dawn of the New Kingdom . 333
Amanda DUNSMORE
A Wedgwood Canopic Vase in the National Gallery of Victoria . 349
Dina A. FALTINGS
Did the Ancient Egyptians have Bottle Brushes? Some Con-
siderations about Milk Bottles in the Old Kingdom . . . . 355
Carla GALLORINI
A Cypriote Sherd from Kahun in Context . . . . . . . 397
Alison L. GASCOIGNE and Gillian PYKE
Nebi Samwil-Type Jars in Medieval Egypt: Characterisation
of an Imported Ceramic Vessel . . . . . . . . . . 417
CONTENTS VII
M. Cristina GUIDOTTI
Quelques curiosits typologiques de la cramique dAntinoopolis 433
Yvonne M. HARPUR
Earthenware Vessels in Old Kingdom Two-dimensional Art:
Their Manufacture and Direct Use by Minor Human Figures . 441
Rita HARTMANN
Ritzmarken auf Brotformen aus der frhdynastischen Siedlung
von Tell el-Farain/Buto . . . . . . . . . . . . 469
Ulrich HARTUNG
Eine elfenbeinerne Gefdarstellung aus dem prdynastischen
Friedhof U in Abydos/Umm el-Qaab . . . . . . . . 483
Colin A. HOPE
Possible Mid-18th Dynasty Examples of Blue-Painted Pottery
from the Egypt Exploration Societys Excavations at Memphis 495
Salima IKRAM
A Ceramic Divinity for a Divine Ceramicist . . . . . . 513
Helen JACQUET-GORDON
Miniature Pots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521
W. Raymond JOHNSON
A Ptah-Sokar Barque Procession from Memphis . . . . . 531
Peter LACOVARA
A Nubian Model Soldier and the Costume of a Kerma Warrior 541
Anthony LEAHY
Necho in Late Period Personal Names . . . . . . . 547
Mara J. LPEZ GRANDE
Field Notes from Dra Abu el-Naga on the First Intermediate
Period/Early Middle Kingdom Pottery . . . . . . . . 575
Sylvie MARCHAND
La transposition cramique dans lgypte Ancienne . . . . 603
Geoffrey T. MARTIN
The Dormition of Princess Meketaten . . . . . . . . 633
Aurlia MASSON
Jarres au dcor polychrome du Muse Pouchkine: manifestations
originales de la tendance archasante des 25e-26e dynasties? . 645
VIII CONTENTS
Marleen DE MEYER, Stefanie VEREECKEN, Bart VANTHUYNE, Stan
HENDRICKX, Lies OP DE BEECK and Harco WILLEMS
The Early Old Kingdom at Nuwayrat in the 16th Upper
Egyptian Nome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 679
Paul T. NICHOLSON
Im not the saggar-maker, Im the saggar-makers mate:
Saggar Making and Bottom Knocking in Stoke-on-Trent as a
Guide to Early Saggar Technology . . . . . . . . . 703
Hans-ke NORDSTRM
The Signicance of Pottery Fabrics . . . . . . . . . 723
Lies OP DE BEECK and Stefanie VEREECKEN
Pottery from Sidmant and Haraga in the Royal Museums of Art
and History, Brussels . . . . . . . . . . . . . 731
Mary OWNBY
Through the Looking Glass: The Integration of Scientic,
Ceramic, and Archaeological Information . . . . . . . 751
Stephen QUIRKE
Petries 1889 Photographs of Lahun . . . . . . . . . 769
Maarten J. RAVEN
Desheret Bowls and Canopic Jars . . . . . . . . . 795
Pamela ROSE and Gillian PYKE
Snakes and Udders: Ceramic Oddities from Qasr Ibrim . . 809
Teodozja I. RZEUSKA, with an Appendix by K.O. KURASZKIEWICZ
An Offering of a Beer Jar or a Beer Jar as an Offering? The
Case of a Late Old Kingdom Beer Jar with an Inscription from
West Saqqara . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 829
Margaret SERPICO, with an Appendix by Ben STERN
The Contents of Jars in Hatshepsuts Foundation Deposit at Deir
el-Bahri and their Signicance for Trade . . . . . . . . 843
Karin N. SOWADA
An Egyptian Imitation of an Imported Two-Handled Jar from
the Levant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 885
CONTENTS IX
Kate SPENCE, with a drawing by Will SCHENCK
Air, Comfort and Status: Interpreting the Domestic Features of
Soul Houses from Rifa . . . . . . . . . . . . 895
Sally SWAIN
A New Interpretation of Two C-Ware Vessels from
el Mahasna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 915
Pierre TALLET
Deux nouvelles stles rupestres sur le plateau de Srabit
el-Khadim (Sud-Sina) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 933
Ana TAVARES and Sabine LAEMMEL
Some Post-Old Kingdom Pottery from Giza . . . . . . 949
Ren VAN WALSEM
Scenes of the Production of Pottery in Old Kingdom Elite
Tombs of the Memphite Area. A Quantitative Analysis . . . 977
Helen WHITEHOUSE
Egyptian Blue and White: A Ceramic Enigma of the Early
19th Century AD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1001
Anna WODZINSKA
Pottery and Chronology. Preliminary Remarks on Ceramic
Material from Tell el-Retaba . . . . . . . . . . . 1015
ANCIENT EGYPTIAN HAIR-COMBS IN THE
FITZWILLIAM MUSEUM CAMBRIDGE
Sally-Ann ASHTON
Hair combs have received relatively little attention within the Egypto-
logical literature. As a consequence, Petries dating system for both Pre-
dynastic combs and his subsequent sequence for later combs is still
widely used in museum publications and catalogues. Discussion relating
to hair ornaments is typically restricted to articles within edited volumes,
is far from exhaustive, and tends to lack the cultural significance of hair
and grooming within a wider African context.
Hair and grooming have always played an important role in the culture
of Africa and the African Diaspora. The traditional African comb, known
also as the Afro comb, Afro rake, and Afro/hair pick or pic, has played
a crucial role in the creation, maintenance and decoration of styles.
1
In
some West African societies the hair comb symbolises status, group
affiliation, and religious beliefs and is encoded with ritual properties.
2

The handles of the comb are decorated with objects of status, such as the
head rest, human figures, and motifs that reference nature and the tradi-
tional spiritual world. It is here that the closest parallels for the earliest
Ancient Egyptian combs can be found. The concept of decorating the
handle of combs and thus imbuing an inanimate object with a non-mate-
rial power is an important part of the meaning of the African comb. The
image of the Adinkra duafe or hair comb associated with the Asante
people represents femininity and beauty and has been adopted as a tattoo
design in the United Kingdom and the United States.
In the 20th century afro combs took on a wider political and cultural
message, perhaps most notably in the form of the black fist comb that
references the Black power salute, as displayed by Tommie Smith and
John Carlos at the 1968 Olympics in Mexico City to represent power
and unity amongst Black Americans and human rights.
3
In her article on
modern Afro combs Carol Tulloch speaks of the impact of a design of a

1
C. TULLOCH, Resounding Power of the Afro Comb, in: G. BIDDLE-PERRY and
S. CHEANG (eds.), Hair Styling Culture and Fashion (New York, 2008), 124-125.

