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ax2

dx =

x2e

kx2

ax2

xn e

In

dx=

[1]

dx =

d
dk

dx =

ax2

kx2

dx =

ax2

1
2

2k 3/2

dx =

n 1
I x2ne
2a n 2
0

ax2

dx=

135 2n 1
2n + 1 an

[2]

## Laplace Laplace transform

[1]

ax2

dx =

ax2

dx

a x2 + y2

I2 =
+

ay2

dy

ay2

dy

dxdy

(x, y) (r, )
0 < r < 0 < < 2 x2 + y2 = r2
2

I 2 =

e
0 0

ar2

rdrd = 2

ar2

rdr

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ar2

1
d e
2a

rdr =

ar2

1
d e
2a

I 2 = 2
0

ar2

ar2
0

1 =

I=

ax2

dx =

## [2] Fourier Fourier transform Laplace Laplace transformIntegral transform

Laplace
x2

dx =

f t F

K , t f t dt
a

K , t kernel
Fourier K , t = e

i t

a =

b=+

Laplace K , t = e st a = 0 b =
+

Fourier

f t dt

Laplace f t
lim f t
t 0

0 t t > 0

Laplace e

x2

dx =

t
2

1
2

1
t

Laplace L t

1
2

1
2 e stdt

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k = st dk = sdt
L t

1
2

1
2 e stdt

t
0

=
0

1
s

1
2

k
s

dk
s

1
2 e k dk

k
0

k = x2 dk = 2xdx
L t
I =
I2 =

1
2

1
s

=
x2

dx =
x2

dx

1
e
x

e
e

y2

x2

2xdx =

2
s

x2

dx

dy

y2

dy =

x2 + y2

dxdy

x2 + y2 = r2 cos2 + r2 sin2 = r2

dx

0dy

0dr

0d

0 ABCD

AB'CD

dxdy = rdrd

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I2 =

x2 + y2

dxdy

2
2

e r rdrd

=
0 0

e r rdr

=2
0

2
1
e r d r2
2

=2
0

=
e

0
x2

1 =

dx =

0
1
2

L t

Dirac

2
s

ex dx =
0

pulse function
(x) =

,
0,

x=0

x=0

x dx = 1

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[1]

f x

[2]

ax =

1
a

[3]

x =

a dx = f a
x
x

x x = 0

[4]

[5]

f x ' x dx =

f ' 0 ' x =

df x
d x
f' x =

dx
dx

## (x)Unit step function Dirac

[6]

x
d

u du = (x) =

0,
1,

x<0

x>0

x
= x
dx
+

[7]

t =

1
2

[8]

x =

1
2L

ei t d
+
m=

eim

x/L

[1] Dirac
Dirac
Dirac

Generalized func-

tion
+

x dx =

x Test functionpoint

charge

x x x

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a f x dx =

x f x + a dx = f a
b

a dx = 1 a > 0 b > 0

a
+

1
f 0
a

ax f x dx =

[2]

x
x x
a

a > 0
+

1
a

ax f x dx =

x
dx
a

1
f 0
a

=
a < 0

x f

1
f 0
a

1
ax f x dx =
a

1
a

=
=
=

1
a

x f

x
dx
a

x f

x
dx
a

x f

1
f 0
a

ax f x dx =

ax f x dx =

1
f 0
a

1
f 0
a

1
=
a
6

x
dx
a

x f x dx

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1
a

=
ax =

[3]

1
a

1
a

ax =

x f x dx

x
x

[4]

x =

x f x =

x f 0

x f x

x dx =

x f x

=f 0

x dx

0
+

=f 0

x dx

=
f x

x =f 0

x f 0

x dx

f x = x x x = 0
+

f' x

[5]

x dx =

f x

' x dx

x
+

f' x

x dx = f x

f x

' x dx

=0

f x

' x dx

f x

' x dx

Integration by parts

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f x ' x dx = f x

f' x

x dx

f' x

f' 0

x dx

f x ' x dx =

f ' 0

x =

f x

x dx =

dn x
f
dxn

0 =

1nf
dn f x
dxn

x=0

[6]

x<0

x>0

f x

' x dx

f x dx
+

f' x

[5]

