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AIRPORT

REQUIRED SPACES:

Directors office (20sq.m)
Airline Administration
ATO Office (air terminal officer)
Station Administration
Accounting and Cashier
Operations (Load control)
Crew Briefing
Staff restroom (diff)
Staff Lounge (diff)
Airline Office (30sq.m)
Concessionaire and Amenities (15sq.m/shop)
Restaurant
Shops
Lost and found station
Costumer service
Toilet
Bank
Telephone
Weight inspection counter
Loggage Room (for forgot or lost baggage)
Freight room
Lounging Area
Flight Control Room
Communication tower
Equipment room
Lounge, office
Others:
Greeters Area
Comfort Rooms
Weight Inspection
Phone Booths
Check in counter with scanner
Arrival lounge
Staffs lounge
Quarantine








(By: Paul P. Bollinger, Jr., World Book Encyclopedia 2010 edition. Page 242-249)

Airport resemble small cities, have hotels, restaurants, banks, post office and shops as well as
Their own police force
Fire department
Medical facilities

These services and facilities are important and useful for passengers and employees of an airport. In
addition, some of them help produce the income necessary for the airport to operate successfully.
During lengthy flight delay or emergencies, these services can become vital.

AIRPORT FACILITIES:

Depend on the size of the community it serves
The area of land it covers
Type of air service it provides

PASSENGER TERMINAL
Passengers begin and end their flights at the passenger terminal.

Airline Ticket
Departing passengers purchase tickets, have their tickets checked, and receive boarding
(passage) passes.

Airplanes Cargo Hold
Where passengers can leave their baggage to be loaded into the airplanes cargo hold.

Loudspeakers, flight monitor and electronic message boards announce flight arrivals and departures

Boarding Lounges
Provide seats for waiting travelers and airline crews.
Gates
Where passengers board and leave aircraft from openings called gates

Boarding bridge / (Jet way)
At most range airports, an enclosed walkway connects the terminal gate with the aircraft during
boarding.

Many activities in the passenger terminal take place behind the walls or under the floor, these activities
includes:
Transport of baggage
And cargos from the ticket counter to the aircraft
Airlines maintain offices in these areas





Briefing Room
Each airline has a briefing room where pilots receive flight information. The briefing room
includes a dispatching office which handles communications with the airlines operation center and with
its airplanes, both on the ground and in flight.

Hangar
Are buildings in which aircraft are stored and repaired. Most airlines have their own hangar.

Most airports locate hangars far enough from the terminal building to avoid interference with air traffic
on the ground.

CONTROL TOWER

- Air traffic nerve center. In the tower, air traffic controllers use radars, radio, signal, lights and other
equipment to direct air traffic near the airport as well as movements of aircraft on the ground.
- Large tinted windows enable controllers to see all the aircraft in motion at the airport. Some control
towers are more than 200 ft. (6m) tall.

Operation
- In the control tower, the air traffic controllers guide aircrafts as they:
Land
Takeoff
and taxi
- The controllers see that the traffic keeps moving smoothly, rapidly and safely.
- Their job becomes especially difficult when fog or other weather conditions reduce visibility.
- Traffic patterns:
Planes approach or depart on assigned routes called traffic patterns. Instruments in aircraft
cockpits electronically display an airports traffic patterns for pilots to follow.

When necessary, a pilot can safely fly without instruments if the weather is clear enough to see other
aircraft and airport.

The control tower has several types of electronic all-weather landing equipment to bring planes down
safely. Most commercial airport has an electronic aid called ILS (Instrument Landing System).

ILS (Instrument Landing System)
It sends radio signals to receivers on an airplane which show the pilot whether the plane is to the left,
right, above, below or directly on the correct approach path to the airport.

Other navigation aids include:
ASR (Airport Surveillance Radar)
GPS (Global Positioning System)
MLS (Microwave Landing System)

ASR (Airport Surveillance Radar)
Gives traffic controller a view of all aircraft activity within about 50 miles (80km) of the Airport. The
information help controllers prevent midair collision by choosing the safest route for pilots to follow.

GPS (Global Positioning System)
Uses a network of navigation satellites to enable pilots anywhere on earth to determine their location.
These satellites send out radio signals that are picked up by receivers on the aircraft.
The GPS equipment can compute an aircrafts position, speed and time every second. The system bases
the calculation on the distances between the satellites and the receiver.

MLS (Microwave Landing System)
Is a precision landing and similar to the ILS. The MLS provides the pilot with additional information to
select the most appropriate approach path for each type of aircraft.


THE RUNWAY

Considerations:
-measurements
-safety

Must be long enough and wide enough to handle the largest planes using the airport. They must
be levels as possible.
However, runways slope slightly from the centers towards each side to provide good DRAINAGE.

A government body usually sets minimum runway lengths for different types of aircrafts. Many
small airports use only strips of mowed glass called Landing Strips.
Some of these strips are only 2,000-2,500 ft. (610-760 m.) long. The runways of large airports are paved
with concrete or asphalt. These runways must have a clear zone at each end to give aircraft additional
space to take off and land as nearly as possible into the wind.

At night and other periods of low visibility, white lights outline each runway and green lights mark the
beginning of a runway. Red and white approach lights shine just in front of the area where a plane
should touch down.





LOADING APRONS AND TAXIWAYS

The aircraft parking area at the gates of the passenger terminal is called a LOADING APRON or
TARMAC
- Although the word tarmac originally referred to a paving material made of crushed rode and
tars, the apron is actually made of concrete or asphalt because these materials BETTER RESIST
DAMAGE from heat and fuel leaks. While an airplane is on the apron.
- Workers refuel it and load baggage, cargo and meals for the passengers. The crew and
passengers board airplanes on the landing apron.
- A small airport may serve only 1 or 2 aircraft on the apron at one time. Large airports may
accommodate more than 100 planes at ones.

