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Light-Emitting Diodewhite LED

LED
Phosphor

LED LED

LED

LEDOLED

LED

LED
LED

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LED LED

LED

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Fundamentals of Light and Color


1.1

1.2

1.3Light characteristics and measurements

1.4Color characteristics and measurements

18

1.5Characteristics of light colors in


ighting and display

24

1.5.1Color temperature; K

25

1.5.2Color rendering index; CRI

27

1.5.3Color gamut/Color saturation

30

1.6

31

1.7

32

Introduction of Phosphors

2.1Light emission of materials

34

2.2Category of luminescent materials

36

2.3Phosphor

40

2.4Category and applications of


phosphors

52

2.4.1 Cathodoluminescent phosphors

53

2.4.2 Electroluminescent phosphors

59

2.4.3 Photoluminescent phosphors

66

2.5

77

2.6

77

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LED

Synthesis of Phosphors

3.1

80

3.2Solid state reaction

80

3.3Sol-gel method

82

3.4Coprecipitation Method

82

3.5microemulsion method

83

3.6hydrothermal method

83

3.7

84

3.8

88

3.9

88

Technique of Glass Ceramic Phoshoprs


4.1

92

4.2

98

4.3

103

4.4

111

4.5

119

4.6

123

4.7

123

Commercial LED Phoshpors


5.1LED

126

5.1.1LED

130

5.1.2LED
3+

131
3+

5.2Y3Al5O12:Ce Y3Al5O12:Ce phosphors


3+

3+

5.3Lu3Al5O12:Ce Lu3Al5O12:Ce phosphors


2+

5.4(Ca,Sr,Ba)2SiO4:Eu

iv

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132
141
145

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5.5-SiAlON
2+

149
2+

5.6SrSi5N8:Eu SrSi5N8:Eu phosphors


2+

2+

5.7CaAlSiN3:Eu CaAlSiN3:Eu

phosphors

5.8
5.8.1

5.9
5.10

150
151
152
167

168
168

Patent Analyses of LED Phosphors


6.1

172

6.2

181

6.3

187

6.4

194

6.5

199

6.6

206

6.7

212

6.8

216

6.9

221

6.10

222

Synthesis and Applications of Semiconductor Nanocrystals


7.1

225

7.1.1

225

7.1.2

227

7.1.3

231

7.1.4

231

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LED
7.1.5

233

7.1.6

234

7.2

234

7.2.1Size versus Density of States

244

7.2.2Surface Structure

245

7.2.3Surface Passivation

246

7.2.4Organically Capped

246

7.2.5Inorganically Passivated

247

7.2.6

249

7.2.7Multi-Shell Structure

249

7.2.8

250

7.2.9

250

7.2.10Defect Emission

251

7.2.11Non-radiative Process in Quantum Dots 253


7.2.12

254

7.2.13

254

7.2.14

255

7.3

255

7.3.1

257

7.3.2

260

7.3.3Alloyed Nanocrystals

261

7.3.4

262

7.3.5

264

7.4

266

7.4.1Optical Properties

267

7.4.2

268

7.4.3

268

7.4.4

269

7.4.5

270

7.4.6Blinking

270

vi

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7.4.7

271

7.4.8

271

7.4.9

271

7.5

272

7.5.1

272

7.5.2LED

273

7.5.3LED

274

7.5.4LED

275

7.5.5LED

276

7.5.6

278

7.5.7Quantum Dot Organic light-emitting diode,


QD-OLED
7.5.8

280
284

7.5.9Fabrication Methods for Quantum


Dot Sheets

285

7.5.10Solvent-free
Contact Printing of Quantum Thin Film Dot Displays

286

7.5.11

287

7.5.12Organic dyes

289

7.5.13

291

7.5.14

292

7.5.15

294

7.5.16

295

7.5.17

295

7.5.18

306

7.6

306

7.7

306

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LED

Optical Conversion Efficiency


8.1

312

8.2

315

8.3

317

8.4

320

8.5

323

8.6

324

8.7

325

LEDLED Packaging

9.1LED

328

9.2

330

9.3

332

9.4

335

9.5

338

9.6

339

9.7

339

viii

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Fundamentals of Light and Color

1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7

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1.1 Light
Electromagnetic wave
ParticleWave
Photon
Gamma ray; -rayX X-ray; X-rayUltraviolet ray;
UVVisible lightInfrared ray; IRMicrowave
Radio wave 1.1
Increasing Frequency ()
24

10

22

10

20

10

rays

18

16

10

10

X rays

14

12

10

10

10

Microwave FM

IR

UV

10

10

10

10

AM

10

10

(Hz)

Long radio waves

Radio waves
-16

10

-14

10

-12

10

-10

10

-8

10

-6

10

-4

10

-2

10

10

10

10

10

10

(m)

Increasing Wavelength ()
Visible spectrum

400

500
600
Increasing Wavelength () in nm

700

1.1
Source: Figure from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Light

X
More particle like in its behavior
More wave like in its behavior
LightRed light
Green lightBlue lightWhite light
RayWave
Ultraviolet rayInfrared rayMicrowave


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1.1

Radio wave
1.1

[1]

1.1 Visible light


380~760nm Purple 380~450nm Blue
450~500nm Green 500~570nm
Yellow 570~591nm Orange
591~610nm Red 610~760nm
400~700nm
LED Three primary
colors 440~480nm
520~560nm 590~630nm

[2]

[1]

1.1
Spectral
category

Spectral
subcategory

Wavelength rang
nm

Wavelength rang
(SI prexes from Table 2)

Total solar
Irradiance

full-disk. 1 ua solar irradince


integrated across all
0.00001 < 0.001

Gamma-rays
x-rays

Ultraviolet

Visible

Notes

0.01 < 0.1


XUV

0.01 < 10

10 fm < 1 pm
1 pm < 0.10 nm

Hard X-ray

0.10nm < 10 nm

Soft X-ray
Ultraviolet

UV

100 < 400

100 nm < 400nm

VUV

10 < 200

10nm < 200nm

Vacuum Ultraviolet
Extreme Ultraviolet

EUV

10 < 102

10nm < 121nm

H Luman-

121 < 122

121nm < 122nm

Hydrogen Lyman-alpha

FUV

122 < 200

122nm < 200nm

Far Ultraviolet

UVC

100 < 280

100nm < 280nm

Ultraviolet C

MUV

200 < 300

200nm < 300nm

Middle Ultraviolet

UVB

280 < 315

280nm < 315nm

Ultraviolet B

NUV

300 < 400

300nm < 400nm

Near Ultraviolet

UVA

315 < 400

315nm < 400nm

Ultraviolet A

VIS

380 < 760

380nm < 760nm

Optical

360 < 450

360nm < 450nm

purple

450 < 500

400nm < 500nm

blue

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Spectral
category

Spectral
subcategory

Visible

Wavelength rang
(SI prexes from Table 2)