0,
1,

x f x dx =

x =

x dx =

'x

x dx =

' x dx

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' x dx
0

0
+

=
d x
dx =

' x dx

[7] Fourier
t =F

1
2

1
2

=
F
t =

1
2

[1]
1ei t d
ei t d

f x f x Fourier

ei t d

[8] Fourier
1 +
f t = T
n=
F f t =
=

1
F [ + e
T
1 +2
T +2

1 +
T n=

2
T

j2

n=

+e

+2

n
n

+2

2
+

0t

e jn 0t Fourier
j

0t

+ 1 + ej

+2

+
2

0t

+ e 2j

0
0

0t

+ ]

+2

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cos n

0t

F sin n 0t = j

F e jn

10

t =

+
n=

0t

=
0

+j

n
+n

0
0

+n

=F cos n 0t +jsin n 0t =2

nT

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t =F

n=

nT

+ t + 2T +
+ t T + t
2
=+
+2 0 +
T
2
2
+
0 +
T
T
=F

=
f t =

1
T

t =

2
T

n=
+

e jn

n=

0t

1 +
2L m =

x =

eim

x/L

[1]

n+1 x

x2e

dx =

[2]

[3]

(n+1)

[1]
1

n=

2
T

nT
2L

2
T

0=

x2e

n+1 x

dx

2 n+1

3/2

=
2
2

xne xdx

xn

e xx2
1 e x

2nL

e xx2

dx = e
1 e x x
0
0

xT

n=

2T +
2
+
T

n=

t+T +

dx =

e xx2 e

+x

dx =

n
0

x2 e

n+1 x

dx

[2]

y2 e

y2

dy =

d
d

y2

dy

y2

dy =

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11

y2

dy =

1
2

y = x 2 y2 = x dx = 2ydy
1

[3]

x2 e

+x

dx = 2

n+1

y2 e

n + 1 y2

xn e x dx

dx =

3
2

2 n+1
1

3/2

x 2 e x dx =

Fourier
[1]

f t =

A,
0,

t
t
t +
2
2
elsewhere

[2]

12

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1, t = 0

t =

0, elsewhere

[3]

f t = 1
[4]

f t =e

[1] f t =

at2

a > 0
t
t
t +
2
2 Fourier
elsewhere

A,
0,
+

f t ei2 vt dt

F v =
+

f t Aei2 vt dt

=
2

A
sin v t
v

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13

=A t

sin v t
v t

= A t sin c
v=

v t

n = 1, 2, 3, F v = 0 v 0

F v = A t

[2]

t =

1, t = 0

## [1] 1 A t = 1 Fo0, elsewhere

+

urier F v =

t ei2 vt dt = A t

sin

v t
= 1
v t

F v = 1 v

14

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[3] f t = 1[1]
1
A t
F v 1
2

A,

= A = 1

2
2 f t = A = 1 t
0,
elsewhere
1
v = 0 F v v = 0
t = v

f t =

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F v

v=0

=A t

sin v t
v t

## delta function f t = 1 Fourier Dirac delta

[4]

f t =e

at2

Fourier

2
Gauss Gaussian function
a
1
2
1
2

1
2

=
=
=
=
=
16

f t ei t dt
e

at2 i t

a t2

/4a +

/4a +

a t

i
2a

dt
2

dt

2
e

i t

2
e

e dt

/4a

2
1
e
2a

/4a

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1
e
2a

/4a

Gauss 4 a Ga-

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17

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## Einstein Space-time model

Space coordinatex1x2x3
Time coordinatex4Vector spaceR4 R4
ElementEvent
x1x2x3 x4
Hermann Minkowski Special relativity Minkowski Minkowski geometry
X = (x1, x2, x3, x4) Y = (y1, y2, y3, y4) R4
X Y
(a)
X, Y= x1y1

x2y2

x3y3 + x4y4 x

X, Y

X, Y= 0 X Y
(b)
d (X, Y) X Y
d (X, Y) = X
=

Y
x1

y1

x2

y2

x3

y3 2 + x 4

y4 2

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## Alpha Centauri 4 Light-year

Space-time diagram R
Aleck JenelleAleck
P Jenelle P 0.8 Alpha
Centauri 0.8
Q
[1]

[2]

P R

[3]

R Q

[4]

## [1] Aleck Alpha Centauri 4

8 0.8c
8c
= 10 Aleck Q 10
0.8c
[2] PQR R4 P = 0, 0, 0, 0 Q = 0, 0, 0, 10
R = (4, 0, 0, 5)
20

