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Prestressed Concrete Hashemite University

Dr. Hazim Dwairi 1


The Hashemite University
Department of Civil Engineering
Lecture 5 Lecture 5 Losses of Losses of
Prestress Prestress
Dr Hazim Dwairi Dr Hazim Dwairi
Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University
Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi
Types of Losses Types of Losses
Initial PS force undergoes force loss over Initial PS force undergoes force loss over
i d f i t l 5 i d f i t l 5 a period of approximately 5 years a period of approximately 5 years
Losses of PS
Immediate Time-dependent
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Elastic shortening
Anchorage losses
Friction losses
Concrete Creep
Concrete Shrinkage
Steel Relaxation
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Dr. Hazim Dwairi 2
Types of Losses Types of Losses
Losses of PS
Concrete Steel
Elastic shortening
Creep
Relaxation
F i ti
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Creep
Shrinkage
Friction
Anchorage set
General Notes General Notes
Early failures in PS structures were due to the Early failures in PS structures were due to the
inaccuracy in predicting losses over time inaccuracy in predicting losses over time inaccuracy in predicting losses over time. inaccuracy in predicting losses over time.
Losses of PS force may be grouped into: Losses of PS force may be grouped into:
Immediate during construction Immediate during construction
Time Time--dependent over an extended period of time dependent over an extended period of time
The jacking force The jacking force PP
j j
(largest force applied to a (largest force applied to a
tendon) is immediately reduced due to friction tendon) is immediately reduced due to friction
Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University
tendon) is immediately reduced due to friction, tendon) is immediately reduced due to friction,
anchorage and elastic shortening to initial force anchorage and elastic shortening to initial force
PP
i i
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Dr. Hazim Dwairi 3
General Notes General Notes
As time passes by, the force reduces gradually, As time passes by, the force reduces gradually,
rapidly at first but then more slowly due to rapidly at first but then more slowly due to rapidly at first but then more slowly, due to rapidly at first but then more slowly, due to
creep, shrinkage and relaxation. creep, shrinkage and relaxation.
After many years, the force stabilizes to what is After many years, the force stabilizes to what is
known as effective force known as effective force PP
ee
..
For For pretensioning pretensioning, , P P
j j
never acts on the concrete, never acts on the concrete,
but only on the anchorage of the casting bed but only on the anchorage of the casting bed
Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University
but only on the anchorage of the casting bed, but only on the anchorage of the casting bed,
For post For post- -tensioning, tensioning, PP
j j
is fully applied to the is fully applied to the
concrete only at the ends. concrete only at the ends.
General Notes General Notes
An exact determination of the PS losses is not An exact determination of the PS losses is not
feasible all the time sometimes it is reasonable feasible all the time sometimes it is reasonable feasible all the time, sometimes it is reasonable feasible all the time, sometimes it is reasonable
to lump to lump--sum loss estimates. sum loss estimates.
Exact losses affect service load behavior such Exact losses affect service load behavior such
as deflection and crack width. as deflection and crack width.
Overestimation of losses leads to high PS force Overestimation of losses leads to high PS force
causing excessive camber and tensile stresses causing excessive camber and tensile stresses
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causing excessive camber and tensile stresses. causing excessive camber and tensile stresses.
Underestimation of losses leads to little PS Underestimation of losses leads to little PS
force, thus not using the system to its full force, thus not using the system to its full
capacity. capacity.
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Dr. Hazim Dwairi 4
Lump Lump- -sum Estimate of Losses sum Estimate of Losses
