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MANAGEMENT OF SOLID WASTE IN KUMASI CENTRAL MARKET



A special study submitted to the Department of Planning,
Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology,
Kumasi, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for
the Degree of Bachelor of Science in
Human Settlement Planning


By
EVA AFRIYIE MENSAH

APRIL, 2011.





...................................
Dr. K. O. Agyeman Dr Immoro Braimah
(Supervisor) (Head, Department of Planning)

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DEDICATION
This dissertation is dedicated to Mum and Dad Mr and Mrs. Anarfi Mensah.



















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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
My greatest appreciation goes to the God Almighty who through his undeserved kindness and love
granted me the needed strength, wisdom and knowledge to accomplish this work successfully.
The successful completion of this work came about as a result of a massive contribution made by several
people; without which the work would not have been materialised. I therefore, deem it necessary to
express my profound gratitude to the following people.
I first express my profound gratitude to my dynamic and hardworking supervisor of the Department of
Planning, Dr. K.O Agyeman, who did not only encourage me to write on the topic but also, supervised
and guided me through at no cost. My thanks also go to Mr. Kwabena Boafo Adom-Opare, his teaching
assistance, who in diverse ways has contributed to the successful completion of this work.

I also express my gratitude to my Parents Mr. and Mrs. Anarfi Mensah. My appreciation further goes to
my friend Mr.Evans Obeng Amofa who also contributed to the successful contribution in my work and
Mr Charles Adjei at K.M.A who assisted me to administer the questionnaires for this work. To all others
whose names cannot be readily mentioned, I am equally grateful to them.










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ABSTRACT
Waste Management and good hygiene are fundamental to health, survival, growth and development. The
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have set us on a common course to push back poverty,
inequality, hunger and illness. Having a healthy urban environment sets a city on track for development.
Kumasi Central Market (KCM) is currently experiencing poor Solid Waste Management. Improper way
of disposing of solid waste, which in most cases clogs drains thereby creating conditions for disease
vectors and posing health risks to inhabitants. Therefore, the main objective of the study was to establish
the underlying factors affecting effective solid waste management in the KCM and suggest possible
measures to tackle the problem.
The study was to understand the solid waste situation in Kumasi Central Market. Administration of
questionnaires to the store operators within the market enabled the researcher to understand the peoples
assessment of solid waste condition in the area. In addition, the availability of solid waste facilities and
services and the awareness of individuals about environmental condition in the market area were
analysed. Furthermore, interviews were conducted in selected institutions and a private company
involved in the Management of Solid Waste in KCM. These include the Waste Management
Department, Town and Country Planning Department and Zoomlion Ghana Ltd. From the interviews,
the challenges faced by these institutions and the company in managing solid waste KCM were revealed.
The following key findings were established to be the factors affecting solid waste in the Kumasi
Central Market: these are
Lack of Waste bins in the K.C.M
Inadequate supply of Skip containers at the refuse dump site.
Indiscriminate dumping of refuse.
Lack of routine collection of waste.
In the light of this problem enumerated above, the research recommended adequate supply of waste bins
and skip containers, regular collection of waste, use of integrated solid waste management approach.
There is the need for intensive public education to promote a positive attitude for management of solid
waste in KCM. In addition, enforcement of the waste management bye-laws is also recommended to
make every individual responsible for good management of solid waste in the Kumasi Central Market.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Content Page
Dedication i
Acknowledgement ii
Abstract iii
Table of Contents iv
List of Tables ix
List of Figures x
List of Plates xi
List of Abbreviations xii
CHAPTER ONE: GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Problem Statement 2
1.3 Research Questions 3
1.4 Objectives of the Study 4
1.5 Justification 4
1.6 Scope of the Study 5
1.6.1 Geographical Scope 5
1.6.2 Contextual Scope 5
1.7 Methodology 5
1.7.1 Sampling Techniques 5
1.7.2 Mode of Data Collection and Source 6
1.7.3 Data Analysis and Presentation 7
1.8 Limitations of the Study 7
1.9 Conclusion 7
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Content Page
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction 9
2.2 Concepts in Waste Management 9
2.2.1 Defining Waste 9
2.2.2 The Classification of waste 10
2.2.3 The concept of waste management 13
2.2.4 The goals of waste management 14
2.2.5 Some Options for Considerations in Management of Waste 15
2.2.6 The principles of waste management 15
2.2.7 Integrated waste management and the waste hierarchy 16
2.3 The Urban Solid waste problem in Developing Countries 18
2.3.1 Introduction 18
2.3.2 The Nature of the Waste Problem in Developing Countries 19
2.4 Urban Solid waste Management in Developing Countries 20
2.4.1 Introduction 20
2.4.2 Solid Waste Management Processes 21
2.4.3 Waste Generation 22
2.4.4 Storage 22
2.4.5 Collection 22
2.4.6 Transfer and Transport 23
2.4.7 Processing and Recovery 23
2.4.8 Disposal 23
2.5 Solid Waste Management in Ghana 23

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CHAPTER THREE: PROFILE AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction 25
3.2 Kumasi Central Market (KCM) 25
3.2.1 General Overview 25
3.3 Problems within the KCM 26
3.3.1 Poor Market facilities 26
3.4 Research Methodology 26
3.4.1 Introduction 26
3.4.2 Selection of the Study sites 27
3.4.3 Sampling Techniques 27
3.4.3.1 Random and Cluster Sampling 27
3.4.3.2 Purposive Sampling 28
3.4.4 Data Collection 28
3.4.5 Types of Data 29
3.4.5.1 Secondary Data 29
3.4.5.2 Primary Data Collection 29
3.4.6 Preliminary Field Investigation 29
3.4.7 Face to Face Interview . 30
3.4.8 Structured Questionnaire 30
3.4.9 Data Analysis and Presentation 31
3.4.10 Conclusion 31
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Introduction 32
4.2 Solid Waste generation and collection in the area for a three-year period (2008-2010) 32

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4.3 Types and Components of Solid waste generated in the area 34
4.4 Drains and Pavement Cleaning 35
4.5 Availability of waste bin 35
4.6 Disposal of waste by store Operators 37
4.7 Secondary waste collection 38
4.8 Assessment of the Environmental condition of the market 39
4.9 Awareness of KMA By-law on Sanitation in KCM 40
CHAPTER FIVE: FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION
5.1 Introduction 42
5.2 Key findings ... 42
5.2.1 Factors Affecting Effective Waste Management 42
5.2.1.1 Unavailabilty of Waste Bins 42
5.2.1.2 Inadequate Skip Containers and irregular collection of waste 42
5.2.1.3 Poor Attitudes towards Waste Management by store Operators 43
5.2.2 Role of the Private stakeholder in the Management of Solid Waste 43
5.3 Recommendations 43
5.3.1 Enforcement of Solid Waste Management Regulations and By-laws 44
5.3.2 Provision of Bin within the Market 44
5.3.3 Education through the media 45
5.3.4 Institutional Capacity for Improved Service Delivery 45
5.3.5 Regular Collection of waste 45
5.3.6 Monitoring of Activities of Service Providers 45
5.3.7 Organisation of Clean-up exercise 46
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5.2.8 Future Research Issues 46
5.4 Conclusion 46
Appendix 47
References ... 51

















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LIST OF TABLES
Tables Page
Table 2.1 Classification of waste 10
Table 2.2 Sources and Types of Municipal Solid waste 11
Table 2.3 Material classification of waste 12
Table 2.4 Classification of waste based on physical state of waste substances 12
Table 4.1 Solid waste generated and collected in the KCM 33
Table 4.2 Major components of waste generated 34
Table 4.3 Drains and Pavement Cleaning 35
Table 4.4 Availability of Waste Bin 36
Table 4.5 Assessment of the Environmental condition of the market 40






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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure Page
Figure 2.1 Waste Management Hierarchy Model 17
Figure 2.2 Key Elements of Solid waste management 21
Figure 4.1 Awareness of the KMA By-Law 40




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LIST OF PLATES
Plate Page
Plate 3.1: Map showing the location of Kumasi Central Market 25
Plate 4.1 Garbage silted drain 37
Plate 4.2 Garbage scattered In front of shops 38
Plate 4.3 Refuse dump site 39
Plate 4.3 Zoomlion at Work 39



