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RAIN WATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

Pratul T.Patil
NICMAR, Hyderabad
E-mail:pratulptl39@gmail.com


Abstract- Rain water management system important type of
system due to shortage of water. Its also help in reducing
the demand secondary water. I n paper we discuss various
old and new techniques to management the rain water
system. I also discuss my case study which on the Rain
water harvesting system in MHADA Building, Bandra.


I. INTRODUCTION:
Water is essential to all life human, animal and vegetation. It is
therefore important that adequate supplies of water be developed to
sustain such life. Development of water supplies should, however, be
undertaken in such a way as to preserve the hydrological balance and
the biological functions of all Ecosystems. The application of
innovative technologies and the improvement of indigenous ones
should therefore include management of the water sources to ensure
sustainability and to safeguard the sources against pollution. As land
pressure rises, more and more marginal areas in the world are being
used for agriculture. Much of this land is located in the arid or semi-
arid belts where rainfall is irregular and much of the precious water
is soon lost as surface runoff. Rain water was, is and will be the only
source of water in most of the part of India. Annual rainfall of India
is nearly 150% of worlds average rainfall but the spatial and
temporal distribution is erratic. We receive most of the rainfall
during monsoon season and nearly seven to eight months are without
any rainfall. During monsoon, there are some high intensity rainfalls,
these rainfalls cannot be absorbed fully by the soil and it runs off.
The runoff water can cause erosion, thus deteriorating the cultivable
land and due to less infiltration, can lead to poor replenishment of
ground water.
The source of almost all fresh water is precipitation from the
atmosphere, in the form of mist, rain and snow. Fresh water falling
as mist, rain or snow contains materials dissolved from the
atmosphere and material from the sea and land over which the rain
bearing clouds have traveled. In industrialized areas rain is typically
acidic because of dissolved oxides of sulfur and nitrogen formed
from burning of fossil fuels in cars, factories, trains and aircraft and
from the atmospheric emissions of industry. In some cases this acid
rain results in pollution of lakes and rivers.
In coastal areas fresh water may contain significant concentrations of
salts derived from the sea if windy conditions have lifted drops of
seawater into the rain-bearing clouds. This can give rise to elevated
concentrations of sodium, chloride, magnesium and sulfate as well as
many other compounds in smaller concentrations.
In desert areas, or areas with impoverished or dusty soils, rain-
bearing winds can pick up sand and dust and this can be deposited
elsewhere in precipitation and causing the freshwater flow to be
measurably contaminated both by insoluble solids but also by the
soluble components of those soils. Significant quantities of iron may
be transported in this way including the well-documented transfer of
iron-rich rainfall falling in Brazil derived from sand-storms in the
Sahara in north Africa.
Out of all the water on Earth, salt water in oceans, seas and saline
groundwater make up about 97% of it. Only 2.52.75% is fresh
water, including 1.752% frozen in glaciers, ice and snow, 0.70.8%
as fresh groundwater and soil moisture, and less than 0.01% of it as
surface water in lakes, swamps and rivers. Freshwater lakes contain
about 87% of this fresh surface water, including 29% in the African
Great Lakes, 20% in Lake Baikal in Russia, 21% in the North
American Great Lakes, and 14% in other lakes. Swamps have most
of the balance with only a small amount in rivers, most notably the
Amazon River. The atmosphere contains 0.04% water. In areas with
no fresh water on the ground surface, fresh water derived from
precipitation may, because of its lower density, overlie saline ground
water in lenses or layers. Most of the world's fresh water is frozen in
ice sheets. Many areas suffer from lack of distribution of fresh water,
such as deserts.
FIGURE I. FRESH WATER PERCENTAGE IN WORLD