First introduced in the ACI code of 1963. The First introduced in the ACI code of 1963. The
current ACI code doesnt have lump current ACI code doesnt have lump sum sum current ACI code doesnt have lump current ACI code doesnt have lump--sum sum
estimates. However AASHTO and Post estimates. However AASHTO and Post--
tensioning institute (PTI) suggest lump tensioning institute (PTI) suggest lump--sums. sums.
Type of Steel Total Losses
f
c
=27.6 MPa
Total losses
f
c
=34.5 MPa
Pretensioned Strand 310 MPa
AASHTO Lump-sum losses *
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Pretensioned Strand --- 310 MPa
Post-tensioned wire or strand 221 MPa 228 MPa
Bars 152 MPa 159 MPa
* Losses due to friction are excluded, it should be computed
according to sec. 6.5 of AASHTO and added.
Lump Lump- -sum Estimate of Losses sum Estimate of Losses
Type of Steel Total Losses
(Slabs)
Total losses
F(Beams and joists)
PTI Lump-sum losses for post-tensioning
These losses are applied to only routine, These losses are applied to only routine,
standard conditions of loading normal concrete standard conditions of loading normal concrete
(S abs) ( ea s a d jo sts)
Stress relieved 270-K strands
and stress relieved 240-K wire
207 MPa 241 MPa
Low relaxation 270-K strands 103 MPa 138 MPa
Bars 138 MPa 172 MPa
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standard conditions of loading, normal concrete, standard conditions of loading, normal concrete,
quality control, construction procedure and quality control, construction procedure and
normal environmental conditions. normal environmental conditions.
Prestressed Concrete Hashemite University
Dr. Hazim Dwairi 5
Type of PS Losses Type of PS Losses
Type Stage Stress Loss
Pre Post (t
i
, t
j
) Total
Elastic shortening At transfer At seq ential f Elastic shortening
(ES)
At transfer At sequential
jacking
--- f
pES
Relaxation (R) Before
and after
transfer
After transfer f
pR
(t
i
, t
j
) f
pR
Creep (CR) After
transfer
After transfer f
pCR
(t
i
, t
j
) f
pCR
Shrinkage (SH) After After stransfer f
SH
(t
i
t
j
) f
SH
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Shrinkage (SH) After
transfer
After stransfer f
pSH
(t
i
, t
j
) f
pSH
Friction (F) --- At jacking --- f
pF
Anchorage Set (A) --- At transfer --- f
pA
Total Life Life f
pT
(t
i
, t
j
) f
pT
Total Losses Total Losses
Pretensioned Pretensioned Members: Members:
ff ff ff ff ff ff
pT pT
==ff
pES pES
++ff
pR pR
++ff
pCR pCR
++ff
pSH pSH
ff
pR pR
==ff
pR pR
((tt
oo
,t ,t
tr tr
)+ )+ff
pR pR
((tt
tr tr
,t ,t
ss
))
tt
oo
=time at jacking (usually zero) =time at jacking (usually zero)
tt
tr tr
=time at transfer (usually 18 hours) =time at transfer (usually 18 hours)
tt
ss
=time at stabilized loss (usually 5 years) =time at stabilized loss (usually 5 years)
Th Th
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Thus, Thus,
ff
pi pi
==ff
pJ pJ
-- ff
pR pR
((tt
oo
,t ,t
tr tr
) ) - - ff
pES pES
Elastic Shortening
Relaxation
J acking stress
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Dr. Hazim Dwairi 6
Total Losses Total Losses
Post Post- -tensioned Members: tensioned Members:
ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff
pT pT
==ff
pA pA
++ff
pF pF
++ff
pES pES
++ff
pR pR
++ff
pCR pCR
++ff
pSH pSH
ff
pR pR
==ff
pR pR
((tt
tr tr
,t ,t
ss
))
ff
pES pES
is applied only when tendons are jacked is applied only when tendons are jacked
sequentially and not simultaneously. sequentially and not simultaneously.
Thus, Thus,
ff ff ff ff
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ff
pi pi
==ff
pJ pJ
-- ff
pA pA
-- ff
pF pF
Tendon Friction
Anchorage set
J acking stress
(1) Elastic Shortening (ES) (1) Elastic Shortening (ES)
As concrete is compressed, it shortens the PS steel due As concrete is compressed, it shortens the PS steel due
to assumed perfect bond. to assumed perfect bond.
In post In post- -tensioned beams with single tendon, there is no tensioned beams with single tendon, there is no
need to calculate ES since it is compensated by jacking. need to calculate ES since it is compensated by jacking.
(same for several tendons jacked simultaneously. (same for several tendons jacked simultaneously.
Pretensioned Pretensioned Beams: Beams:
P
i P
i
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ES
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Dr. Hazim Dwairi 7
=
=
c c
i
c c
i
ES
A E
P
A E
L P