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CHAPTER ONE
GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study
Throughout history all nations are confronted with setbacks of the management of solid waste.
The common problem faced by all the developing countries, is the disposal of solid waste and
availability of dumping grounds.
In recent times environmental pollution has received more attention than ever before in Ghana
and the world at large. Water and air pollution that used to be the major focus is now declining.
(Gyankumah, 2002).The pollution of land surface by solid waste disposal has been neglected
until recent years. Both the advanced and developing countries have now come to realize the
need to manage solid waste disposal. The increasing concern about the environment has resulted
in an intensified search for safe and viable solutions for handling solid waste.
Solid waste management is one of the most important environmental related issues in
Ghana.(Gyankumah, 2002).This can be attributed to the fact that solid waste if not properly
managed would affect the entire nation by causing the outbreak of diseases which in effect will
affect national productivity. It is the sole responsibility of every individual within Kumasi central
market to ensure that solid waste in their respective sectors within the market is managed
properly.
This special study seeks to assess the Solid Waste Disposal (SWD) situation in Ghana and to
identify prospects for improvement focusing on remediation of dumpsites and sanitary landfills.
The paper will establish that the key problems with solid waste disposal in Ghana principally
relate to problems with indiscriminate dumping, Increasing difficulties with acquiring suitable
disposal sites, Difficulties with conveyance of solid waste by road due to worsening traffic
problems and the lack of alternative transport options. Generally, rapid urbanization, poor
financing capacity of local authorities, low technical capacity for planning and management of
solid waste, weak enforcement of environmental regulations - which allow local authorities to
flout environmental regulations without any sanctions have all contributed to compound the
problem. The Ghanaian experience shows that within the existing socio-economic context,
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manual systems are supreme. The challenge therefore is to develop and promote disposal
systems that require a minimum level of mechanical equipment.
The city (Kumasi) is estimated to generate about 500,000kg of solid waste daily based on the
current projected population of 1,610,867 (2006). It is expected to go up by 15% by the year
2010 (KMA, D-Plan, 1996).The Waste Management Department of Kumasi Metropolitan
Assembly appears to be overwhelmed by the task of hauling all the solid waste produced in the
city. The task is so daunting that KMA has become synonymous with Waste Management.
These waste materials are bio non - degradable. This study assesses the existing state of solid
waste management in Kumasi Central Market with the aim of identifying the major obstacles to
its efficiency and the prospects for improvisation of the existing solid waste management (swm)
system in the area. Also identifying the factors that contributes to the increase heaps of solid
wastes within the market area and recommends ways to reduce these solid wastes.
1.2 Problem Statement
Ghana as a developing nation is also facing problems with the management of solid waste
despite the numerous strides advanced by the nations government, non-governmental agencies
and even individuals to curb the situation, there are still cases of heaps of refuse across the nation
which causes flooding in some areas and environmental related diseases: Although there has
been a reduction in numbers due to some of the interventions made by some private institutions
like Zoom lion
There has been an increase in heaps of solid waste in Ghana due to an increase in population and
also as results of technological advancement. Plastic bags, paper plates, caps are now disposal
products due to technology and has resulted in excess increase in solid wastes in the metropolis
especially within Kumasi central market.
Many Ghanaian cities are facing serious problems in managing solid waste with rise in
population and urbanization. The existing solid waste management system in the area is found to
be highly inefficient. Primary and secondary collection, transportation, and open dumping are the
only activities practiced; that is done in a non technical manner. The annual waste generation
increases in proportion to the rises in population and urbanization.
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There are many factors contributing to the indiscriminate disposal of waste within the market.
These waste generated by commercial sources may contain a mixture of food waste, fabrics,
paper oil, rubber, plastics, metal and wood. In some situations, bulky materials such as
appliances, furniture, spare parts may be found within the market. This in a long run affects the
neighbouring residents making them uncomfortable to live. This inefficient management of
waste has led to the outbreak of environmentally related diseases like cholera, diarrhea, malaria,
typhoid, dysentery. Some of the causes of these problems include; the peoples poor attitude and
perceptions about solid waste management have contributed to the problem. Inadequate and
inefficient of solid waste management equipment and personnel, inadequate logistics prevent the
Waste Management Department from executing its duty effectively. Some of the areas within the
market lack skip bins for dumping of refuse. This has resulted to heaps of rubbish within the
market. Due to the influx of people from both rural and urban areas, the population within the
market has become unmanageable as almost every visible space is as a selling point without any
permission from the Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly.
Effects of these solid wastes to the environment include;
Refuse within and along roads caused by the informal economic activities destroys the aesthetic
(beauty) nature of the market. Also choked gutters by refuse leads to flooding which destroys
goods and structures and even the lifes of people. This problem can leads to environmental
related diseases like cholera, malaria, typhoid and dysentery.
The Waste Management Department and other private institutions are the one responsible for the
management of solid waste around and within the central market. It is the aim of the research to
ascertain why even with the existence of these institutions there are still heaps of refuse within
the market
1.3 Research Questions
The research will address the following questions.
How are these waste disposed to the final disposal site.
What are the problems confronting the various institutions.
How are the individuals within the market involved in decision making?
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1.4 Objectives of the study
To establish the underlying factors affecting effective management of solid waste in
Kumasi Central Market.
To examine the role of KMA in the Management of Solid Waste in Kumasi Central
Market.
To examine the roles of the private stakeholders in the Management of Solid Waste in
Kumasi Central Market.
To recommend appropriate intervention for effective waste management in Kumasi
Central Market.
1.5 Justification
This research will focus particularly at the central market. This is chosen because heaps of waste
is found within that area. The research work examines ways of improving solid waste
management in the Kumasi central market of Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly (KMA). A
descriptive cross-sectional study based on structured questionnaire will be used to gather data on
the factors that affect solid waste management and the inhabitants such as geographical assess to
dumping sites, public education and sensitization, equipment holding capacity of KMA and
private service providers, and public health effects and make some recommendations to
authorities, private sanitation agents and other stakeholders in improving the management of
solid waste in Kumasi central market.
This study will provide a critical and analytical perspective of the need for policy makers in
understanding the need for a healthy environment to promote development .It will bring to light
the views of the people in the market and why they should be involved in any plan
implementation. It will also provide a basis and an insight to the state and NGOs as to consult the
market women as beneficiaries of the project. Again, any future system for collecting and
disposal of refuse will have to be geared to the total amount and quantity of material generated
currently. Data collected will serve as spring board for the private sector to participate in waste
management.


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1.6 Scope of the study
1.6.1 Geographical scope
Kumasi is a city found in the south central part of Ghana in Ashanti region. Kumasi is a city with
a population of 1.6m and growing and is viewed as the commercial, cultural and transport centre
of Ghana. It is located in the transitional forest zone and is about 270km north of the national
capital, Accra. It is between latitude 6.35
o
6.40
o
and longitude 1.30
o
1.35
o
, an elevation
which ranges between 250 300 metres above sea level with an area of about 254 square
kilometres. The unique centrality of the city as a traversing point from all parts of the country
makes it a special place for many to migrate. (K.M.A D-plan)
1.6.2 Contextual scope
The scope will intensively describe the material flow of stream of waste from generation to final
disposal. This comprises generation, collection, transportation and disposal and the various
institutions responsible for the management of the waste.
1.7 Methodology
The study will use various research approaches which are interviews with streets hawkers,
market women, observation within and around Kumasi central market, questionnaires for various
institutions, store operators and secondary data based on interplay of deskwork and field survey
in order to obtain a sample representative population to work with and also the right amount of
information to support the study.
The following activities will however be considered in the research procedure: the data
collection process, analysis and reporting format.
1.7.1 Sampling Techniques
Simple random sampling and purposive sampling techniques will be used. Based on these
techniques store operators will be selected randomly to enhance the chance of element selected.
Purposive sampling technique will be used based on the various institutions that will be needed
for the project. The sample size will be determined by the following formulae;

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(n) = N
1 + N ( )
2
Where n = sampling size

N = total population

e = margin of error

N=9680

e = 10%

= 9680

1 + 9680 ( 0.1 )
2
=9680/1+96.8

=9680/97.8

n =98.9
1.7.2 Mode of Data Collection and Source
The researcher will use a combination of primary and secondary data. The major source of data
will however be from primary sources. The sources of the Primary data will be obtained from
field survey using instruments such as interview guides, questionnaires and field observation.
Primary data will be collected from Waste Management Department of Kumasi Metropolitan
Assembly and private stakeholders. Questionnaire administration will be conducted for the store
operators, Zoomlion Gh.Ltd, KMA Waste Management Department and also interview the
market women. This was to enable the study obtain information pertaining to waste generation,
collection and disposal. Observation will be done within and around the market.
Interviews will be conducted with field personnel, market women and information on the current
practices on waste management extracted. Secondary sources include Kumasi Metropolitan
Assemblys reports, documents, and news papers, internet and magazines.
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The data collection instrument will be through the use of questionnaires. Both structured (Close-
ended questions) and unstructured (open-ended questions) will be used. Where appropriate,
matrix and contingency questions will also be applied. The questionnaires will be administered
through personal interviews. Interviews guides will also be used in some cases.
1.7.3 Data Analysis and Presentation.
The Data Collected will be synthesized, Integrated and harmonized comprehensively to allow for
a clear pattern of analysis and for ease understanding. Primary data (interviews, questionnaire)
from the field and secondary data (internet, magazines, graphics) will be used in analyzing the
project.
Quantitative data will be coded, counted, categorized in tables and processed using a computer
programme, Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS).

1.8 Limitations of the Study
Although the objectives of the study were well explained and understood by the respondents,
certain sensitive questions such as means of disposing waste provoked hesitation in giving
information by the respondents. Some respondents were not willing to give answers to some
questions since they feared the Metropolitan Assembly would find out about some practices and
implicate them. The researcher took time to explain the purpose of the study and thus eventually
convinced the respondents to answer these questions.
There was also lack of cooperation from government agencies and departments as they refused to
release some reports which were important for the study.

1.8 Conclusion
The past approaches and strategies used in managing solid waste have led to the discrimination
of solid waste around Kumasi Central Market. It must be emphasized that the way forward will
not be easy due to economic resources. There is no doubt that solid waste management within
urban areas especially in Kumasi central market has not produced the desire objectives. This
therefore presents itself as a challenge for proper planning and management approach for the
people in the urban areas to grow and live in a healthy environment.
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With this project it will help reduce solid waste that are found within the market area in the sense
that various institutions available will understand the need for community participation that is
involving people within the market in decision making, and also educating them through
medias.


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CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
This chapter presents a two-part review of the literature on solid waste management. The first
section discusses some basic concepts related to waste management whilst the second part
focuses on the urban solid waste problem in developing countries, discussing the nature and
causes of the problem.

