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1891 7 10
1987 12 12

1918 2 17
1986 9 4

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5BF8.indd 1

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, (B. C. 1950 ), 13
, 1 1 3 16 17
, ,
20 , 1925
,
, ,
, ,
, ,
,
,
, , ,

, , , ,
, ,
,
, ,
, , ,
,
, ,
, , (Newton) ,
( dimension)
MKS (International System of Units, SI ),
(m), (kg) (s)
constant, , ,
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5BF8.indd 1

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, (i-n), (i-m) (i-l), n, m,


l=1, 2, 3, , i= ,
(n), m ( l), n, m, l=1, 2, 3, ,

, ,
, ,
, Lawrence
,

2012 9

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(02)2705-5066
ii

5BF8.indd 2

2014/3/3 04:23:45

1
(I)

15

(A)

(B)
(1) 4)

4
5

(2) 5)
(II)

(A) (linearity) (linear space)


(B) ,

11

(1) (operation) (operator)


(a)

11

12

(b) 12
(2) (algebraic system)
(3) (transformation)

13

(a) ,

13

(b) ,
(c)
(4) (mapping)
(a)

12

13

14

19

19

(b)

19

(c)

20

(d) (composite mapping) (functional)

20

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(e) 21
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5BF8con.indd 1

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(f)

21

(g) 1 1

21

(h) 1

22

(i)

22

(j) 1 (one-to-many mapping)


24

27
29

(1)

- 1 i, (a ib, ab= ) 29

(a) p

29

(b) e
(c)

22

29

- 1 i , 11) 30

(d) (9) 11)

32

(2) Hamilton

33

(3) (algebra) (linear algebra)

35

(4) (exponential function) (logarithmic function)


(5)

39

(a) ( vector)
(b)

36

39

40

(i) (scalar product) (inner product) (dot


product)

40

(ii) ( vector product) (outer product)


(cross product) 42
(c)
(d) Dirac

45
49

(6) (set) (group) (eld)


(a)

53

(i)

53

52

(ii) , ,
(iii)

53

55

(b) (group) 56
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5BF8con.indd 2

2014/3/3 04:23:02

(i)

56

(ii) (additive group) G, 56


(iii) (multiplicative group) G, 57
(c) (eld)
(i)

58

58

(ii) , (additive rules) 58


(iii) , (multiplicative rules)

59

(iv) (distributive law)


(v)

59

59

(7)

60

(a) (differential calculus, differentiation)

60

(b) (partial differential calculus, partial differentiation)


(c)

63

(i)

63

(ii)
(d) ( )

64

64

(8)
(a)

66

(b)

66

(c)
(d)

66

66

67

(9) (matrix)
(a)

61

69

69

(i) (system of linear equations)


(ii) (determinant) (matrix)
(b)

71

82

(i) , (space)
(ii)

69

83

84

(iii)

85

(iv)

85

(10) 87
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(02)2705-5066
iii

5BF8con.indd 3

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(a) (scalar function) (operation)


^ , 90
(b) R

87

(11) ,
(2005)

93

O. Schreier and E. SpernerIntroduction to Modern Algebra and Ma-

trix Theory, Chelsea Publishing Company, New York, N.Y., 1955.


(12) P. A. M. DiracThe Principles of Quantum Mechanics, 4th ed. Oxford
University Press, 1958.

2
(I)

93

5, 11)
(A) 5)
(1)

95

96

96

96

(2)
(B)

96
96

(1) (space)

96

(2) (subspace)

97

(a)

97

(b)

97

(C) , ?5)
(1)
(2)

99
100

(a)
(b) 5)
(D) 5)
(1) (denition)

99

101

102
103

103

(2) (length) l

104

(3) P1 P2 P1P2 105


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5BF8con.indd 4

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(4) (norm)

105

(5)

107

(a) Gram-Schmidt
(b)

108

110

(6) 115
(a) (basis)

115

(b) (dimension)

115

(c)
(7)
(a)

116

118
118

(b) Descartes Minkowski


(II) 11)
(A) 5,

118

125

125

6)

(1) [ (2-1) 0 f ]
(2)

125

(B) 9,
(1)

125

11)

126

126

(a)

126

(b) F V ( )

127

(c) 129
(2)
(a)

135

135

(b)

135

(c) V S1 S2 (sum) S12


(d) V S1 S2 (direct sum)
(C) 5,

9, 11)

143

144

146

(1)
(linear dependence) 146
(a)