TABLE I. AVERAGE RAINFALL DATA IN INDIA
SR.NO. STATE RAINFALL IN
MM
1 Andaman and Nicobar Islands 2967
2 ArunachalPradesh 2782
3 Assam 2818
4 Meghalaya 2818
5 Nagaland 1881
6 Manipur 1881
7 Mizoram 1881
8 Tripura 1881
9 West Bengal 2739
10 Sikkim 2739
11 Orissa 1489
12 Bihar 1326
13 Uttar Pradesh 1025
14 Haryana 617
15 Delhi 617
16 Chandigarh 617
17 Punjab 649
18 Himachal Pradesh 1251
19 Jammu and Kashmir 1011
20 Rajasthan 313
21 Madhya Pradesh 1017
22 Gujarat 1107
23 Goa 3005
24 Maharashtra 3005
25 Andhra Pradesh 1094
26 Telengana 961
27 Pondicherry 998
28 Karnataka 3456
29 Kerala 3055
30 Tamil Nadu 998
31 Lakshadweep 1515
[3]
A. History Of Rain Water Management:
Water management like many techniques in use today is not new, it
was practiced from ancient times in India. We can get references in
our ancient religious text, which give good insight into the water
storage and conservation system. Evidences of water system for
irrigation and drinking water supply can be seen in Indus valley
civilization (3000 BC to 1500 BC) at Dholavira, Mohenjo-Daro,
Harappa and Lothal. Various rulers like The Satvahans, the Gupta,
and The Pallavas expanded irrigation systems during their periods
from 1st century BC to 7th century AD. The cholas (985 to 1205
AD) introduced the concept of chain tanks, i.e. no. of tanks
connected by channels, which help in flexibility in water distribution.
During the Mughal rule, Abdul Rahim khan built the unique water
supply system of Burhanpur town, by constructing long lines of
underground tunnels with vertical airshafts to tap the ground water
flow from Satpuda hill ranges to Tapi River.
Under the Nizamshahi kings (1490 to 1635 AD) 15
channels were built to supply water to the city of Ahmednagar from
deep wells at the foot of nearby hills. Hence, rain water harvesting is
as old as civilization and practiced continuously in different ways for
different purposes in India.

B. Aims Of Rainwater Management:
To collect rain water for secondary purposes so that the
load on municipal water for drinking purpose is reduced.
To control depletion of ground water level.
To increase ground water table and its availability.
Rehabilitate the existing traditional water harvesting
structure like village ponds, percolation tanks etc.
To control the flow of sea water within the ground.
For agricultural, industrial, and other non-drinking
purpose.
Improve physical and chemical quality of ground water.
Reduce storm water runoff and soil erosion.


One of the biggest challenges of the 21st century is to overcome the
growing water shortage. Rainwater Management has thus regained
its importance as a valuable alternative or supplementary water
resource, along with more conventional water supply technologies.
Collected rainwater can supplement other water sources when they
become scarce or are of low quality like brackish groundwater or
polluted surface water in the rainy season. It also provides a good
alternative and replacement in times of drought or when the water
table drops and wells go dry. Particularly in arid or semi-arid areas,
the prevailing climatic conditions make it of crucial importance to
use the limited amount of rainfall as efficiently as possible. The
collected rainwater is a valuable supplement that would otherwise be
lost by surface run-off or evaporation. Due to pollution of both
groundwater and surface waters, and the overall increased demand
for water resources due to population growth, many communities all
over the world are approaching the limits of their traditional water
resources.
Millions of people throughout the world do not have access to clean
water for domestic purposes. In many parts of the world
conventional piped water is either absent, unreliable or too
expensive. During the past decade, RAIN WATER
MANAGEMENT has been actively reintroduced by local
organizations as an option for increasing access to water in currently
Underserved areas (rural or urban). But the technology has, however,
quickly regained popularity as users realize the benefits of a
relatively clean, reliable and affordable water source at home. In
many areas RAIN WATER MANAGEMENT has now been
introduced as part of an integrated water supply, where the town
water supply is unreliable, or where local water sources dry up for a
part of the year. But RAIN WATER MANAGEMENT can also be
introduced as the sole water source for communities or households.
C. Need For Rain Water Management:
Prior to industrialization and successive increased rate of
urbanization, the natural filter for rain was ground. This filter allows
the penetration and hence the ground water was at substantial level.
Continuous pumping of water for industrial and domestic use lead to
drop of level. Also in urban area especially concrete pavements,
footpath, parking area etc. were responsible for less filtration and
more surface runoff leading finally towards sea. Less deposition of
water in this water bank below and more withdrawal for many
activities are the key factors for this depletion of water. Hence, it is
the responsibility of mankind to increase this level. In this regard the
rain water harvesting is a very natural and cost effective solution
which will improve the depleted water level.
The technology is flexible and adaptable to a very wide
variety of conditions. It is used in the richest and the poorest
societies, as well as in the wettest and the driest regions on our
planet. India has 16% of the total population of the world. But the
country has only 4% of the water resources present on the earth.
Though India is one of the wettest region in the world with an annual
average rainfall of 117 cubic m of rain over the plains water scarcity
contains to hunt various parts in India with varying intensity. As it is,
Indias rainfall is characterized by its diversity, both by the
geographical division and season of the year. There is also very large
variation in each geographical region from one year to another,
resulting in flood in some areas and drought in others. Municipal
water supply in most Indian Cities is unreliable. Many villages in
India do not have potable water supply. Hence Rainwater
Management has been proposed as an ideal sustainable solution in
India too,
D. Benefits Of Rain Water Management:
It provides a source of water at the point where it is
needed
It provides an essential reserve in times of emergency and
breakdown of public water supply systems
It helps to conserve and enhance the storage of ground
water aquifers thereby improving the ground water table
Harvested rain water can provide good irrigation source
for agriculture
In coastal areas, over extraction of ground water leads to
saline water intrusion. Recharging of ground water
aquifer helps to arrest the invasion of saline water
The construction is simple and of low cost, running cost
is low and the technology is not labour intensive
It helps to achieve LEED (leadership in energy and
environment design) green building rating credit