2.2 Concepts in Waste Management
2.2.1 Defining Waste
Palmer (2005) observed that the term waste is frequently left as an undefined primitive in spite
of its critical importance and frequently, a list of types of waste is substituted for the underlying
definition. Definitions of waste are rather commonly found in such documents as dictionaries,
encyclopaedia and technical reports of governments and organizations. For example, the
Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English defines waste as the unwanted material or
substance that is left after you have used something while the New Shorter Oxford English
Dictionary on Historical Principles defines it as the unusable material left over from a process
of manufacture, the use of consumer goods etc, or the useless by-products of a process Gilpin
(1996) provides a more elaborate definition of the term waste. According to him, the concept of
waste embraces all unwanted and economically unusable byproducts or residuals at any given
place and time, and any other matter that may be discarded accidentally or otherwise into the
environment.
Gilpin also suggests that what constitutes waste must occur in such a volume, concentration,
constituency or manner as to cause a significant alteration in the environment. Thus, apart from
waste being an unwanted substance that is discarded, the amount of it and the impact it makes on
the environment also become important considerations in defining waste.
McLaren (1993) has also referred to waste as the unwanted materials arising entirely from
human activities which are discarded into the environment. This notion that waste results
hentirely from human activities is corroborated by Jessen (2002) who has noted that waste is
human creation and there is no such thing as waste in nature where cut-offs of one species
become food for another. On his part, Palmer argues that, there is no constellation of properties
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inherent in any lump, object or material which will serve to identify it as waste an item
becomes waste when the holder or owner does not wish to take further responsibility for it. As a
default definition, Palmer (1998) suggests that any substance that is without an owner is waste.
From the foregoing definitions and for the purpose of this research study, waste has been
defined as when something it is no longer in use and fail to fulfill its purpose.

2.2.2 The Classification of Waste

A number of criteria are usually employed to classify wastes into types including their sources,
physical state, material composition and the level of risk associated with waste substances (Table
2.1). Such classification of waste provides a basis for the development of appropriate waste
management practice.

Table 2.1 Classification of waste

Criteria for waste classification Examples of waste types
Sources or premises of generation Residential, commercial, industrial,
municipal services, building and
construction, agricultural
Physical state of waste materials Liquid, solid, gaseous, radioactive
Material composition of waste Organic food waste, paper and card, plastic,
inert, metal, glass, textile
Level of risk Hazardous, non-hazardous
(Source: Tchobanoglous et al 1993)

The source classification of waste is based on the fact that waste emanates from different sectors
of society such as residential, commercial and industrial sources. A good example of the source
classification was provided by the World Bank (1999) in a study in Asia which identified the
sources of waste as residential, commercial, industrial, municipal services, construction and
demolition, processing and agricultural sources (Table 2.2).










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Table 2.2: Sources and Types of Municipal Solid Waste
Sources Typical waste generators Types of solid waste
Residential Single and multifamily
dwellings
Food wastes, paper,
cardboard, plastics, textiles,
glass, metals, ashes, special
wastes (bulky items,
consumer electronics,
batteries, oil, tires) and
household hazardous wastes
Commercial Stores, hotels, restaurants,
markets,
office buildings
Paper, cardboard, plastics,
wood, food wastes, glass,
metals, special wastes,
hazardous wastes
Institutional Schools, government center,
hospitals,
Prisons
Paper, cardboard, plastics,
wood, food wastes, glass,
metals, special wastes,
hazardous wastes
Municipal services Street cleaning, landscaping,
parks,
beaches, recreational areas
Street sweepings, landscape
and tree trimmings, general
wastes from parks, beaches,
and other recreational areas
Construction and
Demolition
New construction sites, road
repairs,
renovation sites, demolition
of buildings
Wood, steel, concrete, dirt
Process (manufacturing, etc) Heavy and light
manufacturing, refineries,
chemical plants, power
plants, mineral extraction and
processing
Industrial process wastes,
scrap materials, off
specification products, slay,
tailings
Agriculture Crops, orchards, vineyards,
dairies, feedlots, farms
Spoilt food wastes,
agricultural wastes,
hazardous wastes (e.g.
pesticides).
Source: World Bank/IBRD, 1999.

In the Stakeholders Guide: Sustainable Waste Management, the UK Environment Council
(2000) also employed source classification to identify the major sources of waste as municipal
sources, commerce and industry, agricultural sources, demolition and construction activities,
dredged spoils, sewage sludge and mining and quarrying operations. Classifying wastes by their
sources is a useful way of determining the relative contributions of the different sectors of
society to the waste stream and how to plan for their collection and disposal. Frequently, the
material composition of the waste stream is also used to classify wastes into such types as
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organic waste, paper and cardboard, plastic, glass, ceramics, textiles metal and inert waste (Table
2.3). An example of waste classification based on material composition was conducted by the
Surrey County, UK in 2002/2003. An analysis of household waste streams in the county
identified nine main types of materials: paper/card, plastic film, dense plastic, textiles,
miscellaneous combustibles, glass, ferrous metal, garden waste and food waste
(Surreywaste.info, online).

Table 2.3: Material classification of waste
Waste type Examples
Paper Newspapers, cardboards, office waste paper, magazine/glossy
Plastics Bottles, expanded polystyrene, film plastic, other rigid plastics
Glass Clear glass, green glass, amber glass, non-recyclable glass
Metals Steel cans, aluminum cans, other ferrous, other aluminum
Organics Yard waste-grass, yard waste-other, wood, textiles, diapers, fines,
other organics
Inorganic
Electronics
carpets, drywall, other construction and demolition, other inorganic
Source: Surrey County, UK in 2002/2003

Using the physical state of waste substances, the materials in the waste stream can also be
categorized into liquid, solid, gaseous and radioactive wastes. Examples of these types are shown
in Table 2.4

Table 2.4: Classification of waste based on physical state of waste substances

Waste type Examples
Liquid waste Sewage sludge, waste water from bath house and kitchens
Solid waste Food waste, paper, plastic, metal, debris
Gaseous waste Factory smoke, vehicle exhaust smoke, fumes from burning waste
dumps
Radioactive
waste
Radiation, uranium, plutonium, excess energy
Source: DELM, 1993; US EPA, 2008

Furthermore, the potential health or pollution risk of waste materials is used to classify wastes
into hazardous or non-hazardous waste (Table 2.1). On the one hand, hazardous waste refers to
wastes with properties that make them potentially harmful to human health or the environment
(DELM, 1993; US EPA, 2008). According to the United States Environmental Protection
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Agency (US EPA) 2008, hazardous wastes can be liquids, solids, contained gases, or sludge and
can be the by-products of manufacturing processes or simply discarded commercial products like
cleaning fluids or pesticides. Because of their potential pollution danger, hazardous waste
materials require rigorous and cautions means of disposal (Department of Environment and Land
Management, DELM 1993). In the EPAs Hazardous Waste Listings (2008) the categories of
hazardous wastes include ignitable waste, corrosive waste, reactive waste, toxicity characteristic
waste, acute hazardous waste and toxic waste. Special waste is one type of hazardous waste
which is usually so dangerous to treat, keep or dispose of that it requires special disposal
arrangements (US.EPA, 2008). Examples include hard clinical waste such as human parts,
contaminated swabs and sharps. On the other hand, non-hazardous waste does not pose a danger
and can be dealt with easily, examples being inert materials such as uncontaminated earth and
excavated waste such as bricks, sand, gravel and concrete slates (Environment Council, 2000).
Waste can also be classified by whether it is biodegradable or non-biodegradable waste (Lapidos,
2007). The classification of waste into types, as discussed above, is very important for waste
management planning. Among other things, it provides useful information that enables
municipal authorities to organize waste management operations including the frequency and
means of collection, and appropriate disposal methods. The developed countries have made great
advances in waste data generation and analysis which have enabled them to improve waste
management over the years. In most developing countries, however, even the most basic data on
waste such as the quantities generated and composition of the waste stream are lacking, making
it difficult to organise waste management effectively (Hardoy et al., 2001).

2.2.3 The Concept of Waste Management
The business of keeping our environment free from the contaminating effects of waste materials
is generally termed waste management (US EPA (2008)). Gbekor (2003), for instance, has
referred to waste management as involving the collection, transport, treatment and disposal of
waste including after care of disposal sites. Similarly, Gilpin (1996) has defined waste
management as purposeful, systematic control of the generation, storage, collection,
transportation, separation, processing, recycling, recovery and disposal of solid waste in a
sanitary, aesthetically acceptable and economical manner while Schubeller et al. (1996) focus
on municipal solid waste management which they define as the collection, transfer, treatment,
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recycling, resource recovery and disposal of solid waste in urban areas. Baabereyir A. (2009)
defined waste management as the practice of protecting the environment from the polluting
effects of waste materials in order to protect public health and the natural environment. Thus, the
priority of a waste management system must always be the provision of a cleansing service
which helps to maintain the health and safety of citizens and their environment (Cooper, 1999).

2.2.4 The Goals of Waste Management
Schubeller et al. (1996) stated the goals of municipal solid waste management as protecting
environmental health, protecting the quality of the environment, supporting the efficiency and
productivity of the economy and the generation of employment and income for people. On her
part, Cointreau (2001) argued that the overall goal of urban solid waste management is to
collect, treat and dispose of solid waste generated by all urban population groups in an
environmentally and socially satisfactory manner, using the most economical means available
In 1976, the United States Congress enacted the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
(RCRA) which authorized the EPA to regulate waste management and disposal practices. The
goals of waste management that were set by the RCRA included:
the protection of human health and the environment from the hazards posed by waste
disposal
the conservation of energy and natural resources through waste recycling and recovery
reducing or eliminating the amount of waste generated, and
ensuring that wastes are managed in an environmentally-safe manner (RCRA, 1976)
Similarly, the Ghana Environmental Protection Agency has noted that waste management is
essential in the present day context for the following reasons (Ghana EPA, 2002):

To protect human health against waste-related hazards and risks
To prevent pollution of the environment and its natural resources like air, water and land
To produce energy which could be an alternative for the fast depleting fossil fuels and
other conventional sources of energy
To make optimum use of the waste generated
For a better and sustainable future.

15

It can be concluded from the above that the main objective of waste management is to protect
public health against waste-related hazards and risks, and to maintain ecosystem services by
preventing the pollution of the natural environment and its resources such as land, water and air
as well as the aesthetic quality of the environment. The objectives of waste management are also
in line with the goals of the Millennium [Ecosystems] Assessment (MA), the United Nations
2005 study of the consequences of ecosystem change for human wellbeing.