147

(b)

147

(2)

148

(a) 149
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5BF8con.indd 5

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(b)
(linear combination)

151

(3)

(a)

154

(b)

155

153

(D) 11) 156


(1)

157

(a) V

157

(b) (a1, a2, , an) V (unique)


(c) (standard basis) 5)

162

(2) V (dimension)

164

(a) ( )

158

164

(b) (2-43)1 (2-43)2

164

(c) 165
(3) V

175

(a) (cordinates)

175

(b) ( (2-15) (a) ) 176


(c) (non-standard basis)

176

(E) , , , , 11)
(1)

181

181

(a)
(b) (axioms)

181
181

(c) V
(d) V
(2) (norm)
(a)

184
185

188
188

(b)

189

(c) X Y

190

(3) 11)
(a) (2-63)1

192

(b) f g ?

193

191

(4) 11) 196


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5BF8con.indd 6

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(a)

196

(b) G

196

(c) (orthogonal projection)

198

(d) ( orthogonal complement)

200

(5) , , , , 11)
(a) (normalization)

203

203

(b) ( )

205

(c) Gram-Schmidt Gram-Schmidt

209

213

219
221

(13)

221

(14) ,

222
^

(15) (projection operator) P |x k><x k| (


)

222

(16)

(17)

3
(I)

(transformation)
(A)

224

225

227
228

228

(B) (linear transformation)


(1)

229

230

^ ] 230
(a) [2-18 a b f^ g^, f0
(b) [2-19 a b f^ g^, 1I^ ] 230
(c) 3-5 3-6

230

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vii

5BF8con.indd 7

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(2)

231

(3) 232
(II) f^ 11, 12) 238
(A) f^ 11, 12) 239

(B) f^ g^ (product of transformations f^ and g^ )11)


(1) f^ g^ h^ 242
(2) f^ g^ h^ 243
(C) f^ 11)

242

245

(D) 247
(1) (3-29)1 247
(2) f^ vf=[f ] 249
vvv

(3) 18)
(a)

ij

263
264

(i) (axis of rotation)|x3>

264

(ii) |x1> |x2> u


(iii) (3-38)1 (3-40)2

(b) R3 l u
(i) ,
(ii)

268
269

269

279

(c) (orthogonal matrix)

281

(i)

281

(ii) (3-63)

267

282
285

(E) (standard matrix) 9~12)

(1) 9)
(a)

285

(b)

288

(2) (standard matrix)

285

295

(F) (classical physics)

306

(1) Galilei , Gaillei (Galilean transformation)


(a) (inertial system)

306

306

(b) Gailiei 307


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5BF8con.indd 8

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(2) Lorentz , Lorentz (Lorentz transformation)

309

(a) Minkowski d 309


(b) Lorentz

311

(G) (unitary transformation)

318

319

335
337

(18) Jerry B. Marion and Stephen T. ThorntonClassical Dynamics of Particles

and Systems , 3rd. ed. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers, 1988 337
(19)

,
, 2011

4
(I)

339

11)

(A)

337

340

340

(B) 341
(1)

341

(2) 341
(a) , 341
(b) 1

342

(c) (transposed matrix)

344

(d) ( , )
(e) 2
(II)

354

(A)

354

346

346

(1) 354
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5BF8con.indd 9

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(a)

354

B , vvv
C mn )
A , vvv
(b) :( vvv

355

B , vvv
Z mn )
A , vvv
(c) : ( vvv
(d) ?

355

(2) a b :
(a)

356

356

B mn )
A , vvv
(b) :( vvv
(c)

356

(3)

357

(a)

355

356

357

vvv
E mn , vvv
B nl vvv
C
(b) (A
vvv
367

lk )

(c)

367

(d) (elementary matrices)


(B) (systems of linear equations)
(1) Gauss
(a)

388

(III) (rank of matrix)

391

(A)
(1)

392

(2)

392

377

387

388

391

(3) (equivalent matrices)


(4)

393

393

(5) ( ) (equivalence condition)


(6)
(B)

393

405

405

(1) f^ (kernel) 407


(2)

(IV) (inverse of matrix)

415

421

(A) ( )

422

(1) 422
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5BF8con.indd 10

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(2) ( )
(B) (determinant)
(1)

422

423

423

(2) ( )
(C)

426

427

(1) (adjoint matrix)


A
(a) adj. vvv

427

427

(b) ( )
(2) Gauss-Jordan
(D) LU

434

438

(1) (partitioning a matrix)