2
J.A. ANTIRI, Akan Combs, in African Arts 8 No. 1 (Autumn 1974), 32-35.

3
C. TULLOCH, Resounding Power of the Afro Comb, 133-135.
20 S.-A. ASHTON

4
C. TULLOCH, Resounding Power of the Afro Comb, 123-125, 136.

5
A.D. BYRD and L.L. THARPS, Hair Story. Untangling the Roots of Black Hair in
America (New York, 2001), 1-9. G. ROBINS, Hair and Construction of Identity in Ancient
Egypt, c. 1480-1350 BC, Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt 36 (1999),
55-69.
T-shirt that she was presented with by the Studio Museum in Harlem that
was embellished with a design featuring such a comb with the word
beautiful integrated with the teeth, thus reflecting the use of the symbol
on cloth by the Asante people and others in West Africa.
4

My own interest in Ancient Egyptian hair combs came from working
with community groups. The Pre-dynastic combs in the Fitzwilliam
Museum are instantly recognisable to people of African descent, and
often prompt the viewer to relate a personal story about hair, hair-styling
or hair combs. Unlike their more recent counterparts, we can say com-
paratively little about the cultural or spiritual significance of Ancient
Egyptian combs. However, their inclusion in burials suggests that hair
combs served either a ritual or practical function for the deceased that
may reflect their importance to the living. We know that many Ancient
Egyptians made considerable efforts to style their hair or the wigs that
they wore, and indeed people of status had their hair styled for them.
Perhaps the best known example of this are the 11th Dynasty images of
Inu, the royal hairdresser on the reliefs now preserved in The Brooklyn
Museum. The making of hair extensions and the styling of hair using a
long thin pin is one that is still repeated today in many homes and salons.
Braided hair tied with beads, plaited, and curled hair were adopted by
men and women and is evidenced in the form of human remains, wigs,
and in depictions of the elite in the form of statues, reliefs and paintings.
As with some Ghanaian and Nigerian groups, it has been suggested that
the way in which hair, or indeed wigs, were worn in Ancient Egypt was
an important part of the construction of social identity.
5

A brief survey of hair styles and also of the forms of comb that were
produced in Ancient Egypt indicates that hair types changed over time,
presumably reflecting changes in population and of the migration of
different gene pools. This paper is restricted to the hair combs in the
Fitzwilliam Museums collections and aims to place them within their
relative chronological sequence, as is currently understood. This sequence
is far from definitive, and it is important to note that we cannot know for
certain how long the different styles of comb were in circulation, or
whether to what extent hair combs reflect changes in hair type over a
period of 5,000 years in which they were produced. It would also appear
ANCIENT EGYPTIAN HAIR-COMBS IN THE FITZWILLIAM MUSEUM 21

6
W.M.F. PETRIE, Prehistoric Egypt, British School of Archaeology in Egypt 31 (Lon-
don, 1920), 30, pl. XXX.5-8; UC 15464, 15465, 15455 and UC 5624; see also G. BRUN-
TON, The Badarian and Predynastic Remains near Badari, British School of Archaeology
in Egypt 46 (London, 1928), pl. LXXII.30; UC 10159.

7
I would like to thank Dr Mie Ishii for suggesting this and for sharing her specialist
knowledge of the process of manufacturing textiles.

8
D. WENGROW, The Archaeology of Early Egypt. Social Transformation in North-East
Africa, 10,000 to 2650 BC (Cambridge, 2006), 70.
that hair combs were used for styling and also de-lousing, and that the
latter form has much finer teeth. From the Late Period the two types of
comb were combined in a single instrument. In the Badarian Period and
slightly later, however, there are examples of small, extremely fine-tooth
combs that only seem to be paralleled in the Late Roman and Coptic
periods.
6
There is further potential confusion in that many museum displays fail
to differentiate between hair combs and textile combs, and even when
the differences are apparent, they are still displayed, confusingly,
together. Within the Fitzwilliam Museum collection there is an example
of a comb that could have functioned as either. It is uncertain in date but
appears to fit more comfortably with later examples of less carefully
carved and undecorated wooden forms of hair comb (E.GA.2671.1932).
The comb is small, measuring 56 mm in height and 32 mm wide and is
proportionately deeper than many examples at 11 mm at the handle. The
spaces between the teeth are packed with soil and seeds, which we ini-
tially believed to be head lice carcasses (pl. 1.a). There are nine teeth in
total and all, but one, are preserved in their entirety. The teeth are 2.9 mm
wide and have a gap of 2 mm. There is a hole through the handle, pre-
sumably for suspending the comb. It is too small to be a beater for weav-
ing; however, it is possible that the comb was used for teasing wool
before it was spun.
7

Pre-dynastic and Early combs
A brief survey of hair combs found during the British excavations in
Egypt during the late-19th and early-20th centuries reveals that they occur
most frequently in the publications of Pre-dynastic and Early Dynastic
periods. The recording of tombs in which hair combs were found and
Petries analysis of forms of combs indicate that these objects were more
than simply cosmetic tools.
8

The forms of decoration found on the handles accord with other Pre-
dynastic depictions, perhaps most notably on the figurative pottery deco-
22 S.-A. ASHTON

9
W.M.F. PETRIE, Prehistoric Egypt, 29-30

10
C. MARTN DEL RO LVAREZ and E. ALMENARA ROSALES, An Analysis of the
Theriomorphic Representations on Combs and Hairpins from the Predynatic Period, in:
S. HENDRICKX, R.F. FRIEDMAN, K.M. CIAOWICZ and CHODNICKI (eds.), Egypt at its
Origins. Studies in Memory of Barbara Adams, Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 138
(Leuven, 2004), 884.