500 < 570

500nm < 570nm

green

570 < 591

570nm < 591nm

yellow

591 < 610

591nm < 610nm

orange

610 < 760

610nm < 760nm

red

760 < 1.0010

IR
Infrared

Wavelength rang
nm

760nm < 1.00mm

IR-A

760 < 1400

760nm < 1.40m

Near Infrared

IR-B

1400 < 3000

1.10m < 3.00m

Middle Infrared

IR-C

3000 < 1.0010

3.00m < 1.00m

Far Infrared

7
1.0010 < 1.5010

Microwave

Notes

1.00mm < 15.00mm

3.00mm < 5.35mm

(100.0v>56.0)GHz

5.35mm <6.52mm

(56.0v>46.0)GHz

6.52mm < 8.33mm

(46.0v>36.0)GHz

8.33mm < 27.5mm

(36.0v>10.90)GHz

27.50mm < 57.70mm

(10.90v>5.20)GHz

48.40mm < 76.90mm

(6.20v>3.90)GHz

57.70mm < 193.00mm

(5.20v>1.55)GHz

193.00mm < 769.00mm

(1.550v>0.390)GHz

769.00mm < 100m

(0.390v>0.225)GHz

14

0.10mm < 100m

measurements: (1.00
5
10
10 < 1.0010 )mn

1.00mm < 10.00mm

Very Hight Frequency


(300v>30) GHz

10.00mm < 100.00mm

Very Hight Frequency


(30v>3) GHz

10

10

11

3.0010 < 5.3510

5.3510 < 6.5210

6.5210 < 8.3310

8.3310 < 2.7510

2.7510 < 5.7710

4.8410 < 7.6910

5.7710 < 1.9310

1.9310 < 7.6910

7.6910 < 1.3310

1.0010 < 1.0010


EHF

1.0010 < 1.0010

SHF

1.0010 < 1.0010

UHF

1.0010 < 1.0010

VHF

1.0010 < 1.0010

HF

1.0010 < 1.0010

Radio
100.00mm < 1.00mm
1.00m < 10.00m
10.00mm < 100.00m

Very Hight Frequency


(3000v>300) MHz
Very Hight Frequency
(300v>30) MHz
Hight Frequency
(30v>3) MHz

1.2 Color

1.2
ConeRod

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1.2

Vitreous Humor

Sclera

Aqueous Humor

Iris

Lens
Pupil

Blind
Spot

Optic Nerve

Retina

Cornea

Conjunctiva

1.2

650nm

580nm

1.3
650nm 540nm
580nm

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White

Black

RedOrangeYellowGreenBlue
Indigo or CyanPurple or Violet

Brain

Receptors
Red

Green

Yellow
Stimulus

Blue

Yellow
Image

1.3

GreyAchromatic colors
No dominant
hueBrightness
Chromatic colors

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1.2

Color of light
Color of object

1.4

Color mixingAdditive
color mixingSubtractive color mixing 1.5

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White light

White light

1.4

Subtractive color: lnk


CMY primaries; Film, prints

1.5

Three primary colorsR/


G/B; Red/Green/BlueC; Cyan
M; MagentaY; Yellow
C/M/Y; Cyan/Magenta/YellowR/
G/B; Red/Green/BlueComplementary colors
R + CG + MB +
YC/M/Y
Secondary colorsThree
primary colorsC/M/Y; Cyan/Magenta/Yellow
R; RedG;


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1.3

GreenB; BlueR/G/B; Red/


Green/BlueC/M/Y; Cyan/Magenta/Yellow
Complementary colors
C + RM + GY + B
R/G/B
Secondary colors

1.3 Light characteristics and measurements

380~760nm

>3cd/m

Photopic curveChromatic perception at normal state

< 0.03cd/m

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Scotopic curve; Achromatic perception at low level of illuminance 1.6

[3]

Luminosity functionVision function

Relative sensitivity of the eye

Scotopic Curve
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
350

400

450

500

Photopic Curve

550

600

650

700

750

Wavelength (nm)

1.6

[3]

1.6 555nm
555nm 1 Watt;
W555nm 683 Lumen, Lm
507nm 507nm
1 Watt; W507nm 1700
Lumen, Lm 555nm
1 Watt; W555nm 683 Lumen,
Lm 1.2

[4]

10

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1.3
[4]

1.2
(nm)

Phktkpic
Luminous
Efciency

Phktkpic
Im/W
Conversion

Scotopic
Luminous
Efciency

Scotopic
Im/W
Conversion

380

0.000039

0.027

0.000589

1.001

390

.000120

0.082

.002209

3.755

400

.000396

0.270

.009290

15.793

410

.001210

0.826

.034840

59.228

420

.004000

2.732

.096600

164.220

430

.011600

4.923

.199800

339.660

440

.023000

15.709

.328100

557.770

450

.038000

25.954

.455000

773.500

460

.060000

40.980

.567000

963.900

470

.090980

53.139

.676000

1149.200

480

.139020

94.951

.793000

1348.100

490

.208020

142.078

.904000

1536.800

500

.323000

220.609

.982000

1669.400

507

.444310

303.464

1.000000

1700.000

510

.503000

343.549

.997000

1694.900

520

.710000

484.930

.935000

1589.500

530

.862000

588.746

.811000

1378.700

540

.954000

651.582

.650000

1105.000

550

.994950

679.551

.481000

817.700

555

1.000000

683.000

.402000

683.000

560

.995000

679.585

.328800

558.960

570

.952000

650.216

.2076000

352.920

580

.870000

594.210

.121200

206.040

590

.757000

517.031

.065500

111.350

600

.631000

430.973

.033150

56.355

610

.503000

343.549

.015930

27.081

620

.381000

260.223

.007370

12.529

630

.265000

180.995

.003335

5.670

640

.175000

119.525

.001497

2.545

650

.107000

73.081

.000677

1.151

660

.061000

41.663

.000313

0.532

670

.032000

21.856

.000148

0.252

680

.017000

11.611

.000072

0.122

690

.008210

5.607

.000035

.060

700

.004102

2.802

.000018

.030

710

.002091

1.428

.000009

.016

720

.001047

0.715

.000005

.008

730

.000520

0.355

.000003

.004

740

.000249

0.170

.000001

.002

750

.000120

0.082

.000001

.001

760

.000060

0.041

770

.000030

0.020

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Electromagnetic radiation

Radiometry
Radiometric unitsJouleWatt
Photometry

Photometric
unitsTalbotLumen

LightingDisplay
Photo-chemistry
Photo-therapy
1.7

12

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1.3

UV

Visible

IR

Radiometry

Luminosity function/Vision function

Photometry

1.7

RadiometryEnergy
PhotonWavelength
Plancks equation
Q = h = hc /

1-1
-1

-1

Q JouleJ HertzHzsec s
8

-1

Metermc Speed of light 2.99810 ms h


Plancks constant 6.62310

-34

Js

Q(e.V.) = 1240 / (nm)


Q e.V. 1 e.V. = 1.60217610

1-2
-19

joule

-9

Nanometernm 1nm = 1.010 m


1240

Power
= dQ/dt

1-3

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WattWQ JouleJt
Secondsecs Radiant
uxRadiant Power
Radiant intensitySteradiansr
I = d/d

1-4

I Watt/srW/sr WattW Solid


angleSteradiansr () (A)
2

(r) 4 r
4 sr 1.8

[4]

1.8

[4]

Radiant ux density; Radiant Power density


Radiant exitance;
Radiant emittance
M = d/dA
-2

1-5

-2

M Watt/m W/m WattWA Area

14

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1.3
2

m Irradiance

E = d/dA
-2

1-6

-2

E Watt/m W/m WattWA


2

Aream 1.9

Radiant exitance

Irradiance

dA

dA

[4]

1.9 Radiant exitanceIrradiance

Radiance

2
L = d /(dAcos d)
-2

1-7

-2

L Watt/m /srW/m /sr WattWA Area


2

m Angle Solid angleSteradiansr

1.10

[4]

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1.10 Radiance

Spectral radiant termS = dS/dS = Q I M E


L etc.

