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Introduction to Electromagnetic Compatibility

in Inverted-Fed Induction Motor Drives


F. B. Libano , Rodrigo A M. Braga and L. N. de Sow
Abstracr- The purpose of this paper is to study and to evaluate
the low and high frequency perturbations, also called harmonics
distortions and electremagnetic interference ( E m in power
leads fromcommercial Inverter-Fed Motor Drives. This deviceis
controlled by pulse width modulation (PWM) and switched with
insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT). The experimental
investigation war running to meet EMC Product Standard - EEC
1800-3 for Adjustable Speed Electrical Power Drive Systems.
During the measurements, different situations on operational
conditions (load) and cable length between inverter and motor are
applied and showed.
1. INTRODUCTION
HE power electronics is considered the subject with more
technological progress in the two last decades. The
development was obtained, at the first time by increase of
the semiconductor manufactwing technologies, which can
withstand high voltage and large current in shorter time step.
With the semiconductors variety, a lot of control topologies
were created for Inverter-Fed Induction Motor Drives
(IFIMD).
Notwithstanding the advantages above. the operation of the
lFlMD can cause several problems due the semiconductor
switching operation, that generates high dv/dr and di/dr signals.
These signals produces broadband noise emissions, e.g.,
electromagnetic perturbations in wide frequency range. The
spectra is formed by low and high frequency that, depending
on the amplitude, can degrade or cause incorrect and
malfunction i n others electronic devices, equipments and
systems.
The broadband signals propagation is divided in two parts:
a)
T
Conducted -use the conductors with physical coupling
path, interfering with others equipments or systems in
same AC power supplier and in load also.
b) Radiated - use air with the coupling path and other
components by antenna effect.
The electromagnetic perturbations also called
electromagnetic interference (EMI) are classified according to
the frequency range:
a) Low Frequency Perturbations (LFP), also called
harmonic distortions with spectral content below 9 kHz;
b) High Frequency Perturbations (HFP), well-known with
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) with spectral
content above 9 Wz.
This paper will study the electromagnetic perturbations
according to the actual standardization in the Electromagnetic
Compatibility (EMC) field. The application of EMC Product
Standard IEC 1800-3 [l ] that describe the basis emissions and
immunity requirements for adjustable speed electrical power
drive systems (PDS). A PDS consists of a motor and Complete
Drive Module (CDM). It does not include the equipment
driven by the motor.
The first part of this paper introduces the theoretical
analysis of the trapezoidal pulse and correlation between time
domain and frequency domain. The PWM (practical) and
trapezoidal (theoretical) pulses will be compared each other.
Following an overview of the EMC requirements showing
generic standards inside the product standard IEC 1800-3.
Measurements and experimental results will be shown through
graphics. In the last part, the conciusions and the trends for
futures papers.
I I . THEORETICAL CHARACTERIZATION
Some measurements will be included in this section. The
converter described in the abstract is the most useful in
industry applications. The topology analyzed is shown in
Fig. I ,
As introduction in basic problems caused by IFIMD with
IGBT switching and PWM control we can detach the
following:
a) dv/dl - due a voltage switching in the DC link generated
common mode current through parasitic capacitance to
ground. The equation (I ) describes the current magnitude.
increase ofthe switching frequency can lead rapid number
of voltage transitions by time (dv/dtL as wcll as the increase of
the common mode current[2]
F. B. Libano is with Ponlificia Univcrsidade Catdiica. Pono Alcgre. RS
906 19-900 BRAZIL (e-mai l : ml i bano~~j ec.pucn.bi ).
R. A M. Braga i s with Pontilcia Univenidade Caldlica, Pono Alegre. RS
9061 9-900 BRAZIL (e-mail: rbnga@pucn.br).
L. N. de So- is with the EM1 Test Laboratory a1 the Depanmcnt of
Ebct~ccal Enginccnng, Fundaqlo de Ciensir e Tccnologia . CIENTEC, Pona
Alegre. RS 90010-460 BRAZIL (e-mai k ecl et ~; ~i ' ,ci enl ec.n.gov.br )
0-7803-76714/02/$17.00 02002 1EEE 770
Fig. I . PDS - Blzxk Diagram
Fig. 2 presents block diagram of Inverter-Cable-Motor
systemindicating common mode current.
m
Fig. 2. Common Mode Cumnl
b) di/dt - due a mutual inductance and parasitic capacitance
between multiple conductors that current are switched to load.
The current switching in a conductor induce voltage through
magnetic coupling, generating differential mode voltage[3].
