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Original Title: Note - Chapter 12

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Chapter 12

Fluid Mechanics

12.1 Density

A. The density ! of a substance of uniform composition is

defined as its mass M divided by its volume V. That is,

V

M

= !

The density of water at 4

o

C is 1000 kg/m

3

= 1 g/cm

3

B. The specific gravity of a substance is defined as the

ratio of the density of that substance to the density of

water at 4

o

C.

The density of gold is 19.3g/cm

3

. Hence the specific

gravity of gold is 19.3.

12.2 Pressure in a Fluid

The average pressure P is the perpendicular component of

the force F divided by the area A on which the force acts.

2

!

P =

F

"

A

The force exerted by a fluid on a submerged object at

any point on the object is perpendicular to the surface

of the object.

The unit of pressure in the metric system is the

Pascal = Pa = 1 N/m

2

.

Force is a vector and pressure is a scalar. No

direction is associated with pressure, but the direction

of the force associated with the pressure is

perpendicular to the surface of interest.

Variation of Pressure with depth

Consider a fluid at rest. Then all portions of the fluid are

in static equilibrium. In the following figure, how is the

pressure P

1

related to the pressure P

2

?

Consider a sample of liquid of cross-sectional area A and

height h. Then since the fluid is in static equilibrium,

0 F

y

= ! . Thus,

0 mg F F

1 2

= ! !

use F

2

= P

2

A

F

1

= P

1

A

( ) Ah V m ! = ! =

3

so that F

2

F

1

mg = 0 becomes

P

2

A P

1

A - !Ahg = 0

!

P

deeper

level

= P

upper

level

+ "gh

Clearly, the pressure increases as you go deeper in the

fluid. At sea level, the atmospheric pressure is

P

o

= 1.013x10

5

Pa = 1 atm. Pressure is constant at the

same depth.

Pascals Principle (1623 1662)

If an external pressure is applied to an enclosed fluid, the

pressure at every point within the fluid increases by that

amount. Pascals principle underlies the operation of a

hydraulic press.

"P

in

= "P

out

!

F

in

A

in

=

F

out

A

out

!

F

out

=

A

out

A

in

"

#

$

%

&

'

F

in

4

That is, a small force F

in

applied to the left end results in a

large force F

out

applied to the right end if A

out

>> A

in

.

Gauge pressure: The excess pressure above atmospheric

pressure is called gauge pressure, and the total pressure is

called absolute pressure.

Pressure Measurements

A. The open-tube manometer

This apparatus is used to measure the pressure in an

enclosed fluid. The governing equation is P = P

o

+ !gh.

5

B. The Barometer (Torricelli 1608 1647)

This apparatus is used to measure atmospheric pressure.

The governing equation is:

P

o

= P + !gh

P

o

= !gh.

For mercury ! = 13.6x10

3

kg/m

3

, and atmospheric

pressure at sea level is P

o

= 1.013x10

5

Pa which

corresponds to a height of 76 cm = 0.76 m = 760 mm =

29.92 inches of mercury.

6

12.3 Buoyancy

Archimedess Principle (287 212 B.C.)

Any object completely or partially submerged in a fluid is

buoyed upward by a force whose magnitude is equal to

the weight of the fluid displaced by the object.

Buoyant force = F

B

!

F

B

" F

2

# F

1

!

F

B

= P

2

A" P

1

A

!

F

B

= P

2

" P

1

( )

A

but

!

P

2

" P

1

= # g$h so that

!

F

B

= " g A#h

!

F

B

= "

fluid

V

submerged

volume

only

g

The magnitude of the buoyant force F

B

is equal to the

weight of the fluid displaced by the submerged object.

7

12.4 Fluid Flow

Laminar flow: when each particle of the fluid follows a

smooth path so that the paths of different particles never

cross each other.

The Continuity Equation !results from conservation of

mass in laminar flow.

!

dV

dt

= A

1

v

1

= A

2

v

2

Mass Flow Rate ! mass of fluid per unit time passing

through any cross-section.

The law of conservation of mass in fluid dynamics states

that

mass flow rate through A

1

= mass flow rate through A

2

8

!

dm

1

dt

=

dm

2

dt

!

dm

1

= "

1

(dV

1

)

!

dm

2

= "

2

(dV

2

)

!

"

1

(dV

1

)

dt

=

"

2

(dV

2

)

dt

but

!

dV

1

= A

1

ds

1

!

dV

2

= A

2

ds

2

so that the above becomes

!

"

1

A

1

ds

1

dt

=

"

2

A

2

ds

2

dt

using

ds

1

= v

1

dt

ds

2

= v

2

dt

one obtains

!

1

A

1

v

1

= !

2

A

2

v

2

9

If the fluid is incompressible, then !

1

= !

2

and

!

dV

dt

= A

1

v

1

= A

2

v

2

or Av = constant

Note that Av has units of volume/time = volume flow

rate.

12.5 Bernoullis Principle (1738)

Bernoullis principle results from conservation of energy.

Applying the work-energy theorem to the laminar flow of

the entire shaded fluid described below at a particular

instant of time:

10

!

E

1

+ "W

other

= E

2

where E

1

is the initial mechanical energy of the fluid

element, E

2

is the final mechanical energy of the fluid

element, and

!

"W

other

is the work done by the non-

conservative forces (or the forces other than the

conservative forces). Note that

!

E

1

=

1

2

dm

1

v

1

2

+ dm

1

g y

1

!

=

1

2

"dV v

1

2

+ "dV g y

1

!

"W

other

= F

1

ds

1

# F

2

ds

2

!

= P

1

A

1

ds

1

" P

2

A

2

ds

2

!

= P

1

dV " P

2

dV

!

E

2

=

1

2

dm

2

v

2

2

+ dm

2

g y

2

!

=

1

2

"dV v

2

2

+ "dV g y

2

Plugging all these into the work-energy theorem equation

yields

!

E

1

+ "W

other

= E

2

11

!

1

2

"dV v

1

2

+ "dV g y

1

+ P

1

dV # P

2

dV =

1

2

"dV v

2

2

+ "dV g y

2

note that the volume elements cancel out, and re-

arranging terms yields

!

P

1

+

1

2

"v

1

2

+ "gy

1

= P

2

+

1

2

"v

2

2

+ "gy

2

or

!

P+

1

2

"v

2

+ "gy = cons tant

Applications of Bernoullis principle:

1. Blowing over sheet of paper in front of your mouth.

2. Canvas top puffs upward in moving convertible cars.

3. Houses may explode during thunderstorms.

4. Lift force on airplane wings:

Lift force = (pressure difference)*(area of wing)

Lift is greater when the wing area is large or

when the plane moves fast so that the pressure

difference across the top and bottom of the wing

is large. The Magnus force is indicated by the

red arrow in the figure below.

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