Aircraft use lanes called Taxiways

On taxi from the apron to the runways and from runways to the hangar.
At night, taxiways are marked with blue lights. Red lights are used to mark any barriers or other
DANGER.


GROUND TRANSPORTATION AND PARKING
Large airports provide roadways alongside the terminal buildings where airport buses, hotel vans,
private automobiles, limousines, and taxis can pick up and drop off passengers. Some airports are
connected to the city center by light rail systems or subways.

All airports maintain parking facilities
Most large airports have multistory parking garages, which can take less land than parking lots do to
hold the same number of cars. Parking provides a major source of revenue for many airports.


OTHER AIRPORT OPERATIONS

Airport manager and the management staff
Direct the maintenance, operation and safety of the entire airport.

The management staff at a large airport is divided into several departments such as:
Administration
Finance
S I maintenance
Planning
Engineering
Safety
Security
Public affairs

Airport operate like a business
Airport rent space to airlines for offices, check-in counters and baggage areas
In addition, airports give leases to:
Restaurant
Gift shops
Hotels and
Car rental agencies

The leases provide revenue to pay for the operation and development of an airport. In addition, the
airport receives income from parking lots, telephones and advertisements in the terminal and landing
fees paid by the airlines.



Airline Passenger Services

Ticket Counter
- Employees from that sell tickets, check in passengers who already have tickets and provide
information about the times and gates for the flight arrivals and departures.

- Print boarding passes and baggage tags





ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization)

A specialized agency of the United Nations, the International Civil
Aviation Organization (ICAO) was created in 1944 to promote the safe and
orderly development of international civil aviation throughout the world. It
sets standards and regulations necessary for aviation safety, security,
efficiency and regularity, as well as for aviation environmental protection.
The Organization serves as the forum for cooperation in all fields of civil
aviation among its 191 Member States.


(Source: http://www.icao.int/Pages/default.aspx)

PIATA (Philippine International Air Transport Association)

It is an organization of all IATA Travel Agent in the Philippines. PIATA agents uphold
the finest standards of accountability to the Bank Settlement Plan of IATA, the
International Air Transport Association which regulates a worldwide aggregation of
airlines, passenger sales agents, and cargo agents. All members are linked by
adherence to stringent rules governing passenger and cargo travel.


(source:http://www.piata.com.ph/home/index)




CAAP (Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines)
Classify the airports owned by the National Government

The Philippines Civil Aithority formerly Air Transport Office, abbreviated as
CAAP, is an agency of the Philippine government under the Department of
Transportation and Communications. It is the national aviation authority of
the Philippines, responsible for implementing policies on civil aviation to
assure safe, economic and efficient air travel.

Three classes of airports exist in the Philippines:
International airports
principal airports and
community airports




Airports in the Philippines have used two different types of classification:

one previously by the Air Transportation Office (ATO) and

another being used by the Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines (CAAP), the successor body
to the ATO.

ATO (Air Transport Office)
CLASSIFICATION OF AIRPORTS:
ATO SYSTEM

Former airport classification under the ATO's system. The old ATO system divided airports into
five classifications under two broad categories: international and domestic airports.

These two broad categories were further divided into the following airport types:
Primary international airports are the primary international gateways into the Philippines.

Secondary international airports are airports that are capable of handling international flights
but are not designated as primary international gateways. These airports may or may not
service actual international flights and may or may not have active customs and immigration
facilities.

Trunkline airports or major commercial domestic airports are domestic airports in major cities
around the Philippines that are capable of supporting large aircraft. These are, in most cases,
the only domestic airports with an instrument landing system.

Secondary airports or minor commercial domestic airports are domestic airports in smaller
cities and municipalities usually capable of handling smaller propeller aircraft. Some airports in
this classification are capable of supporting jet aircraft. However, these airports are only open
from sunrise until sunset, usually requiring notification of airport authorities if nighttime landing
is a necessity.
Feeder airports are domestic airports capable only of handling small propeller aircraft. Many of
these airports are small airstrips serving far-flung islands.




CAAP system

The new CAAP system revises the previous ATO system, while maintaining the current
classification of airports into international and domestic airports. The change was made pursuant to the
Philippine Transport Strategic Study and the 1992 Civil Aviation Master Plan. The new system
rationalizes the system of airport classification, represented by the following types:

International airports are airports capable of handling international flights. Airports in this
category include airports that currently have or have previously served international
destinations. There are currently ten airports in this category, including all primary international
airports, most secondary international airports, and Puerto Princesa Airport and Kalibo Airport,
both trunkline and secondary airports, respectively.

Principal airports or domestic airports are airports that only serve domestic destinations. There
are two types:

Class 1 principal airports are airports capable of serving jet aircraft with a capacity of at
least 100 seats. Most airports previously classified as trunkline airports, as well as some
secondary airports, are placed in this category. One former secondary international airports
the Bacolod-Silay Airport is also in this category.

Class 2 principal airports are airports capable of serving propeller aircraft with a capacity of
at least 19 seats. Loakan Airport in Baguio City, previously a trunkline airport, some
secondary airports, and Godofredo P. Ramos Airport in Malay, Aklan; Camiguin Airport, Cuyo
Airport and Sayak Airport in Del Carmen, Surigao del Norte (on Siargao Island), all feeder
airports, are in this category.

Community airports are airports that are used primarily for general aviation. Most feeder airports are in
this category and only three airports: Cauayan Airport, Labo Airport in Ozamiz City and San Fernando
Airport in La Union, all former secondary airports, have regular air service.

(source: http://www.caap.gov.ph/)