The equation (2) describes the voltage magnitude. Fig. 3
presents block diagram of Inverter-Cable-Motor system
indicating differential mode current.
(2)
dl
V = L -
dt
c ) Trapezoidal Pulse - considering the analogy between
PWM and theoretical pulses, we will introduce the theoretical
model with the trapezoidal waveform according to the Fig. 4,
I t is possible to look the parameters: amplitude (A), period (T),
rise time ( T ~~J , fall time (T~.,~). width (rj and duty cycle (
D =TIT ).
cm I TIW(.M.UOILDIL.CmLL I wycTIm
I I wolon
Fig. 1. Diflerential Mode Current
I I
Fig. 4. Trapezoidal Pulse
d) Spectral Content - the voltage and current sharp
transitions, mainly relative a voltage derivative dv/dt is
analyzed in the time domain - Fig. 5. The correlation in the
time and frequency domain - Fig. 7. presents broadband
spectral components that contribute to increase
electromagnetic perturbations in high frequency range. To
evaluate the effects of the sharp transitions. the spectral
content will be analyzed. So that, measurement with digital
scope with adequate sample rate and width band were realized
and showed in Figs. 5 and 6. In this illustrations are PWM
pulses in the Inverter output terminals.
Fig. 5. Measurement Val tag~PWM pvlrer
Fig. 6. Meanurcmenl Rise l m e Vollage
Horizontal: IOOVIdiv - Venical: I p
For instance, Figs. 5 and 6 shows important pnramctcrs, as
rise time (T,,, =68.96 qs), fall time ( T ~~, , =42.38 qs). pulse
width (T =121.21 ps) and amplitude (A =320 Vac). For this
paper. it will be also analysed the sharp transitions effects over
the load, e.g., induction motor (IM) with two different cable
sizes.
771
In function of the rise and fall time range (TI seconds), it
will be possible to consider the correspondence between PWM
and theoretical pulses. However, for mathematics analysis a
periodic pulse it will be considered. So it is possible to
establish a time and frequency domain correlation effects,
described as following.
The correlation of time and frequency domain is shown in
Fig. 7 with effect of rise and fall times and width pulse on
Spectral Content. From [ 4] the expression of continuous
envelope is (3):
Fig. 7. Pulse Rirc Time Effect
Applying the logarithm of the expression (3) it isobtained
three components. The expressions (4),(5) and (6) allow
characterize three frequency range in Fig. 7.
2.A.T
T
I * 20.log- (4)
sin(n.r./)
2=a 20.log-
1 (7T.T.f) 1 ( 5 )
To simulate the spectral content. we intend to use the
mediumvalue from rise and fall times. e.g., L =qII =55.61
qs, 7 =120 p and T =360 ps as shown in Fig. 8.
PI.L,.du..
1
.q ~ ......... .... . ~ .. ,............. j.. ~ ~ . qL j
7
The spectra content, in the high frequency range, depends
on the rise and the fall times. To reduce electromagnetic
perturbations in high frequency must increase the rise and fall
time pulses. If T,,.. =7f.11 =55.61 p, more or less ten times
greater than the last. Fig 9 shows these effects.
............ . ~j ................. i ..... ..... ~ .... j ................
I d Id Id d
. . . m-v'l . . ,
Fig. 8. Simulalcd E t k l increase T r k I rfdl
The effect of the repetition rate (frequency) and duty cycle,
that if pulse width is decreased, the l ow frequency spectral
content is reduced, as opposed to high frequency spectral
content that remain constant. Fig. 9 shows the effect in
reducing pulse width about I O times.
s.0.s-
.m I
38 $8 Id Id , 30' 10"
.~ m-e4
Fig. 9. Simulated Effect decrease 7
The effect of the ringing. also called overshoot and
undershoot effect. In IFlMD is common the Induction Motor
installed so long from CDM, due sharp transitions and the
cable impedance (resistance, inductance and capacitance) the
overvoltage is generated in motor terminals. The long cable
and motor impedance define the reflection coefficient (r)[5].
The motor terminals voltage Vmolor and refection coefficient
r is defined by expressions (7) and (8).
( R I
zmof or -Zcabi e
zmo~or +Zcobl e
r=
The overvoltage is proportional to an inverter output voltage
VDC/j,,k and factor I +i - . The damped senoidal overvoltage
[ 6] is defined by expressions (9):
72
ke-a.' A+i Jr f +0) (9)
with a (damped coefiicient), &(ringing frequency), 0
(phase delay) and k (constant).