(a)

428

438

438

(b)

439

(2) LU (LU decomposition of a matrix)

442

449

455
459

(20)

459

(21)
(II), (2010)
460

5
(I)

461

(eigen characteristic)
(A) (rigid body) 18)
(1)

462

462

462

(2) 2 33 ,

465

(B) (coupled oscillation) 470


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18)

5BF8con.indd 11

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(1) (oscillation, vibration)


(2)

470

470

(a) (boundary condition) 470


(b) (initial condition)
(c)

471

471

(d)
(3) ,

471

476
485

(II) 11, 12)

(A)
(1)

485

(a)

485

(b) n ( degree)
(c) n (degree)

485

486

489

(d) (b) (c)


(2)

519

(3)
(B)

513

521

532

(1)
(2)

532

534

A
(a) nn vvv

535

A
(b) nn vvv

535

(c)

537

A s
(i) vvvvv

538

H 539
(ii) Hermitian vvv
A f(A
)
(3) ( ) n vvv
vvv
A f (A
)
(4) n vvv
vvv
(a) Cayley-Hamilton (theorem)

576

576

(b) Cayley-Hamilton , F (a)


A P (A
)
(5) n vvv
vvv
(C)

562

582

597

599

(1) 599
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5BF8con.indd 12

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(a)
(2)

601

604

(a) Hermitian

605

(b) ( )

610

(D)
(1)

619

619

(a) ,
(b) ,
(2)

629

638

(a) (uncoupled simple harmonic motion)


(b) (coupled simple harmonic motion)

639

640

(3) n (n-th order linear differential equation)


(a)

619

646

646

(b) (5-161)3 Xc (t) 648


(c) (5-161) 3 X c (t)
X p (t)

654

(d) n 1

659

672

694
697

(22) , 4
,
, 2008 (E)

698

(p, e,i)

697

698

705

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xiii

5BF8con.indd 13

2014/3/3 04:23:04

(vector), ,

ee

(unit vector), 1

e v ev

(zero vector),

a
a

(ket vector) a
(bra vector) a
, ,
a (column vector) a
a (row vector) a

X:Y X Y

X Y (scalar product) (dot product) (inner product)

X#Y X Y

X Y ( vector product)
cross product (outer product)
X X (projection operator) X

v v / v v

, v v

v , v (norm)

set:

a1, a2, gg, an setA element


A / (a1, a2, ggan)
(# , # , # , gg, #)

! e

ai ! A A " ai ai A
z

ai g L L e a a L
A 1 B B 2 A
AY
1 B B Y
2A

A B (subset)
A B

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(f)
(empty set) (null set),
(02)2705-5066
xiv

5BF8con.indd 14

2014/3/3 04:23:11

ABBA

A B (the union of two set A and B)


(union set) (sum set)

ABBA

A B (the intersection of set A and B)


(intersection set) (product set)

(group)
G a1, a2, , an
"# , # , gg, #,

a1, a2, , an (group) G (element)


G, (additive group),
G, (multiplicative group)

(space)
Rn
n

En

n
n
n
n Euclidean , n=
P= (x1 , x2 , , xn), Q= (y1 , y2, , yn)
, P Q

(x1 - y1) 2 + (x2 - y2) 2 + g + (xn - yn) 2


V n Vn

dim.V
Cst.
Cnon.

Euclidean
n
(direct sum)
V ( , dimension)
(standard basis coordinate system)
(nonstandard basis coordinate system)

(determinant), (matrix)

|A|, det. A
A
det. vvv

vf ^

vvv

vf ^^[f ]
ij
vvv

gg
A, gg
gg

=
( = ) A
vvv
(operator) ^f ^, ,

^^^f ,vvvvv ,
vf ^^ ( element entry),
fij= vvv

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5BF8con.indd 15

2014/3/3 04:23:12

(row)

J f11 f12 g f1n N


K
O
f21 f22 g f2n O
K
6 fij @ / K
O = m # n
(column)K
O
L fm1 fm2 g fmnP
,

vvv

Z
O vvv

(zero matrix, null matrix), ( )

vvv

J x1 N
K O
K x2O
X
(column vector) , = K O = n # 1
h
K O

LxnP

X =X

(row vector) ,
X = (x*1 , x*2, g , x*n) = 1 # n ,
x*i = xi ( )

