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# US Army Corps

JOINT RESTRAINT
FOR
JOINT RESTRAINT
FOR
US Army Corps
of Engineers
Kansas City District
FOR
PRESSURIZED PIPE
FOR
PRESSURIZED PIPE
Presented by:
Ted London, PE
US Army Corps of Engineers
Kansas City District
US Army Corps
How Thrust is Generated
US Army Corps
of Engineers
Kansas City District
F=P*A
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How Thrust is Generated
US Army Corps
of Engineers
Kansas City District
Equilibrium
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How Thrust is Generated
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of Engineers
Kansas City District
What changes equilibrium:
OperatingPressure Operating Pressure
Transient Pressure (surge)
Changing direction of flow
Changing diameter of pipe
Thermal changes
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How Thrust is Generated
US Army Corps
of Engineers
Kansas City District
Changes in equilibrium are developed at:
Horizontal bends Horizontal bends
Vertical bends
Tees
Wyes
Reducers
Fire Hydrants
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How Thrust is Generated
US Army Corps
of Engineers
Kansas City District
US Army Corps
How Thrust is Generated
US Army Corps
of Engineers
Kansas City District
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Bearing Capacity
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of Engineers
Kansas City District
g p y
versus
Passive Resistance
BEARING CAPACITY FAILURE: The thrust generated
exceeds the bearing capacity of the soil times the bearing
area area
PASSIVE RESISTANCE FAILURE: The thrust
generated slides a wedge of soil
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Bearing Capacity
US Army Corps
of Engineers
Kansas City District
g p y
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Passive Resistance
US Army Corps
of Engineers
Kansas City District
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thrust block by bearing pressure (AWWA m23)
Known
Internal pressure
P 150psi :=
US Army Corps
of Engineers
Kansas City District
Internal pressure
P 150psi :
Pipe outside Diamter
D 9.050in :=
Deflection angle
A 45 :=
Depth to bottom of thrust block
h 7ft :=
Safety Factor
S
f
1.5 :=
Soil Bearing
B 1500psf :=
Solve
Internal Area
A t
D
2
4
:=
A t
| |
Unbalanced Force
T 2P A sin
A t
2180
|

\
|
|
.
:=
A
b
T
S
f
B
:=
AA
b
=
Passive resistance thrust block design is required if the height of the thrust block is
greater than 1/2 * depth.
I h b l h bl k h h i h f 2 d l h f 4 2 f ll i l h In the above example, thrust block has a height of 2 and length of 4. 2 ft tall is less than
three (1/2*7)
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thrust block by Passive Resistance (AWWA m23)
Known
Internal pressure
P 150psi :=
US Army Corps
of Engineers
Kansas City District
Pipe outside Diamter
D 9.050in :=
Pipe Deflection angle A 45 :=
Depth to bottomof thrust block
h 4ft :
Depth to bottom of thrust block
h 4ft :=
Safety Factor S
f
1.5 :=
Soil Bearing B 1500psf :=
Unit Weight of Soil 110pcf := g p
Soil Internal Friction angle
| 30 :=
C
s
0psf :=
Solve
Internal Area
A t
D
2
:= Solve
Internal Area
A t
4
:
Unbalanced Force
T 2P A sin
A t
2180
|

\
|
|
.
:=
N
d
tan 45
|
2
+
|

\
|
|
.
t
180

(
(

(
(

2
:=
\ .
A
b
T
S
f
h N
d
2C
s
N
d
.5
+
:=
A
b
=
In the above example, a height of 2 and length of 4.5 ft. 2 ft tall is less than three
(1/2*4.5)
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Tables should have correct bearing
Capacity in calculations
US Army Corps
of Engineers
Kansas City District
Capacity in calculations
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Ductile iron mechanical
US Army Corps
of Engineers
Kansas City District
Ductile iron mechanical
joint fitting
US Army Corps US Army Corps
of Engineers
Kansas City District
Ductile Iron Bolted
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PVC Restrained Bell
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of Engineers
Kansas City District
PVC Restrained Bell
and Spigot
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Types of Restrained Joints
US Army Corps
of Engineers
Kansas City District
and
How They Work y
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Errors and Omissions Errors and Omissions
US Army Corps
of Engineers
Kansas City District
Not considering passive resistance
Over-estimating bearing capacity of soil
Use same table over and over without thinking
Poor installation
Not considering saturated soil
Not considering the sheer SIZE of the thrust block Not considering the sheer SIZE of the thrust block
required to resist the force
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Results of Errors
US Army Corps
of Engineers
Kansas City District
Di t f i Disengagement of pipes
Displacement of soil Wedges
Higher maintenance costs Higher maintenance costs
Poor construction blamed in lieu of design
Root cause may not be determined Root cause may not be determined
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References
US Army Corps
of Engineers
Kansas City District
AWWA M23: PVC Pipe Design and Installation
AWWA M41: Ductile Iron Pipe and Fittings
Ductile Iron Pipe Research Association (DIPRA)
EBAA Iron
American Ductile Iron Pipe Co. (ACIPCO)
US Army Corps US Army Corps
of Engineers
Kansas City District
Questions