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-function 4, 5, 39, 41, 43
-matrix form 29, 32

Sommerfeld 60-64
Boltzmann constant Boltzmann

-rays 52
k p method k p

## Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rules Bohr-

167, 168

26,

54, 228
Boson 183, 184, 191-194, 198

## Absorption 32-34, 146, 157, 211

Absorption transition rate 33
Acoustical phonons

45

## Brillouin zone Brillouin 168, 170

Bulk system 38, 39
Bulk 37

## Angular equation 129

Angular momentum commutation
145, 149
Angular momentum operator
117, 119, 120, 122, 152
Anisotropic 170

72
Cavity field 218
222, 226

Anticommute 30

## Central force 127, 152

Antisymmetric wavefunction

## Charge density 56, 57

189
Associated Legrendre polynomials Legrendre 129
Azimuthal equation 128

## Classical mechanics 65, 71, 161

Clebsch-Gordan coefficients Clebsch-Gordan 144, 152
Closure

108

## Coherent superposition 211

Basis functions 175
Best eigenfunctions 173
Bohr magneton Bohr 153

Color 192
Commute 120, 122, 145, 149
Complex vectors 146

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## Compton effect Compton 43

Conduction band 168, 169

204, 206

## Conservation of charge 55-58

Constant of the motion

194

214

Correct 155

## Dirac delta function Dirac delta

Current density 56

16,

185
Dirac -function Dirac 4, 5

## Dirac relativistic equation Dirac

28, 31, 32

28
Damping 214, 223

Discrete energy 42

## Dispersion curves 5, 168

mer 43
De Broglie hypothesis de Broglie 43

## Debye function Debye

Driving frequency

52

## Debye temperature Debye 52

Debyes theory of specific heat Debye

158

## Dulong-Petit law Dulong-Petit 44, 45,

50, 52, 53
Dynamical behaviors

44, 51
Decay 113, 205, 212, 216, 223

222, 226,

227

## Decay constant 212

Decay factor 212
Degenerate wave functions
173
Degenerate

Ek

k dispersion relation E k

## 169, 170, 172

Effective mass tensor

170,

172

242

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Electron pair 23

Eigenfunction

## 83, 84, 93, 94, 113-115, 128, 165, 166, 172,

173, 190-192
Eigen-mode

153
Element 19, 90, 92, 93, 145, 170-172,

66

Energy density

43

35, 67, 69

Energy equation

Energy flow 67

44, 48

## Energy-state density 204

Elastic properties 52

Ensemble 211

## Electric dipole approximation

Entanglement 237
Equation of motion 65, 215

33, 146
Electric dipole Hamiltonian Ham-

## Even parity operator

137, 138

Event 19

iltonian 32
Electric dipole momentum

145,

## Excess population 226, 227

Exchange operator 194

151, 152
Electric dipole operator

145, 214

Excitation

## 197-212, 215-218, 222

149, 151
Electric multipole transition
144

## Fermi system Fermi 201

Electrical resistivity 52
Electrodynamics 22, 67
Electromagnetic power 227
Electron g-factor g-

153

## Fermi-Dirac distribution function Fermi-Dirac 184, 201

Fermion 132, 183, 184, 191-193, 201, 207,
208

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243

Final state 36

## Final wave function 33

First-order perturbation correction

227,

## 228, 231, 233

Heisenberg uncertainty principle Heisenberg

169

Flavor 193
Flux 57

Hermitian

## 30, 78, 215

Four-dimensional coordinates 28

24

## 16, 17, 59, 65

Fourier transformation Fourier

2, 9,

## 12-14, 16, 17, 59, 65

Freedom 37-42, 48, 49, 192

In phase 215
Incoherent 218

Gamma function 11

Initial state 36

## Initial wave function 33

Generalized function 5

## Ground states 83, 84, 85, 90, 93, 94,

Integral transform 1, 2

## Integration by part 7, 201

Interaction energy 153, 215,

## Group velocity 58, 59, 67

223
Harmonic perturbation

33

Interference effect

131, 132,

## Internal degrees of freedom

136, 137
Hartree-Fock equation Hartree-Fock

212

192
Isospin 192
Iteration 176

244

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j-j coupling j j

172

141

93

## Kane model Kane 167

Klein-Gordon relativistic equation KleinGordon 27
Kronecker delta function Kronecker delta

