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F. B. Libano , Rodrigo A M. Braga and L. N. de Sow

Abstracr- The purpose of this paper is to study and to evaluate

the low and high frequency perturbations, also called harmonics

distortions and electremagnetic interference ( E m in power

leads fromcommercial Inverter-Fed Motor Drives. This deviceis

controlled by pulse width modulation (PWM) and switched with

insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT). The experimental

investigation war running to meet EMC Product Standard - EEC

1800-3 for Adjustable Speed Electrical Power Drive Systems.

During the measurements, different situations on operational

conditions (load) and cable length between inverter and motor are

applied and showed.

1. INTRODUCTION

HE power electronics is considered the subject with more

technological progress in the two last decades. The

development was obtained, at the first time by increase of

the semiconductor manufactwing technologies, which can

withstand high voltage and large current in shorter time step.

With the semiconductors variety, a lot of control topologies

were created for Inverter-Fed Induction Motor Drives

(IFIMD).

Notwithstanding the advantages above. the operation of the

lFlMD can cause several problems due the semiconductor

switching operation, that generates high dv/dr and di/dr signals.

These signals produces broadband noise emissions, e.g.,

electromagnetic perturbations in wide frequency range. The

spectra is formed by low and high frequency that, depending

on the amplitude, can degrade or cause incorrect and

malfunction i n others electronic devices, equipments and

systems.

The broadband signals propagation is divided in two parts:

a)

T

Conducted -use the conductors with physical coupling

path, interfering with others equipments or systems in

same AC power supplier and in load also.

b) Radiated - use air with the coupling path and other

components by antenna effect.

The electromagnetic perturbations also called

electromagnetic interference (EMI) are classified according to

the frequency range:

a) Low Frequency Perturbations (LFP), also called

harmonic distortions with spectral content below 9 kHz;

b) High Frequency Perturbations (HFP), well-known with

Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) with spectral

content above 9 Wz.

This paper will study the electromagnetic perturbations

according to the actual standardization in the Electromagnetic

Compatibility (EMC) field. The application of EMC Product

Standard IEC 1800-3 [l ] that describe the basis emissions and

immunity requirements for adjustable speed electrical power

drive systems (PDS). A PDS consists of a motor and Complete

Drive Module (CDM). It does not include the equipment

driven by the motor.

The first part of this paper introduces the theoretical

analysis of the trapezoidal pulse and correlation between time

domain and frequency domain. The PWM (practical) and

trapezoidal (theoretical) pulses will be compared each other.

Following an overview of the EMC requirements showing

generic standards inside the product standard IEC 1800-3.

Measurements and experimental results will be shown through

graphics. In the last part, the conciusions and the trends for

futures papers.

I I . THEORETICAL CHARACTERIZATION

Some measurements will be included in this section. The

converter described in the abstract is the most useful in

industry applications. The topology analyzed is shown in

Fig. I ,

As introduction in basic problems caused by IFIMD with

IGBT switching and PWM control we can detach the

following:

a) dv/dl - due a voltage switching in the DC link generated

common mode current through parasitic capacitance to

ground. The equation (I ) describes the current magnitude.

increase ofthe switching frequency can lead rapid number

of voltage transitions by time (dv/dtL as wcll as the increase of

the common mode current[2]

F. B. Libano is with Ponlificia Univcrsidade Catdiica. Pono Alcgre. RS

906 19-900 BRAZIL (e-mai l : ml i bano~~j ec.pucn.bi ).

R. A M. Braga i s with Pontilcia Univenidade Caldlica, Pono Alegre. RS

9061 9-900 BRAZIL (e-mail: rbnga@pucn.br).

L. N. de So- is with the EM1 Test Laboratory a1 the Depanmcnt of

Ebct~ccal Enginccnng, Fundaqlo de Ciensir e Tccnologia . CIENTEC, Pona

Alegre. RS 90010-460 BRAZIL (e-mai k ecl et ~; ~i ' ,ci enl ec.n.gov.br )

0-7803-76714/02/$17.00 02002 1EEE 770

Fig. I . PDS - Blzxk Diagram

Fig. 2 presents block diagram of Inverter-Cable-Motor

systemindicating common mode current.

m

Fig. 2. Common Mode Cumnl

b) di/dt - due a mutual inductance and parasitic capacitance

between multiple conductors that current are switched to load.

The current switching in a conductor induce voltage through

magnetic coupling, generating differential mode voltage[3].

The equation (2) describes the voltage magnitude. Fig. 3

presents block diagram of Inverter-Cable-Motor system

indicating differential mode current.