E. Contribution Of Rain Water Management To A
Sustainable Water Strategy:
self-sufficiency in water supply
decentralized approach
restoring the hydrological cycle

II. TRADITIONAL METHODS OF RAIN WATER
MANAGE MENT
A. Trans-Himalayan Region:
The Trans-Himalayan region of India consists of the cold deserts of
Ladakh and Kargil in Jammu and Kashmir, and the Lahaul and Spiti
valleys of Himachal Pradesh. Traditional recharge structure practiced
here is the Zing (fig 2).
Zings are water harvesting structures found in Ladakh.
They are small tanks, in which collects melted glacier water.
Essential to the system is the network of guiding channels that brings
the water from the glacier to the tank. As glaciers melt during the
day, the channels fill up with a trickle that in the afternoon turns into
flowing water. The water collects towards the evening, and is used
the next day. [7]


Fig. 2 Zing method
B. Western Himalayan Region:
The western Himalayan region consists of the western half, which
stretches from the Kashmir valley to the Uttarakhand region.
Traditional recharge structure practiced here are the Kul, Naula, Kuhi
and Khatri.
Kuls are water channels found in precipitous mountain areas. These
channels carry water from glaciers to villages in the Spiti valley of
Himachal Pradesh. Where the terrain is muddy, the kul is lined with
rocks to keep it from becoming clogged. In the Jammu region too,
similar irrigation systems called kuls are found.
Naula is a surface-water harvesting method typical to the
hill areas of Uttaranchal. These are small wells or ponds in which
water is collected by making a stone wall across a stream. [2]



Fig. 3 Kuhls method
Khatris are structures, about 10 x 12 feet in size and six feet deep
carved out in the hard rock mountain. These traditional water
harvesting structures are found in Hamirpur, Kangra and Mandi
districts of Himachal Pradesh There are two types of khatris: one for
animals and washing purposes in which rain water is collected from
the roof through pipes, and other used for human consumption in
which rainwater is collected by seepage through rocks. Interestingly,
the khatris are owned by individual as well as by a community.
There are government khatris as well, which are maintained by the
panchayat.
Kuhls are a traditional irrigation system in Himachal
Pradesh surface channels diverting water from natural flowing
streams (khuds). A typical community kuhl services six to 30
farmers, irrigating an area of about 20 ha. The system consists of a
temporary headwall (constructed usually with river boulders) across
a khud (ravine) for storage and diversion of the flow through a canal
to the fields. By modern standards, building Kuhls was simple, with
boulders and labour forming the major input. The kuhl was provided
with moghas (kuchcha outlets) to draw out water and irrigate nearby
terraced fields. The water would flow from field to field and surplus
water, if any, would drain back to the khud. The Kuhls as shown in
fig. 3 were constructed and maintained by the village community. [2]

C. Eastern Himalaya Region:
Eastern Himalayan region comprises of the states of Sikkim and
Arunachal Pradesh and the Darjeeling district of West Bengal.
Traditional artificial recharge method practiced here is the Apatani.
Apatani is a wet rice cultivation cum fish farming system practiced
in elevated regions of about 1600 m and gentle sloping valleys,
having an average annual rainfall about 1700 mm and also rich water
resources like springs and streams. This system harvests both ground
and surface water for irrigation. It is practiced by Apatani tribes of
ziro in the lower Subansiri district of Arunachal Pradesh. In Apatani
system, valleys are terraced into plots separated by 0.6 meters high
earthen dams supported by bamboo frames. All plots have inlet and
outlet on opposite sides. The inlet of low lying plot functions as an
outlet of the high lying plot. Deeper channels connect the inlet point
to outlet point. The terraced plot can be flooded or drained off with
water by opening and blocking the inlets and outlets as and when
required. The stream water is tapped by constructing a wall of 2-4 m
high and 1 m thick near forested hill slopes. This is conveyed to
agricultural fields through a channel network. This method is shown
in fig 4.