11
B. MIDANT-REYNES, The Prehistory of Egypt. From the First Egyptians to the First
Pharaohs (Oxford, 2006), 196.

12
L. KEIMER, Notes prises chez les Basarin et les Nubiens dAssouan, IIe

partie,
Bulletin de lInstitut de lgypte 33 (1952), 43-84.

13
W.M.F. PETRIE and J.E. QUIBELL, Naqada and Ballas, British School of Archaeo-
logy in Egypt 1 (London, 1896), 10.
ration. Animals, birds, and humans formed popular handle motifs in
what Petrie identified as the first period. These combs had long teeth,
with wide gaps and were believed by Petrie to have performed a decora-
tive and practical function of fastening the hair. According to his chron-
ological sequence, the earliest combs had a plain, flat top. Quadrupeds,
a single bird and then multiple bird motifs then appear as part of the
repertoire.
9
A study of theriomorphic representations on 110 combs and
146 hair pins revealed that birds are the most popular handle design.
10

The reference to animals and the appearance of male anthropomorphic
figures, and lack of female imagery, has led some scholars to suggest
that early hair combs reference masculinity.
11
Keimer cited the example
of the male nomads of the Eastern desert, who wear combs in their hair.
12

The intricacy of the handles and the fragility of the teeth of many early
combs led Petrie to conclude that this category of objects was intended
solely for ornament. However, wear marks on some of the examples in
the Fitzwilliam Museum suggest that the combs were used for either
combing or fixing the hair.
13

One of the Fitzwilliam Museums combs fits into this early sequence,
but does not have a known archaeological context. E.GA.3204.1943 was
part of the Gayer-Anderson collection and was presumably bought in
Egypt from a dealer. There are traces of a sticker on one side of the comb
which has a sign written in pencil and G.A.V.10 in ink. The han-
dle is carved in the form of the popular double bird motif on a triple
rhomboid design. Inspection under the microscope revealed strands of
fibre and a seed (pl. 1.b). Fine tool marks are also visible around the
rhomboid shaped area of the handle. The comb measures 82 mm in
height, and is very narrow measuring 17 mm wide and 2 mm thick. The
total number of teeth was originally four; all are broken close to the top
and one is missing completely. They are spaced at 0.025 mm and are
3 mm wide. There are other examples of other pre-dynastic combs with
ANCIENT EGYPTIAN HAIR-COMBS IN THE FITZWILLIAM MUSEUM 23

14
W.M.F. PETRIE, Prehistoric Egypt, pl. XXIX and J. CROWFOOT PAYNE, Catalogue
of Predynastic Egyptian Collection in the Ashmolean Museum (Oxford, 1994), fig. 78

15
W.M.F. PETRIE and J.E. QUIBELL Naqada and Ballas, pl. LXIII.56, and W.M.F. PETRIE,
Prehistoric Egypt, pl. XXIX.12.

16
W.M.F. PETRIE, Abydos I, Egypt Exploration Society Excavation Memoir 22 (Lon-
don, 1902), 35.

17
J. CROWFOOT PAYNE, Catalogue, fig. 77.1903 and fig.78.1918 or 1917.

18
W.M.F. PETRIE, Prehistoric Egypt, 29, pl. XXIX.9 and 10; W.M.F. Petrie and
J.E. Quibell, Naqada and Ballas, pl. LXIII.57; J. CROWFOOT PAYNE, Catalogue, fig. 78.1908.

19
B. ADAMS, Ancient Hierakonpolis Supplement (Warminster, 1974), 119 and 158.

20
For example J. CROWFOOT PAYNE, Catalogue, fig. 78.1921.
either four or five teeth.
14
Examples of the double bird motif were found
at Naqada, the closest parallel being a single rhomboid, long tooth
comb.
15
Another early comb is carved from bone rather than ivory and belongs
to the longer tooth, decorated variety. E.62.1900 (pl. 2.a) was found in
grave G78 in the southern cemetery at Abydos, which is multi-period.
16

There are several examples of this form of comb with either a double
bird motif
17
or bovine horns,
18
however, the form of this particular comb
could fall into either category. The flat inner edge of the handle is per-
haps more suggestive of bovine horns. The comb has 8 prongs (7 remain-
ing) and a rhomboid design on the base of the handle. It measures
208 mm in height, is 45 mm at its widest point and is 3 mm thick. The
teeth measure 65 mm to 68 mm in length and are 5 mm at the top and
2 mm at the bottom. The gap between the teeth measures between 1 mm
and 1.5 mm in width. The cemetery where this comb was found was
positioned south of the Wadi, and is multi-period.
Although the next comb appears to belong to a different group to the
aforementioned, its fragmentary state of preservation may be misleading
in terms of its original form. E.4.1898 (pl. 2.c) is from an unidentified
context 234 at Hierakonpolis.
19
The comb has eight teeth, four are
missing, which measure 3 mm wide and are spaced with a gap of 1.3 mm.
The comb itself measures 63 mm in height by 26 mm wide and is 3 mm
thick. At first glance this example is similar to other pre-dynastic combs
with an undecorated squared handle. However, the teeth are longer in
proportion to the body, at 36 mm in length, than on other published ver-
sions of this early form of comb.
20
Furthermore, the angle of the surviv-
ing shoulder alongside the proportionally longer teeth suggests that there
may have been a decorative element forming the upper section of the
handle, which is now missing.
Amongst the early combs is an example of the shorter tooth form that
was identified by Petrie. E.59.1900 (pl. 2.b), is a short pronged comb
24 S.-A. ASHTON