X = X

0 =f

0 = f

A X = vvv
Y

vvv vvv

A X =avvv
X , a=

vvv vvv

A
adj. vvv
A
A tr. vvv
trace vvv

Z ,
(zero), vvv

A vvv
Y ,
X vvv
vvv
(state)
A (eigenvalue),
a vvv
A (eigenvector)
vvv
X a vvv
A , (adjoint matrix),
adj.
A ,
vvv
A ( ) , nn
vvv
vvv

tr. A = / aii = a11 + a22 + g + ann


A
rank vvv
A
ker. vvv
A im. vvv
A
image vvv
A
nullity vvv

i=1

A (rank)
vvv
A
(kernel)
vvv
A (image)
vvv
A (nullity)
vvv

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xvi

5BF8con.indd 16

2014/3/3 04:23:14

alpha

nu
()

()
b

beta
(

( )
O

delta

epsilon

zeta
(

()
R

(
Q

(
I

mu
(

upsilon
( )

w, f

phi
()

chi
()

()
M

tau
()

lambda

sigma
()

kappa
(

iota
(

theta

rho
()

eta

pi

( )
Z

omicron
( )

()
E

xi

gamma
(

psi
(

omega
()

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(02)2705-5066
xvii

5BF8con.indd 17

2014/3/3 04:23:14

Chapter

II

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5BF81.indd 1

2014/3/3 04:24:19

(I)
(A)
(arithmetic) , (real
number) , ,

0
(1-1)

(1-1) , ,

(),

(),

( ) ,

( )

(1-1)

, ( B)
-B ,

B=

-B = -1 B / i B =
i / -1

i B =

Bi

3 (1-2)

B i (imaginary number)1) 1 2

a - B = a B i a bi ,

B b = ,

(complex number) ,
(1-2)1) , (a
ib) ,
(1 ) (2 ) ,
(3 ) , 19
1843 Hamilton (Sir William Rowan
Hamilton , 1805 1865 , )

a =

(1-3)

(a , ib)

(1-2)

, (quaternion)2) , 3

,
,
, (variable), ,

x,

y,

z,

(1-4)

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2

5BF81.indd 2

2014/3/3 04:24:20

Chapter 1

,
(rules) , (algebra)3)
, 3 , 3 (abstract space) ,
,
, (abstract algebra) ,
(linear algebra)3)
, ,
3) (dimension) ,
(degree) ,

3x2 10y 7 = 0
2 2 1 2 3 1 ,
(plane geometry) , 2 (orthogonal
cordinates)

(B)
3 (solid geometry) ,
(trigonometry) (analytic geometry) ,
2 , (determinant) (sequence) (series)
(exponential function) (logarithmic function)4) (probability)
(limit) (calculus) ,
,
v ,

v v

(1-5)

v (velocity) (vector) , (algebra) ,


,

5) v
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5BF81.indd 3

2014/3/3 04:24:20

(acceleration) a (force) F , (electric eld strength) E ,

B , , 5)

(1) 5)

, ,
, ,
, (scalar number) a , , , a
, 1 (unit vector) v

J ev

K
v = vev
K
==
e
o

K 1
ev = v
L

v
(1-3)

J v
K
K
^v (- e ) =- v h == K ev
K
1
K
L
Z
]^ v + (- v ) = 0h == c
]
]
]
`[
v=2 J
]^av = ave h K
a=3 K
]
K
]
]
L
\
v

v
(1-4)

(1-5)

6
(1-6)

N
O
O (1-6)1
O
P

N
O
O
O
O (1-6)2
O
P
_
b
m
b
b
b
b

` (1-6)3
N
3v
Ob
Ob
Ob
Pb
b
a

(1-6)3 0 , , 0, , (1-6)3 ,

, a 0
, v 1
,
(scalar multiplicative identity element) ,

1v = v (1-6)4

(1-6)4 v 1 , (1-6)3

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5BF81.indd 4

2014/3/3 04:24:23

Chapter 1

(1-7)

(1-7) 5) , (1-6)3 , 4

(i) ,
(ii)

3 (1-8)

(2) 5)
, , ,
,
, (2 ) , , 3
3 , n n , n (n-dimensional
vector space) , n (real linear space) ,
(sum) (scalar multiplication)
(rules)

J
N
J



a b = b a = s
K
O
K
b
(i) K ( ) (additiveO K
K
K
O
K commutative rule) O
L
L
P

(1-7)

