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PS Lecture 5 - Losses of Prestress

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The Hashemite University

Department of Civil Engineering

Lecture 5 Lecture 5 Losses of Losses of

Prestress Prestress

Dr Hazim Dwairi Dr Hazim Dwairi

Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University

Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi

Types of Losses Types of Losses

Initial PS force undergoes force loss over Initial PS force undergoes force loss over

i d f i t l 5 i d f i t l 5 a period of approximately 5 years a period of approximately 5 years

Losses of PS

Immediate Time-dependent

Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University

Elastic shortening

Anchorage losses

Friction losses

Concrete Creep

Concrete Shrinkage

Steel Relaxation

Prestressed Concrete Hashemite University

Dr. Hazim Dwairi 2

Types of Losses Types of Losses

Losses of PS

Concrete Steel

Elastic shortening

Creep

Relaxation

F i ti

Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University

Creep

Shrinkage

Friction

Anchorage set

General Notes General Notes

Early failures in PS structures were due to the Early failures in PS structures were due to the

inaccuracy in predicting losses over time inaccuracy in predicting losses over time inaccuracy in predicting losses over time. inaccuracy in predicting losses over time.

Losses of PS force may be grouped into: Losses of PS force may be grouped into:

Immediate during construction Immediate during construction

Time Time--dependent over an extended period of time dependent over an extended period of time

The jacking force The jacking force PP

j j

(largest force applied to a (largest force applied to a

tendon) is immediately reduced due to friction tendon) is immediately reduced due to friction

Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University

tendon) is immediately reduced due to friction, tendon) is immediately reduced due to friction,

anchorage and elastic shortening to initial force anchorage and elastic shortening to initial force

PP

i i

Prestressed Concrete Hashemite University

Dr. Hazim Dwairi 3

General Notes General Notes

As time passes by, the force reduces gradually, As time passes by, the force reduces gradually,

rapidly at first but then more slowly due to rapidly at first but then more slowly due to rapidly at first but then more slowly, due to rapidly at first but then more slowly, due to

creep, shrinkage and relaxation. creep, shrinkage and relaxation.

After many years, the force stabilizes to what is After many years, the force stabilizes to what is

known as effective force known as effective force PP

ee

..

For For pretensioning pretensioning, , P P

j j

never acts on the concrete, never acts on the concrete,

but only on the anchorage of the casting bed but only on the anchorage of the casting bed

Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University

but only on the anchorage of the casting bed, but only on the anchorage of the casting bed,

For post For post- -tensioning, tensioning, PP

j j

is fully applied to the is fully applied to the

concrete only at the ends. concrete only at the ends.

General Notes General Notes

An exact determination of the PS losses is not An exact determination of the PS losses is not

feasible all the time sometimes it is reasonable feasible all the time sometimes it is reasonable feasible all the time, sometimes it is reasonable feasible all the time, sometimes it is reasonable

to lump to lump--sum loss estimates. sum loss estimates.

Exact losses affect service load behavior such Exact losses affect service load behavior such

as deflection and crack width. as deflection and crack width.

Overestimation of losses leads to high PS force Overestimation of losses leads to high PS force

causing excessive camber and tensile stresses causing excessive camber and tensile stresses

Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University

causing excessive camber and tensile stresses. causing excessive camber and tensile stresses.

Underestimation of losses leads to little PS Underestimation of losses leads to little PS

force, thus not using the system to its full force, thus not using the system to its full

capacity. capacity.

Prestressed Concrete Hashemite University

Dr. Hazim Dwairi 4

Lump Lump- -sum Estimate of Losses sum Estimate of Losses

First introduced in the ACI code of 1963. The First introduced in the ACI code of 1963. The

current ACI code doesnt have lump current ACI code doesnt have lump sum sum current ACI code doesnt have lump current ACI code doesnt have lump--sum sum

estimates. However AASHTO and Post estimates. However AASHTO and Post--

tensioning institute (PTI) suggest lump tensioning institute (PTI) suggest lump--sums. sums.

Type of Steel Total Losses

f

c

=27.6 MPa

Total losses

f

c

=34.5 MPa

Pretensioned Strand 310 MPa

AASHTO Lump-sum losses *

Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University

Pretensioned Strand --- 310 MPa

Post-tensioned wire or strand 221 MPa 228 MPa

Bars 152 MPa 159 MPa

* Losses due to friction are excluded, it should be computed

according to sec. 6.5 of AASHTO and added.