Ill. NORMALIZATION
The EMC requirements for power drive system PDS which
are connected to main supplies with rated voltage of up to
1000 VAC m for adjustable speed AC and DC motor drives is
EMC product standard IEC 1800-3. The object of this
standard is to define the limits and test methods for PDS, e.g.,
minimum EMC requirements. The tables I and II present
immunity requirements, tables Ill and IV emission
requirements.
Frequency Hand
supplies buildings used for domestic purposes shall comply
with limits of table V. and restrict distribution equipment
IV. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
In this study a commercial inverter feeding a induction
motor through short (0.50 m) and long (25.0 m) cables length
were analyzed. Fig. 10 shows EM1 measurement
configuration. The EMC Accredited Laboratory from
Fundaqlo de Ciencia e Tecnologia - CIENTEC was used for
measurements. The test set-up (Fig. 10) and test
insmimentation include the following components:
- Commercial Inverter: 1 kVA, I phase 220 VCA. 60 Hz.
PWM control and IGBT modular switch device;
-Induction Motor: 0.5 HP, 3 phase, 60 Hz, 1720 rimin;
- Electrodynamometer: 0 - 27 Ibf.in;
- Line Impedance Stabilization Network (LISN): 25 A. 230
VAC, 50 pH - 50 R,
- Specmm Analyzer for frequency range 9 kHz to 26.5 GHz,
Quasi peak I Av er a~e
measurement by Line Impedance Stabilization Network. The
with quasi peak detector;
- Anechoic Chamber with property ground plane;
- Digital Scope I GHz - 5 Gds;
TABLE I
IMMUN~TY REQUIREMENTS- Low FREQUENCY
I
IMHzI IdHpV] I ldBuvl
Vol l a~e Unbalanced - Frequency Vacations 1 IEC 1000-2-214
Pm M_ LE-
- __m"
Supply Influcnccs- Ma p & Fields 1 IEC 10004-R
LISN is used to eliminate the effects of the line imoedance on
TABLE I1
IMMUNITY REUUIREMENTS- HtGll FREQUENCY
Fig. 10. Test Set-up forEMl canduclcd
TABLE 111
EM~SS~ON REQU~REMENTS - Low FREUUENCY
TABLE IV
EMISSION REUUIREMENTS- HlGll FREQUENCY
Phenomcnon
Conducted and Radiated Emissions
For purposes of this article, i t will he realized only
conducted electromapetic measurement in power line for high Fie. cmiSsion-shon
frequency emission requirements (Table IV).
A . Conducred Ektromagnelic Emission
the test results. It should be according to the' European
5.0 - 30.0 I73 1 60 standard ClSPR 16[7]. Fig. 1 I presents voltage perturbations
in power supply with Induction Motor connected with short
One of the effects of the long cable is presented in Fig. 12.
I t is possible to verify the increase in frequency range from 1
0. 1s . 0.50 I 79 I66
0.5 . 5.0 I 7 3 1 60
Considering PDS in the first environmental. e.g., connected
and 70% mechanical load.
to a public low-voltage suppl y network which
773
MHz to 3 MHz, due the damped oscillatory overvoltage in
motor terminals, described in section V. In both figures ( I I
and 12) the red line is the CISPR I I limits[S].
1 - 1.CE-X 1 " 1 . "
mq).gq
Fig. 12. EM1 conducted mi ssi on - long cable
For both cases, Figs. I I and 12, the results show that
conducted emission levels from inverter-fed are above the
limits of the CISPR 1 I.
B . Overvoltage
In the most industry application of adjustable-speed drives
for speed control of the Induction Motor , the inverter and
motors are separated by considerable distance that contributes
for increase of the damped ringing in high fiequency on motor
terminals. This ringing results heavy overvohage that causes
stress in the motor insulation and others serious effects in
power supply, e.g., conducted EM1 and voltage waveform
distortion.
Fig. 13. Motor terminalr voltage - shon cablc
Fig. 13 presents voltage waveform in motor terminals
(phase to ground) - for short cable with length around 0.50 m.
For long cable, around 25m, it is possible to verify damped
oscillatory overvoltage in the motor terminals as presented in
Fig. 14.
Fig. 15 demonstrates that the resonant or ringing frequency
is around 1.0 to 1.25 MHz. This oscillarion contributes with
the fundamental and harmonic frequencies when analyzed in
frequency domain, according to the Fig. 12.
7
t " " f ''P
1 . . . . . . .\.i ..... I ......... j , I
. . . . . . . . . . .
. .
. . . . . . . . . . .
"i' 1-1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . .
Fig. 14. Motor 1m"naB voltagc - long cable
Fig. IS. Ringing Frequency-fn 1.15 MHz
The mitigation techniques to reduce these effects, include
the use proper ground and motor terminal filter - LC low pass
151. The use of the serial inductors and shielded cables are
also recommended.
V. CONCLUSION
In this paper was showed that semiconductor (IGBT)
switching in Inverter-Fed Motor dri ve causes large dv/dt and,
depending on the cable length between CDM and IM, through
cable and motor impedance, increase the electromagnetic
interference in broadband frequency. The theoretical analysis
tried to explain with more details how and why is important
the correlation between time and frequency domain, showing
with simulation and measurements, the relationship each other
and the importance in knowkdge the adverse effects. The EM1
filter should be considered in the mitigation techniques
described above.
Others consideration that should have been realized we
intend lo described in another paper, as EM1 conducted in
output Inverter-Fed Motor Drive, measurement of the
mitigation techniques describe above.
VI. REFERENCES
[ I ]
IEC 1800-3 - EMC Product Standard including specific
test methods for adjustable speed electrical drive systems,
1996-06:
[2] G. Skibinski., J. Pankau, R. Sladky, J . Campbell,
"Generation, Control and Regulation of EM1 from AC
Drives", IEEE Transaction Industry Application, vol. 3 I ,
pp.1247 - 1256, Nov./Dez. 1995
74
,3] E. Zho~g and T. A, Lip,lmprovemenls in EMC
perfomance of inverter-fed motor drives, lEEE
Transaction Industry Application. vol. 31, pp.1247-1256,
Nov.5ez. 19%.
/4] Claytoti R. Paul, Introduction to Efecaomaptic
Compatibility, New York: Wiley, 1992, pp, 359- 374.
[SI Annette von Jouanne, Dudi A. Rendusam, M d N.
Enjeti, Filtering Techniques to Minimize the Effect of
Loiig Molor Leads on PWM Invetted-Fed AC Motor
Drive Systems, IEEE Transaction 1nduti-y Application,
[6] Katsuhiko Ogata, Modem Control Engineering, Prentice-
Hall, 1990, pp. 246 - 320.
[7] ClSPR 16- Specification fi>r radio interferencemeasuring
apparatus and measurement methods, 1999;
la] CISPRII - Limits and methods of measurements of
electfomsperic disturbance characteristics of industrial,
scientific and medical radio frequewy equipment. 1999;
~0l.32,pp.919-925, Jul./Aug. 1996.
V. BIOGRAPHIES
Fausto Mastor Libano was boni in Polto Ale@e,Brazil, on
November 7. 1960. He obtained the Elrtctricsl Engineering
Diploma from the Pootificia Univnsidade CelSlica do WO
Grande do SUI, M.Sc. degree fromthe Univmidsde Federal
de Santa Catarina sild Dr. lng. Degree fromUiversidad
Polittcnica de Madrid. Since 1980, he has been with the
Depanment of Electrical Engineering of the Pontificia
Uniwrsidade Catolicado Rio O m& do SUI. tfis main iwre$t
are in Power Eletronics, Powr Quality and Electcical Dn.ves.
Rodrigo Antonio Marqaer Braga was bom in Pono
Alegre. Bmi l , onApril 18, 1973, Heobtained theControl and
Automation Engineering Diploma from the Pontificia
Univcrsidrde Catolica do Rio Grandedo Sui and zhe M.Sc.
degree from the Pontificra Uriiversidadc Catblica do Rio
Grandedo Sui. Since2001, he has bsen with the Dcpment
of Mechanical/h.lechalronical Engineering of the Pantiticis
Universidadc Catolica do Rio Gratidedo SUI. His main interFst
are in Control Systerw, Power Eletronics, Power Quality and
Electlicnl Drives.
Lesndro Nunes de Souza was bom in Porto
Alegre,Bmil. on February 12, 1961. Ne oblained the
Electrical Engineering Diploma from the Pontiiicia
UniversidadeCatolica do Rio Grandedo SUI,. Siece 1989, he
has been with the Depiirtmcnt of Electrical Engineering o f the
FundacBo de Cikcia c Tecnologia CI ENTEC, 10 study and
realize Electromagnetic Compatibilrty Measurements
(Emissions and Imunity). His main interest are in
Electa.gneiic Compatihiiity. Power Quality and AC
Electrical Drives. Nowadays, he hss been stnddyinginorder to
obtain the M.Sc. degree from the Pontiiicia Universidade
Cat61ic-a do Rio Griindedo SUI.