Spectral radiant energy (Q)Q = dQ/d

1-8

Spectral radiant ux () = d/d

1-9

Spectral radiant intensity ()I = dI/d

1-10

Spectral radiant exitance (M)M = dM/d

1-11

Spectral irradiance (E)E = dE/d

1-12

Spectral radiance (L) L = dL/d

1-13

1.7
Luminosity function/Vision functionV()

Sv = Km

SV()d = 683

SV()d

1-14

S v PhotometryQ v ; Luminous
energyv; Luminous uxIv; Luminous intensityMv;

16

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1.3
Luminous emittanceE; IlluminanceLv; Luminance

K m 683 555nm
683lm/W 1.2
RadiometryPhotometry
1.3

1.3RadiometryPhotometry
Radiometry

Photometry

Energy

Power

Radiant Energy

Radiant Power or
Flux

Intensity

Radiant
Intensity

Power
density

Luminous
Energy

W
(Watt)

Luminous Flux

W sr
I

-1

Luminous
Exitance
or Emittance

-2

Qv

Luminous

Intensity

Wm

J
(Joule)

Radiant
Exitance or
Emittance

Wm
E

-1

Brightness

Radiance

Illuminance

Luminance

lm
(lumen)

cd
(candela)

Mv

lm m
or
lx (lux)

-2

Ev

lx
(lux)

Lv

cd m
(nit)

-2

W sr m
L

talbot

Iv

-2

Irradiance

-2

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1.4 Color characteristics and measurements

1.2

CIE; International Commission on


Illumination; abbreviated CIE from the French name Commission International de
lEclairage

[5]

CIE 1931 Color


matching functionsx* y* z* 1.11

18

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Color matching function x*, y*, z* (1/W)

1.4

1.8

Color matching
functions

1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
300

400

500

600

Wavelength (nm)

700

800

1.111931 CIE

Spectral power distribution of the illuminant; S


Spectral refectance factor of the object; R
Tristimulus values
X = k S()R()x*()d

1-15

Y = k S()R()y*()d

1-16

Z = k S()R()z*()d

1-17

k k = 100/ k S()y*()d

1-18

k perfectly reecting diffuser Y


100 y*
Luminous efcient function
Y Luminanceor Brightness X Y
Z Normalization
x = X/(X + Y + Z)

1-19

y = Y/(X + Y + Z)

1-20

z = Z/(X + Y + Z)

1-21

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x+y+z=1

1-22

x y z x y
1931 CIE 1.12
X Y Z
1931 CIE x y z = 1 - x - y
Y Luminance/
Brightness z x y
1

Y(Yx, y) x y LLx, y

1.121931 CIE
Y L

20

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BOS(E)Barium orthosilicate/Europium180
CNT-FEDCarbon Nanotube Field Emission Display57
HIPHot isostatic pressing111
HOMOHighest occupied molecular orbital225, 237
IPIntellectual property179
LEDLight emitting diode92
LEDQD-based LED, QDLED281
LED chipLED94
LERLuminous Efcacy of Radiation313
LUMOLowest unoccupied molecular orbital225, 237
MEGMuitiple exciton generation298
NTSCNational Television System Committee30
OLEDOrganic light emitting diode92
PbLead38
PC-LEDPhosphor-Converted LED73
PLPhotoluminescence315
PLEPhotoluminescence Excitation315
PPVPoly(p-phenylene vinylene)37, 282
Praveena144
SeSelenium38
Si(NH)2silicon dimide85
XPS/ESCAX250
XRDX250
X-ray imageX-39
YAGYttrium aluminum garnet180
YAG PolycrystalYAG:Ce3+122

General lighting67, 72, 76, 119, 272


1D nanorods272
singly or doubly charged Zn
vacancies (VZn)252
singly charged or neutral
interstitial Zn (Zni)252

ethylene glycol82, 135, 136

dicarboxylic acid82
Dimethylformamide, DMF112
Secondary colors8, 9
Articial atom235, 244
Microcavity structure281

Trichromatic71
3 primary colors3, 8, 18, 19, 30, 31, 55, 71, 73,
74, 284
Three primary colors3, 8, 18, 19, 30, 31, 55, 71,
73, 74, 284
Three-color phosphor mixture3, 8, 18, 19, 30,
31, 55, 71, 73, 74, 284
Color matching functionsx*y*z*
18, 19
Mitsubishi Chemical151
3D tetrapods272
macromolecular293, 294
hexane dithiol282

Mist dislocations247
Nonuniform21, 134, 166, 255, 263, 265, 270
Unsaturated colors23
Trap18, 35, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 48, 49, 51,
52, 59, 104, 113, 145, 181, 182, 188, 194, 195, 199,
200, 206, 212, 213, 229, 252, 273, 334
neutral or singly charged oxygen
vacancies (VO)252
midgap state277
Complementary colors8, 9, 23

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LED
Allowed35

Hydrolysis56, 82, 83, 112

Intraband270

Hg66, 67, 69, 92, 126

Interfacial band offset248

Aqueous Humor5

Internal conversion253

hydrothermal method79, 80, 83, 132, 133

Hexagonal lattice structure212

hydrothermal reaction83, 84

Meterm13
Molecular Beam Epitaxy, MBE256

Vibrations253

Dominant wavelengthd22, 23, 30, 72

Linear combination of atomic orbitals, LCAO

Host materials40, 41, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49,

225, 237, 306

50, 51, 59, 76, 81, 129, 165, 168, 177, 181, 182, 187,

Splitting42, 49, 50, 51, 106, 145, 167, 232, 241,


266, 269

189, 194, 195, 199, 200, 206, 207, 212, 213, 251, 281
Luminance/Brightness19, 20, 21

Remote Phosphor116

Power12, 13, 14, 15, 76, 96, 97, 116, 119, 217,

Fossil Fuel92

331, 334, 337

Compound semiconductor71, 234, 246,


254

Capping83, 95, 224, 246, 248, 250, 253, 257,


258, 259, 260, 282, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295, 303

Stability74, 75, 97, 120

Capping agent246, 257, 258, 259

Chemiluminescence52

Full-Width-Half-Maximum, FWHM106, 130,

RI matching97, 118, 120, 130, 247, 248, 249, 250,


274, 313, 337

131, 151, 239, 243, 255, 257, 258, 267, 268, 269, 270,
273, 276, 277, 280, 281, 284, 285, 290