N
O
O (1-9)1
bO
P

J
N


J
N
K
O

(
a
)
c
)
b
a
(
b
c
K
O
K
O

K
O
c O

K
s
s2
= s
s2
O K

(ii) K s1
O (1-9)2
K
O

K
O

(additive
associas1
K
O
K
O
K
O

b
K
O
tive
rule)

L
P
a
L
P
(1-8)

N
J
a ( a ) = 0
N
J
K
O
a

K
K a 0 = 0 a = a
O
O
=0O
K
K
O

(iii) K 0 (additive O K
a
O (1-9)3

K
O
K
O

K0
O
K identity element) a a O
=
a

a
K (inverse element)
O
L
P
K
O
(1-9)
www.wunan.com.tw
L
P

(02)2705-5066

5BF81.indd 5

2014/3/3 04:24:25

ZJ
_

] K a(a
b) = aa ab
J
Nb
]K



K
Ob
ab
]K
= as , a b=s
K
Ob

]K

K
Ob
as
] K (multia
=
1
K
Ob

] K plicative distributive rule) K


b
s

b = 1.5 O
b

]K
KK
OO b

a=3
] K ,
b

aa
L a
Pb
]K
]]
b
b
L
(iv) [
J
N`

a=1

] J (a b)

K
Ob
a = aa ba
a
]K
a
=
2

K
Ob

s = 6
]K
=s
K
Ob
b = 4
]K
a
K
Ob
4
] K (multiOb
4
K 1
]K
K
Ob
] K plicative distributive rule)
a
K
Ob
a
] K ,
2
K
Ob
]K
2
K
Ob
] K
K
Ob
L
L
Pa
\
(1-10)
(1-9)4

J a
J
N K

a
ba
ab
(
)
=
(
)
a
K
O K 0.5
(v) K
O == K
2
K (multiplicative O K
K
K associative rule) O
L
P KK
L

(vi) 1a = a ,

N
O
a = 0.5
O

O (1-9)
b
=
4

5
O
a = 2
O
4
OO
(1-11)
P
a
4

a
8

1 (multiplicative identity element) (1-9)6

(1-9)4 6 a b (scalar) , (1-9)1 6 abc 3

, a , b , c (element)
(1-9)1 6 , , ,
, (1-8) ,

(linearity) , , (a , b , c , ) (vector space)


(linear space) ,
(elements)

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5BF81.indd 6

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Chapter 1

(II)
(A) (linearity) (linear space)
(1-8) (1-9)1 6 (vectors) ( ) 6)
(a , b , c , ) , (a , b , c , ) (1-8) (1-9)1 6 ,
, (a , b , c , ) (linear space) , ab
c(elements) (vectors) ,
(vector space , a , b , c , , ,
) , (real)
(a , b , c , )
,

(1-9)1 6
(distributive law) , (2010 ) ,

, a b a b

(commutative law) , (vector product) 5) a b =

ba , ,
(a , b , c , ) , ( ) ,
(1-9)1 6 (real numbers) ,
ab = ba (1-8) (1-9)1 6

(a , b , c , ) L a b
(i)

4 (1-10)1

ab
(a b) a b , L
L a (scalar) a

(ii)

a a

4 (1-10)2

aa a , L
(1-10)1 , 2 (1-8) , (1-10)1 , 2 (linearity) , (1-10)1
(1-10)2

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(i)
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7

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(a b) c = a (b c) (1-11)1
a b = b a (1-11)2
L 0
)
3 (1-11)3
0a=a0=a
)

L a ( ) a

3 (1-11)4

a ( a) = 0

(ii)

(ab) a = a (ba) (1-11)5


)

a(a b) = aa ab
(a b)a = aa ba

) L 1
3
1a = a

3 (1-11)6

(1-11)7

L 0 a , x = 1
a 4 (1-11)
*
8
1
1
ax = 1 x = = a
a
a b , , (1-11)1 8
(1-10)1 , 2 , (1-11)1 8 (linearity)
(a , b , c , ) (linear space)
, (1-10)1 , 2 (1-11)1 8
(1-8) (1-9)1 6 , (1-11)1 8 ,

(1-11)1 8 (a , b , ) , (a ,
, (linear algebra)3) ,

(eld) F 6) , (elements) (vectors ,


b , c , )

) , (1-11)1 8 (a , b , c , )

F (1-12)1
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2014/3/3 04:24:30

Chapter 1

(1-11)1~8 (1-9)1~6 , (vector space ,


) , (a , b , c , ) (vectors) , 0
(zero vector) , (additive identity element) ,
F 0 ,