2.2.5 Options for Considerations in Management of Waste
To achieve the goals of municipal solid waste management, it is necessary to establish
sustainable systems of solid waste management which will meet the needs of the entire urban
population including the poor. The systems put in place for solid waste management must be
appropriate to the particular circumstances of the city and its various localities.
To achieve sustainable waste management, such a system must harness and develop the
capacities of all stakeholders in the waste sector (Schubeller et al. 1996) including civil society,
businesses, private sector waste companies and government agencies. Due to their low technical,
financial and managerial capacities, most municipal authorities in developing countries fail to
achieve the goals of waste management and are, therefore, unable to achieve the basic objective
of waste management which is to protect public health and the natural environment against waste
pollution (Hardoy et al., 2001; Pacione, 2006)

2.2.6 The Principles of Waste Management
The principles of waste management, as identified by Schubeller et al. (1996:19), are to
minimize waste generation, maximize waste recycling and reuse, and ensure the safe and
environmentally sound disposal of waste. This means that waste management should be
approached from the perspective of the entire cycle of material use which includes production,
distribution and consumption as well as waste collection and disposal. While immediate priority
must be given to effective collection and disposal, waste reduction and recycling should be
pursued as equally important longer-term objectives (Schubeller et al., 1996).
Cointreau (2001) has also identified ten principles that should guide a sustainable and integrated
solid waste management programme. Such a programme should:
1. Be supportive of good governance
16

2. Provide economic service delivery
3. Establish cost recovery mechanisms for long-term financial sustainability
4. Conserve natural resources
5. Embrace public participation
6. Foster environmentally appropriate technologies and sites
7. Seek appropriate levels of source segregation, recycling and resource recovery
8. Conduct strategic facility planning and development
9. Build institutional capacity
10. Invite private sector involvement
In line with Gilpins (1996) notion of waste management, this means that waste management
involves much more than the practical organization of waste collection, transportation, treatment
and disposal. While these are important aspects of waste management, several other issues are
equally important including good governance, public and private sector participation (Cointreau,
2001). The waste management situations in most developing countries show that the goals and
principles of waste management are far from being achieved (Schubeller et al., 1996; Hardoy et
al., 2001; Pacione, 2005).This principles are very important in this research study when the
various institutions involved in management of these waste put these principles into practice,
since its will help minimize waste generation, maximize waste recycling and reuse, and ensure
the safe and environmentally sound disposal of waste in Kumasi Central Market.

2.2.7 Integrated Waste Management and the Waste hierarchy
In recent years, the concept of integrated waste management (IWM) has become popular as a
new approach to waste management. As defined by the World Resource Foundation (WRF, cited
in Environment Council, 2000), IWM refers to the use of a range of different waste
management options rather than using a single option. In other words, IWM is an approach
which relies not only on technical solutions to the waste problem, but on a wide range of
complementary techniques in a holistic approach. The approach involves the selection and
application of appropriate technologies, techniques and management practices to design a
programme that achieves the objectives of waste management (Tchobanoglous et al., 1993).
The concept of IWM seems to have emerged from the realization that technical solutions alone
do not adequately address the complex issue of waste management and that there is the need to
17

employ a more holistic approach to waste management. As argued by Rhyner et al. (1995), a
single choice of methods for waste management is frequently unsatisfactory, inadequate, and not
economical. Use of an integrated approach to managing solid waste has therefore evolved in
response to the need for a more holistic approach to the waste problem. In this approach, all
stakeholders participating in and affected by the waste management regime are brought on board
to participate in waste management. Furthermore, issues such as social, cultural, economic and
environmental factors are considered in the design of an IWM project (Tchobanoglous et al.,
1993; Rhyner et al., 1995; Schubeller et al., 1996)

These elements most commonly associated with integrated solid waste management are waste
prevention, waste reduction/minimization, re-use of materials and products, material recovery
from waste streams, recycling of materials, composting to produce manures, incineration with
energy recovery, incineration without energy recovery and disposal in landfills in that order of
priority (Durham County Council, 2007: online) These elements of IWM are frequently
formulated into a waste hierarchy model which Girling (2005) has described as a penny-plain
piece of common sense that places the various strategies for waste management in order of
environmental friendliness, from best to worst. As shown in Figure. 2.1, waste reduction are
placed at the top to show that the best way to deal with waste since waste cannot be prevented
from its production and, where this is not possible, to produce less of it. At the other extreme,
disposal is placed at the bottom to show that it should be the last resort among the strategies for
waste management.

18


Fig. 2.1: Waste Management Hierarchy Model
Since waste cannot be prevented, it can be recycled and re-use so that as more waste is produced
it is put to a use to prevent problems related to waste management. This module is very
important since as often as waste is produce it can be recycled or pass through the necessary
processes before disposing it.

2.3 The Urban Solid Waste Problem in Developing Countries
2.3.1 Introduction
Rapid urbanization which occurred in the developed world in the late 19th and early 20th centuries
is now underway in the developing parts of the world (Songsore, 2004; Tannerfeldt and Ljung,
2006). In Asia, Africa and Latin America, cities are growing rapidly, fuelled by large-scale rural-
urban migration and natural increases within the cities (Songsore, 2004). According to Hardoy et
al. (2001), the urban population in these regions grew more than fivefold from 346 million in
1950 to 1.8 billion in 1995, and even though Asia and Africa are relatively less urbanized, they
both have very large urban populations and rapidly growing cities (Songsore, 2004).

The rapid urbanization which is currently occurring in the developing parts of the world has
many positive impacts including economic growth and modernization but it is also accompanied
by problems of a social, economic and environmental nature. Thus, while cities in these
countries grapple with socio-economic problems such as poor shelter, unemployment, poverty
and misery, there are also mounting environmental problems including poor sanitation and water
quality, slum development and a worsening solid waste situation which, among other problems,
19

have become great challenges to municipal authorities (Kwawe, 1995; Hardoy et al., 2001;
Pacione, 2005). In particular, the urban solid waste situation in most poor countries is worrying.
Most cities in the developing world are, therefore, drowning in waste (Chazan, 2002). The
appalling solid waste situation in the worlds poor cities has attracted attention even at the global
level.
To address the waste problem confronting the world under the UN Resolution 44/288, four major
programme areas was identified which were:
Minimizing wastes
Maximizing environmentally sound waste reuse and recycling
Promoting environmentally sound waste disposal and treatment
Extending waste service coverage
In most cities in the developing world, the poor environmental sanitation created by the waste
situation militates against the achievement of the major objective of solid waste management
which is to protect human health and the environment from the hazards posed by waste (RCRA,
1976; Schubeler et al., 1996; Hardoy et al., 2001). Also, achievement of many of the Millennium
Development Goals (MDGs) depends on maintaining clean and healthy human settlements. For
example, reducing child mortality (MDG 4), improving maternal health (MDG 5), reducing
malaria and other environment-related diseases (MDG 6) and ensuring environmental
sustainability (MDG 7) are directly affected by the quality of waste management. Furthermore,
effective and sustainable waste management will promote the attainment of the remaining
MDGs.

2.3.2 The Nature of the Waste Problem in Developing Countries
While data is generally lacking in the waste sector of developing countries, available studies on
the topic suggest that solid waste management in generally characterized by inefficient collection
methods, insufficient coverage of the collection systems and improper disposal of municipal
waste (Onibokun and Kumuyi, 1999; Hardoy et al., 2001; Pacione, 2005). Major urban
settlements are, therefore, characterized by waste accumulations and poor environmental
sanitation (Habitat, 1997; Onibokun and Kumuyi, 1999; Hardoy et al., 2001; Pacione, 2005;
Palczynski and Scotia, 2002). In 2002, the United Nations Centre for Human Settlement (UN-
Habitat) raised concern about the solid waste situation in poor country cities in the following
20

words: The need for the collection and disposal of solid waste in urban settlements is far from
adequately recognized. Uncollected refuse accumulates in drains, roads and open spaces,
disrupting community life and creating additional problems in the operation of other public
services (Habitat 2002).
In many Third World cities, writers suggest that large proportions (between 30 and 50 percent)
of the solid waste generated by the residents are never collected for disposal and end up rotting
on the streets, in drains and in streams (Hardoy et al., 2001; Pacione, 2005; Ali, 2006). Hardoy et
al. (2001) for instance have reported the extensive lack of solid waste collection in cities across
the developing world. Pacione
(2005) has also commented on the lack of provision for urban waste management in poor
countries and the resulting poor environmental conditions in the cities. According to him, most
poor city governments have great difficulty regarding the collection and safe disposal of solid
wastes. He estimates that between one third and one half of all solid waste generated in Third
World cities remains uncollected and the collection rate could be as low as 10 20 percent in
some cases. Depicting a similar picture of the problem, Cointreau (2001), has estimated that in
some cases, up to 60 percent of solid waste generated within urban centres in poor countries
remains uncollected and such refuse accumulates on waste lands and streets, sometimes to the
point of blocking roads

2.4 Urban Solid Waste Management in Developing Countries
2.4.1 Introduction
The term solid waste management has been viewed differently by various authors. Kumah
(2007) defines solid waste management as the administration of activities that provide for the
collection, source separation, storage, transportation, transfer, processing, treatment, and disposal
of waste. However, Tchobanoglous et al (1993), provide a more comprehensive definition of
solid waste management. According to them, solid waste management is that discipline
associated with the control of generation, storage, collection, transfer and transport, processing
and disposal of solid wastes in a manner that is in accord with the best principles of public
health, economics, engineering, conservation, aesthetics and other environmental considerations
and that is also responsive to public attitudes. Therefore, if solid waste management is to be
accomplished in an efficient and orderly manner, the fundamental aspects and relationships
21

involved must be indentified and understood clearly (Tchobanoglous et al, 1993). On the basis of
this solid waste management incorporates the following: source separation, storage, collection,
transportation and disposal of solid waste in an environmentally sustainable manner
(Tchobanoglous et al, 1993). These elements have been illustrated in Figure 2.2 below.
Figure 2.2 Key Elements of Solid Waste Management














(Source: Tchobanoglous et al 1993)

2.4.2 Solid Waste Management Processes
As shown in figure 2.2, the key elements in solid waste management include: waste generation,
storage, collection, transfer and transport, processing and recovery and final disposal. This means
that when waste is generated it is first stored in either dustbins or skips. It is then collected and
finally disposed of in landfill. Also, when waste is collected it can be transferred from small
collection equipment like the tricycle to a bigger truck for final disposal. On the other hand,
waste collected can be processed and recovered for materials to be reused.