Activatoin energy85

Semiconductor37, 38, 46, 223, 224, 225,

starting materials80, 81, 133

233, 234, 243, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 271, 296, 299,

anti-bonding37, 225, 237

300, 302

*-antibonding37

Visible light2, 3, 6, 7, 9, 12, 31, 41, 49, 51, 52,

Solar cells39, 224, 235, 269, 271, 296,


297, 298, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 305, 306

64, 66, 67, 69, 71, 129, 224, 243, 261, 262, 267, 268,
269, 273, 284, 290, 300, 303

Voids101, 245

Stokes shift269, 289, 290

Size-quantisation effect250, 266

Stokes shift43, 44

Nichia72

Extrinsic luminescence240, 241

Sharp60

Bloch230

Fluorescnt lamp66, 67, 69, 70, 71, 72, 77, 92

Bloch function230

Surface-to-volume ratio235, 240, 245, 251

Bloch wave230

Beers Law320

Braun tube53

Beer-Lambert Law320

Translational motion239

horizontal tube furnance86

Dangling bonds246

Water; H2O62, 196

tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide-TOPO246,


257

Lens5
Water-soluble46, 259, 260, 288, 291, 293, 295

trioctylphosphine, TOP257

370

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tetraethyl orthosilicate, TEOS100

62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75,

tetramethoxysilaneTMOS112

76, 79, 80, 81, 82, 84, 85, 86, 87, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95,

Watt; W10, 12, 14, 15, 17

96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107,

poly ethtlene glycol144

108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118,

biological aqueous287

119, 120, 121, 122, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131,

biological uids287

132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142,

biodiagnostics224

144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 32, 77, 88, 123, 150, 32,

bioimage224

149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159,

biologicalbiomedical287

160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 171, 172,

Bioluminescence52

173, 174, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 187,

bottom-up224

188, 189, 190, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200,

CH4225

201, 202, 203, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 211, 212, 213,

White light2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 23, 26, 27, 30, 36, 54, 55,

214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 224, 233, 234,

67, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96,

235, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249,

99, 104, 107, 112, 114, 116, 117, 119, 120, 125, 126,

250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 258, 259, 260, 261,

128, 130, 131, 132, 149, 150, 154, 155, 157, 164, 167,

262, 263, 264, 265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 270, 271, 272,

172, 173, 177, 179, 180, 182, 188, 199, 216, 221, 272,

273, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281, 282, 283,

273, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 280, 283, 284, 285, 313,

284, 285, 286, 287, 288, 289, 290, 291, 292, 293, 294,

322, 323, 328, 330, 334, 335, 336, 339

295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 304, 305,

LEDIntroduction to white LEDs125,


126
Light-Emitting Diode; white LED73,
74, 76, 126, 221, 280
White light emitting diode73, 74, 76,
126, 221, 280

306, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, 318, 319, 320,
321, 322, 323, 324, 325, 327, 328, 329, 330, 331, 332,
333, 334, 335, 336, 337, 338, 339
photonic2, 13, 165, 224, 233, 239, 242, 255, 268,
270, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 301, 303, 312, 320, 321,
328, 332

White6, 7, 8, 21, 30, 54, 80, 158, 278, 283

Photo-chemistry12, 260, 288

Garnet72, 101, 103, 132, 181, 182

Color of light1, 7, 8, 9, 24, 25, 26, 28, 29, 30, 31,

Cubic lattice structure182, 194, 273

32, 36, 37, 38, 40, 73, 93, 102, 119, 130, 173, 235,

Solid angleSteradiansr14, 15, 17, 332

243, 245, 255, 267, 277, 278, 279, 281, 284, 292, 313,
321, 322, 329

Photo-therapy12

Cross-licence172

photophysical294

Alternating Current; AC60, 63, 77

Light characteristics and measurements

Exchange interaction269
Light1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16,

1, 9
Luminosity function10, 12, 13, 16

17, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31,

Photometry12, 13, 16, 17, 32

33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46,

Photometric units12, 16

47, 48, 49, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61,

Photoluminescence; PL52, 53, 66, 67

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Photoluminescent phosphors; PLPhosphors66, 67

Radiative recombination235, 239, 240, 242,


246, 247, 250, 251, 253, 256, 267, 268, 269, 270, 271,

Qv; Luminous energy12, 13, 16, 17, 23, 41, 59,


161, 264, 321, 328

281, 282, 296, 299, 303, 304, 305


Recombination235, 239, 240, 242, 246, 247,
250, 251, 253, 256, 267, 268, 269, 270, 271, 281, 282,

Photobleaching269
Speed of light13

296, 299, 303, 304, 305

Mv; Luminous emittance16, 17

Nonradiative recombination sites247, 304

photo degradation300

Screen printing60, 63, 115, 116, 278, 280

Light sources7, 12, 14, 15, 19, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28,

Isotropic316, 332, 335, 339

29, 30, 31, 32, 52, 60, 67, 68, 71, 72, 76, 92, 93, 94,

Selection rule49

119, 126, 130, 172, 173, 267, 272, 273, 278, 283, 284,

Alloyed Nanocrystals255, 261, 262,

285, 287, 288, 312, 313, 314, 315, 317, 335, 338
Spectral power distribution of the illuminant;
S19

263, 265, 268


alloy reaction80
multiplexed imaging268

optoelectrionic38, 40, 59, 221, 224, 245, 248,


250, 254, 255, 261, 265, 266, 286, 300, 304, 305

LEDMulti-chip white-LED73, 74
Multi-Wall Nanotube; MWNT57

Optical absorption235, 239, 245, 296

Multi-Shell Structure249

Optical Properties235, 241, 245, 249, 254,

Stability37, 38, 54, 55, 58, 60, 66, 74, 75, 94,

255, 259, 261, 266, 267, 268, 287, 289, 293, 301, 306

95, 96, 97, 119, 120

Non-linear optical materials38

Tips57

Optical transistors38

Effective mass approximation, EMA

Optical switching38

236, 238

Photoexcited decay250

Organic dyes268, 273, 288, 289, 290, 291,

Photoluminescence excitation-PLE239,
245

317
Organic ligands253, 258
Organic light-emitting diode, OLED

Phototherapy39
Luminescence conversion materials
66

224, 278, 280, 282


Organically Capped246, 259, 260

Wavelength converting materials36, 37,


38, 66, 74, 119, 153, 173, 273, 276

Organic fluorescent dyes/pigments


36, 37, 38, 173

Photostability249, 259, 260, 267, 268, 288,


291, 294

Fluorescent dyes or pigments36, 119,


324

Coprecipitation Method79, 82

metastable phase83

Co-activators/Co-dopants40, 45

Neon69

Conjugated polymers37, 38, 279, 303,

Grey6, 21, 180

304, 305

Aging effects245

co-solvent305

Free carriers295, 296, 298

Nephelauxetic effect/Covalency effect129

nearly free electron approximation227,

372

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228
Self-absorption273

151, 156, 161, 167, 202, 269, 289, 290, 312, 313, 320,
323, 324, 329

Spin-orbit coupling281

Low Power Consumption287

Color1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24,

High efficiency at low

25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 36, 37, 38, 40, 41, 45,
47, 53, 54, 55, 56, 59, 61, 62, 64, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74,
75, 77, 80, 85, 86, 87, 92, 93, 94, 95, 98, 99, 100, 101,
102, 107, 108, 109, 110, 112, 113, 114, 116, 117, 118,
119, 120, 121, 122, 126, 128, 129, 130, 132, 138, 142,

voltages58
L o w - Vo l t a g e
Cathodoluminescent Phosphors58
Low-pressure mercury discharge
lamp68, 69, 70