Fig. 4 Apatani method
D. Northeastern Hill Ranges:
Northeastern hill ranges stretches over six state namely,
Assam, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Meghalaya and Tripura in the
Indian boundary and over Bangladesh and Myanmar. Traditional
artificial recharge practiced here are the Zabo Fig.5.Cheo-oziihi and
Bamboo-drip Irrigation. The zabo (the word means 'impounding run-
off') system is practiced in Nagaland in north-eastern India. Also
known as the ruza system, it combines water conservation with
forestry, agriculture and animal care. Villages such as Kikruma,
where zabos are found even today, are located on a high ridge.
Though drinking water is a major problem, the area receives high
rainfall. The rain falls on a patch of protected forest on the hilltop; as
the water runs off along the slope, it passes through various terraces.
The water is collected in pond-like structures in the middle terraces;
below are cattle yards, and towards the foot of the hill are paddy
fields, where the run-off ultimately meanders into. [2]


Fig.5zabo method
E. Bamboo Drip Irrigation:
Meghalaya has an ingenious system of tapping of stream
and spring water by using bamboo pipes to irrigate plantations.
About 18-20 liters of water entering the bamboo pipe system per
minute gets transported over several hundred meters and finally gets
reduced to 20-80 drops per minute at the site of the plant. This 200-
year-old system is used by the tribal farmers of Khasi and Jaintia
hills to drip-irrigate their black pepper cultivation. Bamboo pipes are
used to divert perennial springs on the hilltops to the lower reaches
by gravity. The channel sections, made of bamboo, divert and
convey water to the plot site where it is distributed without leakage
into branches, again made and laid out with different forms of
bamboo pipes. Manipulating the intake pipe positions also controls
the flow of water into the lateral pipes. Reduced channel sections and
diversion units are used at the last stage of water application. The last
channel section enables the water to be dropped near the roots of the
plant. Bamboos of varying diameters are used for laying the
channels. About four to five stages of distribution are involved from
the point of the water diversion to the application point. This method
is as shown in fig 6. [2]


Fig.6 Bamboo drip irrigation
F. Thar Deserts:
The Thar Desert covers an area of 44.6 million hectare, of
which 27.8 million hectare lies in India and rest in Pakistan. Western
Rajasthan, Kutch region of Gujarat, Bhatinda&Ferozepur districts in
Punjab and most of Hisar & parts of Mohindergarh districts of
Haryana fall under the Thardesert. Many traditional artificial
recharge structures have been practiced, they are the Kunds/Kundis,
Kuis/Beris, Baoris/bers, Jhararas, Nadi, Tobas, Tankas, Khadins,
Vav/VavdiBaoli/Bavadi, Virdas&Paar.
Kund or kundi looks like an upturned cup nestling in a
saucer. These structures harvest rainwater for drinking, and dot the
sandier tracts of the Thar Desert in western Rajasthan and some areas
in Gujarat. Essentially a circular underground well, kunds as shown
in fig 7, have a saucer-shaped catchment area that gently slopes
towards the centre where the well is situated. A wire mesh across
water-inlets prevents debris from falling into the well-pit. The sides
of the well-pit are covered with (disinfectant) lime and ash. Most pits
have a dome-shaped cover, or at least a lid, to protect the water. If
need be, water can be drawn out with a bucket. The depth and
diameter of kunds depend on their use. They can be owned by only
those with money to invest and land to construct it. Thus for the
poor, large public kunds have to be built. [2]


Fig.7Kund method
G. Jhalaras method:

Jhalaras were human-made tanks, found in Rajasthan and
Gujarat, essentially meant for community use and for religious rites.
Often rectangular in design, jhalaras have steps on three or four
sides. Jhalars as shown in fig 8 are ground water bodies which are
built to ensure easy & regular supply of water to the surrounding
areas. The jhalars are rectangular in shape with steps on three or even
on all the four sides of the tank. The steps are built on a series of
levels. The jhalaras collect
Subterranean seepage of a talab or a lake located
upstream. The water from these jhalaras was not used for drinking
but for only community bathing and religious rites. Jodhpur city has
eight jhalaras two of which are inside the town & six are found
outside the city. The oldest jhalara is the mahamandirjhalara which
dates back to 1660 AD.
Nadis are village ponds, found near Jodhpur in Rajasthan.
They are used for storing water from an adjoining natural catchment
during the rainy season. The site was selected by the villagers based
on an available natural catchments and its water yield potential.
Water availability from Nadi would range from two months to a year
after the rains. In the dunal areas they range from 1.5 to 4.0 meters
and those in sandy plains varied from 3 to 12 meters. The location of
the Nadi had a strong bearing on its storage capacity due to the
related catchment and runoff characteristics. [2]