2.4.3 Waste Generation
Waste generation encompasses those activities in which materials are identified as no longer
being of value and are either thrown away or gathered together for disposal (Momoh and
Waste Generation
Storage
Collection
Transfer and Transport Processing and Recovery
Final Disposal
22

Oladebeye, 2010). According to UNEP (2009), in 2006 the total amount of municipal solid waste
(MSW) generated globally reached 2.02 billion tones, representing a 7 per cent annual increase
since 2003. It is further estimated that between 2007 and 2011, global generation of municipal
waste will rise by 37.3 per cent, equivalent to roughly 8 per cent increase per year (UNEP,
2009). The programme also says that, as per WHO estimations, the total health-care waste per
person per year in most low income countries, is anywhere from 0.5 kg to 3 kg. That
notwithstanding, the causes of this increased should have enumerated by the organisation and
therefore, has not exhausted the issue on discussion. It is accepted that solid waste generation is
increasing at a faster rate globally as indicated by UNEP and this is confirmed by Mensah and
Larbi (2005) concerning solid waste generation in Ghana.

2.4.4 Storage
Tchobanoglous et al (1977) explain storage to mean where solid waste is stored before it is
collected. It could be stored in a skip or dustbins and not thrown away indiscriminately.
According to them, storage is of primary importance because of the aesthetic consideration.

2.4.5 Collection
The element of collection includes not only the gathering of solid waste, but also the hauling of
waste after collection to the location where the collection vehicle is emptied ( Kreith, 1994).
According to Kreith (1994), the most common type of residential collection services in the
United States include curb, setout-setback and backyard carry. According to the USPS
(2000), in the city of Thimphu in Bhutan the collection of solid waste from households,
commercial set-ups was done in concrete receptacles placed at strategic points and conveyed by
trucks/tractors. Accordingly, there were concrete bins and containers provided at various
locations from where the waste was lifted for disposal. Individual bins/containers were also
placed alongside the shops in certain areas, which were emptied directly into the trucks/tippers.
This prevents people from dumping waste indiscriminately. On the other hand, the building of
these concrete bins and containers may be expensive to do in Ghana and for that matter TAMA.




23

2.4.6 Transfer and Transport
According to Kreith (1994), transfer and transport involves two steps: (1) the transfer of wastes
from the smaller collection vehicle to the larger transport equipment and (2) the subsequent
transport of the wastes, usually over long distances to the final disposal site.

2.4.7 Processing and Recovery
The element of processing and recovery includes all the technology, equipment, and facilities
used both to improve the efficiency of other functional elements and to recover usable materials,
conversion products or energy from solid wastes (Tchobanoglous et al, 1977). In the recovery,
separation operations have been devised to recover valuable resources from the mixed solid
wastes delivered to transfer stations or solid waste processing plants (Tchobanoglous et al,
1977).
2.4.8 Disposal
It is the ultimate fate of all solid wastes whether they are residential wastes collected and
transported directly to landfill site. Having explained the various elements in the diagram by
some authorities, the next section analyses in further details the final disposal methods of solid
waste. Several methods of solid waste management have evolved over the years. These methods
according to the Centre for Environment and Development (2003) vary greatly with types of
wastes and local conditions. For the purpose of this analysis, this section is divided into early
practices of managing solid waste and contemporary methods of waste management systems.
These solid waste management processes are very important to this research study since they
explains the need for the various institutions involved in managing these waste generated in the
study area.

2.5 Solid Waste Management in Ghana
Ghana typifies most Sub-Saharan African countries with respect to dearth of reliable data on the
management of solid waste (Anomanyo, 2004). According to Edoho and Dibie (2000), this
situation can hardly be attributed to absence of policy and institutional frameworks. Most
possibly, the Ghanaian situation is a result of failure of established frameworks to manage
human, physical and financial resources so as to achieve desired objectives. Since independence
in 1957, Ghanas environmental policy, like that in most SSA countries has followed European
models, with market friendly, large scale industrial development (Issahaku, 2000). Ghanas
24

regulatory authority, the Environmental Protection Council (EPC) was created in 1974, followed
by the enactment of the Provisional National Defence Council (PNDC) Law 116 in 1985, later
replaced with PNDC Law 207 of 1988 which made District Assemblies responsible authorities
for matters relating to environmental management (Edoho and Dibie, 2000). Despite the creation
of the EPC in 1974 there was no formal procedure for environmental assessment in Ghana until
1994, when the EPC changed into the Environmental Protection Agency through an Act of
Parliament. This became necessary with the establishment of a full fledged Ministry of the
Environment charged with policy issues at the national level (Ahorttor and Asiamah, 2000).
Earlier in 1988, Ghana established its Environmental Action Plan, a policy document that
dovetailed into Ghanas Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) which strongly emphasized
sustainability in agriculture, forestry, mining and manufacturing. Despite these strides, core
issues bordering on sustainable management of development processes remains largely
unaddressed in any concerted manner to date (Issahaku, 2000).














25

CHAPTER THREE
PROFILE AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction
This chapter presents the profile of Kumasi Central Market (KCM) and the Research
Methodology

3.2 Kumasi Central Market (KCM)
3.2.1 General Overview
The Kumasi Central Market (KCM) within the Kumasi Metropolis is said to be one of the largest
urban open daily markets in Africa and the surrounding business area is one of the busiest
economic centres in the country (Integrated Development Consultant,1991). The market was
built in 1924, about 87 years ago and is situated in the subin constituency. KCM covers 25
hectares and has 119 original blocks of stalls/stores, laid out in back-to-back rows (Integrated
Development Consultants, 1991). Currently KCM can boast of about 10,000 stores
(Acheampong, 2010). Plate 3.1 below shows the location of Kumasi Central Market.

Plate 3.1: Map showing the location of Kumasi Central Market

Source: Town and Country Planning Department March, 2011
26


3.3 Problems within the KCM
3.3.1 Poor market facilities
One of the biggest problems of the Central Market is the lack of basic facilties like waste bin etc.
The market is unsanitary, plagued by flooding and dilapidated structures. Revenues generated
from specific facilities in the Kumasi Metropolis are not earmarked for their maintenance. The
problems arise in assessing maintenance priorities, where the market traders are excluded from
the process.
The Kumasi Central Market serves some 200,000 (Integrated Development Consultant,1991)
people on a daily basis but has neither public standpipes nor toilets. The nearest toilet is located
outside the market some about half a kilometer away, a problem for both customers and traders.
The market is prone to all sorts of accidents but no health post or clinic operates within the
market boundaries. Despite these problems and the fact that the KMA is not living up to its
responsibilities, the traders continue to pay their tolls and rents for fear of being ejected from the
market.
Drainage problems also pose sanitation hazards in the market. The main drain that passes
through the city centre winds through the market. During rainy seasons, drains in the market are
choked, causing flooding. Business drops during flooding, as do incomes. In light of this and the
lack of response of the KMA to fix the drainage problem, many traders move out of the market
during the rainy season, selling their goods from unauthorized locations on the streets.
( Integrated Development Consultants, 1991)

3.4 Research Methodology
3.4.1 Introduction
The thrust of this chapter describe the procedures as well as the techniques of gathering data for
the study on Kumasi Central Market. The data for the study were gotten from two main sources.
That is primary and secondary.
The primary data were obtained from identified institutions and store operators. The data were
extracted through structured questionnaire administration. Another technique that was employed
in gathering primary data was physical survey and observations of the selected area. The
27

secondary data on the other hand, were obtained through the review of relevant reports and
documents from literature that are related in issues with regards to the subject matter of the
study.
3.4.2 Selection of the Study Sites
The Kumasi Central Market (KCM) is said to be one of the largest urban open daily markets in
Africa and the surrounding business area is one of the busiest economic centres in the country.
Since this is not the only commercial centre where heaps of refuse are found within the Kumasi
Metropolis, three possible study locations emerged from the preliminary investigation that are
confronted with the solid waste crisis. All the major commercial centres in Kumasi including
Adum, Race Course and K.C.M face equally tragic waste situations that need to be investigated.
After establishing that the waste menace was common to all the commercial centers, K.C.M
were selected based on the most hit solid waste problem in the area.

3.4.3 Sampling Techniques
The following sampling techniques were employed to select the respondents for the study. These
were; cluster, random and purposive sampling.

3.4.3.1 Random and cluster sampling
Random sampling was used in the selecting of the store operators since each member in the
sample frame which is the store operators has an equal chance of being selected and Cluster
sampling applied since Kumasi Central Market is very large and its vary expensive to administer
the whole store operators. The study utilized the cluster and random sampling technique to select
respondents. In adopting this, the following process was followed:
1. Layout of the study area was obtained from the T&CPD of the K.M.A.
2. The layout was divided into clusters.
3. Each cluster was assigned a number from 1 to 6 based on how the market has been
distributed.
4. 3 out of these 6 clusters were randomly picked for the exercise.
5. All the store operators within the selected clusters were therefore interviewed


28


3.4.3.2 Purposive sampling
Purposive sampling technique was used to select the key stakeholders in waste management
within the study area. As the name implies, in trying to adhere to the objectives of the study,
respondents who can answer the research questions best are selected. In this case, these key
stakeholders had the necessary information, adequate knowledge and experience on solid waste
management in the study area. Below is the type of data collected from each key stakeholder.
Market Manager
Number of stores within the market
Waste Management Department and Zoomlion Ghana Ltd.:
Types and components of waste generated.
Quantity generated.
Mode of collection.
Provision of dustbins.
Availability of waste management equipment.
Frequency of collection.
Disposal site.