144, 147, 150, 153, 155, 156, 157, 158, 164, 165, 167,

Kronig-Penney approximation227

168, 172, 173, 180, 199, 224, 235, 242, 243, 245, 250,

Cool colors26, 27, 32

254, 255, 258, 264, 267, 269, 272, 273, 274, 275, 276,

Hot exciton cooling rate88, 299

277, 278, 279, 280, 281, 283, 284, 285, 286, 287, 289,

Cold cathode fluorescent lamp; CCFL30, 66,

290, 291, 292, 302, 313, 314, 321, 322, 323, 328, 329,
331, 334, 335, 336, 337, 339
Color characteristics and measurements
1, 18

67
Luminescence34, 35, 76
Highly uniform phosphor screen54
Angle15

Hue6, 21, 22, 23, 26, 28

perfectly reecting diffuser19

Commission International IEclairage chromaticity

Resistant to Coulombic aging58

coordinates99, 100, 102, 107, 108, 113, 114, 117,

Resistant to high current densities58

118, 121, 313, 321, 322, 323, 329

Saturation74

Color purity21, 22, 23, 24, 28, 30, 55, 56, 130,
267, 284, 285
Saturation/Chroma/Color purity21, 22, 23, 24,
28, 30, 55, 56, 130, 267, 284, 285

Bound state235
Composition187, 193, 198, 205, 211, 216,
220
Hg; Mercury67, 68, 69, 70, 234, 254, 278, 338

Color gamut24

Green51

Color gamut/Color saturation24, 25, 30,

Cornea5, 18

32, 130, 280, 286


Color temperature24, 25, 26, 27, 29, 32, 70, 71,
72, 93, 95, 102, 110, 118, 130, 132, 276, 313, 314,
322, 328, 331, 334
Color temperature; K24, 25, 26, 27, 29, 32, 70,

Bell60
Anti-counterfeit66
Security taggant/Counter espionage/Anticounterfeiting38, 39
emulsication83

71, 72, 93, 95, 102, 110, 118, 130, 132, 276, 313, 314,
322, 328, 331, 334
iFire Technology60

Shift34, 42, 43, 44, 49, 50, 106, 107, 110, 141,

Dielectric layer60
Anode-Cathode58, 69, 279
Electrodes58, 69, 279
Other Ternary Alloys264

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Others39, 52, 216, 219, 220

Wave2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 12, 13, 16, 18, 22, 23, 30,

Acceptor234, 240, 251, 262

31, 38, 43, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 64, 66, 67, 68, 71,

Solid state reaction79, 80, 81, 86, 87, 88,

72, 80, 96, 99, 106, 107, 108, 110, 119, 129, 130, 132,

133, 134, 142, 145, 152, 154, 155, 157, 158, 159, 160,

141, 145, 150, 151, 159, 161, 163, 164, 165, 167, 168,

161, 162, 166, 167

173, 177, 178, 194, 202, 206, 207, 212, 217, 228, 229,

Nanometernm13, 23, 38, 39, 57, 76, 83, 87, 99,

230, 231, 233, 235, 236, 238, 239, 241, 242, 243, 244,

104, 106, 107, 108, 144, 223, 224, 234, 235, 241, 242,

249, 250, 255, 256, 261, 262, 264, 265, 266, 267, 268,

244, 247, 248, 250, 251, 252, 253, 255, 256, 257, 258,

269, 272, 273, 274, 275, 276, 278, 280, 281, 289, 290,

259, 261, 262, 265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 271, 272, 274,

291, 294, 296, 299, 304, 305, 312, 313, 314, 315, 316,

275, 276, 277, 278, 280, 282, 287, 289, 290, 291, 294,
295, 296, 298, 302, 303, 304, 305, 306

317, 321, 322, 323, 324, 332, 338


Bohr radius235, 266

nanoreactor83

physicochemical294

nano-systems253

Color of object7, 8, 9, 31

Nano-phosphors76

Light emission33, 34, 35, 77

Carbon Nanotube; CNT57

Light emission of materials33, 34

localized activator levels253

Spectral refectance factor of the object; R

Extended225, 249, 261

19

Arc discharge lamp68

BlindSpot5

reverse-micelle83

Direct current; DC60, 278

parabolic band239

hexadecylamine, HDA258

Spontaneous luminescence35, 41, 99, 101, 102,

Silicates187, 188, 190, 193, 216

104, 106, 108, 109, 110, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118,

Silicate phosphors187, 188, 190

121, 122, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141,

-SixOy81, 141, 145, 149, 166, 168, 171, 179,

142, 144, 145, 146, 147, 149, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157,

187, 221, 274

158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 167, 235, 239,

Silicone95, 96, 97, 119, 120

240, 241, 242, 245, 247, 248, 249, 251, 253, 254, 255,

Spatially indirect state248

263, 267, 269, 273, 280, 281, 284, 288, 294, 295

cyanines290

Luminescent intensity and spectrum


position245

Surface modication246
Surface defects58, 86, 246, 255, 260, 294

PLE/PL Spectrum3, 34, 43, 44, 55, 61, 62,


65, 69, 70, 71, 73, 132, 141, 142, 146, 149, 150, 151,
152, 157, 163, 182, 183, 188, 189, 195, 200, 201, 206,
207, 213, 216, 217, 218, 219, 241, 247, 251, 267, 268,
273, 277, 281, 288

Band of surface states246


Broad band of surface states239, 240, 245,
246, 248, 250, 251, 253, 277, 300
surface state239, 240, 245, 246, 248, 250,
251, 253, 277, 300

Radioluminescence52

Surface Structure245

Luminance/Brightness/Value21, 22

Surface Passivation245, 246, 250, 251, 273,

Photopic curveChromatic perception at


normal state9, 10

290, 300
surface charge253, 271, 299

374

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Surface states245

52, 54, 56, 59, 70, 76, 129, 177, 178, 181, 182, 188,

Near UV51

194, 195, 199, 200, 206, 212, 213, 239, 240, 253, 254,

metal oxides80, 85, 103

273

metal carbonates80
metal alkoxide82
Afterglow35

Activators/Luminescent centers40,
44, 45, 46, 48, 49, 51, 52, 59, 181, 182, 188, 194, 195,
199, 200, 206, 212, 213