Fig.8Jhalaras method
H. Khadin method

Khadin, also called a dhora, is an ingenious construction
designed to harvest surface runoff water for agriculture. Its main
feature is a very long (100-300 m) earthen embankment built across
the lower hill slopes lying below gravelly uplands. Sluices and
spillways allow excess water to drain off. The khadin system as
shown in fig 9 is based on the principle of harvesting rainwater on
farmland and subsequent use of this water-saturated land for crop
production. First designed by the Paliwal Brahmins of Jaisalmer,
western Rajasthan in the 15th century, this system has great
similarity with the irrigation methods of the people of Ur (present
Iraq) around 4500 BC and later of the Nabateans in the Middle East.
A similar system is also reported to have been practiced 4,000 years
ago in the Negev desert, and in southwestern Colorado 500 years
ago. [2]


Fig. 9Khadin method
III.TECHNIQUES OF RAIN WATER
MANAGEMENT
A. Rain Water Harvesting Using Roof Top Area:
In this rain is collected from roof of house and with help of Gutters
and collecting pipe system. The rain water harvesting system consists
of following basic components (Fig.10)
(a) Catchment area
(b) Coarse mesh / leaf screen
(c) Gutter
(d) Down spout or conduit
(e) First flushing device
(f) Filter
(g) Storage tank
(h) Settlement tank

Fig.10 Components of Rain Water harvesting system
This Rain water harvesting have two models
a) Rural model
b) Urban model









Fig. 11 Rural Model


Fig. 12 Urban Model
B. Furaat:
It is one such offering that has been made by the Furaat Water
Harvesting system that has been designed for the Ahmadabad based
company by an NID graduate of Product Design, Dinesh Sharma.
The company, Furaat Earth Pvt Ltd, was set up by the entrepreneur
brothers Habil and Yusuf Attarwala with the intention of reaching
action on the ground with a small investment rather than just talking
about the need for awareness and local action. In the last two years
over 400 installations have been achieved and this year has seen a
growth in both acceptance and in business with over 500 installations
being considered, each costing approximately Rs 30,000.


Fig 13 cross section of furaat system
The Furaat system as shown in fig 5.11 can be used for both kinds of
applications, that is, storage type or ground water recharge type of
application. In the first case the system on offer can form the first
stage of the collection and filtration process while a variety of
storage types can be used downstream, and in the second case the
modular units can be installed in a variety of capacities to recharge
deep ground water reservoirs using deep bore wells as the preferred
route for the ground water recharge process.
It is a cost effective modular construction technique. Two key
components are used in the product an octagonal horizontal
component and a rectangular vertical component each with a
simple locator detail that uses spherical glass beads in a patented
configuration to lock the components in place. These are made in
high quality concrete castings with precision and durability and in
the long run these offer reuse and recycling possibilities in case the
location is to be changed in the future due changes in the
underground water table characteristics or in new structures on the
surface as the site is developed. This is a hidden feature that protects
the investment and also significant is the ease with which the well
components can be assembled, maintained and cleaned after a few
monsoons. All water handling accessories too are made of industrial
grade metals of high quality that provides durability, performance
and filtration standards that are extremely high and the sand and
gravel beds at the first and the last stage too can be cleaned with ease
since the design affords easy access as it is like a step-well with the
dimensions matched to human proportions for lifting, access and
climbing as well as being secure in the quality of filter performance
that is guaranteed by the company. The modular construction gives
the user and the planner flexibility in making the particular unit to
suit the needs of the site condition as well as the available budget
since a one level, two level or three level or even a multi-level unit
can be made with the same basic components in a very short time.
Installation can be completed in less than a day by one or two semi-
skilled masons without the use of hoists or cranes to erect the well
components. Ground water recharge if done carelessly can be quite
damaging for the aquifer since it is easy to use artificial recharge to
help introduce contaminants and surface pollution into an aquifer if
the filtration process is carelessly handled. Design can play a great
role in examining and building imaginative solutions that are
economic, appropriate and culturally suitable for the particular
location. [5]


C. Crosswave:
It is a water holding material for rainfall accumulation installed
within underground reservoirs. Underground water space created by
Cross-Wave effectively controls flood of river and drainage caused
by heavy rain. At the same time it also provides a system through
which stored rain water can be used according to necessity. Cross-
Wave system is a light-weight, easy to transport and simple to install
system. Its speedy in installation. (1000m3 could be installed in 2
weeks).the different types of cross wave system are as shown in fig.
14, 15, 16. [6]

Fig. 14 Installing cross wave as a retention facility (Earth adjustment
type)