Lump Lump- -sum Estimate of Losses sum Estimate of Losses

Type of Steel Total Losses

(Slabs)

Total losses

F(Beams and joists)

PTI Lump-sum losses for post-tensioning

These losses are applied to only routine, These losses are applied to only routine,

standard conditions of loading normal concrete standard conditions of loading normal concrete

(S abs) ( ea s a d jo sts)

Stress relieved 270-K strands

and stress relieved 240-K wire

207 MPa 241 MPa

Low relaxation 270-K strands 103 MPa 138 MPa

Bars 138 MPa 172 MPa

Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University

standard conditions of loading, normal concrete, standard conditions of loading, normal concrete,

quality control, construction procedure and quality control, construction procedure and

normal environmental conditions. normal environmental conditions.

Prestressed Concrete Hashemite University

Dr. Hazim Dwairi 5

Type of PS Losses Type of PS Losses

Type Stage Stress Loss

Pre Post (t

i

, t

j

) Total

Elastic shortening At transfer At seq ential f Elastic shortening

(ES)

At transfer At sequential

jacking

--- f

pES

Relaxation (R) Before

and after

transfer

After transfer f

pR

(t

i

, t

j

) f

pR

Creep (CR) After

transfer

After transfer f

pCR

(t

i

, t

j

) f

pCR

Shrinkage (SH) After After stransfer f

SH

(t

i

t

j

) f

SH

Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University

Shrinkage (SH) After

transfer

After stransfer f

pSH

(t

i

, t

j

) f

pSH

Friction (F) --- At jacking --- f

pF

Anchorage Set (A) --- At transfer --- f

pA

Total Life Life f

pT

(t

i

, t

j

) f

pT

Total Losses Total Losses

Pretensioned Pretensioned Members: Members:

ff ff ff ff ff ff

pT pT

==ff

pES pES

++ff

pR pR

++ff

pCR pCR

++ff

pSH pSH

ff

pR pR

==ff

pR pR

((tt

oo

,t ,t

tr tr

)+ )+ff

pR pR

((tt

tr tr

,t ,t

ss

))

tt

oo

=time at jacking (usually zero) =time at jacking (usually zero)

tt

tr tr

=time at transfer (usually 18 hours) =time at transfer (usually 18 hours)

tt

ss

=time at stabilized loss (usually 5 years) =time at stabilized loss (usually 5 years)

Th Th

Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University

Thus, Thus,

ff

pi pi

==ff

pJ pJ

-- ff

pR pR

((tt

oo

,t ,t

tr tr

) ) - - ff

pES pES

Elastic Shortening

Relaxation

J acking stress

Prestressed Concrete Hashemite University

Dr. Hazim Dwairi 6

Total Losses Total Losses

Post Post- -tensioned Members: tensioned Members:

ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff

pT pT

==ff

pA pA

++ff

pF pF

++ff

pES pES

++ff

pR pR

++ff

pCR pCR

++ff

pSH pSH

ff

pR pR

==ff

pR pR

((tt

tr tr

,t ,t

ss

))

ff

pES pES

is applied only when tendons are jacked is applied only when tendons are jacked

sequentially and not simultaneously. sequentially and not simultaneously.

Thus, Thus,

ff ff ff ff

Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University

ff

pi pi

==ff

pJ pJ

-- ff

pA pA

-- ff

pF pF

Tendon Friction

Anchorage set

J acking stress

(1) Elastic Shortening (ES) (1) Elastic Shortening (ES)

As concrete is compressed, it shortens the PS steel due As concrete is compressed, it shortens the PS steel due

to assumed perfect bond. to assumed perfect bond.

In post In post- -tensioned beams with single tendon, there is no tensioned beams with single tendon, there is no

need to calculate ES since it is compensated by jacking. need to calculate ES since it is compensated by jacking.

(same for several tendons jacked simultaneously. (same for several tendons jacked simultaneously.

Pretensioned Pretensioned Beams: Beams:

P

i P

i

Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University

ES

Prestressed Concrete Hashemite University

Dr. Hazim Dwairi 7

=

=

c c

i

c c

i

ES

A E

P

A E

L P

level steel at the concrete in the stress =

=

= = = =

cs

cs pES

cs

c

i

c c

i s

ES s pES

f

nf f

nf

A

nP

A E

P E

E f

Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University

moment weight - Self

.