(2)

dl

V = L -

dt

c ) Trapezoidal Pulse - considering the analogy between

PWM and theoretical pulses, we will introduce the theoretical

model with the trapezoidal waveform according to the Fig. 4,

I t is possible to look the parameters: amplitude (A), period (T),

rise time ( T ~~J , fall time (T~.,~). width (rj and duty cycle (

D =TIT ).

cm I TIW(.M.UOILDIL.CmLL I wycTIm

I I wolon

Fig. 1. Diflerential Mode Current

I I

Fig. 4. Trapezoidal Pulse

d) Spectral Content - the voltage and current sharp

transitions, mainly relative a voltage derivative dv/dt is

analyzed in the time domain - Fig. 5. The correlation in the

time and frequency domain - Fig. 7. presents broadband

spectral components that contribute to increase

electromagnetic perturbations in high frequency range. To

evaluate the effects of the sharp transitions. the spectral

content will be analyzed. So that, measurement with digital

scope with adequate sample rate and width band were realized

and showed in Figs. 5 and 6. In this illustrations are PWM

pulses in the Inverter output terminals.

Fig. 5. Measurement Val tag~PWM pvlrer

Fig. 6. Meanurcmenl Rise l m e Vollage

Horizontal: IOOVIdiv - Venical: I p

For instance, Figs. 5 and 6 shows important pnramctcrs, as

rise time (T,,, =68.96 qs), fall time ( T ~~, , =42.38 qs). pulse

width (T =121.21 ps) and amplitude (A =320 Vac). For this

paper. it will be also analysed the sharp transitions effects over

the load, e.g., induction motor (IM) with two different cable

sizes.

771

In function of the rise and fall time range (TI seconds), it

will be possible to consider the correspondence between PWM

and theoretical pulses. However, for mathematics analysis a

periodic pulse it will be considered. So it is possible to

establish a time and frequency domain correlation effects,

described as following.

The correlation of time and frequency domain is shown in

Fig. 7 with effect of rise and fall times and width pulse on

Spectral Content. From [ 4] the expression of continuous

envelope is (3):

Fig. 7. Pulse Rirc Time Effect

Applying the logarithm of the expression (3) it isobtained

three components. The expressions (4),(5) and (6) allow

characterize three frequency range in Fig. 7.

2.A.T

T

I * 20.log- (4)

sin(n.r./)

2=a 20.log-

1 (7T.T.f) 1 ( 5 )

To simulate the spectral content. we intend to use the

mediumvalue from rise and fall times. e.g., L =qII =55.61

qs, 7 =120 p and T =360 ps as shown in Fig. 8.

PI.L,.du..

1

.q ~ ......... .... . ~ .. ,............. j.. ~ ~ . qL j

7

The spectra content, in the high frequency range, depends

on the rise and the fall times. To reduce electromagnetic

perturbations in high frequency must increase the rise and fall

time pulses. If T,,.. =7f.11 =55.61 p, more or less ten times

greater than the last. Fig 9 shows these effects.

............ . ~j ................. i ..... ..... ~ .... j ................

I d Id Id d

. . . m-v'l . . ,

Fig. 8. Simulalcd E t k l increase T r k I rfdl

The effect of the repetition rate (frequency) and duty cycle,

that if pulse width is decreased, the l ow frequency spectral

content is reduced, as opposed to high frequency spectral

content that remain constant. Fig. 9 shows the effect in

reducing pulse width about I O times.

s.0.s-

.m I

38 $8 Id Id , 30' 10"

.~ m-e4

Fig. 9. Simulated Effect decrease 7

The effect of the ringing. also called overshoot and

undershoot effect. In IFlMD is common the Induction Motor

installed so long from CDM, due sharp transitions and the

cable impedance (resistance, inductance and capacitance) the

overvoltage is generated in motor terminals. The long cable

and motor impedance define the reflection coefficient (r)[5].

The motor terminals voltage Vmolor and refection coefficient

r is defined by expressions (7) and (8).

( R I

zmof or -Zcabi e

zmo~or +Zcobl e

r=

The overvoltage is proportional to an inverter output voltage

VDC/j,,k and factor I +i - . The damped senoidal overvoltage

[ 6] is defined by expressions (9):

72

ke-a.' A+i Jr f +0) (9)

with a (damped coefiicient), &(ringing frequency), 0

(phase delay) and k (constant).