Fig 15 Installing cross wave as a osmosis (Permeation type earth
adjustment type)

Fig 16 Installing cross wave as rain water harvesting tank (Rainwater
use type)
Installation Process:
Installation process as shown in fig.17, simply involves
digging, spreading the protecting sheet, laying the lining sheets,
piling up CrossWave, setting spacer and finally covering up with
lining sheet & protection sheet. Due to high void ratio of 95 % large
amount of space could be utilized. It can easily take 25 ton truck load
as well as 45 ton fire tender could easily move over it. The finished
surface can be used as parking lot, gardens etc in residential
complexes, hospitals, offices etc. The entire operation is time saving
as installation can be done manually. No big tools are required.
Compared to concrete tanks, in case of Cross wave no curing time is
required, which again saves lot of time. Above all, the system is
environmentfriendly. There is no pollution caused in the process.
The material used is polypropylene, which has excellent physical &
chemical properties and no pollution is caused to the water stored.
The system is easy to maintain, has long life time (50 years) and
recyclable too.

Fig 17 Installation process
D. Types Of Groundwater Dam:
1)The Sub-Surface Dam
A sub-surface dam obstructs the flow of an aquifer and reduces the
variation of the level of the groundwater table upstream of the dam.
It is built entirely under the ground

Fig. 18 A sub-surface dam
2) The sand storage dam-
The sand storage dam is constructed above ground. Sand and soil
particles transported during periods of high flow are allowed to
deposit behind the dam, and water is stored in these soil deposits.
The sand storage dam is constructed in layers to allow sand to be
deposited and finer material be washed downstream as shown in
fig.18.
A groundwater dam can also be a combination of these two
types. When constructing a sub-surface dam in a river bed, one can
increase the storage volume by letting the dam wall rise over the
surface, thus causing additional accumulation of sediments.
Similarly, when a sand-storage dam is constructed it is necessary to
excavate a trench in the sand bed in order to reach bedrock, which
can be used to create a sub-surface dam too.
Groundwater dams are built across streams or valleys. A
trench is dug across the valley or stream, reaching to the bedrock or
other stable layer like clay. An impervious wall is constructed in the
trench, which is then refilled with the excavated material. Various
materials may be used for the construction of groundwater dams.

Fig 19

Fig 20 Storage dam
Materials should be waterproof, and the dam should be strong
enough to withstand the imposed soil and water loads. Dams
may vary from 2 to 10 meters high. Materials include
compacted clay, concrete, stones and clay, masonry wall or
plastic sheets. The reservoir is recharged during the monsoon
period and the stored water can be used during the dry season.
Excess water flows over the top of the dam to replenish
aquifers downstream. Water may be obtained from the
underground reservoir either from a well upstream of the dam
or from a pipe fig. 20, passing through the dam, and leading to
a collection point downstream. Groundwater dams cannot be a
universally applicable as these require specific conditions for
functioning. The best sites for construction of groundwater
dams are where the soil consists of sands and gravel, with rock
or a permeable layer at a depth of a few meters. Ideally the dam
should be built where rainwater from a large catchment area
flows through a narrow passage.

E. Dams:
Constructing ponds in hilly areas and constructing dam on is
also method of using rain water .Since in hilly rain
precipitation more than other so we get more water from there.
By constructing dam we can increase making storage of it and
use whenever we required. By help of pipe system it can be
transfer to any place where ever we required. There many dams
dam constructed on the principles.

IV. CASE STUDY RAIN WATER HARVESTING IN
CAO BUILDING MHADA
A. Introduction:
We went to the Mhadabuliding to study the installation of
rain water harvesting equipment which is situated in Kalanagar, Off.
Western Express Highway. Bandra (E) Mumbai on 21/01/2013.We
studied rain water harvesting system installed in Mhadabuliding. The
climate of Mumbai is tropical wet and dry, Heavy rainfall is only
during monsoon season. As Population is increasing day by day so to
tackle the problem of water scarcity by reducing the load on
municipal water supply and to meet the future demand, govt. has
taken a step forward towards judicious use of water by installing
RAIN WATER HARVESTING system in Mhada building. Project
was completed by the group of Water Field Technologies PVT.
LTD. They have done various survey for the suitability of site and
calculated estimated cost for project. We got the idea about the
component of rain water harvesting system and their arrangement. It
is the cost effective project as that of solar water heated, the payback
period is approximate 2 years. Total cost of the Mhada building rain
water harvesting project is Rs 17,50,000/-.from our study we came to
the conclusion that the system is sustainable, economical and highly
reliable.