0 (1-12)2
, ,

v , v ,

q (1-12) E

7) , 19
,
(1-12)

(microscopic world)8)

( ) (mechanism)
(structure) 20 25 , , 22.5 26
, (classical physics)
, (linear operators)8)
(linear space) 1928 [ (Newtonian mechanics) ]
(quantum mechanics)8) , (2010 )

, 20 ,
( )

(state)
( )
(operation)

(1-13)1

X ^^^f Y
X

^^f

(1-13)

X Y (set)
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9

5BF81.indd 9

2014/3/3 04:24:31

X = ( x1 , x2 , , x , , xn )
l

Y = ( y1 , y2 , , yk , , ym )

3 (1-13)2

(1-13)
^^^^f

_
b
^^f
b
X
Y
b
^^
f ( x1 , x2 , , xl , , xn ) =( y1 , y2 , , yk , , ym ) ` (1-13)
b
3
b
yk = f ( x )
b
l
a
XY

(1-13)3 (1-13) ( 1 )

y = f (x) (1-13)3 (1-13)4


y
y1
yk
ym
0

(1-13)
x1

xl

xn

(1-13)4
(1-14)

(picture) (linear algebra)3) ,


1n n1 (matrix)9) (operation)

(operator), (1-13) ^f , ^
, 1 1 , mn

(1-13) , Y ^^^f X (mapping) Y ,


(1-13)3
^^^^f

^^f

XY

XY

4 (1-14)1

(1-11)1~8 ( (axioms) ]
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Chapter 1
, ^^f , , (1-13)4
, f (x)

(mapping) (function) (1-14)2

(B) ,
(1) (operation) (operator)
(rules) ( axioms)
(operation) , ,
(operator)
y = f (x)

(Ex.1) (1-15) ,
x y = f (x)

f ( xf ) = yf

xi x xf ,

f (xi) f (xf) f

f ( xi ) = yi
xi (x1Dx) x1 (x Dx)
1

x1

l = x1 f (x)

x1 ,

xf

(1-15)

x1 , f (x) x1
l

lim

Dx " 0

f (x + Tx) - f (x)
d f (x) (1-15)
=====
dx
(x + Tx) - x

(1-15) f (x) (differential operation) ,


d
d
, 7) (differential operator) , 1684 Leibniz
dx
dx
(Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz , 1646 1716)