Non-spectral colors23

Activator emission240

Non-coordinating solvent259, 263

Glass53, 76, 91, 93, 96, 97, 98, 103, 104, 105,

Hyperne26, 241

106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116,

Insulator46

117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 256, 279, 280, 302,

Non-radiative recombination240, 247,

317, 320, 324

250, 251, 253, 296, 304


nonradiative recombination site
247, 304

Illuminated ceiling/Glass oors93


as-made glasses105, 107, 109, 110
Glass softening temperature, Ts118
Glass ceramic phosphor GCP

76, 91, 97, 98, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109,

Brightness6, 17, 19, 56, 64, 71, 72, 76, 80, 86, 93,

110, 120, 123

166, 259, 260, 267, 276, 281, 282, 286, 287, 291
Luminous efcient function19
Thick-dielectric EL;
TDEL61
Package/Packaging88, 94, 95, 96, 97, 116, 119,
120, 123, 126, 128, 147, 165, 172, 313, 314, 317, 320,
321, 322, 324, 327, 328, 329, 330, 331, 332, 334, 335,
336, 337, 339

Glass crystal temperature, Tc118


CP, GCP, GP or PIG91, 97, 98, 111,
112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 123, 324
Glass phosphor/Phosphor in glass GP
PIG91, 97, 98, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116,
117, 118, 119, 123, 324
Glass phosphor/Phosphor in glassGP/
PIG111, 118, 123

Encapsulant94, 95, 96, 97, 120, 123, 332

Glass transition temperature, Tg118

Shielding effect47, 48, 241

grinding80, 81, 98, 105, 111, 116, 118, 135, 138,

Pulverization86

139, 140, 336

Donor234, 240, 251, 262

No dominant hue6, 291

Rod4, 5, 9, 10

Red2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 12, 18, 21, 23, 25, 26, 28,

Toxic Materials38, 92

30, 31, 48, 49, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 59, 61, 64, 71, 72,

F; Fluorine60, 83, 84, 212

73, 75, 76, 80, 85, 87, 102, 106, 108, 126, 129, 130,

Magenta8, 9, 23

131, 141, 145, 150, 151, 154, 155, 156, 157, 161, 163,

Lumen, Lm10, 12, 17, 99, 104, 117, 165, 313

164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 173, 182, 189, 195, 199, 200,

40, 41, 42, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 51, 52, 54, 56, 59,

202, 207, 213, 243, 247, 249, 254, 255, 259, 261, 265,

70, 76, 129, 177, 178, 181, 182, 188, 194, 195, 199,

267, 269, 272, 273, 274, 275, 276, 280, 281, 282, 284,

200, 206, 212, 213, 239, 240, 253, 254, 273

285, 286, 288, 289, 290, 299, 300, 323, 324, 332, 339

Activator40, 41, 42, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 51,

Red light2

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69, 70, 92, 315

DOE128
US patents172, 184, 187, 190, 193, 196, 199,
202, 205, 207, 212, 214, 216, 219, 221

gas-pressure sintering furnance


86

Back light30, 31, 67, 72, 76, 130, 284, 287

Gas Reduction and Nitridation, GRN


86, 87, 88

Iris5
hot carrier relaxation dynamic299
Area14, 15, 56, 82, 83, 180, 235, 240, 245, 251,
252, 260, 267, 268, 280, 284, 286, 296, 304, 321, 337

O; Oxygen40, 44, 47, 49, 51, 57, 58, 59, 62, 63, 65,
66, 74, 75, 76, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 92, 95,
96, 97, 103, 112, 118, 119, 120, 126, 129, 137, 138,

Pyridine264, 303, 304

141, 149, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 166, 167, 168, 171,

Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet, YAG272

178, 179, 181, 187, 188, 194, 196, 199, 202, 203, 205,
206, 212, 216, 218, 221, 245, 246, 248, 249, 252, 254,

256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 274, 281, 282, 286, 292, 294,

atomic34, 43, 45, 47, 49, 68, 132, 149, 224, 225,

295, 299, 302, 303

226, 227, 230, 231, 232, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 241,
242, 244, 246, 250, 253, 256, 262, 271, 286

Other oxides40, 44, 51, 58, 63, 66, 74, 75, 76,
80, 84, 85, 86, 87, 92, 95, 103, 126, 129, 166, 167,

Atomic number49

168, 171, 178, 179, 181, 187, 188, 194, 199, 202, 206,

linear combination of atomic orbitals,

212, 216, 218, 221, 249, 257, 274


Oxide40, 44, 51, 58, 63, 66, 74, 75, 76, 80, 84,

LCAO227, 236
Coulomb force255, 268

85, 86, 87, 92, 95, 103, 126, 129, 166, 167, 168, 171,

Oscillator42

178, 179, 181, 187, 188, 194, 199, 202, 206, 212, 216,

Trapped35, 86, 240, 245, 248, 251, 253, 272, 300

218, 221, 249, 257, 274

CL efciency19, 36, 38, 43, 47, 49, 54, 55, 56, 58,

Oxides40, 44, 51, 58, 63, 66, 74, 75, 76, 80, 84,

59, 60, 62, 65, 70, 71, 74, 80, 81, 82, 85, 86, 88, 92,

85, 86, 87, 92, 95, 103, 126, 129, 166, 167, 168, 171,

93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 99, 102, 104, 109, 110, 113, 114,

178, 179, 181, 187, 188, 194, 199, 202, 206, 212, 216,

115, 117, 118, 119, 120, 122, 126, 127, 130, 132, 137,

218, 221, 249, 257, 274

141, 142, 144, 145, 146, 147, 150, 151, 165, 166, 168,

Tin oxideSnO59

173, 182, 189, 195, 200, 207, 213, 224, 233, 235, 242,

oxygen comtamination85

245, 246, 247, 248, 250, 251, 253, 255, 256, 258, 259,

Oxygen; O262, 65, 80, 196

260, 261, 262, 267, 269, 272, 273, 274, 275, 276, 277,

Nitride/Oxynitride phosphors

278, 279, 280, 281, 282, 283, 286, 288, 289, 290, 291,

129, 199, 202, 205, 206

293, 294, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 302, 303, 304, 305,

Oxynitride; -OxNy199

311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 317, 319, 320, 322, 323, 324,

Special color rendering Index28

325, 327, 328, 329, 330, 331, 332, 333, 334, 337, 338,

Narrow-band emission51

339

Narrowband129, 177

tens of picoseconds35, 253, 267

Sharp peak43

Ti m e - r e s o l v e d l u m i n e s c e n c e

Sony284, 285
purity21, 22, 23, 24, 28, 30, 55, 56, 80, 130, 267,

spectroscopy251
Gas discharge lamp / Fluorescent lamp68,

280, 284, 285

376

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defects or traps40, 58, 86, 234, 235, 239, 240,