B. Geography & Hydrology Of Mumbai:
Maharashtra state (307,731 km2 in geographical area) is
situated in the western Corner of the Country comprising of 9.84% of
the total geographical area Currently there is acute shortage of water
in Mumbai, it has been given to understand that now Hon. Vice
President & CEO/A has directed for taking the necessary steps
towards water management so as to minimize the consumption of
municipal water. The state falls in one of the rain fed regions in the
country and receives appreciable amount of unevenly distributed
precipitation throughout the year with peak rainfall during monsoon
period .Acute shortage of drinking water has been a prominent
problem being faced by the people during the past few decades.

C. Priority To Rain Water Harvesting In Mumbai
Region:
The Climate of Mumbai is a tropical wet and dry climate.
Mumbai's climate can be best described as moderate temperatures
with high level of humidity. Its coastal nature and tropical location
ensures moderate temperatures throughout the year, average of 27.2
C and average precipitation of 242.2 cm (95.35 inches). The
temperatures average about 30 C in summer and 18 C in winter.
Mumbai's experiences 4 distinct seasons winter: (DecemberFeb);
summer: (MarchMay); Monsoon (JuneSep) and Post Monsoon
(OctDec).Rainfall occurs mainly in the monsoon period which is
from June to September. Rainfall activity intensifies as the month
goes on, leading into wettest month, July. In July the city receives
the maximum amount of rain. July and August are characterized by
almost nonstop rain and weeks of no sunshine. The weather in
August is almost identical July. Towards the latter half of the month,
rainfall activity tends to lessen. In September the intensity of rainfall
decreases. The monsoons officially end in the 3rd week of
September.
Out of the existing houses of the state, about 85 % of the houses
mostly in the urban areas consist of RCC structures & 15% of
galvanized corrugated iron slanted roofed sheets.
So 85% of the rooftops can be utilized as catchment area.
D. Proposed Scheme For Rooftop Rain Water
Harvesting:
Name Of Scheme : Rooftop rainwater Harvesting for
MHADA Buildings at
Bandra (E)
Location of project: MHADA Building at Bandra(E).
Average annual Rainfall of Mumbai: 2500mm
Organization involved in project: water field technologies
Pvt. Ltd.
Starting Date: 10 May 2010
Total cost of Project: 17, 50,000/-

E. Project Area:
MHADA Building, Kalanagar, Off. Western Express Highway.
Bandra (E) Mumbai


Fig 21 Plan of Mhada Building
F. Methodology For Project Completion:
Preliminary survey-
a) Inspection of building rooftop for catchment area.
b) Collect the information regarding climate,
precipitation.
c) Geophysical investigation to ascertain water bearing
zones of shallow deep horizons and salinity levels
like
- Electrical resistivity
- Electromagnetic field

Analysis-
a) Procurement of plan of the building to calculate the
catchment area.
b) Find out the no. of population and amount of water
used per day.
c) Estimate the no. of storage tank with reference to
the amount of precipitation in that area.
d) Decide the length and diameter of pipe.
e) Decide the pumping capacity of motor according to
the height of building.
f) Calculation of payback period.

G. Steps Adopted:
Stage I -Survey:
The consultant carried out the survey of premises of CAO
Building
Collected the data required for the proposed project and
analyzed the same
Designed the suitable Rain Water Harvesting (RAIN
WATER HARVESTING) system
Carried out the geophysical survey & fixed the location of
bore well
Stage II-Working-Drawing, Estimates & Tender Documents:
Prepared drawing on AutoCAD
Prepared detailed estimate & rate analysis for the
proposed project
Modified the plan as per project requirement
Stage III-Periodic Supervision :
The program shall be duly approved by consultant,
engineer-in-charge of the board and contractor appointed
for execution of work.
Periodically monitor the physical and financial progress
of the work as per above.
Stage IV-Execution of project:
The chief officer shall supply to the consultant up to date
schedule of the rates of the board and PWD.
The authority and the board shall include the name of the
consultant in small print in any printed document
published by the authority which describes the design of
the project or users photographs or the drawings prepared
by the consultant.
The authority shall reimburse the consultant with the
actual cost of any model or special presentation like
perspectives requested by the authority, which will
remain sole property of the authority.
Stage V-Time schedule:
the stages for the work ranging from taking
measurements, preparing preliminary layouts, working
drawing and supervision of work was discussed and
finalized by the Executive engineer, maintenance
division, Mumbai housing and area development board as
a) Stage I 5 days
b) Stage II 7 days
c) Stage III 8 day



