You are on page 1of 30

CHANDRAYAAN-1

Presentation by : Junaid Ahmed Fazly, Class 7th – H, Krishna Public School,-


PREFACE : What is CHANDRAYAAN-I ?
Chandrayaan literally means Vehicle to Moon.

Chandrayaan-1 is the first Indian planetary science


and exploration mission by spacecraft.

Chandrayaan-1 launched from Satish Dhawan


Space Center, Sriharikota on 22nd October’ 2008 at
06:00 hrs IST.

It will take about five and a half days to get to the


moon. Chandrayaan will be in a 100 km polar orbit
around the moon. The space craft will be controlled
from earth.

Indian Tricolour landed on moon on 14th November’


2008 with Moon impact probe at 20:06 hrs IST.
Acknowledgement

I would like to extend my sincere thanks to my computer teacher


for giving such a wonderful opportunity. With their continuous
guidance I have been able to complete this project.

And I am also grateful to my family for their support .

Junaid Ahmed Fazly


Class 7th – H
Krishna Public School – Bhilai
junaid.fazly@gmail.com
Landing on Moon: earlier attempts

• Galileo used his TELESCOPE to observe mountains and


craters on the lunar surface.
• The first man-made object to reach the Moon was the
unmanned Soviet probes Luna 2 in September 1959.
• Luna 9 was the first probe to soft land on the Moon in
February 1966 and transmit pictures from the lunar surface.
• The first robotic lunar rover to land on the Moon was the
Soviet Lunokhod 1 in November 1970.
• Humans first landed on the Moon on July 20, 1969.
• The first man to walk on the lunar surface was Neil
Armstrong, commander of the American mission Apollo 11.
• The last man to walk on the Moon was in December 1972 by
Eugene Cernan during Apollo 17 mission.
About ISRO (Indian Space Research
Organization)
 The Indian Space Research Organization (भारतीय अनतिरक अनुसंधान
संगठन) or ISRO (इसरो), is India's national space agency having
its headquarter in Bangalore

 ISRO employs approximately 20,000 people, with a budget of


around Rs. 65 billion (US$1.3 billion).

 Its mandate is the development of technologies related to


space and their application to India's development.

 Present Chairman of ISRO is Shri G. Madhavan Nair.

 In addition to domestic payloads, it offers international launch


services.

 ISRO currently launches satellites using the Polar Satellite


Launch Vehicle and the GSLV for geostationary satellites.
Why is India Sending Chandrayan-1 to moon ?
The Chandrayaan-1 mission is aimed at high-
resolution remote sensing of the Lunar surface in
visible, near Infrared, low energy X-rays and high-
energy X-ray regions.

Specific scientific goals are:

To prepare a three-dimensional atlas (with a high


spatial and altitude resolution of 5-10m) of both
near and  far side of the moon.

To expand scientific knowledge about the moon

To upgrade India's technological capability

To provide challenging opportunities for


planetary research to the younger generation of
Indian scientists
INDIA in Space

Today, India is one of the very few countries that have significant
achievements to their credit in the arena of space.

The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has designed,


developed and built a variety of satellites. And, it has successfully
launched many of them into their intended orbits. More
importantly, the country has used its satellites for the rapid
expansion of its national infrastructure including
telecommunications, TV broadcasting, weather monitoring,
education, public health, agriculture and rural development.

More recently, India has provided many space-based services


including launch services to foreign customers on a competitive
basis. With ample experience and many successes in Earth orbit,
ISRO has now taken up Chandrayaan-1, its first bold step beyond
Earth orbit into deep space.
THE LAUNCHER : PSLV-C11

PSLV is the trusted workhorse launch


Vehicle of ISRO. During 1993-2008 period,
PSLV had twelve consecutively successful
launches carrying satellites to Sun
Synchronous, Low Earth and
Geosynchronous Transfer Orbits.

Now, its fourteenth flight is being used for


launching Chandrayaan-1 to moon.

PSLV-C11, chosen to launch Chandrayaan-1


spacecraft, is an uprated version of ISRO's
PSLV (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle)

PSLV-C11 uses larger strap-on motors


(PSOM-XL) to achieve higher payload
capability.
More about The Launcher : PSLV-C11

PSLV-C11 is 44.4 metre tall and has four stages using


solid and liquid propulsion systems alternately.

The first stage, carrying 138 tonne of propellant, is one


of the largest solid propellant boosters in the world.