3.4.4 Data Collection
After carefully considering the research questions, the nature of the data needed for the analysis
and the prevailing conditions on the research field, it became evident that the best way to collect
adequate data for the research would be a combination of the methods of both quantitative and
qualitative approaches. This is because some of the data required were qualitative in nature and
could best be obtained through interviews while others were quantitative and thus, could be
elicited by means of questionnaires. Qualitative data are data were obtained through interview
guides and observation whiles Quantitative data were also obtained through questionnaire
administration.
Furthermore, aspects of the data were physically observable and could be gathered through direct
field inspection or observation. There was also a range of published information including
newspaper articles and other publications that could yield useful data for the study. In view of
this, it became useful to combine different methods from both qualitative and quantitative
29

approaches in my attempt to gather the data needed for this investigation. The study, therefore,
employed interviews, well-structured questionnaires, field observation and documentary
analysis, drawing upon the strengths of these different methods to improve the quality or validity
of the data.
3.4.5 Types of data
Secondary and primary data played a key role in obtaining substantial information for the study.

3.4.5.1 Secondary Data
Substantial relevant secondary data on elements of solid waste management have been gathered
and reviewed thoroughly to understand what has already been done in the field of solid waste
management. The Secondary data is important to provide a frame and direction for the study.
Secondary data were obtained from books, articles, journals, publications, newspapers and
internet sources on solid waste management to review literature. These were analysed in chapter
two. Secondary data were also obtained from the Zoomlion Ghana Ltd, Waste Management
Department of the Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly. The data obtained include objective of waste
management by the Assembly, strategies, activities, time frame, implementing agencies,
collaborators and indicative cost.

3.4.5.2 Primary Data Collection
Primary data were collected through preliminary field investigation, key informant interviews,
questionnaires survey and Observation. These are further discussed in the sub-sections below.

3.4.6 Preliminary Field Investigation
According to Yin (1982), observations are a form of evidence that do not depend on verbal
behaviour, and the method enables the investigator to observe the phenomenon under study
directly. The phenomenon under study, solid waste, is one which lends itself to direct field
observation. Thus, in addition to questionnaires and interviews, field observation was done as
part of the data collection exercise. This involved the observation of solid waste situations and
other conditions that could affect solid waste management in the study areas such as the layout of
area and road access within the KCM.
The field observation involved scouting through the study area to assess the following.
Solid waste collection skips.
30

Dustbins in the study area
Dump sites.
In the course of the field observation, photographs were taken of waste scenes such as market
litter, waste storage containers, the dump sites. This was included in the analysis of data gathered
from the field. This process weighed the problems and guided the formulation of questionnaire
survey and interview schedule.
The exercise enabled me to gain first-hand knowledge of the solid waste situation in the study
area including the solid waste disposal habits of the people, the level of solid waste disposal
services available, the collection, transportation and disposal and the management of solid waste.

3.4.7 Face to Face Interview
Interviewing is a useful way of collecting qualitative data because the technique is
introspective and allows respondents to report on themselves, their views, their beliefs,
practices, interactions and concerns (Freebody, 2003).The interview technique was employed to
obtain data from the following key stakeholder groups as far as solid waste management is
concerned in the study area. These were:
Market Manager, KCM
Town and Country Planning, Kumasi
Waste Management Department of KMA
Zoomlion Company Limited

3.4.8 Structured Questionnaire
The questionnaire for the KCM survey was developed to cover an aspect of the objectives of the
study which was to investigate issues concerning solid waste generation and disposal practices,
availability and type of solid waste disposal services, payments for solid waste disposal services,
store operatiors perceptions about the solid waste situations in the KCM and how the situation
could be improved. The survey questionnaire was well-structured, containing both open-ended
and closed-ended questions. The closed-ended questions required the respondent to make choices
from alternative responses while the open-ended questions provided space for them to give their
own answers to questions. An advantage of the questionnaire was that while the closed questions
31

made the questionnaire easy to complete, the open-ended questions provided the opportunity for
respondents to give more detail information about the issues being investigated.
3.4.9 Data analysis and Presentation
Both quantitative and qualitative data were gathered for the study using questionnaires,
interviews, field observation and documentary sources. The data were coded and fed into
Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 14.0. for Windows) software. Analysis was
undertaken to generate a descriptive picture of the data gathered. The data were processed into
statistical tables and charts for interpretation and discussion. Simple percentages and means were
used to analyse the quantitative data obtained from the questionnaire administration.
The qualitative data from interviews conducted with all other categories of respondents were
analysed manually by making summaries of the views of the respondents and supporting these
with relevant quotations that captured these views, supported with data from documentary
sources and my own field observations of the waste situations in the two case-study cities. The
analysis (presented in the next chapter) is organised under themes derived from the data and the
research questions that guided the entire investigation.

3.4.10 Conclusion
Data were collected from two main sources namely secondary and primary. Field investigation,
face to face interview, questionnaire survey were employed to gather primary data. The sampling
techniques used were cluster sampling, random and purposive sampling. Data were analysed
both quantitatively and qualitative using tables, bar graphs, pie charts and pictures.

32

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Introduction
This chapter analyses the data collected from the study area through preliminary field
investigation, questionnaire survey and face-to-face interviews. In all, 99 respondents were
surveyed and interviews were carried out with on key institutions including the Market Manager
of the study area. (Refer to appendix I for details of the Questionnaire ). Data were collected on
the following issues:
Solid Waste generation and collection in the area for a three-year period (2008-2010).
Types and components of solid waste generated in the area.
Drains and Pavement Cleaning
Availability of Waste Bins in the area
Disposal of Solid Waste by Shop owners
Secondary solid waste collection
Assessment of Environmental Condition of the Market
Awareness of KMA By-law on Sanitation in the KCM
These are discussed in the sub-sections below.


4.2 Solid Waste generation and collection in the area for a three-year period (2008-
2010)

Historical data on amount of solid waste generation and collection provides the basis for city
authorities to strategically formulate effective management tools for handling the solid waste.
The figure below illustrates the total solid waste generation and collection in the study area over
a three year period. It can be observed from the 3-year data that, a yearly solid waste generation
of 450,167 tons was recorded culminating into a daily solid waste generation of about 1233 tons.
On the other hand, a yearly solid waste collection of 365,000 tons was registered. This translates
into a daily waste collection of about 1000 tons leading to a deficit of 23.3 percent of uncollected
waste daily in the Market.
The analysis further shows that, the total solid waste generated between the years 2008-2009 and
2009-2010 increased by 20 percent and 25 percent respectively. Considering the 3-year period,
the total solid waste generation had increased by 50 percent. Moreover, with the 20 percent
33

increase in solid waste generation between 2008 and 2009, there was a corresponding increase of
25 percent in the waste collection. However, with a 25 percent increase in solid waste generation
between 2009 and 2010 there was a 20per cent increase in waste collection.
It can also be seen from the Table 4.1 that, out of the total waste generated in the study area, a
proportion of 80 percent, 83 percent and 80 percent were collected in the years 2008, 2009 and
2010 respectively.
It can be deduced from the foregoing analysis that KMA has not been able to meet their
expectation with regards to the solid waste generation in the KCM and has led to pollution of the
environment and its natural resources like air and land. Further, the uncollected waste poses
environmental health hazard, impact negatively on the quality of the environment and ultimately
affect productivity of the economy.
It can be concluded that the main objective of waste management of protecting public health
against waste-related hazards and risks, and maintaining ecosystem services by preventing the
pollution of the natural environment and its resources such as land, water and air as well as the
aesthetic quality of the environment is far-fetched within the study area
This also underscores the need for KMA to examine its methods in waste collection within the
study area. This study corroborates studies by Onibokun and Kumuyi, 1999 which suggests that
solid waste management in developing countries is generally characterized by inefficient
collection methods.

Table 4.1: Solid waste generated and collected in the KCM

Year Total waste generated
(Tons)
Total Waste
collected
(Tons)
Percent of waste
collected (%)
2008 365,000 292,000 80.0
2009 438,000 365,000 83.3
2010 547,500 438,000 80.0
Average 450,167 365,000 81.1
Source: Waste Management Department, KMA





34

4.3 Types and Components of Solid waste generated in the area

Knowledge on types and the components of solid waste generated will inform management to
use the appropriate method to effectively deal with the various components in solid waste.
Methods such as source separation, recycling, composting can be used depending on the
component of waste generated.
According to the Waste Management Department, the commonest types of waste generated in
the area were Greens, Vegetables, Fruits, food waste and ashes. These components are shown in
table 4.2 below.

Table 4.2: Major Components of Waste Generated
Component Percentage Generated (%)
Greens/vegetables/Fruits 44.0
Plastics 3.52
Fabrics/Textiles 3.2
Paper/Cardboard 3.1
Bottles 0.64
Metals 0.64
Rubber 0.3
Miscellaneous(Ash, Food, Sand) 44.6
Source: Waste Management Department, KMA
Table 4.2 above shows that, the two most waste generating components in the KCM were waste
from Greens/Vegetables/Fruits and Misc (Ash, Food, Sand). Whereas the former constituted
about 44 per cent, the latter accounted for 44.6 percent of all the components of waste generated
in the area. Together, they contribute 88.6percent of solid waste generated in the market. The
least component of waste generated was rubber representing 0.3 percent.
The table above shows that KCM has a high proportion of Greens/vegetables/Fruits and
Miscellaneous (Ash, Food, Sand) which these components can be combined as organic waste
and low proportions of materials which are recyclables (papers/cardboard, rubber, metals, etc).
This implies also that the organic waste can be used for compositing and hence use as fertilizer
for agricultural purposes. The high composition of organic waste implies a high rate of
putrefaction and hence a potential odour nuisance.