## L-S coupling L S 139, 140

Luttinger-Kohns model Luttinger-Kohn
167

44, 48
Macroscopic electric polarization
Lagrange multiplier Lagrange

134,

## 136, 137, 186, 188

Laguerre polynomials Laguerre
128, 129
Laplace transform Laplace 1, 2
Larmor precession Larmor 153
Laser 24, 26, 157, 214, 222, 223, 226,
227
Lattice specific heat 44, 45, 53,
54
Lattice vibration 44, 45, 48

211

## Linear differential operator

29
Local maximum 186
Lorentzian function Lorentz 24
Lwdins perturbation method Lwdin
172

## 214, 223, 226

Magnetic multpole transition
145
Magnetic quantum number 124,
128, 145, 193
Matrix representation 76, 77, 98,
99, 106-108, 110
Matter wave 43, 67
Maxwells equations Maxwell

56,

## 67, 214, 223, 226

Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution MaxwellBoltzmann 24, 26
Mean free path 205, 206
Minkowski geometry Minkowski

19

## Mix state 230-233, 236-239

Momentum density of states
204
Momentum operator

71, 75-77,

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245

97-99, 107

## 83, 90, 93, 117, 119, 120, 122, 152

Momentum-state density

Orthonormal functions

173

## Orthonormality 78, 86, 94, 97-99,

204
Monochromatic plane waves

## 101, 104, 106, 107, 111, 173, 215, 235, 238

Orthonormalization

67

86, 94,

Neutrons 52

Oscillator 48

## Oscillator 54, 55, 75, 76, 79, 81, 90,

Nondegenerate band

169

## Nondiagonal element 170, 172

Normalization constant

102,
Parity operator

103

## 137, 138, 148,

165, 166

Normalization factor 26
Null identity 56

194

## Pauli exclusive principle Pauli

Odd parity operator 137, 138

## 131, 132, 190

Operator commutation 88

## Pauli matrix Pauli 31

Optical phonons 44

## Orbital angular momentum quantum number

Perturbation theory

155, 157,

158, 172

145
Orbital quantum number 124,

Point charge 5

## 125, 129, 193

Orientation angle 125-127, 186-189

## Polarization vector 146, 147

Position operator 71, 75, 76, 83,

78, 101
Orthonormal basis

94,

90, 92
Poynting vextor Poynting 67, 69

246

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129,

## Relaxation time 205

Resonant frequency

## 139, 144, 193

Probability distribution 57

214,

223

Probability flux 57
Pumping excitation 215
Pure state 230-233, 235-238
Purely diagonal 218

## Schrdinger picture Schrdinger 227,

228
Second-order perturbation correction
169

Quantum dot 37

157, 158

Quantum well 37

## Quantum wire system 38, 39

Quantum wire 37

202, 203
Space coordinate 19
Space quantization 124

Space-time diagram 20

Space-time model 19

Rate equation

222-224, 227
Real operator

227

27, 28

## Spin vector 196

Spin-down 143, 196
Spin-orbit interaction -
141, 152, 153

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247

Spin-up

## 215, 216, 218

Stabilized Eigenfunction
165, 166

## Transition frequency 158

Transition matrix

110, 111

## Transition rate 146

Step function 5, 8

tion

Symmetry

226

230

## Taylor series expansion Taylor

Uncertainty principle

202

54, 72,

84, 85

## Tensor 67, 68, 170, 172

Test function 5, 7

## Unit impulse function 4

Thermal expansion 52

## Thermally averaged expectation value

iltonian

168

229
Thomas factor Thomas 153

## Vector model 124, 143

95

Vector space 19

Time coordinate 19

## Time evolution 230

Total angular momentum

144, 152
121,

Vibrational energy 48

143, 144

248

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## Virial theorem Virial 166, 167

Zero energy 72, 84
Wave packet 67
Wigner-Eckart theorem Wigner-Eckart
144, 152

## Zero-order wave function 155,

162, 163
Zone edge central cell function
170

X-rays X

52

Yukawa

54

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.
.,

2013.12

I S B N: 978-957-11-7436-5
1.
339

102023800

5BH3

## Problems and Solutions on Modern Physics

106 339 4

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