21
W.M.F. PETRIE, Prehistoric Egypt, pl. XXIX.17-19.

22
W.M.F. PETRIE, Prehistoric Egypt, 30.

23
W.M.F. PETRIE and J.E. QUIBELL, Naqada and Ballas, 10.

24
W.M.F. PETRIE, Prehistoric Egypt, 30, pl. XXX.2-4.

25
W.M.F. PETRIE, Objects of Daily Use, British School of Archaeology in Egypt 42
(London, 1927), 25.
with a plain, rounded handle and from the same cemetery; it was found
in grave G48 and is marked 1287. The majority of this form of comb
have a square top.
21
The comb originally had eight teeth (one is missing),
and measures 46 mm in height, 28 mm wide and is 3 mm thick. The
teeth are 2 mm wide at the top and are spaced 1 mm apart. The closest
parallel is UC 4444 from Naqada, which measures 8.3 cm by 3.1 cm and
originally had eight teeth (four are missing). Like the Fitzwilliam Muse-
ums comb, the Petrie Museum example is not published in the excava-
tion reports.
In his discussion of combs from Predynastic Egypt Petrie stated that
this form of short-tooth variety did not appear until S.D.40.
22
He also
noted that there were examples of this form in materials other than bone
or ivory, including stone. The examples that are illustrated in Prehis-
toric Egypt are proportionately different to E.59.1900 in that the bone
combs have much finer teeth and a larger handle. In fact this form of
comb appears in the Late Period on the double-sided hair combs, where
it has been suggested the very narrow teeth were made specifically for
delousing hair or wigs. The existence of stone combs with abbreviated
teeth might suggest that these objects were used as amulets rather than
actual combs; and the holes at the top of many of these would support
this suggestion rather than the idea that hair combs degenerated into
mere ornaments, as suggested by Petrie in his discussion in Prehis-
toric Egypt. It was also noted in his publication of the material from
Ballas that hair combs and pins were often found lying south of the
head, sometimes with hair around them, again suggesting that these
objects served a specific purpose within the grave other than being dec-
orative or serving the function of a practical cosmetic tool for the after-
life.
23
The symbolic importance of the comb can also be seen in Pre-
dynastic hair-pins that are decorated with a hair comb.
24
Petrie concluded
that such combs, which he described as notched combs were appar-
ently for scratching heads, once again preferring a functional rather
than symbolic explanation for this form.
25
As mentioned, the impor-
tance of the hair comb beyond its practical function is paralleled in
West Africa.
ANCIENT EGYPTIAN HAIR-COMBS IN THE FITZWILLIAM MUSEUM 25

26
Numbers that are prefaced E.W., especially those early in the sequence, were
typically excavated objects that came into the Museum before the Second World War but
which had lost their original documentation. At this point where possible objects were
accessioned by year of entry and material type (Egyptian Wood) were used for such
examples.

27
G. BRUNTON, Qau and Badari I, British School of Archaeology in Egypt 44 (Lon-
don, 1927), 26, pl. LX.14.

28
W.M.F. PETRIE and J.E. QUIBELL, Naqada and Ballas, 28, pl. LXIII.52.
One possible example of an abbreviated comb is E.W.6 (pl. 3.a) a
small ivory comb without a documented provenance. It is, however,
probable that it came into the collection from an Egypt Exploration Fund
or British School of Archaeology in Egypt excavation
26
and is marked in
ink with the number 111, suggesting an archaeological context. The
comb measures 51 mm in height, is 27 mm wide and 4 mm thick. It has
nine teeth measuring between 2 mm and 4 mm in width and which are
spaced at 1.5 mm. The teeth of this comb appear to be completely abbre-
viated in form. The ends of the teeth are abraded and a thinner extension
on a single prong is visible under a microscope, suggesting that the teeth
were originally longer. Microscopic inspection also revealed small gran-
ules of soil between the teeth. Proportions of a long body and short teeth
are similar to UC 17787, which was found at Qau in an undisturbed
burial of an adult female dated to the 6th Dynasty.
27
Like the Fitzwilliam
Museums example the teeth of the Petrie Museum comb are worn.
The combs are not identical: the Petrie Museum example originally had
11 teeth (nine remaining), compared to nine on the Fitzwilliam Muse-
ums example. Furthermore, the Petrie example has a plain squared han-
dle and the Fitzwilliam Museum example consists of a shaped handle
with a rounded top. However, both combs share an unusual feature of a
groove around the upper diameter of inner teeth. There is a further paral-
lel found by Petrie at Naqada.
28
This particular comb was found posi-
tioned at the feet of one of the bodies in a double grave. However, it is
not entirely clear from the drawing whether the teeth were originally
longer, or whether they had the wear-marks characteristic of the afore-
mentioned examples.
Finally in this section it is worth considering another comb from the
Gayer-Anderson collection, which is carved from bone and decorated
with an anthropoid hippopotamus forming the handle E.GA.3178.1943
(pl. 3.b). The comb measures 96 mm in height and is 27 mm at its widest
point and 4 mm thick. The hippopotamus is carved on both sides. There
were originally seven teeth on the surviving section of the comb, and of
these only three survive and are worn down in a similar manner to
26 S.-A. ASHTON

29
See for example E.M. NOWAK, Egyptian Predynastic Ivories Decorated with
Anthroporphormic Motifs, in: S. HENDRICKX, R.F. FRIEDMAN, K.M. CIAOWICZ and
CHODNICKI (eds.), Egypt at its Origins. Studies in Memory of Barbara Adams, Orientalia
Lovaniensia Analecta 138 (Leuven, 2004), 899-890.

30
For the Middle Kingdom examples see W.M.F. PETRIE, Illahun, Kahun and Gurob
1889-90 (London, 1891), 29, pl. VIII.30-31; and for the New Kingdom examples see 35,
pl. XVIII.

31
W.M.F. PETRIE, Objects of Daily Use, 25.

32
J. v. DABBADIE, Muse du Louvre Dpartement des Antiquits gyptiennes. Cata-
logue des objets de toilette gyptiens (Paris, 1972) 141-147.
E.W.6, and include the same grooved finish at the base on one of the
prongs. The teeth are 2 mm wide and are also spaced at 2 mm. The comb
was dated in the museums records as 14th-13th centuries BC. How-
ever, in its form it has more in common with early ivory combs. Some
combs dated to the New Kingdom have gazelles or other quadrupeds
decorating the top of the handle (see below). However, the New King-
dom combs are of the short-tooth rectangular variety rather than the long
thin examples found in earlier periods. The standing pregnant hippopota-
mus clearly represents Tawaret and so does not compare to the more
generic representations of this animal that are found in the pre-dynastic
period. Parallels for the more careful attention to detail in the carving of
the back, the legs, breasts and eyes of the hippopotamus are only paral-
leled on the hair combs depicting humans.
29
New Kingdom combs
Petrie noted in Objects of Daily Use that few hair combs had been found
on Old Kingdom sites and suggested that the men had very short or shaven
hair and that the women wore wigs but also shaved their own hair. Some
combs dating to the Middle Kingdom were identified, but in their style the
examples cited share stylistic similarities with combs that are dated to the
New Kingdom. The New Kingdom combs can be distinguished from
examples of the Middle Kingdom by their shallower handles.
30
According to Petries excavated material, hair combs changed sub-
stantially between Dynasty 16 and 18.
31
As noted, Petries chronological
sequence is still the main point of reference for dating examples of
New Kingdom combs and is specific in dividing between the 18th and
19th Dynasties. However, such sequences do not take account of varia-
tions within a particular date range and a larger study of material from
secure archaeological contexts would be helpful in establishing to what
extent the different styles of handles on such combs were chronological
indicators.
32