1

2

2

=

+

=

D

c

D

c

i

cs

M

I

e M

r

e

A

P

f

Post Post--tensioned Beams: tensioned Beams:

1

3

1

3

2

J acking 1 J acking 1

st st

tendon tendon

11

No loss No loss

J acking 2 J acking 2

nd nd

tendon tendon

22

loss in 1 loss in 1

st st

tendon tendon

J acking 3 J acking 3

rd rd

tendon tendon

33

loss in 1 loss in 1

st st

and 2 and 2

nd nd

tendon and tendon and

no loss in 3 no loss in 3

rd rd

tendon tendon

Therefore, the 1 Therefore, the 1

st st

tendon suffers the maximum amount of tendon suffers the maximum amount of

l l

Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University

losses. losses.

Average f N

e

I

e P

A

P

n f

pES

N

J j

j

c

j j i

c

j i

J pES

= =

+ =

=

+ + +

tendons; of number

.

.

) (

1

) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 (

Prestressed Concrete Hashemite University

Dr. Hazim Dwairi 8

(2) Steel Relaxation (R) (2) Steel Relaxation (R)

Prestressing Prestressing tendons undergo relaxation under constant tendons undergo relaxation under constant

length, depending on steel stress and time interval. The length, depending on steel stress and time interval. The

l it d d d th d ti f th t i d l it d d d th d ti f th t i d loss magnitude depends on the duration of the sustained loss magnitude depends on the duration of the sustained

PS force, and ratio of PS force, and ratio of ff

pi pi

//f f

py py

f 94 0

: jacking tendon to due stress For (a)

: to tendons in the stress tensile the limits 05 - ACI318 The

Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University

=

tion recommenda r manufature

f

f

of smaller f

pu

py

pJ

8 . 0

94 . 0

pu

py

pi

f

f

of smaller f

anchorage at the members tensioned - post In (c)

74 . 0

82 . 0

: sfer after tran y Immediatel (b)

=

pu pi

f f 70 . 0

: sfer after tran couplers, and

anchorage at the members, tensioned post In (c)

=

For stress For stress--relieved strands: relieved strands:

f

Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University

hours in is t' '

55 . 0

10

log

=

py

pi

pi pR

f

f

t

f f

Prestressed Concrete Hashemite University

Dr. Hazim Dwairi 9

For low For low- -relaxation strands: relaxation strands:

hours in is t' '

55 . 0

45

log

=

py

pi

pi pR

f

f

t

f f

hours in is t

For step For step- -by by- -step losses: step losses:

= 55 . 0

10

log log

1 2

py

pi

pi pR

f

f

t t

f f

Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University

= 55 . 0

45

log log

1 2

py

pi

pi pR

f

f

t t

f f

ACI ACI--ASCE method of accounting for relaxation: ASCE method of accounting for relaxation:

( ) [ ] C f f f J K f

pSH pCR pES re pR

+ + =

Table 3.4 C values Table 3.4 C values

Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University

Prestressed Concrete Hashemite University

Dr. Hazim Dwairi 10

(3) Creep Loss (CR) (3) Creep Loss (CR)

The continuous deformation of concrete over extended The continuous deformation of concrete over extended

periods of time & sustained loads is know as creep. periods of time & sustained loads is know as creep.

The rate of strains increase rapidly at first, but decreases The rate of strains increase rapidly at first, but decreases

with time until a constant value is reached with time until a constant value is reached

Creep strains depend on the applied sustained load, mix Creep strains depend on the applied sustained load, mix

ratio, curing conditions, environmental conditions, and ratio, curing conditions, environmental conditions, and

the age of concrete when first loaded. the age of concrete when first loaded.

Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University

strain elastic

strain creep

: t coefficien creep Ultimate

= =

EL

CR

u

C

uu

ranges between 2 and 4. ranges between 2 and 4.

recommended value if no information is available is 2 35 recommended value if no information is available is 2 35

u t

C

t

t

C

6 . 0

6 . 0

10

: t' ' at time t coefficien Creep

+

=

recommended value if no information is available is 2.35 recommended value if no information is available is 2.35

Prestress loss due to creep at time t after Prestress loss due to creep at time t after prestressing prestressing

for bonded members is: for bonded members is:

at the concrete in stress the is where

cs

cs

c

ps

t pCR

f

f

E

E

C f =

Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University

tendon. PS the of centroid the of level

cs

f

In post In post- -tensioned unbonded members, the loss is tensioned unbonded members, the loss is

essentially uniform along the whole span. An average essentially uniform along the whole span. An average

values of values of f f

cs cs

between the anchorage points can be used. between the anchorage points can be used.