Ill. NORMALIZATION

The EMC requirements for power drive system PDS which

are connected to main supplies with rated voltage of up to

1000 VAC m for adjustable speed AC and DC motor drives is

EMC product standard IEC 1800-3. The object of this

standard is to define the limits and test methods for PDS, e.g.,

minimum EMC requirements. The tables I and II present

immunity requirements, tables Ill and IV emission

requirements.

Frequency Hand

supplies buildings used for domestic purposes shall comply

with limits of table V. and restrict distribution equipment

IV. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

In this study a commercial inverter feeding a induction

motor through short (0.50 m) and long (25.0 m) cables length

were analyzed. Fig. 10 shows EM1 measurement

configuration. The EMC Accredited Laboratory from

Fundaqlo de Ciencia e Tecnologia - CIENTEC was used for

measurements. The test set-up (Fig. 10) and test

insmimentation include the following components:

- Commercial Inverter: 1 kVA, I phase 220 VCA. 60 Hz.

PWM control and IGBT modular switch device;

-Induction Motor: 0.5 HP, 3 phase, 60 Hz, 1720 rimin;

- Electrodynamometer: 0 - 27 Ibf.in;

- Line Impedance Stabilization Network (LISN): 25 A. 230

VAC, 50 pH - 50 R,

- Specmm Analyzer for frequency range 9 kHz to 26.5 GHz,

Quasi peak I Av er a~e

measurement by Line Impedance Stabilization Network. The

with quasi peak detector;

- Anechoic Chamber with property ground plane;

- Digital Scope I GHz - 5 Gds;

TABLE I

IMMUN~TY REQUIREMENTS- Low FREQUENCY

I

IMHzI IdHpV] I ldBuvl

Vol l a~e Unbalanced - Frequency Vacations 1 IEC 1000-2-214

Pm M_ LE-

- __m"

Supply Influcnccs- Ma p & Fields 1 IEC 10004-R

LISN is used to eliminate the effects of the line imoedance on

TABLE I1

IMMUNITY REUUIREMENTS- HtGll FREQUENCY

Fig. 10. Test Set-up forEMl canduclcd

TABLE 111

EM~SS~ON REQU~REMENTS - Low FREUUENCY

TABLE IV

EMISSION REUUIREMENTS- HlGll FREQUENCY

Phenomcnon

Conducted and Radiated Emissions

For purposes of this article, i t will he realized only

conducted electromapetic measurement in power line for high Fie. cmiSsion-shon

frequency emission requirements (Table IV).

A . Conducred Ektromagnelic Emission

the test results. It should be according to the' European

5.0 - 30.0 I73 1 60 standard ClSPR 16[7]. Fig. 1 I presents voltage perturbations

in power supply with Induction Motor connected with short

One of the effects of the long cable is presented in Fig. 12.

I t is possible to verify the increase in frequency range from 1

0. 1s . 0.50 I 79 I66

0.5 . 5.0 I 7 3 1 60

Considering PDS in the first environmental. e.g., connected

and 70% mechanical load.

to a public low-voltage suppl y network which

773

MHz to 3 MHz, due the damped oscillatory overvoltage in

motor terminals, described in section V. In both figures ( I I

and 12) the red line is the CISPR I I limits[S].

1 - 1.CE-X 1 " 1 . "

mq).gq

Fig. 12. EM1 conducted mi ssi on - long cable

For both cases, Figs. I I and 12, the results show that

conducted emission levels from inverter-fed are above the

limits of the CISPR 1 I.

B . Overvoltage

In the most industry application of adjustable-speed drives

for speed control of the Induction Motor , the inverter and

motors are separated by considerable distance that contributes

for increase of the damped ringing in high fiequency on motor

terminals. This ringing results heavy overvohage that causes

stress in the motor insulation and others serious effects in

power supply, e.g., conducted EM1 and voltage waveform

distortion.

Fig. 13. Motor terminalr voltage - shon cablc

Fig. 13 presents voltage waveform in motor terminals

(phase to ground) - for short cable with length around 0.50 m.

For long cable, around 25m, it is possible to verify damped

oscillatory overvoltage in the motor terminals as presented in

Fig. 14.

Fig. 15 demonstrates that the resonant or ringing frequency

is around 1.0 to 1.25 MHz. This oscillarion contributes with

the fundamental and harmonic frequencies when analyzed in

frequency domain, according to the Fig. 12.

7

t " " f ''P

1 . . . . . . .\.i ..... I ......... j , I

. . . . . . . . . . .

. .

. . . . . . . . . . .

"i' 1-1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . .

Fig. 14. Motor 1m"naB voltagc - long cable

Fig. IS. Ringing Frequency-fn 1.15 MHz

The mitigation techniques to reduce these effects, include

the use proper ground and motor terminal filter - LC low pass

151. The use of the serial inductors and shielded cables are

also recommended.

V. CONCLUSION

In this paper was showed that semiconductor (IGBT)

switching in Inverter-Fed Motor dri ve causes large dv/dt and,

depending on the cable length between CDM and IM, through

cable and motor impedance, increase the electromagnetic

interference in broadband frequency. The theoretical analysis

tried to explain with more details how and why is important

the correlation between time and frequency domain, showing

with simulation and measurements, the relationship each other

and the importance in knowkdge the adverse effects. The EM1

filter should be considered in the mitigation techniques

described above.

Others consideration that should have been realized we

intend lo described in another paper, as EM1 conducted in

output Inverter-Fed Motor Drive, measurement of the

mitigation techniques describe above.

VI. REFERENCES

[ I ]

IEC 1800-3 - EMC Product Standard including specific

test methods for adjustable speed electrical drive systems,

1996-06:

[2] G. Skibinski., J. Pankau, R. Sladky, J . Campbell,

"Generation, Control and Regulation of EM1 from AC

Drives", IEEE Transaction Industry Application, vol. 3 I ,

pp.1247 - 1256, Nov./Dez. 1995

74

,3] E. Zho~g and T. A, Lip,lmprovemenls in EMC

perfomance of inverter-fed motor drives, lEEE

Transaction Industry Application. vol. 31, pp.1247-1256,

Nov.5ez. 19%.

/4] Claytoti R. Paul, Introduction to Efecaomaptic

Compatibility, New York: Wiley, 1992, pp, 359- 374.

[SI Annette von Jouanne, Dudi A. Rendusam, M d N.

Enjeti, Filtering Techniques to Minimize the Effect of

Loiig Molor Leads on PWM Invetted-Fed AC Motor

Drive Systems, IEEE Transaction 1nduti-y Application,

[6] Katsuhiko Ogata, Modem Control Engineering, Prentice-

Hall, 1990, pp. 246 - 320.

[7] ClSPR 16- Specification fi>r radio interferencemeasuring

apparatus and measurement methods, 1999;

la] CISPRII - Limits and methods of measurements of

electfomsperic disturbance characteristics of industrial,

scientific and medical radio frequewy equipment. 1999;

~0l.32,pp.919-925, Jul./Aug. 1996.

V. BIOGRAPHIES

Fausto Mastor Libano was boni in Polto Ale@e,Brazil, on

November 7. 1960. He obtained the Elrtctricsl Engineering

Diploma from the Pootificia Univnsidade CelSlica do WO

Grande do SUI, M.Sc. degree fromthe Univmidsde Federal

de Santa Catarina sild Dr. lng. Degree fromUiversidad

Polittcnica de Madrid. Since 1980, he has been with the

Depanment of Electrical Engineering of the Pontificia

Uniwrsidade Catolicado Rio O m& do SUI. tfis main iwre$t

are in Power Eletronics, Powr Quality and Electcical Dn.ves.

Rodrigo Antonio Marqaer Braga was bom in Pono

Alegre. Bmi l , onApril 18, 1973, Heobtained theControl and

Automation Engineering Diploma from the Pontificia

Univcrsidrde Catolica do Rio Grandedo Sui and zhe M.Sc.

degree from the Pontificra Uriiversidadc Catblica do Rio

Grandedo Sui. Since2001, he has bsen with the Dcpment

of Mechanical/h.lechalronical Engineering of the Pantiticis

Universidadc Catolica do Rio Gratidedo SUI. His main interFst

are in Control Systerw, Power Eletronics, Power Quality and

Electlicnl Drives.

Lesndro Nunes de Souza was bom in Porto

Alegre,Bmil. on February 12, 1961. Ne oblained the

Electrical Engineering Diploma from the Pontiiicia

UniversidadeCatolica do Rio Grandedo SUI,. Siece 1989, he

has been with the Depiirtmcnt of Electrical Engineering o f the

FundacBo de Cikcia c Tecnologia CI ENTEC, 10 study and

realize Electromagnetic Compatibilrty Measurements

(Emissions and Imunity). His main interest are in

Electa.gneiic Compatihiiity. Power Quality and AC

Electrical Drives. Nowadays, he hss been stnddyinginorder to

obtain the M.Sc. degree from the Pontiiicia Universidade

Cat61ic-a do Rio Griindedo SUI.

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