: tendon eccentric of case general For the


level steel at the concrete in the stress =
=
= = = =
cs
cs pES
cs
c
i
c c
i s
ES s pES
f
nf f
nf
A
nP
A E
P E
E f
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moment weight - Self
.
1
2
2
=
+

=
D
c
D
c
i
cs
M
I
e M
r
e
A
P
f
Post Post--tensioned Beams: tensioned Beams:

1

3
1
3
2
J acking 1 J acking 1
st st
tendon tendon
11
No loss No loss
J acking 2 J acking 2
nd nd
tendon tendon
22
loss in 1 loss in 1
st st
tendon tendon
J acking 3 J acking 3
rd rd
tendon tendon
33
loss in 1 loss in 1
st st
and 2 and 2
nd nd
tendon and tendon and
no loss in 3 no loss in 3
rd rd
tendon tendon
Therefore, the 1 Therefore, the 1
st st
tendon suffers the maximum amount of tendon suffers the maximum amount of
l l
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losses. losses.
Average f N
e
I
e P
A
P
n f
pES
N
J j
j
c
j j i
c
j i
J pES
= =

+ =

=
+ + +
tendons; of number
.
.
) (
1
) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 (
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Dr. Hazim Dwairi 8
(2) Steel Relaxation (R) (2) Steel Relaxation (R)
Prestressing Prestressing tendons undergo relaxation under constant tendons undergo relaxation under constant
length, depending on steel stress and time interval. The length, depending on steel stress and time interval. The
l it d d d th d ti f th t i d l it d d d th d ti f th t i d loss magnitude depends on the duration of the sustained loss magnitude depends on the duration of the sustained
PS force, and ratio of PS force, and ratio of ff
pi pi
//f f
py py
f 94 0
: jacking tendon to due stress For (a)
: to tendons in the stress tensile the limits 05 - ACI318 The
Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University

=
tion recommenda r manufature
f
f
of smaller f
pu
py
pJ

8 . 0
94 . 0

pu
py
pi
f
f
of smaller f
anchorage at the members tensioned - post In (c)
74 . 0
82 . 0

: sfer after tran y Immediatel (b)

=
pu pi
f f 70 . 0
: sfer after tran couplers, and
anchorage at the members, tensioned post In (c)
=
For stress For stress--relieved strands: relieved strands:


f
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hours in is t' '
55 . 0
10
log

=
py
pi
pi pR
f
f
t
f f
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Dr. Hazim Dwairi 9
For low For low- -relaxation strands: relaxation strands:
hours in is t' '
55 . 0
45
log

=
py
pi
pi pR
f
f
t
f f
hours in is t
For step For step- -by by- -step losses: step losses:


= 55 . 0
10
log log
1 2
py
pi
pi pR
f
f
t t
f f
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= 55 . 0
45
log log
1 2
py
pi
pi pR
f
f
t t
f f
ACI ACI--ASCE method of accounting for relaxation: ASCE method of accounting for relaxation:
( ) [ ] C f f f J K f
pSH pCR pES re pR
+ + =
Table 3.4 C values Table 3.4 C values
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(3) Creep Loss (CR) (3) Creep Loss (CR)
The continuous deformation of concrete over extended The continuous deformation of concrete over extended
periods of time & sustained loads is know as creep. periods of time & sustained loads is know as creep.
The rate of strains increase rapidly at first, but decreases The rate of strains increase rapidly at first, but decreases
with time until a constant value is reached with time until a constant value is reached
Creep strains depend on the applied sustained load, mix Creep strains depend on the applied sustained load, mix
ratio, curing conditions, environmental conditions, and ratio, curing conditions, environmental conditions, and
the age of concrete when first loaded. the age of concrete when first loaded.
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strain elastic
strain creep
: t coefficien creep Ultimate
= =
EL
CR
u
C