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(a)
~~

(Ex.1) xi x xf yi y yf A = (a , b , c , ,
~

~~

l)

~~~
, q, , l ) , A (complex number)
A = (a~ , b , c,
~~
(polynomial) , A A

a, b, cA

A
q1 , q2 ~

3 (1-16)1

q1 , q2 A

~~

(1-16)1 (closed operation) , q1 q2 A A


(unclosed operation) ,
(b) ?
(set)

A = (a , b , c , , l )
~~

A = ( a~ , b , c~~ , l )
A a , b , , q , q A
~

q A , (closed binary operation) (binary) A


,

ab=q, aA, bA
~

qA

qA

3 (1-16)2

( ) , (one closed binary


operation) , (additive one-closed-binary
operation) , (multiplicative one-closedbinary operation) , (two closed binary
operations)
(2) (algebraic system) ?
(elements) ,

(system) ,
,

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(operation) ,
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12

5BF81.indd 12

2014/3/3 04:24:33

Chapter 1
, a , b (
commutative law)

ab = ba
Abelian (Niels Henrik Abel , 1802 1829 , )
non-Abelian
(3) (transformation) ?

m (point-like particle)
(1-16) (a)
(cartesian coordinates) (x , y) ,

(right-handed rule) , x y ,
, ,

(x
, y
)
P

P (x , y)
m

x
(1-16) (a)

(a) ,
m P (x , y) OP r O u P(x, y) ,
P P x (1-16)(a) a (a u) ,

x= r cos ( a u )
= r cosa cosu r sina sinu
= x cosu y sinu (1-17)1
y= r sin ( a u )
= r sina cosu r cosa sinu
= x sinu y cosu (1-17)2

x = r cosa , y = r sina , OP = OP = r

(b) ,
(1-16)(a) , x ( a u ) , (1-16)(b)

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u , P
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5BF81.indd 13

2014/3/3 04:24:34

x
= x cos ( u ) ( y ) sin ( u )

= x cos ( u ) ysin ( u )

(1-17)3

= (1-17)1

P(x , y) P
(x
, y
)
m

y= x sin ( u ) y cos ( u )

(1-17)4
= (1-17)2

(a) , (b) , (x , y)

, (transformation) (x, y)

( ) (a) (b)
u

(1-16) (b)

( u) ,

x x1 , y x2 , x y1 , y= y2 , (1-17)1 4

y1 = x1cos ( u ) x2sin ( u )
y2 = x1sin ( u ) x2cos ( u )

3 (1-18)1

(1-18)1 X = ( x1 , x2 , , xn ) ( OP = r )
Y = ( y1 , y2 , , yn ) , (1-17)
Y

X
x1 , x2
xn

^
T
( )

y2

y1
yn

(1-18)2

(1-17)

(1-17) (1-13) , X T^ Y
^

(c)
(1-18)1 (1-16)(a) (b) , m P( x x1 , y
x2 ) , (initial state) , 0
0 (nal state) P( x y , y y ) ,

1
2
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14

5BF81.indd 14

2014/3/3 04:24:34

Chapter 1
(i) (state)? (1-19)1
(ii) ( ) (1-19)2
(iii) ( ) (1-19)3
(1-19)1 3 (1-13)1 (1-18)2 (notation) 9) , (1-18)1

cos u - sin u x1
y1

c m=e
oc m
(1-20)1
sin u cos u x2
y2
u =

Y = vvv
X (1-20)2
Tv ^vvv

vvv

y1 _
/
c
mb
Y
vvv
y2 b 21 (1-20)
3
x1 `
b
X
/
c
m
b
vvv
x2 a

Tv ^ / e

vvv

cos u - sin u
o == 2 # 2 (1-20)4
sin u cos u

(1-19)1 21 , n > 2 n1 ,
( , ket vector) , ( , bra vector)
, 1n

1n = (x*1 , x*2 , , x*n )


X | (1-21)1

J x1 N
K O
K x2O
n1 = K h O
K O
LxnP
| X > (1-21)2

x*i = xi (complex-conjugate element) ,


i = 1 , 2 , n , (1-21) 3

(1-21)1 , 2 Dirac (Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac , 1902 1984 ,

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) 1926 5) ,
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5BF81.indd 15

2014/3/3 04:24:35

(real scalar)

(1-16)(a) (b) ( (a) )


(1-3) 2 , 2

, (1-3) , (1-18)(a)

v = vx vy

vy

ey

= |vx|ex |vy|ey

= vxex vyey (1-22)1

ex

vx

(1-18) (a)

v = |v| v

ex ey x y (unit vector)5) (1-16)(a) ,

P (x , y) , m (radial vector) r

r = x y

= |x|ex |y|ey
= xex yey (1-22)2
y

m P(x
, y
)

(space) m

r , m r T^

^^

P(x, y) , r , r

P(x , y)

r m (state vector) ,

(state kat vector) | r > ,

(1-18) (a)

e x, e y
S
/

ex , ey
1 44 2 44 3 (1-22)3
/
( (1-18) (b) (1-18) (c))

x
(1-18) (b)

|y>

m |r

>
^^
T

|ex> , |ey> (basis kets)5) , (1-18)


(b) (1-18) (c) , | r> :

| r >= | x> | y>


= x| ex> y | ey> (1-22)4