ANCIENT EGYPTIAN HAIR-COMBS IN THE FITZWILLIAM MUSEUM 27

33
W.M.F. PETRIE, Objects of Daily Use, pl. XX.4 and 10.

34
R.E. FREED, Wigs and Hair Accessories, in: E. BROVARSKI, S.K. DOLL and R.E.
FREED (eds.), Egypts Golden Age: The Art of Living in the New Kingdom, Exhibition
Catalogue (Boston, 1982), 197, no. 229.
The new style of comb was rectangular and could be either decorated
with a quadruped or notches along the handle. The Fitzwilliam Museum
has examples of both types; however, none have an archaeological prov-
enance. Fortunately Petrie excavated examples of the notched variety.
E.1.2009 (pl. 4.a), is of a particular type with deep back ridges as
described by Petrie.
33
These examples were excavated at Rifeh and
Kahun and were dated to Dynasty 18. E.1.2009 had been on loan to the
Fitzwilliam Museum from Westminster College since 1995, and was
purchased from the owner by the Friends of the Fitzwilliam Museum in
2009. The comb has the number 5 written in ink on one side and on the
other is a provenance of the comb: Ancient Egypt display from Gizeh
Museum. Compared to the other notched combs this form is longer and
narrower, measuring 90 mm in width by 43 mm in height; the comb is
8 mm thick at the handle. The teeth are also slightly smaller with a larger
gap than the other examples within this group.
34
There are 27 teeth and
2 wider tangs. The teeth are 19 mm long and between 1.5 and 2 mm
wide at the top; the gap between them is 1.5 mm.
There are three other examples of combs with a notched handle; all
were previously part of the Gayer-Anderson collection (E.GA.4720.1943,
E.GA.509.1947, and E.GA.2696.1943). E.GA.2696.1943, not illustrated,
is the least well preserved and has 13 out of the 29 teeth missing or dam-
aged. The two outer tangs are 5 mm thick compared to the thinner inner
teeth measuring 1.5 to 2 mm; the teeth that are preserved vary in length
between 21 mm and 25 mm. The gap between the teeth measures 1.5 mm
in width. The handle of the comb has four notches and is decorated on
both sides with two parallel horizontal grooves above the teeth and two
below the notches on the handle. There is a label with a biro mark read-
ing IX 141.
The second comb from this group, (E.GA.509.1947, pl. 4.b), has an
identical label reading IX 140 and, overall, is better preserved but is
missing one of its ends. Three notches are preserved and it is decorated
with the same parallel grooves as the previous comb. The remaining end
is wider than the other teeth measuring 6 mm at the top compared to
1 mm for the majority. The gaps in between the teeth are between 1 mm
and 1.2 mm at their widest. The teeth are 25 mm long and are more even
than the previous example of this type of comb and are better preserved;
28 S.-A. ASHTON

35
W.M.F. PETRIE and G. BRUNTON, Sedment I, British School of Archaeology in
Egypt 34 (London, 1924), 17-18, pl. XLIII.2.

36
W.M.F. PETRIE, Objects of Daily Use, pl. XXX.5 and W.M.F. PETRIE, Illahun,
Kahun and Gurob, pl. XVIII.
the tips of two are missing. This comb is smaller in scale but is the same
in terms of its design.
The third example within this category of comb, (E.GA.4720.1943,
pl. 5), is even smaller measuring 44 mm in height and 59 mm in
width, but is completely preserved. It has three notches at the top of
the handle and has incised lines around each notch in addition to the
two sets of parallel lines. The teeth are evenly carved; the outer two
are 4 mm and 3 mm at their widest point compared to the more usual
1 mm and the space between the teeth is 0.5 mm making this a very
narrow comb in comparison to the others of this date. An example of
a comb that is similarly finished but with four rather than three notches
was found at Sedment in grave 1288. The burial was that of a female
and included a reed basket that contained the comb along with six
shells, four rough pieces of wood, a wig with plaits, a painted bone
awl, beads, a small box and smaller basket, a bronze knife, kohl pot
and stick and wooden disk.
35
The comb is now housed at the Petrie
Museum (UC 38367). All three examples of the Fitzwilliam Muse-
ums combs have soil between the teeth of the combs and in the
deeper decorative grooves.
There are four further examples of combs of a type dated by Petrie to
the 19th Dynasty by comparison with an excavated example from Illahun
from the time of Ramesses II.
36
Three of the Fitzwilliam Museums
examples are decorated with an ibex. The most complete example is
E.GA.4577.1943 (pl. 6.a). This is a miniature comb preserving the front
half of the animal and nine teeth, two of which are broken and the outer
tooth is wider than the central. The comb is 49 mm high and 21 mm
wide; the teeth are 0.5 mm wide except for the outer which is 3 mm;
they are evenly spaced but now warped and the gaps between them are
between 0.5 and 1 mm at their widest point. Like two of the combs with
notches on the handles, this example has a white label reading XI, but
has no find spot associated with it.
There are two further fragments of flat wooden ibex figures that may
have once been attached to a comb (E.GA.526.1947 and E.GA.527.1947,
both of which are not illustrated in this paper). The latter is closer in
scale to the aforementioned and better preserved comb. The flat base of
the former is suggestive of the top of a comb and there are several exam-
ANCIENT EGYPTIAN HAIR-COMBS IN THE FITZWILLIAM MUSEUM 29

37
R.E. FREED, Wigs and Hair Accessories, 197, no. 230.

38
G.T. MARTIN, The Sacred Animal Necropolis at North Saqqara: the Southern
Dependencies of the Main Temple Complex, Egypt Exploration Society Excavation Mem-
oirs 50 (London, 1971), 20-21; 25-26, pl. 5.247.
ples of this form of decoration on the top of rectangular combs dated to
the New Kingdom.
37