Typical values of the C Typical values of the C


uu
ranges between 2 and 4. ranges between 2 and 4.
recommended value if no information is available is 2 35 recommended value if no information is available is 2 35
u t
C
t
t
C
6 . 0
6 . 0
10
: t' ' at time t coefficien Creep
+
=
recommended value if no information is available is 2.35 recommended value if no information is available is 2.35
Prestress loss due to creep at time t after Prestress loss due to creep at time t after prestressing prestressing
for bonded members is: for bonded members is:
at the concrete in stress the is where
cs
cs
c
ps
t pCR
f
f
E
E
C f =
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tendon. PS the of centroid the of level
cs
f
In post In post- -tensioned unbonded members, the loss is tensioned unbonded members, the loss is
essentially uniform along the whole span. An average essentially uniform along the whole span. An average
values of values of f f
cs cs
between the anchorage points can be used. between the anchorage points can be used.
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( )
members ed pretension for 0 . 2
: is loss creep for expession ASCE - ACI The
=
=
CR
csd cs
c
ps
CR pCR
K
f f
E
E
K f
only. load dead ed superimpos
all to due steel of level at concret in stress
sfer after tran steel of level at concrete in stress
members tensioned - post for 1.6

=
csd
cs
f
f
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members tensioned - post for 1.28
members ed pretension for 6 . 1
concrete t lightweigh for 20% by reduced be should : Note
=
=
CR
CR
K
K
(4) Shrinkage Loss (SH) (4) Shrinkage Loss (SH)
The free water normal concrete mixes evaporates with The free water normal concrete mixes evaporates with
time, the rate depending on humidity, temperature, and time, the rate depending on humidity, temperature, and
i d h f b i d h f b size and shape of members. size and shape of members.
Drying is accompanied by reduction in volume, the Drying is accompanied by reduction in volume, the
change occurring at higher rate initially. Approximately change occurring at higher rate initially. Approximately
80% of shrinkage occur in the first year. 80% of shrinkage occur in the first year.
The ACI The ACI- -ASCE committee recommends ultimate ASCE committee recommends ultimate
shrinkage strain of ( shrinkage strain of (
SH SH
))
uu
=780 x 10 =780 x 10
--66
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The PCI stipulates a values of ( The PCI stipulates a values of (
SH SH
))
uu
=820 x 10 =820 x 10
--66
days 3 to 1 after curing steam ; ) (
55
) (
days 7 after curing moist ; ) (
35
) (
u SH t SH
u SH t SH
t
t
t
t


+
=
+
=
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Dr. Hazim Dwairi 12
For For pretensioned pretensioned members: members: ff
pSH pSH
==
SH SH
x x E E
ps ps
Where, Where,
SH SH
is adjusted for humidity and V/S ratio is adjusted for humidity and V/S ratio
For For pretensioned pretensioned members transfer commonly takes members transfer commonly takes For For pretensioned pretensioned members, transfer commonly takes members, transfer commonly takes
place after 24 hours after casting, and nearly all place after 24 hours after casting, and nearly all
shrinkage takes place after that. shrinkage takes place after that.
For post For post- -tensioned members, stressing may take place tensioned members, stressing may take place
after one day or much later, thus, a large percentage of after one day or much later, thus, a large percentage of
shrinkage may already have taken place by then. shrinkage may already have taken place by then.
ACI corrects shrinkage strain for environmental ACI corrects shrinkage strain for environmental
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ACI corrects shrinkage strain for environmental ACI corrects shrinkage strain for environmental
conditions by: conditions by:
SH SH
=780 x 10 =780 x 10
--66
x x
SH SH

SH SH
is tabulated in ACI committee report R435 is tabulated in ACI committee report R435- -95 95
( )
Humidity Relative RH : Where
100 0024 . 0 1 10 2 . 8
: is loss shrinkage for expression PCI
6

=

RH
S
V
K f
SH pSH
days in PS of n applicatio to curing
moist of end the from time to relating factor K
mm in ratio surface to volume
S
V