Prestressed Concrete Hashemite University

Dr. Hazim Dwairi 11

( )

members ed pretension for 0 . 2

: is loss creep for expession ASCE - ACI The

=

=

CR

csd cs

c

ps

CR pCR

K

f f

E

E

K f

only. load dead ed superimpos

all to due steel of level at concret in stress

sfer after tran steel of level at concrete in stress

members tensioned - post for 1.6

=

csd

cs

f

f

Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University

members tensioned - post for 1.28

members ed pretension for 6 . 1

concrete t lightweigh for 20% by reduced be should : Note

=

=

CR

CR

K

K

(4) Shrinkage Loss (SH) (4) Shrinkage Loss (SH)

The free water normal concrete mixes evaporates with The free water normal concrete mixes evaporates with

time, the rate depending on humidity, temperature, and time, the rate depending on humidity, temperature, and

i d h f b i d h f b size and shape of members. size and shape of members.

Drying is accompanied by reduction in volume, the Drying is accompanied by reduction in volume, the

change occurring at higher rate initially. Approximately change occurring at higher rate initially. Approximately

80% of shrinkage occur in the first year. 80% of shrinkage occur in the first year.

The ACI The ACI- -ASCE committee recommends ultimate ASCE committee recommends ultimate

shrinkage strain of ( shrinkage strain of (

SH SH

))

uu

=780 x 10 =780 x 10

--66

Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University

The PCI stipulates a values of ( The PCI stipulates a values of (

SH SH

))

uu

=820 x 10 =820 x 10

--66

days 3 to 1 after curing steam ; ) (

55

) (

days 7 after curing moist ; ) (

35

) (

u SH t SH

u SH t SH

t

t

t

t

+

=

+

=

Prestressed Concrete Hashemite University

Dr. Hazim Dwairi 12

For For pretensioned pretensioned members: members: ff

pSH pSH

==

SH SH

x x E E

ps ps

Where, Where,

SH SH

is adjusted for humidity and V/S ratio is adjusted for humidity and V/S ratio

For For pretensioned pretensioned members transfer commonly takes members transfer commonly takes For For pretensioned pretensioned members, transfer commonly takes members, transfer commonly takes

place after 24 hours after casting, and nearly all place after 24 hours after casting, and nearly all

shrinkage takes place after that. shrinkage takes place after that.

For post For post- -tensioned members, stressing may take place tensioned members, stressing may take place

after one day or much later, thus, a large percentage of after one day or much later, thus, a large percentage of

shrinkage may already have taken place by then. shrinkage may already have taken place by then.

ACI corrects shrinkage strain for environmental ACI corrects shrinkage strain for environmental

Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University

ACI corrects shrinkage strain for environmental ACI corrects shrinkage strain for environmental

conditions by: conditions by:

SH SH

=780 x 10 =780 x 10

--66

x x

SH SH

SH SH

is tabulated in ACI committee report R435 is tabulated in ACI committee report R435- -95 95

( )

Humidity Relative RH : Where

100 0024 . 0 1 10 2 . 8

: is loss shrinkage for expression PCI

6

=

RH

S

V

K f

SH pSH

days in PS of n applicatio to curing

moist of end the from time to relating factor K

mm in ratio surface to volume

S

V

SH

=

Post-tensioned

Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University

Days 1 3 5 7 10 20 30 60

K

SH

0.92 0.85 0.80 0.77 0.73 0.64 0.58 0.45

Pretensioned

K

SH

=1.0

Prestressed Concrete Hashemite University

Dr. Hazim Dwairi 13

(5) Friction Losses (F) (5) Friction Losses (F)

For post For post- -tensioned members, the tendons are tensioned members, the tendons are

usually anchored at one end & jacked from the usually anchored at one end & jacked from the y j y j

other. As the steel slides in the duct during other. As the steel slides in the duct during

jacking, friction losses take place making the jacking, friction losses take place making the

tension at the anchored end loss than at the tension at the anchored end loss than at the

jacking end. jacking end.