Color purity30, 55

241, 242, 246, 247, 248, 250, 251, 252, 253, 255, 260,

High intensity projection lighting93

282, 294

Wide-band oxides58

Defect Emission241, 251

strength/hardness84

Carboxyl groups259

Quantum efciency74, 278

Band-offset247, 248, 250, 282, 296

radio frequency furnance86

energy level offset247, 248, 250, 282, 296

High-pressure mercury lamp66, 67

Band edge236, 239, 242, 243, 244, 246, 251,

High-pressure mercury discharge

252, 253, 254, 256, 269, 277, 300


Band edge absorption269, 277, 300

lamp69
Amines258, 259

Band edge emission239, 243, 251, 252,


254, 269, 277

Energy transfer; E.T.40, 41, 45

reciprocal space231

energy level38, 42, 44, 47, 48, 49, 50, 68, 141,

Offset99, 105, 113, 116, 117, 121, 122, 167, 236,

167, 225, 227, 228, 232, 237, 240, 241, 244, 250, 251,

242, 247, 248, 250, 256, 262, 263, 267, 282, 294, 296,

253, 256, 262, 266, 268, 271, 279, 280, 284, 296, 312
Density of States, DOS237, 244, 245, 256,
270
Energy gap37, 46, 49, 50, 58, 71, 72, 224, 225,

317
Offset potential247
Deection plates & yoke53
Quadrangles26, 27

228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 239,

CIE; International Commission on

240, 242, 243, 244, 245, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251, 253,

Illumination; abbreviated CIE from the French name

254, 255, 256, 260, 261, 262, 265, 268, 269, 295, 296,
297, 298, 299, 300, 303, 306
Intraband energy level37, 46, 49, 50, 58, 71, 72,

Commission International de lEclairage18


matrix82, 95, 97, 103, 115, 116, 120, 224, 267,
293, 302, 337

224, 225, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236,

Substrate removal128

237, 239, 240, 242, 243, 244, 245, 247, 248, 249, 250,

Ground state41, 43, 69, 239, 253, 279

251, 253, 254, 255, 256, 260, 261, 262, 265, 268, 269,

Patent familiy183, 184, 190, 196, 202, 207,

295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 303, 306


Mid-gap defect248
Bandgap state251

214, 219
Chromatic colors6, 21, 22, 23, 24, 30, 53, 55, 56,
77, 130, 255

oxalate82

Color CRT display55, 56, 77

Coordinating solvent258, 259, 263

Color lter24, 30, 130

Coordination numbers182, 188, 194, 199, 206

attachment259, 288, 294, 295

Ligands141, 246, 253, 258, 259, 260, 288, 289,

Mapping53, 264, 266, 286

291, 292, 293, 294, 295

Licence172, 177, 178, 180, 221

Ligand capping293

Sensitizer40, 41, 45, 47, 49, 195, 301

Ligand exchange292, 293, 294, 295

Orthorhombic188, 199

high power76, 96, 97, 116, 119

Spin Coating111, 267, 280, 282, 302, 305

www.wunan.com.tw377
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LED
Liquid Crystal Display, LCD30, 280, 287
Additive color mixing, mixing7, 8, 9, 21, 40, 64,

194
Cathodoluminescent phosphors;

80, 81, 82, 86, 98, 103, 105, 108, 109, 111, 112, 115,
116, 118, 119, 138, 166, 224, 237, 254, 255, 258, 259,

CL-Phosphors53, 58
Cathode Ray Tube; CRT39, 53, 54, 55, 56,

263, 266, 273, 274, 275, 277, 278, 282, 283, 285, 299,
302, 303, 304, 305, 313, 320, 322, 323, 332
Deep bandgap states251

57, 58, 77, 194, 272, 287


Color CRT display54, 55, 56, 77
Ceramic76, 84, 91, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102,

hole deep253

103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 119, 120, 121,

Suldes40, 44, 51, 58, 61, 62, 63, 65, 74, 75,

122, 123, 224, 317, 320, 324

76, 95, 126, 129, 168, 171, 178, 194, 195, 196, 197,

Ceramic phosphorCP76, 91, 97,

198, 216, 221

98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108,

Sulde phosphors194, 195, 196

109, 110, 120, 123

ZnS59, 60, 64, 65, 194, 286

Ceramic phosphorCP98, 102, 123

Oxysuldes40, 44, 76, 92, 95, 126, 129, 194

Halides40, 44, 216

SOx40, 44, 76, 92, 95, 126, 129, 194

Haloborate-BxOyXz206

Sulfates216

Halophosphate; -PxOyXz212

-SH246, 260, 282, 294, 295

Krypton69

mobility265, 282

CdSe/ZnS286

FormulationsBlends187, 193, 198, 205,

212, 216, 221


Composition37, 38, 40, 44, 54, 57, 59, 70, 71, 75,

Single component54, 70

77, 81, 82, 83, 105, 107, 116, 126, 131, 134, 140, 141,

Monoclinic199

149, 157, 164, 168, 178, 181, 187, 188, 193, 194, 198,

Single-Wall Nanotube; SWNT57

199, 205, 206, 211, 212, 216, 220, 221, 229, 231, 232,

Two monolayers247

234, 235, 243, 244, 254, 255, 261, 262, 263, 265, 267,

Monolayer QD285

269, 272, 273, 274, 280, 281, 282, 287, 289, 296, 305,

Crystal-eld effect47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 129

306, 314, 317, 322, 323, 324, 332, 334, 335

Field Emitter ArrayFEA57

Configurational coordinate diagram


42

Field Emission Display; FED56, 57, 58,


59, 77, 194

Exercises1, 31, 33, 77, 79, 88, 91, 123, 125, 168,
171, 221, 223, 306, 311, 324, 339

Scattering-Absorption313, 317, 319, 320,


323, 324, 325, 329, 330, 331, 334, 337

For sulde phosphors58

Scattering Loss39, 76, 97, 120

PHILIPS/LUMIRAMICS102, 167

Stokes Shift Loss312, 313, 323,

General color rendering index28

329

Vanadates216

Plancks constant13

Cathode30, 39, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 66, 67,

Crystal-eld effect48, 49, 50

77, 107, 108, 194, 272, 282, 287

Vitreous Humor5

CathodoluminescenceCL52, 53, 58,

X-ray absorption ne structure, XAFS

378

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242

38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 51, 52, 53,

Vibronic-coupling43

54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67,

tetrahedral crystal eld47, 129, 230, 241, 242

70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 80, 81, 85, 86, 88, 92,

Chip88, 128, 172

93, 94, 95, 99, 100, 101, 102, 104, 105, 107, 108, 110,

Chip separation128

116, 119, 126, 127, 129, 130, 131, 132, 137, 141, 142,

Crystal structure51, 58, 145, 160, 161, 163,

144, 145, 146, 147, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155,

164, 165, 167, 182, 187, 188, 193, 194, 195, 198, 199,

157, 158, 160, 161, 162, 163, 165, 166, 167, 168, 173,

200, 205, 206, 207, 211, 212, 213, 216, 220, 232, 242,

174, 177, 179, 181, 182, 183, 188, 189, 194, 195, 199,

254

200, 201, 202, 206, 207, 208, 212, 213, 217, 221, 224,

Intelligent/Smart lighting93

233, 235, 239, 240, 242, 245, 248, 249, 251, 255, 256,

Afterglow Lighting93

258, 260, 261, 262, 267, 269, 272, 273, 274, 275, 277,

Short after-glow persistence54, 55

278, 279, 280, 281, 282, 284, 286, 287, 288, 290, 291,

Nitrides/Oxynitrides51, 75, 76,

129, 216
Nitride phosphors86, 87, 126, 129,
199, 202, 205, 206
Nitrides/Oxynitrides40, 44, 51, 75, 76, 80,
84, 85, 86, 87, 92, 95, 129, 167, 168, 171, 178, 179,
199, 216, 221, 274
NOx40, 44, 51, 75, 76, 80, 84, 85, 86, 87,
92, 95, 129, 167, 168, 171, 178, 179, 199, 216, 221,
274
Cl; Chlorine105, 109, 206, 212, 303, 304, 305