Six solid propellant strap-on motors (PSOM-XL), each


carrying twelve tonne of solid propellant, are strapped
on to the first stage.

The second stage carries 41.5 tonne of liquid propellant.

The third stage uses 7.6 tonne of solid propellant and


the fourth has a twin engine configuration with 2.5 tonne
of liquid propellant.
More about The Launcher : PSLV-C11

The 3.2 metre diameter metallic bulbous payload fairing


protects the satellites and it is discarded after the vehicle has
cleared dense atmosphere.

PSLV employs a large number of auxiliary systems for stage


separation, payload fairing separation and so on.

It has sophisticated systems to control the vehicle and guide it


through the predetermined trajectory. The vehicle performance
is monitored through telemetry and tracking.

The main modification in PSLV-C11 compared to its standard


configuration is the use of larger strap-on motors (PSOM-XL)
More about The Launcher : PSLV-C11

Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC),


Thiruvananthapuram, designed and developed PSLV-C11.

ISRO Inertial Systems Unit (IISU) at Thiruvananthapuram


developed the inertial systems for the vehicle.

Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC), also at


Thiruvananthapuram, developed the liquid propulsion
stages for the second and fourth stages of PSLV-C11 as
well as reaction control systems.

SDSC SHAR processed the solid motors and carries out


launch operations.

ISRO Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network


(ISTRAC) provides telemetry, tracking and command
Countdown begins for journey to The MOON
CHANDRAYAAN-1 LAUNCHED
Chandrayan – I : The Journey Begins

Chandrayaan-I Launched from 2nd Launch Pad of Satish


Dhawan Space Centre - Sriharikota : Nellore district of
Andhra, 80 km to the North of Chennai.

Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft begins its journey from earth


onboard India's Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-C11).

In the Initial Orbit, the perigee (nearest point to earth) is


about 250 km and apogee (farthest point from the earth) is
about 23,000 km.

After circling the Earth in its Initial Orbit for a while,


Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft is taken into two more elliptical
orbits whose apogees lie still higher at 37,000 km and
73,000 km respectively. This is done at opportune moments
by firing the spacecraft's Liquid Apogee Motor (LAM) when
Chandrayan – I : The Journey Continued..

Subsequently, LAM is fired again to take Chandrayaan-1


spacecraft to an extremely high elliptical orbit whose
apogee lies at about 387,000 km.

In this orbit, the spacecraft makes one complete


revolution around the Earth in about 11 days. During its
second revolution around the Earth in this orbit, the
spacecraft will approach the Moon's North pole at a safe
distance of about a few hundred kilometres since the
Moon would have arrived there in its journey round the
Earth.

Once the Chandrayaan-1 reaches the vicinity of the


Moon, the spacecraft is oriented in a particular way and
its LAM is again fired. This slows down the spacecraft
The Orbit
Chandrayan – I : MOON – The Destination

Following this, the height of the spacecraft's orbit around


the moon is reduced in steps. After a careful and detailed
observation of perturbations in its intermediate orbits
around the moon, the height of Chandrayaan-1
spacecraft's orbit will be finally lowered to its intended
100 km height from the lunar surface.

Later, the Moon Impact Probe will be ejected from


Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft at the earliest opportunity to
hit the lunar surface in a chosen area. Following this,
cameras and other scientific instruments are turned ON
and thoroughly tested. This leads to the operational
phase of the mission. This phase lasts about two years
during which Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft explores the
lunar surface with its array of instruments that includes
cameras, spectrometers and SAR
Chandrayan – I : The Space Craft

Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft carrying 11 scientific instruments


weighs about 1400 kg
At the time of its launch and is shaped like a cuboid with a
solar panel projecting from one of its sides
The spacecraft is powered by a single solar panel generating a
maximum of 700 W.
A 36 Ampere-Hour (Ah) Lithium ion battery supplies power
when the solar panel is not illuminated by the sun.
The Telemetry, Tracking and Command subsystem of
Chandrayaan-1 working in S-band takes care of radioing the
detailed spacecraft health information, facilitating the
knowledge about spacecraft's position in space and allows the
reception and execution of commands coming from earth by
the spacecraft.
Chandrayan – I : The Interior
Chandrayan – I : The Interior

Loading Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft The fully integrated


into Thermo-vacuum Chamber Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft
Chandrayan – I : Design & Development

Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft is built at ISRO Satellite


Centre, Bangalore with contributions from
ISRO/Department of Space (DOS) establishments
like :

Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC), Sriharokota


Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC)
ISRO Inertial Systems Unit (IISU),
Tiruvananthapuram,
Space Applications Centre (SAC), Ahmedabad
Physical Research Laboratory (PRL), Ahmedabad
Laboratory for Electro-optic Systems (LEOS),
Chandrayan – I : The Payloads

There are 11 payloads (scientific instruments) through which


Chandrayaan-1 intends to achieve its objectives. The instruments
were carefully chosen on the basis of many scientific and
technical considerations as well as their complementary
/supplementary nature.