E.GA.4578.1943 (pl. 6.b) is decorated with a seated animal (possibly
a bear) forming a handle, underneath which is an incised wavy line. The
comb is 52 mm high, 17 mm wide and 5 mm thick. The teeth are roughly
the same length with the exception of the wider outer tooth which is
shorter; they measure 1.5 mm with a 2 mm space between them. The
Museum records suggest that this example is a modern forgery. How-
ever, the fact that the comb is only partially preserved and that there are
parallels for the form if not the animal work in its favour.
Finally, within the New Kingdom material is another unusual comb of
the more traditional long variety that finds its closest parallel in decora-
tive fan handles. E.GA. 2704.1943 (pl. 6.c), was also given to the
Museum by R.G. Gayer-Anderson. The teeth are poorly preserved and
only 5 remain. The comb measures 49 mm by 21 mm and is 3 mm thick.
The teeth are 12 mm long with a width of 1.5 mm and the space between
then is between 0.5 mm and 1 mm. The handle is ornately decorated with
deeply cut linear and floral patterns, including lotus flowers; there are
traces of blue frit in the spaces between the carved designs.
Late Period and Ptolemaic Period- the introduction of double combs
As noted, combs are not easily dated and there is something of a
lacuna in the Late and Ptolemaic Periods. E.81.1975 (pl. 6.d), is the least
decorative hair comb within the Fitzwilliam Museums collections, but
is nevertheless important because it comes from an excavated context.
The comb was given to the Museum by the Egypt Exploration Society
and came from its excavations at Saqqara. It was found in a room (J)
within an area indentified as block 2 and can be dated from its context
to the Late or Ptolemaic Period.
38
The design of comb shows a develop-
ment that would remain for later periods in that it has two sets of teeth:
one narrowly spaced at 0.02 mm with a width of 0.03 mm; and the other
more broadly spaced at 1mm with a width of teeth in the centre of 3 mm.
Both sides of the comb have wider tangs and there is what appears to be
a narrow rectangular handle at the side. The other side of the comb is
missing. The comb itself is 122 mm in length and 40 mm wide; it is
30 S.-A. ASHTON

39
R.L. PALMA, Ancient Headlice on a Wooden Comb from Antino, Egypt, Journal
of Egyptian Archaeology 77 (1991), 194.

40
D.B. HRDY, Analysis of Hair Samples of Mummies from Semna South (Sudanese
Nubia), American Journal of Physical Anthropology 49 (1978), 277-282.

41
W.M.F. PETRIE, Hawara, Biahmu and Arsinoe (London, 1889), pl. XIX.23.
6.5 mm thick. It has been suggested that the narrower teeth would have
been used to remove head lice and the wider spaced end would be used
for combing and styling the hair.
39
The wood is not well finished and it
seems likely given the context of its find-spot that this object was used
and then discarded.
Roman combs
With the advent of the Roman occupation we find an entirely different
form of hair comb emerging. Its origins are with the aforementioned
E.81.1975, but the teeth become proportionately much narrower at both
ends, presumably marking a difference in hair types. For instance, a
study of hair type from X-group and Meroitic graves at Semna South in
Sudan revealed that X-group males in particular showed more African
features than the Meroitic remains.
40
What this study shows is that migra-
tion can affect physical characteristics and this is important to note with
regard to hair combs. It would make sense to some degree if the types of
hair comb, and in particular the fineness of the teeth, were adapted
according to different hair types.
The Fitzwilliam Museum has one traditional Romano-Egyptian hair
comb (E.W.20, pl. 7.a). The comb most likely came into the museum
from one of Petries excavations in the Fayoum. Comparative combs
were found at Hawara.
41
E.W.20 has two faded ink marks on one side:
the first reads E and the second Echmtm. It is possible that the comb
was excavated at Ehnasya. At this site Petrie marked finds from the
Roman houses with a letter. However, there is no mention in the publica-
tion of a wooden comb from House E. The comb has rounded ends and
is divided into wide and narrow teeth on each side. There are 13 teeth
and two tangs measuring 30 mm in length and spaced at 1.5 mm with a
width at the top of 3 mm. On the opposite side are 44 narrow teeth meas-
uring 26 mm in length, with two tangs and spaced at 0.05 mm apart; the
teeth are around 0.30 mm wide. There is compacted dirt and sand grains
packed between the narrow teeth.
In general there are two types of this form of comb. The first has
rounded ends, as in the case of the Fitzwilliams example, but there are
ANCIENT EGYPTIAN HAIR-COMBS IN THE FITZWILLIAM MUSEUM 31

42
W.M.F. PETRIE, Objects of Daily Use, 26, pl. XX.

43
D. PEACOCK and V. MAXFIELD, The Roman Imperial Quarries: a Survey and Exca-
vation at Mons Porphyrites 1994-1998, Egypt Exploration Society Excavation Memoirs
67 (London, 2007) 12, 330-331.

44
S.E. SIDEBOTTOM and W. WENDRICH, Berenike 1999-2000 (Oxford, 2007), 52.

45
S. WALKER and M. BIERBRIER, Ancient Faces: Mummy Portraits from Ancient Egypt
(London, 1997), 210-214.
double combs with a squared end. Petrie did not distinguish between the
dates of these, nor did he state whether they were Roman or Coptic.
42

More recent excavations at Roman period sites have allowed for a tighter
dating of both forms of comb. At Mons Porphyrites both forms of comb
were found in deposition levels dating to the post Antonine period.
43

Within these deposits were pottery, coins and ostraka dating from the
early second to the mid-2nd century AD. At Berenike a similar form of
comb with rounded ends was found in an early Roman dump.
44
It is of
course possible, even likely, that this form of comb was produced over
one or more centuries. An example dated by Petrie to the latter half of
the 3rd century AD was excavated from the tomb of a woman at Hawara
and was allocated a 3rd century AD date by the excavator. The group
was more recently dated to the late 2nd century AD.
45
Coptic and later combs
As with combs from earlier periods the dating of so-called Coptic
hair combs is far from certain. Nevertheless this type of comb forms an
individual group and also represents a return to combs with longer, albeit
narrower, teeth whilst retaining the feature of double ends. There are
three combs of this variety from the Edward Towry Whyte collection,
bequeathed to the Fitzwilliam Museum in 1932. Whytes collection was
catalogued in two volumes which included hand-painted watercolours of
many of the objects, plus a brief description. The catalogue states that the
three combs (catalogue number 1509) were purchased together as part of
a single lot (#191) on December 16 1926. However, only two are illus-
trated in Whytes hand-drawn catalogue (E.361.1932 and E.361B.1932).
The caption with the sketches reads: 3 ancient Coptic combs 1 carved
in fretwork manner to represent an ibex. All combs are of a similar date
and form. However, E.361.1932 (pl. 7.b), (described as lattice with an
ibex in Whytes catalogue) has a central panel that is decorated with
what appears to be a sheep or gazelle. This example is more ornate than
those cited by Petrie in Objects of Daily Use, where he suggested that
there were pieces of glass or mirror between the wooden sections in the
32 S.-A. ASHTON