35

4.4 Drains and Pavement Cleaning
The study further investigated into group of persons responsible for cleaning the pavement in
front of their shops and drains and the frequency with which they are cleaned. It can be observed
from Table 4.4 that, all the respondents ensure that the pavement and drains are cleaned every
day.
Table 4.3: Drains and Pavement Cleaning





Source: Field Survey, Kumasi Central Market March, 2011
The analysis further shows that, out of the 99 respondents, 62 representing 63 percent hired
private individuals to clean the pavement and drains everyday whilst 37.percent undertook the
exercise themselves. This shows that, the respondents are aware of importance of keeping their
environment clean. However, from the field observation, it was found that most of the drains
were choked with garbage. By contrasting these two observations, it can be deduced that
although the respondents confirmed cleaning the drains and pavement, the efficiency and
effectiveness of that exercise is questionable.
4.6 Availability of Waste Bin
An interview with the Market Manager revealed that lack of waste bins within the KCM was a
major problem. Table 4.5 below presents availability of waste bin and their location.





Drains and Pavement
Cleaning
How often do you
see it cleaned
Percent Everyday
Myself 37 37.4
Private Individuals 62 62.6
Total 99 100
36

Table 4.4: Availability of Waste Bin
Availability of waste
bin
Location of waste bin
Total In the shop
On the
pavement
Not
applicable
Yes 6 22 0 28
No
0 0 71 71

Total
6 22 71 99
Source: Field Survey, Kumasi Central Market March, 2011
Out of the 99 respondents, 28 representing 28 percent had waste bin whilst 72 percent responded
in the negative. It is a worrying situation as majority of the respondents did not have waste bins.
The salient question is where do all these people deposit their waste? From a reconnaissance
survey undertaken, it was observed that most of the drainage facilities in the study area were
choked with refuse and has led to perennial flooding in the KCM over the past years. It is an
undeniable fact that, such people empty their waste in such drainage facilities. Further analysis
showed that, out of the 28 respondents that had waste bins, 21 percent placed their waste bins in
the shop whilst 79 percent placed it on the pavement. All the respondents indicated that there
were no public waste bins in the KCM.
The unavailability of the public waste bins has fuelled indiscriminate dumping of waste within
the study area. The study also revealed that the indiscriminate dumping could be attributed to the
negative attitudes of the people towards waste disposal. From plate 4.1 below, it can be observed
that the drain is choked with refuse and plastic waste. The dumping of waste in the drains can
easily cause flooding as it reduces the efficiency of the drain. This is because when the drain is
choked with waste, it will block water that is flowing thereby causing flooding. This can easily
affect nearby shops in the area. Additionally, this may cause malaria through stagnated water and
pollute the environment.



37

Plate 4.1: Garbage silted drain

Source: Field Survey, Kumasi Central Market April, 2011
4.7 Disposal of waste by Store Operators
The disposal of solid waste is one of the functional elements in the management of waste. This
response was sought primarily to ascertain the involvement or contribution of the shop operators
to the irregular disposal of solid waste in the study area. It was found that, all the respondents
dispose their waste or empty their waste bins in front of the shop after close of work. This was
done with the anticipation that the hired persons will collect the waste early in the morning. This
attitude of the shop owners is very appalling and highly contributes to the unkempt nature of the
central market. Again, silting or blocking of drainage channels are largely affected as those solid
waste find themselves in drains during nighttime downpour. Plate 4.2 clearly depicts
indiscriminate disposal of plastic waste in front of shops by the shop owners.



38

Plate 4.2: Garbage scattered in front of Shop

Source: Field Survey, Kumasi Central Market April 2011
4.8 Secondary waste collection
The survey further showed that all the respondents in the study area dumped their solid waste in
skips for onward collection by ZoomLion Ghana Ltd (ZL). The skip site is located within the
study area near Aboabo station. A visit to the site showed four skip containers that have been
provided by Zoomlion Company Limited. The shop owners were charged an amount of 20p or
more depending on the size of the solid waste collected by ZL. Most of the residents complained
about the insanitary condition of the area. It is an undeniable fact, regular waste collection is an
important exercise in solid waste management, (Lapidos 2007). However, the frequency and
urgency with which the skips were emptied by Zoomlion was not encouraging. The survey
indicated that the wastes were collected three times a week. Looking at the size of the KCM and
the contribution of waste from the neighbouring communities, it was therefore not surprising that
the skips normally overflowed with solid waste leaving a mountain of waste at the site. This
rendered the surrounding in a very unhygienic condition. Plates 4.3 and 4.4 show the dump site
at Aboabo station and the operation of Zoomlion respectively.

39

Plate 4.3: Refuse dump site




Source: Field Survey, Kumasi Central Market April, 2011
Plate 4.4: Zoomlion at Work

Source: Field Survey, Kumasi Central Market April, 2011
4.9 Assessment of the Environmental Condition of the Market
The survey also sought the assessment of the environmental condition of the market by the
respondents. A total of 94 respondents representing 95 percent indicated that the market was
40

dirty. Out of this, about one-third of respondents indicated that the market was very dirty.
Ironically, 5 percent said the market was clean. Table 4.7 presents the respondents assessment of
the environmental condition of the market.
Table 4.5: Assessment of the Environmental condition of the Market
Degree of cleanliness of
Environment
Number of
Respondents Percent
Clean
5 5
Dirty
64 65
Very Dirty
30 30
Total
99 100
Source: Field Survey, Kumasi Central Market March, 2011
The analyses indicate the failure of the KMA to strategically manage the solid waste menace in
the Central market. It further indicates the deteriorating environmental condition in the KCM.
The appalling environmental condition poses threat to human health with respect to waste-related
hazards and risks. Again, the tendencies of breeding diseases such as typhoid, cholera, chicken
pox which are sanitation-related diseases aggravate.
4.10 Awareness of KMA By-law on Sanitation in KCM
The awareness of the respondents to the KMA by-law indicating that every individual is
responsible for cleaning the pavement around his/her business premises and the immediate
surroundings including the drains were investigated. Out of the 99 respondents, 26 accounting
for 26 percent responded in the affirmative. Majority 74 percent of the respondents were not
aware of such provisions in the KMA By-laws. Figure 4.3 illustrates the percentage distribution.
The obliviousness of such provision by the respondents defeats the Integrated Waste
Management (IWM) approach which brings on board all stakeholders participating in and
affected by the waste management regime. As argued by Rhyner et al. (1995), a single choice
of methods for waste management is frequently unsatisfactory, inadequate, and not economical
and therefore the use of a more holistic approach to managing the waste problem has been found
to achieve much more results. It is therefore important, for the KMA to involve the shop
operators on any strategies geared towards arresting the solid waste crisis in the KCM.
41

Figure 4.3 Awareness of the K.M.A By-Laws

In summary, the underlying factors effecting the effective management of solid waste included:
lack of waste bins, indiscriminate dumping of solid waste, irregular collection of waste among
others the types of waste generated in the Kumasi Central Market include the following:
Greens/vegetables/fruits, Plastics, Fabrics/Textiles, Paper/Cardboard, Bottles, Metals, Rubber
and Ash/Food/sand with Ash/Food/sand as the major component of waste. The study further
reviews the poor environmental condition within the KCM and the danger its poses to human
health. Again the involvement of the shop operators in solid waste management by the K.M.A
was found to be non existence as was evidenced in their unknowingness of the K.M.A bye-law
on sanitation. The next chapter therefore, summarises the key findings, recommendations and
conclusion of the study.








Yes
26%
No
74%
42


CHAPTER FIVE
FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION
5.1 Introduction
In the Kumasi Central Market indiscriminate dumping and irregular collections of solid waste
are the key problems in solid waste management. Therefore, the main objective of the study was
to establish the underlying factors affecting effective waste management in the KCM and suggest
possible measures to tackle the problem. Below are the key findings of the study.
5.2 Key Findings
In the light of the preceding analysis, the research objectives that formed the basis for this study
are revisited. The major findings thus, are summarized under the following research objectives.
5.2.1 Factors affecting effective management of solid waste in K.C.M
5.2.1.1 Unavailability of Waste Bins
Unavailability of waste bin supply was a major factor affecting waste disposal in the KCM. The
survey established that about 71 per cent of respondents have no access to waste bins for
disposing their waste.
Additionally, the survey also established that all the respondents deposit their waste or empty
their waste bins in front of their shops after close of work for onward collection by the hired
private waste collectors. This behaviour has contributed to the deplorable environmental
condition within the area. Again, drainage channels were observed to be silted or blocked as
most of these solid wastes were deposited in those channels during night time down pour. It is
therefore not uncommon to experience the perennial flooding of the market in the raining season.
5.2.1.2 Inadequate Skip Containers and Irregular Collection
Inadequate supply of skips coupled with bi-weekly collection was found to have encouraged
indiscriminate dumping of waste at the site by the hired private individuals, store operators and
the neighbouring communities. The survey revealed that the skips normally overflow with solid
waste living a mountain of waste at the refuse site. This has rendered the surrounding in an
unhygienic condition.
43


