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RL transients

Circuits having inductors:

DC conguration (a source value changes or a switch ips). There

will be a transient interval while the voltages and currents in the

inductors change.

are amping up and de-amping continuously. This requires

special techniques and is the next topic for EE 201.

EE 201 RL transient 2

1. Determine the DC currents in the inductors before the change

occurs. These may be given, or you may have to solve for them from

the original conguration.

2. Let the change occur instantaneously at time t = 0. The inductors

will maintain their currents into the instant just after the change.

(Recall: inductor current cannot change instantaneously.)

3. Analyze the circuit. Since inductor voltage depend on di

L

/dt, the

result will be a differential equation.

4. Solve the differential equation, using the inductor currents from

before the change as the initial conditions.

5. The resulting equation will describe the amping (or de-amping)

of the inductor current during the transient and give the nal DC

value once the transient is complete.

Solving a circuit with transient changes

In practice, we will solve only one circuit and try to understand it

completely. Then, when we encounter other circuit congurations, we

will make those t the prototype.

EE 201 RL transient 3

Simple RL circuit transient (physics)

In the circuit, I

S

abruptly changes value from I

i

to I

f

at t = 0. Assume

that the source was at I

i

for a very long time before t = 0.

1. For t < 0, i

L

= I

i

and v

L

= 0. Therefore, i

R

= 0.

2. At t = 0, I

S

changes. But i

L

= I

i

(still), and so andy excess current

must ow through the resistor. Consequently, v

L

jumps abruptly:

3. For t > 0, i

L

increases. As i

L

increases, i

R

and v

L

will decrease.

4. After a sufciently long time, i

L

will amp up to I

f

. The current through

the resistor and voltage across it both drop to zero. The transient is

complete.

i

L

I

S

R L

+

v

L

I

f

I

i

t = 0

() =

()

EE 201 RL transient 4

Simple RL circuit transient (math)

In the circuit, I

S

abruptly changes value from I

i

to I

f

at t = 0. Assume

that the source was at I

i

for a very long time before t = 0.

For t < 0, i

L

= I

i

and v

L

= 0.

()

ln

()

ln

()

() =

exp

i

L

I

S

R L

+

v

L

I

f

I

i

t = 0

EE 201 RL transient 5

At t = 0, i

L

= I

i

, as expected.

As t ! !, i

L

! I

f

, also as expected.

exponential, given above.

At t = 0, v

L

jumps to up to a maximum value.

For t > 0, v

L

decays away exponentially, as the current approaches its

nal value.

Finally, note that the equation works just as well for amping down as

it does for amping up. In the example, we implied I

f

> I

i

, but that

was never a requirement in the derivation of the equation.

() =

exp

() =

() =

exp

EE 201 RL transient 6

Plots of capacitor voltage and current for a simple RL circuit with I

f

=

15 mA, V

i

= 5 mA, R = 5 k!, L = 50 mH (L/R = 50 s).

15 mA

5 mA

5 k! 50 mH

I

S

R L

+

v

L

I

f

I

i

t = 0

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

-5 0 5 10 15 20 25

i

L

(

m

A

)

t (s)

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

-5 0 5 10 15 20 25

v

L

(

V

)

t (s)

EE 201 RL transient 7

Using a switch

The same transient phenomena occurs when using a switch to change

a circuit.

1. For t < 0, the inductor may have a current owing (depending on the

circuit conguration), i

L

(t < 0) = I

i

. Also, v

L

= 0.

2. At t = 0, the switch closes. The inductor maintains its current, i

L

(0) = I

i

.

The inductor voltage jumps abruptly to

3. For t > 0, the inductor current rises. The voltage drops as the current rises.

I

S

R L

v

L

+

i

L

() =

exp

() =

()

EE 201 RL transient 8

(Check the units.)

If R = 1k! and L = 1 H, " = L/R = 1 ms.

If R = 10 k! and L = 10 mH, " = L/R = 1 s.

RL time constant

If t = 5(L/R) ! exp(5) = 0.0067 ! 99.3% of the transition is done.

(Theoretically, i

L

never really gets to I

f

. But as engineers, we have to

be practical.)

EE 201 RL transient 9

Example

100 mA

680 !

75 mH

In the RL circuit above, I

S

abruptly changes value from I

i

= 100 mA to I

f

= 10 mA at t = 0. Assume that the source was at I

i

for a very long

time before t = 0. Find the expression for the inductor curent as a

function of time. Find the time at which i

L

= 50 mA.

Apply the transient function directly, with I

i

= 100 mA, I

F

= 5 V, and L/R =

75 mH/680 ! = 110 s.

I

S

R L

I

f

I

i

t = 0

i

L

50 mA

() =

] exp

= [] + [] exp

= [] + [] exp

= () ln

=

EE 201 RL transient 10

Example 2

The voltage source in the above circuit abruptly changes from 10 V to

+10 V at t = 0. Find expressions for the inductor current and inductor

voltage. Find the time at which the inductor current crosses 0 mA.

The circuit is in the wrong form to the equation directly. Instead use a

source transformation to change it to the standard form.

100 !

0.25 H

+

R

V

S

V

i

V

f

t = 0

i

L

L

10 V

10 V

I

S

R L I

f

I

i

t = 0

i

L

100 mA

100 mA

100 !

0.25 H

= (2.5ms) ln

2OOmA

1OOmA

= 1.73ms

= [] [] exp

() =

] exp

() =

exp

= [] exp

EE 201 RL transient 11

Example 3

In the RL circuit above, V

S

abruptly changes value from V

1

to V

2

at t =

0. Find the expression for the inductor current as a function of time.

Find the Norton equivalent for the circuit attached to the inductor.

27 mH

1.5 k!

2.2 k!

1 k!

0 V

10 V

+

R

1

R

2

R

3

V

S

t < 0, I

i

= 0.

t " 0, I

f

= 3.14 mA.

L/R

N

= (27 mH)/(1.89 !) = 14.3 s

+

V

1

V

2

t = 0

R

1

R

2

R

3

i

L

L

V

S

0 V

I

N

L I

f

I

i

t = 0

i

L

R

N

3.14 mA

27 mH

1.89 k!

I

N

=

V

S

R

1

+

1 +

R

1

R

2

R

3

= 0.314 V

S

.

= 1.89 k!.

i

L

(t) = [3.14mA]

1 exp

t

14.3s

EE 201 RL transient 12

1. Work through the solution to the differential equation (slide 4) and

make sure that you understand it thoroughly.

2. Try to nd the solution to Example 3 without using the Thevenin

equivalent. It can be done, although it might be a bit messy.

3. For the example shown on slide 6, calculate the inductor energy

before and after the transient. Calculate the total energy delivered by

the source during the transient. Show that everything balances.

(Dont forget about the power consumed in the resistor.)

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