46
W.M.F. PETRIE, Objects of Daily Use, 26, pl. XXI.54 and 55.
middle.
46
However, a detailed inspection of these examples in the Petrie
Museum (UC 58631 and 59632) reveals that the carved interior has been
filed with a smooth finish that would not have supported glass. In con-
trast the wood on the Fitzwilliam Museums comb is roughly finished
where the central design has been filed away. The comb contains pieces
of straw, mud and small pebbles between the teeth. It measures 239 mm
in height and is 74 mm wide; the wood is 4 mm thick. The wider-spaced
teeth are ten in number with 2 wider tangs; they are 52 mm long and
measure between 3 and 4 mm in width. The spacing between the teeth is
varied between 1.5 mm and 3 mm. 21 of the narrower teeth survive,
along with 1 tang; this is roughly half of the original number. The teeth
measure 53 mm in length and are 0.5 mm wide with a gap of between
0.1 and 0.3 mm.
E.361a.1932 (pl. 8.a) measures 240 mm by 71 mm and is 5 mm thick.
The teeth with a wider gap are 12 in number with two tangs and are
55 mm long. The gaps between the teeth are 3 mm wide and the teeth
themselves measure 4 mm at their widest point. At the other end of the
comb are 39 teeth and two tangs with a gap of between 0.09 and 0.05 mm.
The teeth are 0.05 mm wide and 49 mm long. The comb has a white
label with a red star written on it; this was used to identify objects from
the E. T. Whyte collection that were destined for the Fitzwilliam
Museum. There are two other stickers on the comb reading: 1509 and
1 no. 191 S Dec 16 1926. The wood has warped especially around the
narrow teeth and there are seeds, soil and fragments of small pebbles
wedged between the teeth. The comb is decorated on one side only with
five large concentric circles accompanied by a single circle and dot motif
joining the larger circles together.
The final comb from the Whyte collection (E.361b.1932, pl. 8.b) has
the same white label with no. 2 191 and S Dec 16 1926 written on it.
Presumably the two were part of a single lot 191 at the same auc-
tion. The decoration is once again on one side only and is a variation on
the circle and dot design. There are 13 concentric circles joined once
again by a circle and dot chain forming three bands. There is an addi-
tional decoration of four incised lines on both sides of the comb at the
top of the teeth. Like the aforementioned comb, the teeth are warped at
both ends. Petrie concluded that the awkward size of these combs and
the fact that they were in such good condition suggested that they were
not used, but show pieces of the bridal trousseau. He noted that only
ANCIENT EGYPTIAN HAIR-COMBS IN THE FITZWILLIAM MUSEUM 33

47
W.M.F. PETRIE, Objects of Daily Use, 26.

48
J.A. ANTIRI, Akan Combs, 32-35.
one example he had found showed any signs of wear.
47
However, it is
worth noting that combs of a similar size are still commonly used in Sub-
Saharan Africa and that oils applied to the wooden teeth prevent the
splitting of the material and would have perhaps protected the combs
against wear.
Finally two combs made from a darker, harder wood have been dated
to the Coptic period in the Museums records. The first (E.1.1935,
pl. 9.a) was one of 232 objects given to the Museum by G.F. Rogers
between 1923 and 1935. Rogers was Consul in Cairo from 1868-1874
and was a collector of antiquities and Islamic coinage. Both this example
and the other (E.71.1966) share some similarities in common with the
Whyte collection examples; most notable in respect to the concentric
circle pattern and the double ends. However, the teeth on the finer edge
of the darker wood combs are not as narrow as the so-called Coptic
examples, and the wider teeth are spaced more widely than those on the
square variety. The Rogers comb is 177 mm long and 55 mm wide with
a thickness of 11 mm. There are seven teeth on the wider section which
are 80 mm long and 5 mm wide with a gap of 3 mm. The opposite end
of the comb has 18 finer teeth measuring 26 mm in length, 2 mm in wide
and with a gap of 1 mm. The depth of the teeth varies and towards the
ends the teeth are only partially cut away from the wood.
The second comb was given to the museum in 1966 (E.71.1966,
pl. 9.b) by Major C.B. Green of Great Shelford, a local village. The comb
is dated in the Museum records to around the 6th-8th centuries AD. It is
large compared to earlier Dynastic combs measuring 231 mm in length,
70 mm in width and 11 mm at its deepest point. There are eight wider
teeth measure 90 mm in length and are 6mm wide with a gap of 4.7 mm.
There are seven narrow teeth preserved and some missing from a single
edge; they are 20.2 mm long, 2 mm wide with a space of 1.7 mm. The
comb appears to have been used because inside the finer teeth there are
fibres including strands of thick, black, curly human hair (measuring
3 micro m). There are no parallels in Petries typology for this form of
comb. In fact these combs have more in common with combs from West
Africa dating to the late 18th to early 19th centuries.
48