The total friction is the sum of: The total friction is the sum of:

Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University

Curvature friction due to imposed curvature. Curvature friction due to imposed curvature.

Wobble friction, due to unintentional misalignment, Wobble friction, due to unintentional misalignment,

even in straight tendons. even in straight tendons.

(5) Friction Losses (F) (5) Friction Losses (F)

s

T

e

n

d

o

n

J

a

c

k

i

n

g

S

t

r

e

s

Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University

Distance along tendon

T

Prestressed Concrete Hashemite University

Dr. Hazim Dwairi 14

(a) Curvature Effect (a) Curvature Effect

F

1

L

F

1

F

2

=F

1

Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University

1

F

2

=F

1

-dF

1

d

dF

1

F

1

F

1

d

d

dF

d F dF

=

=

1

1 1

then effect, curvature to due duct the &

ndon between te friction of t coefficien the denotes if

F

e

F

F

F F

d

F

=

=

=

2

1

2 1

1

ln ln

Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University

R L

e F e F F

R L if F

e

F

F

= =

= =

=

1 1 2

1

1

2

/ ; ln

Prestressed Concrete Hashemite University

Dr. Hazim Dwairi 15

: similarly

then effect, wobble to due concrete g surroundin the &

ndon between te friction of t coefficien the denotes K if

(b) Wobble Effect (b) Wobble Effect

( )

: is loss friction the Thus

: effects both ing Superimpos

: similarly

1 2 1 2

1 2

= =

=

e f f or e F F

e F F

KL KL

KL

Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University

( )

( )

radians in

x

8y

try trigonome From

1

1

1 2 1

=

= =

kL f

e f f f F f

kL

p

Tendons Central Angle Tendons Central Angle

x

/2 /2

y

m

x/2

1

2

2

2 tan

x

m

x

m

= =

Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University

radians in

8

4 2 &

2

1

x

y

Then

x y m y if

=

=

Dr. Hazim Dwairi 16

Wobble and Curvature Wobble and Curvature

Coefficients Coefficients

Type of tendon K (1/m)

T d i fl ibl t l h ti Tendons in flexible metal sheeting

1- wire tendons 0.0033 0.0049 0.15 0.25

2- 7-wire strands 0.0016 0.0066 0.15 0.25

3- High-strength bars 0.0003 0.0020 0.08 0.30

Tendons in rigid metal ducts (7-

wire strands)

0.0007 0.15 0.25

Mastic-coated tendons (wire 0.0033 0.0066 0.05 0.15

Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University

(

tendons and 7-wire strands)

Pre-greased tendons (wire

tendons and 7-wire strands)

0.001 - 0.0066 0.05 0.15

(6) Anchorage Slip or Seating (6) Anchorage Slip or Seating

Loss (A) Loss (A)

In post In post--tensioned members, a small amount of tensioned members, a small amount of

force is lost at the anchorage upon transfer, as force is lost at the anchorage upon transfer, as force is lost at the anchorage upon transfer, as force is lost at the anchorage upon transfer, as

the wedges seat themselves on the tendons, or the wedges seat themselves on the tendons, or

as the hardware deform. This magnitude ranges as the hardware deform. This magnitude ranges

between 6.35mm & 9.53mm for the two piece between 6.35mm & 9.53mm for the two piece

wedges. wedges.

Similarly, in Similarly, in pretensioned pretensioned, losses may occur due , losses may occur due

Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University

y, y, pp , y , y

to slippage at the permanent casting to slippage at the permanent casting

anchorages, the loss may be compensated by anchorages, the loss may be compensated by

the overstressing. the overstressing.

Prestressed Concrete Hashemite University

Dr. Hazim Dwairi 17

(6) Anchorage Slip or Seating (6) Anchorage Slip or Seating

Loss (A) Loss (A)

A

E f

length tendon L

slip of magnitude

:

=

A

ps

A

pA

Where

E

L

f

Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University

tendon ng prestressi of modulus E

ps

Pretensioned Members

Elastic Shortening

Loss

Post-tensioned Members

Friction Loss

Creep Loss

Shrinkage Loss

Relaxation Loss

Anchorage Slip

Loss

Elastic Shortening

Loss

Creep Loss

Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. HazimDwairi Dr. HazimDwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University

Shrinkage Loss

Relaxation Loss

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