Payload includes :

05 Instruments from INDIA


03 Instruments from European Space Agency
01 Instruments from Bulgaria
02 Instruments from United States

Thus, Chandrayaan-1 is a classic example of international


cooperation that has characterised the global space exploration
programmes of the post cold war era.
Chandrayan – I : Indian Payloads from ISRO

Terrain Mapping Camera (TMC)


Imaging in the Panchromatic Spectrum Region
Mass : 6 Kg, Power : 13 W

Hyper Spectral Imager (HySI)


Map the lunar surface
Mass : 3.1 Kg, Power : 16 W

Lunar Laser Ranging Instrument (LLRI)


To determine the global topographical field of moon using
the laser altimetry data. To determine an important model of
the lunar gravity field. To interpret the new topographic and
gravitational fields data for better understanding of the
geophysics of moon.
Mass : 10 Kg, Power : 15 W
Chandrayan – I : Indian Payloads from ISRO
(Continued..)
High Energy X-Ray Payload (HEX)
Determining the surface composition of naturally occurring
Pb-210, chemical nature of the terrain such as highly radio
active KREEP regions. Basaltic more basins, fieldspathic
highlands and regions covered by water ice.
Mass : 15 Kg, Power : 24.2 W

Moon Impact Probe (MIP)


Develop and demonstration of technologies required for
impacting a probe at the desired location. Technological
forerunner for future landing missions on moon.
Mass : 2.5 Kg, Power : 100 W
Chandrayan – I : Payloads from Abroad

Chandrayaan-I Imaging X-ray Spectrometer


(C1XS):
Chemical Mapping of lunar surface
Mass : 5.2 Kg, Power : 28 W

Miniaturised Synthetic Aparture Radar (Mini-SAR)


Obtain low resolution topography of lunar surface from an
altitude of approximately 100 km.
Mass : 7 Kg, Power : 50 W

Smart Near Infrared Spectrometer (SIR-2)


To explore the mineral resources, the formation of lunar
surface.
Mass : 2.3 Kg, Power : 5.2 W
Chandrayan – I : Payloads from Abroad (Continued..)

Radiation Dose Monitor (RaDoM)


Quantitatively characterise the radiation environment in near
moon space.
Mass : 0.16 Kg
Sub keV Atom Reflecting Analyser (SARA):
The aim of this instrument is to study the surface
composition of the moon and the magnetic anomalies
associated with the surface of the moon.
Mass : 3.5 Kg , Power : 3 W
Moon Minerology Mapper (M3):
The aim of this instrument is to study the surface
composition of the moon and the magnetic anomalies
associated with the surface of the moon.
Mass : 3.5 Kg , Power : 3 W
Chandrayan – I : The Ground Segment

During the various phases of its flight, Chandrayaan-1


spacecraft will send detailed information about its health to
Earth through its transmitter.

The spacecraft receives radio commands sent from Spacecraft


Control Centre instructing it to perform various tasks.

Besides, the spacecraft receives, modifies and retransmits the


radio waves sent by ground antennas in a precise way. This
plays a crucial role in knowing its position and orbit at a
particular instant of time.

All these happen at 'S-band' frequencies in the microwave


region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Additionally, as it
orbits the Moon, the spacecraft sends valuable imagery and
other scientific information to Earth through X-band (at a
higher frequency compared to S-band), which also lies in the
Moon in Indian Mythology
• The Moon finds a
prominent place in Indian
mythology.
• In ancient Indian
literature, the moon is
considered to be GOD and
is symbolized by Soma.
• Famous ancient Sanskrit
poet Kalidasa, have
chosen the moon as the
subject of their poems.
• The full Moon, has been
symbolized as an object of
beauty.
• In fairy tales Moon is
referred as Chanda Mama.
Thank
You…