5.2.1.3 Poor attitudes towards Waste Management by Store Operators.
Education is another important factor which should be looked at waste management. Most of the
store operators had not obtained any educational serminar organized in effective waste
management. It is believed that this had contributed to the insanitary nature of the market. It is
therefore important that as part of the contractual obligation of the service providers and Waste
Management Department, there should be a collaboration between these institutions to
periodically educate the store operators concerning the need for disposing waste at the right
place in order to maintain the market clean.
Majority 74 per cent of the store operators were not aware of the KMA By-Law which obliges
every individual to clean the pavement around his/her business premises and the immediate
surroundings including drains. It is therefore imperative for the information unit of the KMA to
educate the store operators of such provision. Knowledge of such provision and with strict
enforcement would keep the market free from filth
5.2.2 Role of the Private Stakeholders in the Management of Solid Waste.
The participation of private stakeholders in the management of solid waste in the study area is
very paramount because of the increasing rate of solid waste generation which has overwhelmed
the waste management department of K.M.A in managing them. This waste confirmed by the
amount made (23 percent) of uncollected waste bins daily in the market.
The survey revealed that, Zoomlion Ghana Ltd were the one responsible for the collection,
transportation and disposal of the solid waste from the refuse dump site to the final disposal site.
It was found that, there was irregular collection of waste by Zoomlion Ghana Ltd at the refuse
dump site. It is therefore important to the Waste Management Department to effectively monitor
the operations of Zoomlion in order to address the solid waste menace in the K.C.M
5.3 Recommendations
Good Solid Waste Management is a precondition for good health and for success in the fight
against poverty, hunger, and also increase in productivity. It is also central to human rights and
44

the personal dignity of every human being. The effective management of Solid Waste requires
strategies that bring about fundamental change in how people perceive Solid Waste in the city
and service delivery. The solid waste generators, Service Providers and Managers all have a part
to play to ensure good Solid Waste Management in Kumasi. The following recommendations are
offered based on the issues identified during the analysis of the data collected.
5.2.3 Enforcement of Solid Waste Management Regulations and Bye-Laws
The study revealed that the principal cause of the poor Solid Waste Management conditions in
Kumasi can be attributed to the poor attitude of the people towards Solid Waste. Voluntary
compliance cannot be relied on to ensure that solid waste generators engage in good management
of solid waste behaviour in Kumasi. People know what constitutes good management of solid
waste practices but they would just not engage in good solid waste practices. KMA has to make
conscious effort to implement and enforce the solid waste regulation and bye-laws in Kumasi.
The KMA Task Force should be reinstituted and empowered to arrest solid waste offenders.
They can effectively do their work with collaboration from the Kumasi Central Market. The
Assembly has to collaborate with the Judiciary to establish Solid Waste Tribunals. Enforcing the
bye-laws would result in compliance and cost savings for the Assembly and they can then invest
more in the provision of solid waste bins and other solid waste facilities and equipments since
objectives seeks to establish the underlying factors affecting effective management solid waste in
the KCM, when these enforcement of the bye-laws are been regulated its will improve upon the
effective management of solid waste in Kumasi Central Market.
5.2.2 Provision of Bins within the Market
The study revealed that pedestrians litter anywhere due to the unavailability of solid waste bins
on streets and at vantage points. Adequate investment should be made in the provision of waste
bins within and around the market. Business owners should be encouraged to place waste bins in
front of their business, and the WMD of K.M.A must ensure that the solid waste management
company responsible for such areas empties the waste bins regularly. This would reduce the
amount of solid waste disposed of on within and around the market.
The WMD alone cannot provide the needed equipments such as bins, tractors. Zoomlion Ghana
Ltd should be encouraged through incentives to provide the necessary equipments.

45

5.2.3 Education Through the Media
The study revealed that there had not been any educational programme organized by K.M.A
Waste Department about the need for solid waste minimization. Therefore there should be an
educational programme organized by the Waste Management Department through the media,
especially the radio station within the market, campaigning on the good ways of minimizing
solid waste and ensuring that solid wastes are not left in front of shops after close of work.
This would ensure that store operator, market women understand the concept of solid waste
disposal, the health and economic benefit that can be accrued from engaging in good solid waste
practices.
5.2.4 Institutional Capacity for Improved Service Delivery
The study revealed lapses in the service provision of Zoomlion Ghana Ltd. The frequency and
urgency with which the skips were emptied by Zoomlion was not encouraging due to inefficient
skip containers within the refuse dumpsite. Due to the important role played by Zoomlion in
improving the management solid waste in Kumasi Central Market as identify from the objectives
to examine the role played by the private institution. The company may need assistance in
acquiring the needed equipment to provide effective management within the market. This can be
done through partnership with other stakeholders. The banking sector could also play an
important role in providing low cost loans for solid waste improvements to these companies to
help them secure the necessary tools, adequate staff and equipment to be effective in their
activities.
5.2.5 Regular Collection of Waste
There should be regularity of waste collection by Zoomlion Ghana Ltd. particularly the refuse
dump site in Aboabo station to avoid heaping and over flowing of skips with solid waste. At
least, solid waste should be collected daily in these areas since they generate a lot. There should
be regular monitoring of waste collection by the Metropolitan Assembly. This will keep the
place constantly clean and prevent any possible outbreak of communicable diseases such as
cholera and typhoid.
5.2.6 Monitoring of Activities of Service Providers
The study revealed lapses in the service provision of the private waste management companies.
The Assembly has to institute effective monitoring of the management of solid waste activities of
the private waste management companies, and sanction companies that do not meet quality
46

service standards. This can be done through regular visits to sites where the service providers
operate, by the KWMD staff to assess work done. This would ensure that effective work are
done.
5.2.7 Organisation of Clean up Exercise
The study revealed that, a daily waste generation and collection were recorded with a deficit of
23 per cent of uncollected waste daily in the market. The market manager in collaboration with
the K.M.A Department should organise a clean up exercises at least the last Saturday of every
month to keep the market tidy. This will not only keep the market tidy but reduce the deficit of
solid waste left in the market.
5.2.8 Future Research Issues
Admittedly, the study has barely has barely identify factors that is affecting the effective
management of these wastes which was gathered through the questionnaire administration and
observation from the store operators. Race course is also exhibiting the characteristics of these
problems related to KCM and factors affecting the effective management of waste. It is therefore
essential that more empirical studies are done to establish the occurrence of such phenomenon in
the metropolis
5.4 Conclusion
In the study, the following objectives were set to be achieved. The first objective was to establish
the underlying factors affecting effective solid waste management in the KCM and suggest
possible measures to tackle the problem. Therefore, the survey established that the factors
affecting effective solid waste management were lack of waste bins, indiscriminate dumping of
refuse, lack of routine collection of waste and poor methods of waste management. The second
objective was to examine the role of KMA in the management of solid waste is to monitor the
Zoomlion. The survey revealed that the role of KMA in the collection and disposal of solid waste
is to ensure effective solid waste management through daily collection and disposal of the waste.
However, this was woefully inadequate as there is always a backlog of uncollected waste which
has worsened the environmental condition within the KCM. Thirdly, the research seeks to
examine the roles of the private stakeholders in the disposal of solid waste. The study revealed
the involvement of Zoomlion Ghana Ltd in managing solid and the engagement of unidentified
private individuals. However, this was poorly executed as most of the collected wastes were
dumped in nearby drainage facilities.
47

To effectively tackle the problems enumerated, the following measures are recommended.
Provision of adequate skips and dustbins
Regular collection of Waste
Use of Integrated Solid Waste Management Approach
Creation of environmental awareness through education of the shop owners
Enforcement of Solid Waste Management Regulations and By-Laws
If the above recommendations given are well taken and implemented, it will bring about effective
solid waste management; ensure a clean environment and curb any possible outbreak in the Kumasi
Central Market.















48

APPENDIX 1
QUESTIONAIRE FOR WASTE MANAGEMENT DEPARTMENT
DEPARTMENT OF K.M.A
Name of Respondent..
Position of Respondent..
Name of Interviewer..
Date of Interview. Contact Number

1. What major role does the K.M.A Waste Department play in managing solid waste in
Kumasi Central Market?
2. Which private agencies are involved in Solid Waste Management in Kumasi Central
Market apart from the Waste Management Department of K.M.A?


3. Which of these type of solid waste is the highest generated? (a) Bottles (b)
Paper/Cardboard (c) Fabric (d)Fabric /Textiles (d) Plastics/Polythene (e)
Specify
4. What is the average quantity of solid waste generated within Kumasi central market
daily? (a) 1000 tonnes (b)2000-4000 tonnes (c)above 5000 (d)Others
specify
5. What is the average quantity of solid waste generated within the various years ?
Year Total waste generated Total waste collected
2008
2009
2010

6. How many refuse dump sites are there in Kumasi Central Market and where are their
location?


49

7. Who manages the refuse dump sites at Kumasi central market? (a) K.M.A Waste
Department (b) Zoomlion (c)The Assembly (d) others,
specify...
8. Where is the location of the final disposal sites?

9. How is solid waste managed at the final disposal sites?

10. What are the problems confronting this Department?























50

APPENDIX 2
QUESTIONAIRE FOR STORE OPERATORS
1. Where is your source of supply from? KCM Race course Techiman Outside the
region
2. Who is responsible for cleaning the pavement in front of your shop and the drains?

3. How often do you see it cleaned?
e specify) _________
4.
5.
6. Who provided the waste bin?

7. If no, why dont you have a waste bin?
__________________________________________________________________
8. If no where do you and your customers dispose your litter?

9. How much do you pay for waste disposal/collection? ___________________
10. How often do you pay for the waste collection?
Daily
11. Private individual collectors money collectors
Zoomlion
12. What is your assessment of the environmental condition of the market?

13. Do you have public waste bins within the market
14. Are you aware that according to the KMA bye-laws, every individual is responsible for
cleaning the pavement around his/her business premises and the immediate surroundings
including the drains?

15. Do you organize any clean up exercise in this section of the market. Yes/No
If yes how often (a) Daily (b)Weekly (c)Monthly (d)Yearly (d) Not at all

51

16. What is your general assessment of the environmental condition of solid waste within the
market?

17. What can the waste authorities do to ensure that people engage in good solid waste
practices?
_____________________________________________________________________

















52

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