SH

=
Post-tensioned
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Days 1 3 5 7 10 20 30 60
K
SH
0.92 0.85 0.80 0.77 0.73 0.64 0.58 0.45
Pretensioned
K
SH
=1.0
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(5) Friction Losses (F) (5) Friction Losses (F)
For post For post- -tensioned members, the tendons are tensioned members, the tendons are
usually anchored at one end & jacked from the usually anchored at one end & jacked from the y j y j
other. As the steel slides in the duct during other. As the steel slides in the duct during
jacking, friction losses take place making the jacking, friction losses take place making the
tension at the anchored end loss than at the tension at the anchored end loss than at the
jacking end. jacking end.
The total friction is the sum of: The total friction is the sum of:
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Curvature friction due to imposed curvature. Curvature friction due to imposed curvature.
Wobble friction, due to unintentional misalignment, Wobble friction, due to unintentional misalignment,
even in straight tendons. even in straight tendons.
(5) Friction Losses (F) (5) Friction Losses (F)
s
T
e
n
d
o
n

J
a
c
k
i
n
g

S
t
r
e
s
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Distance along tendon
T
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(a) Curvature Effect (a) Curvature Effect

F
1
L
F
1
F
2
=F
1
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1
F
2
=F
1
-dF
1
d
dF
1
F
1
F
1
d
d
dF
d F dF

=
=

1
1 1
then effect, curvature to due duct the &
ndon between te friction of t coefficien the denotes if
F
e
F
F
F F
d
F


=
=
=

2
1
2 1
1
ln ln
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R L
e F e F F
R L if F
e
F
F

= =
= =
=
1 1 2
1
1
2
/ ; ln
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Dr. Hazim Dwairi 15
: similarly
then effect, wobble to due concrete g surroundin the &
ndon between te friction of t coefficien the denotes K if
(b) Wobble Effect (b) Wobble Effect
( )
: is loss friction the Thus

: effects both ing Superimpos
: similarly
1 2 1 2
1 2
= =
=


e f f or e F F
e F F
KL KL
KL
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( )
( )
radians in
x
8y
try trigonome From

1
1
1 2 1
=

= =

kL f
e f f f F f
kL
p
Tendons Central Angle Tendons Central Angle
x
/2 /2
y
m
x/2
1
2
2
2 tan
x
m
x
m
= =
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radians in
8

4 2 &
2
1

x
y
Then
x y m y if
=
=

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Dr. Hazim Dwairi 16
Wobble and Curvature Wobble and Curvature
Coefficients Coefficients
Type of tendon K (1/m)
T d i fl ibl t l h ti Tendons in flexible metal sheeting
1- wire tendons 0.0033 0.0049 0.15 0.25
2- 7-wire strands 0.0016 0.0066 0.15 0.25
3- High-strength bars 0.0003 0.0020 0.08 0.30
Tendons in rigid metal ducts (7-
wire strands)
0.0007 0.15 0.25
Mastic-coated tendons (wire 0.0033 0.0066 0.05 0.15
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(
tendons and 7-wire strands)
Pre-greased tendons (wire
tendons and 7-wire strands)
0.001 - 0.0066 0.05 0.15
(6) Anchorage Slip or Seating (6) Anchorage Slip or Seating
Loss (A) Loss (A)
In post In post--tensioned members, a small amount of tensioned members, a small amount of
force is lost at the anchorage upon transfer, as force is lost at the anchorage upon transfer, as force is lost at the anchorage upon transfer, as force is lost at the anchorage upon transfer, as
the wedges seat themselves on the tendons, or the wedges seat themselves on the tendons, or
as the hardware deform. This magnitude ranges as the hardware deform. This magnitude ranges
between 6.35mm & 9.53mm for the two piece between 6.35mm & 9.53mm for the two piece
wedges. wedges.
Similarly, in Similarly, in pretensioned pretensioned, losses may occur due , losses may occur due
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y, y, pp , y , y
to slippage at the permanent casting to slippage at the permanent casting
anchorages, the loss may be compensated by anchorages, the loss may be compensated by
the overstressing. the overstressing.
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(6) Anchorage Slip or Seating (6) Anchorage Slip or Seating
Loss (A) Loss (A)

A
E f
length tendon L
slip of magnitude
:


=
A
ps
A
pA
Where
E
L
f
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tendon ng prestressi of modulus E
ps

Pretensioned Members
Elastic Shortening
Loss
Post-tensioned Members
Friction Loss
Creep Loss
Shrinkage Loss
Relaxation Loss
Anchorage Slip
Loss
Elastic Shortening
Loss
Creep Loss
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Shrinkage Loss
Relaxation Loss