H. Costing Of Equipments And Consultancy Charges:
Table no 2: Total cost of project
SR
No.
Description
Appox.
Quantity
Amount/unit
Amount in
Rs.
1 Collection system 500m 750/m 375000
2 Bore wells 3 30000 90000
3 Recharge pit 3 100000 300000
4
Bore wells
submersible pump
3 40000 120000
5
Collection
tank(5000lit)
3 50000 150000
6
Collection
tank(1000lit)
2 10000 20000
7
Open well
submersible pump
3 40000 120000
8 Geophysical survey - - 25000
9 Pressure filter 1 300000 300000
10
Consultancy
charges
- 150000 150000
11 Contingencies - 100000 100000
Total 1750000




I. Rain Water Harvesting Potential:
Average annual rainfall of Mumbai
: 2500 mm
No. of rainy days
:80
Potential of rooftop rain water harvesting
:A x R x C
i.e. Roof Area X Annual Rainfall X Runoff Coefficient
3866m
2
x 2.5m x 0.8=7732m
3

Total RAIN WATER HARVESTING Potential
:7732m
3


:7732000lit/yr
Average rooftop rainwater availability
during rainy season
:96659 lit/day

J. Cost Benefit Analysis:
Source: BMCs water supply:
Average consumption per month
:3307454lit (A)
Say secondary water requirement is
:70% of entire water used
consumption per secondary purpose(0.7 x A)
:231521.182 lit/month
Hence daily secondary water consumption
:77174 lit (B)
Average rooftop rainwater availability during rainy season
:96650 lit/day (C)
Since C>B
Rooftop Rainwater Will Be Sufficient To Fulfill Secondary Water
Requirement During Monsoon Period And Surplus Water Is To Be
Diverted To Bore Well For Artificial Recharge Of Ground Water
K. Pay Back Calculation:
Total water bill paid per month
:129028rs
cost of water paid for secondary water consumption
:129028 x 0.7=90320rs
total charges paid for secondary water consumption
:90320 x 12= 1083840rs/yr (D)
total cost of proposed project
:1750000rs (E)
PayBack period
:

=1.61
say payback period
:2yrs of rainy seasons
operation & maintenance cost approximately
:30000rs per yr

V. ADVANTAGES OF RAIN WATER
MANAGEMENT
The water is free: the only cost is for collection and use.
Rainwater provides a water source when groundwater is
unacceptable or unavailable or it can augment limited ground
water supplies.
Rainwater Management reduces flow to storm water drains and
also reduces non-point source pollution in addition to reduction
of flooding of roads in cities.
Rainwater harvesting helps utilities reduce the summer demand
peak and delay expansion of existing water treatment plants,
great energy saving.
It also help in increasing ground water.
Reducing use ground water.
Rainwater is sodium-free, important for person on low-sodium
diets.
Rainwater is superior for landscape irrigation.

VI. CONCLUSION
1) From the above project we learned various techniques and
methods of the rain water management system, and we came to know
that the Rain Water Harvesting system is an ancient method. From
the period of 1st century AD. Many known kings who ruled the India
were enthusiastic to do the water storage for irrigation, and also
encouraged individuals and villages to build tank to suite their
requirement. The rainwater harvesting technology is an important
today as it was in historical time. While designing, installing and
operating the rainwater management system, proper data analysis of
whether parameters, correct estimation of requirements and proper
distribution system must be ensured to have maximum benefits from
the rainwater harvesting.
2) We got the knowledge about the traditional methods in Rain
Water Harvesting system in India. Every region in India has their
own ancient methods of irrigation. Other techniques like furaat,
online filter, cross wave and underground water storage are used for
filtration and storage purpose.
3) Encourage on-site infiltration of water rather than diversion by
impervious roads, parking areas, and drainage structures. Diverted
Rainwater alters the natural hydrologic cycle, discourages
groundwater recharge, and generates increased runoff and flooding.
4) In the case study we came to know that construction, maintenance
of Rain Water Harvesting system is very easy and simple. It can be
handle by any person with minimum knowledge. Payback period is
very small compare to its reliable period. The catchment area of
MHADA building is 3866m
2
. The total cost of the Rain Water
Harvesting system of MHADA building is 1750000Rs. And
payback period is two years. Due to this water bill is reduced.

REFERANCES
[1] www.waterfieldindia.com
[2] www.rainwaterharvesting.org/Rural/traditional2.htm
[3] www.rainwaterharvesting.org/urban/rainfall.htm
[4] www.samsamwater.com
[5] http://www.furaat.com/
[6] www.sekisui-techno-molding.jp/eng/products/cw/index.htm
[7]www.rainwaterharvesting.org/People/..%5CRural%5Ctranhimreg
_tradi.htm