|ey>

|
r>
m
u

| x>
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| ex>
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(1-18) (c)
16

5BF81.indd 16

2014/3/3 04:24:36

Chapter 1
(1-22)2 , (1-22)4 , (1-22)1 , m
(state vector)(1-22)4

x
r =c m
y
1
1
= xc m + yc m
0
0

= x|ex> y|ey> (1-22)5


(1-22)5 , (1-20)2 n (1-17) , Dirac
J0N
J1 N
J0N
JT11 T12
K O
J y1 N
0O
K O
K O
K
K
K O
K 1O
K 0O
K T21 T22
K
O
y
0
2
O
K
v
^
Y = K O = y1 K 0O+ y2 K 0O+ g + yn K O =vvv
T X = K T31 T32
h
hO
K hO
K hO
Kg g
K
K O
K
O
O
K
K
K
O
0
LynP
K O
L0P
L0P
LTn1 Tn2
L1 P

T13
T23
T33
g
Tn3

g
g
g
g
g

T1n NJ x1 N
OK O
T2nOK x2O
T3n OK x3O
gOK h O
OK O
Tnn PLxnP

Z
J0N_
] J1 N
J0N
K Ob
] K O
K O
K 0Ob
] K 0O
K 1O
K 0Ob
= vvv
Tv ^[ x1 K 0O+ x2 K 0O+ g + xn K O` (1-22)6
K hO
K h Ob
] K hO
K
K
O
O
K 0Ob
]
K Ob
] L0P
L0P
L1 Pa
\

(1-19)1 n1 , Dirac (state ket


vector state ket)(1-19)2 (operator) T^ , mn ,

m=n (square matrix)9) (1-19)3 , (1-16) (a)

= ( x*1 , x*2 ) c x1 m = ( x1 , x2 ) c x1 m = x21 x22


x2
x2
y1
y
= ( y*1 , y*2 ) c 1 m = ( y1 , y2 ) c m = y21 y22 (1-22)7
y2
y2
, x*1 = xi , y*1 = yi , i = 1 , 2 , (1-16)(a)
:
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5BF81.indd 17

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OP= OP = r

y 21 y 22 = x 21 x 22

(1-18)1 (1-22)7

y1
(y1, y2) c m = y12 + y22
y2
= [(x1 cos u - x2 sin u), (x1 sin u + x2 cos u)] e

x1 cos u - x2 sin u
o
x1 sin u + x2 cos u

= (x1 cos u - x2 sin u) 2 + (x1 sin u + x2 cos u) 2


= x 21 x 22 (1-22)8
, (1-19)3 (1-22)8 (1-22)6 ,
, , ,

(1-16)(a) (b) , (1-17)


(1-22)6 , | X
(column vector) (row vector) ,

>X |
| ei > ,

i= 1 , 3 , , n, , ei |
(complex-conjugate linear space) , (conjugate space)
^
(1-17) X Y , T^

^
T^ | X1 > | X2 > , a , (1-8) ,

^
^
^
^
T^ (| X1 > | X2 >) = (T^ | X1> T^ | X2>) , T^ (a | Xi >) = a (T^ | Xi >) , i = 1 , 2 , T^
^
(linear operator) , T^ | X

> | Y >

(linear-transformation) ,

, (equation of

^
^
motion) ( ) T^ , T^

(conservative quantity) (1-16)(a) , (1-17) T^^

^ 10) , m ,
(rotation operator) R

(1-16)(a) m x - y , ,
10)

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(1-17) , X T^ Y , 1
(02)2705-5066
18
^

5BF81.indd 18

2014/3/3 04:24:38

Chapter 1
1 , X Y ( subspace)
(transformation) , (mapping) (function)

X Y , (1-13) (1-17) , ^f ,

T^^ , Y yk X (xi)
(rules) (axioms) , X Y ,
1 1 , , T^^
,
(4) (mapping)

, |X > ( ) ^f , |Y >

f^^ , |Y > ,
(picture) ,
(a)
(1-19) , X = (x1 , x2 ,

^^f

x1

x3 , ) Y = (y1 , y2 , y3 , ) X

x2

xi Y yk (k =

x3

y1
y3

y2

i , k i) (operation) ^^f
(mapping)

(transformation) , (function)

(1-19)

^^fX Y

^^f

Y (1-23)1

(element) ,
^^

fx y

^^f

y (1-23)2

y = f (x) , y x ^^^f (image) , y x


(b)
(1-20) , X ^^f (domain) , Y ^^f (image) ,
, (codomain) ,

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5BF81.indd 19

2014/3/3 04:24:39

^^f

, ,
(domain)

(image)
(codomain)
(1-20)

Y = f ( X ) = { f ( x ) , x X } (1-24)
codomainrange, (1-20)

, rangerange X

^^f Y , Y , R ,
(range)( (1-22) ) ,

R = { y = f ( x ) , x X } (1-25)
(1-24) (1-25) R range

(c)
X Y ^^f g^ , f (x) = g (x) , x X ,

^^f g^ ^ ^f , (domain) X (codomain) Y X=Y ,


X x f (x) = x , ^^f (identity mapping)

(identity function) ,
^^f = I

^^
^f = idx (1-26)

(d) (composite mapping) (functional)?


^^^f g^ X Y Y Z
^

^fX Y

y = f (x)

g^ Y Z

z = g(y)

^^h : X Z

z = h (x)

3 (1-27)1

X Z h^^
^

(1-27)2

^^^f g^ (composite function)


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^

5BF81.indd 20

2014/3/3 04:24:39

.
., 2014.04
.
ISBN 978-957-11-7478-5 ()
1. 2.
330

102026995

5BF8






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