This paper is intended as a starting point for a much larger project on
African hair combs and perhaps raises more questions than answers in
regard to the dating of this category of object. The Museum is hoping to
34 S.-A. ASHTON
have some of the so-called Coptic hair combs radiocarbon dated in
order to establish a more accurate date. In the meantime research and the
search for parallels from excavated contexts continues.
Acknowledgements
I would like to thank Julie Dawson and Mie Ishii for their help and
support in researching and investigating the hair combs; Henry Disney
and David Pinniger for looking at the possible insect remains; and to
Stephen Quirke and Susanna Pancaldo for allowing me access to the
Petrie Museums examples. I am also grateful to Carol Tulloch for
bibliographic advice on later African combs. Finally, I am extremely
grateful to Anna Karbownik and Michael Jones for the photography. The
photographs taken through a microscope were taken by Julie Dawson.
Bibliography
J. v. DABBADIE, Muse du Louvre Dpartement des Antiquits gyptiennes.
Catalogue des objets de toilette gyptiens (Paris, 1972) 141-147.
B. ADAMS, Ancient Hierakonpolis Supplement (Warminster, 1974).
J.A. ANTIRI, Akan Combs, African Arts 8 (No. 1 Autumn 1974), 32-35.
G. BRUNTON, Qau and Badari I, British School of Archaeology in Egypt 44
(London, 1927).
G. BRUNTON, The Badarian and Predynastic Remains near Badari, British
School of Archaeology in Egypt 46 (London, 1928).
A.D. BYRD and L.L. THARPS, Hair Story. Untangling the Roots of Black Hair
in America, (New York, 2001).
J. CROWFOOT PAYNE, Catalogue of Predynastic Egyptian Collection in the
Ashmolean Museum (Oxford, 1994)
R.E. FREED, Wigs and Hair Accessories, in: E. BROVARSKI, S.K. DOLL and
R.E. FREED (eds.), Egypts Golden Age: The Art of Living in the New
Kingdom, Exhibition Catalogue (Boston, 1982), 196-198.
D.B. HRDY, Analysis of Hair Samples of Mummies from Semna South (Suda-
nese Nubia) in American Journal of Physical Anthropology 49 (1978),
277-282.
L. KEIMER, Notes prises chez les Basarin et les Nubiens dAssouan, IIe

partie,
Bulletin de LInstitut de Lgypte 33 (1952), 43-84.
C. MARTN DEL RO LVAREZ and E. ALMENARA ROSALES, An Analysis of the
Theriomorphic Representations on Combs and Hairpins from the Predy-
nastic Period, in: S. HENDRICKX, R.F. FRIEDMAN, K.M. CIAOWICZ and
CHODNICKI (eds.), Egypt at its Origins. Studies in Memory of Barbara
Adams, Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 138 (Leuven, 2004), 883-889.
G.T. MARTIN, The Sacred Animal Necropolis at North Saqqara: the Southern
Dependencies of the Main Temple Complex, Egypt Exploration Society
Excavation Memoirs 50 (London, 1971).
ANCIENT EGYPTIAN HAIR-COMBS IN THE FITZWILLIAM MUSEUM 35
B. MIDANT-REYNES, The Prehistory of Egypt. From the First Egyptians to the
First Pharaohs (Oxford, 2006).
E.M. NOWAK, Egyptian Predynastic Ivories Decorated with Anthroporphor-
mic Motifs, in: S. HENDRICKX, R.F. FRIEDMAN, K.M. CIAOWICZ and
CHODNICKI (eds.), Egypt at its Origins. Studies in Memory of Barbara
Adams, Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 138 (Leuven, 2004), 891-904.
R.L. PALMA, Ancient Headlice on a Wooden Comb from Antino, Egypt, Jour-
nal of Egyptian Archaeology 77 (1991), 194.
D. PEACOCK and V. MAXFIELD, The Roman Imperial Quarries: a Survey and
Excavation at Mons Porphyrites 1994-1998, Egypt Exploration Society
Excavation Memoirs 67 (London, 2007).
W.M.F. PETRIE, Hawara, Biahmu and Arsinoe (London, 1889).
W.M.F. PETRIE, Illahun, Kahun and Gurob 1889-90 (London, 1891).
W.M.F. PETRIE, Abydos I, Egypt Exploration Society Excavation Memoir 22
(London, 1902).
W.M.F. PETRIE, Prehistoric Egypt, British School of Archaeology in Egypt 31
(London, 1920).
W.M.F. PETRIE, Objects of Daily Use, British School of Archaeology in Egypt
42 (London, 1927).
W.M.F. PETRIE and G. BRUNTON, Sedment I, British School of Archaeology in
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W.M.F. PETRIE and J.E. QUIBELL, Naqada and Ballas, British School of Archae-
ology in Egypt 1 (London, 1896).
G. ROBINS, Hair and Construction of Identity in Ancient Egypt, c. 1480-1350
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36 S.-A. ASHTON
a. E.GA.2671-1932
b. E.GA.3204-1943
Plate 1. Hair Combs in the Fitzwilliam Museum.
ANCIENT EGYPTIAN HAIR-COMBS IN THE FITZWILLIAM MUSEUM 37
a. E.62.1900
ht. 208 mm
b. E.59.1900
ht. 46 mm
c. E.4.1898
ht. 63 mm
Plate 2. Hair Combs in the Fitzwilliam Museum.
38 S.-A. ASHTON
a. E.W.6 ht. 51 mm
b. E.GA.3178.1943 ht. 96 mm
Plate 3. Hair Combs in the Fitzwilliam Museum.
ANCIENT EGYPTIAN HAIR-COMBS IN THE FITZWILLIAM MUSEUM 39
a. E.1.2009 l. 90 mm
b. E.GA.509.1947 ht. 53 mm
Plate 4. Hair Combs in the Fitzwilliam Museum.
40 S.-A. ASHTON
E.GA.4720-1943 l. 59 mm
Plate 5. Hair Combs in the Fitzwilliam Museum.
ANCIENT EGYPTIAN HAIR-COMBS IN THE FITZWILLIAM MUSEUM 41
a. E.GA.4577-1943
ht. 49 mm
b. E.GA.4578-1943
ht. 52 mm
c. E.GA.2704-1943
ht. 49 mm
d. E.81.1975
ht. 122 mm
Plate 6. Hair Combs in the Fitzwilliam Museum.
42 S.-A. ASHTON
a. E.W.20 ht. 80 mm
b. E.361.1932 ht. 239 mm
Plate 7. Hair Combs in the Fitzwilliam Museum.
ANCIENT EGYPTIAN HAIR-COMBS IN THE FITZWILLIAM MUSEUM 43
a
.

E
.
3
6
1
a
.
1
9
3
2


h
t
.

2
4
0

m
m
b
.

E
.
3
6
1
b
.
1
9
3
2


h
t
.

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4
0

m
m
P
l
a
t
e

8
.

H
a
i
r

C
o
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s

i
n

t
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e

F
i
t
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i
l
l
i
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e
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m
.
44 S.-A. ASHTON
a
.

E
.
1
.
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