304, 312, 313, 315, 316, 317, 318, 319, 321, 322, 323,
324, 333, 334, 335, 336, 337
Light emitting diode, LED39, 66, 67, 71,
72, 73, 74, 76, 77, 99, 107, 108, 116, 119, 126, 162,
173, 177, 179, 221, 224, 233, 235, 272, 278, 280, 282,
286, 313
Activators/Luminescent center40, 41, 42,
44, 45, 46, 48, 49, 51, 52, 59, 145, 181, 182, 188, 194,
195, 199, 200, 206, 212, 213, 273
Curtains of light93
Efficacy/Efficiency47, 54, 56, 59, 62, 65,

Chloroform303, 304, 305

70, 71, 80, 81, 85, 86, 88, 92, 93, 94, 95, 99, 102, 110,

Argon69

119, 126, 127, 130, 137, 141, 142, 144, 145, 146, 147,

Subtractive color mixing7, 9

150, 151, 165, 166, 168, 173, 182, 189, 195, 200, 207,

JouleJ12, 13, 14, 17, 281, 295

213, 242, 256, 274, 275, 277, 278, 279, 286, 322

Achromatic colors6

Rare-earth uorides60

Shadowless lighting93

Rare-earth elements40, 44

Inorganic shells247, 248, 250, 253

Conjunctiva5

Inorganically Passivated247, 260, 264, 291

Purple or Violet2, 3, 6, 12, 21, 23, 37, 49, 50, 51,

Electroluminescenct lamp194

52, 66, 68, 69, 70, 71, 73, 74, 108, 130, 145, 149, 150,

Inorganic composite-phosphor

151, 154, 162, 163, 196, 212, 214, 218, 241, 243, 246,

97, 98
Phosphors33, 36, 39, 40, 44, 52, 77,
172, 173
Pixel30
Emission; EM.7, 16, 17, 25, 29, 33, 34, 35, 36,

251, 259, 261, 267, 268, 273, 277, 278, 284, 286, 299,
300, 312, 335, 337
Ultraviolet ray/UV2, 12, 37, 49, 50, 51, 66, 68,
69, 70, 71, 73, 196
Rhombohedral lattice structure206

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Luminosity function10, 13, 16, 17, 130, 151,
165, 313, 314

Photoluminescent, or photoactive
284

Vision function10, 13, 16, 17, 130, 151, 165,


313, 314

QD-Sensitzed Nanocrystalline
TiO2 SCs300, 301

Optic Nerve5, 18

Quantum-dot phosphors36, 38, 39

Retina4, 5

QD Film271, 276, 286

Fermi level253

Passivation235, 240, 242, 245, 246, 247, 248,

Ultra HDTV287

250, 251, 258, 259, 260, 264, 269, 273, 290, 291, 300,

supercritical state84, 87

306

Quantum Confinement38, 234, 235, 236,

interstitial O (Oi)252

239, 244, 254, 255, 256, 261, 268, 272, 280, 281, 284,

Anode53, 57, 282

299, 306

Coordination numbers199

Quantum confinement effect38, 234,


235, 244, 255, 256, 268, 272, 280, 281, 284, 299, 306
Quantum connement38, 234, 235, 244,
255, 256, 268, 272, 280, 281, 284, 299, 306

Nephelauxetic effect48, 49, 50, 51, 129,


202
Yellow3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 21, 23, 25, 28, 49, 54, 64, 70,
72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 85, 86, 91, 93, 96, 97, 98, 99, 101,

Quantum Efciency, QE36, 38, 74, 109, 224,

102, 104, 107, 109, 112, 113, 117, 120, 121, 126, 130,

235, 242, 245, 246, 247, 248, 250, 251, 258, 260, 267,

131, 132, 138, 150, 155, 168, 173, 199, 206, 212, 243,

272, 273, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281, 288, 289,

254, 258, 262, 264, 272, 273, 274, 275, 276, 296, 312,

290, 291, 293, 294, 299, 302, 303, 304, 312, 317, 323,
328, 329

313, 314, 323, 330, 335, 336, 337, 339


Black-and-white CRT display

Quantum yield36, 38, 74, 109, 224, 235,

54, 77

242, 245, 246, 247, 248, 250, 251, 258, 260, 267, 272,

Black6, 9, 21, 61

273, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281, 288, 289, 290,

Black body radiator27

291, 293, 294, 299, 302, 303, 304, 312, 317, 323, 328,

Castor oil59

329

Solvent spin-casting techniques60, 63, 82, 111,

good quantum number298

267, 273, 280, 282, 284, 302, 305, 313, 321, 323, 336,

Quantum dots, QD36, 38, 39, 224, 234, 235,


236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243, 244, 245, 246,
247, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257,
258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 263, 264, 265, 266, 267, 268,

337
spray coating60, 63, 82, 111, 267, 273, 280, 282,
284, 302, 305, 313, 321, 323, 336, 337
Talbot12, 17

269, 270, 271, 272, 273, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 280,
281, 282, 283, 284, 285, 286, 287, 288, 289, 290, 291,

292, 293, 294, 295, 298, 299, 300, 301, 302, 304, 305,

Ostwald ripening257

306, 323

microemulsion method79, 83

Photo-unstable246

Microwave2, 80, 145

Non-radiative Process in Quantum

microwave reacton80

Dots253

sensoric265, 287

380

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sensors224, 316

163, 281, 296, 300, 303, 304, 321, 322, 323, 328, 329,

Scotopic curve10
Warm colors26, 32

332
electro hole pair multiplication, EHPM235,

solubility47, 84, 264, 265, 293, 295, 305


Sol-gel process, SG137, 138, 144, 156

236, 268, 295, 297, 298, 303


IEEE Spectrum

Greenhouse effect92

Technology287

KKelvin26

photocharging253, 299

Quasi zero-dimensional259, 261

Charge compensation47

Br; Bromine206, 212

Electrical field52, 53, 57, 59, 60, 63, 230, 239,

Lighting/Illumination1, 10, 12, 18, 24, 26, 27, 29,

249, 253, 296

30, 39, 67, 72, 74, 76, 92, 93, 94, 119, 126, 127, 130,

Corona discharge lamp68

151, 167, 168, 172, 221, 267, 272, 273, 278, 279, 283,

Electrode59, 63, 279, 296, 297, 299, 300, 301,

306, 312, 313, 338

302, 303, 304

E; Illuminance15, 17

Electromagnetic radiation2, 3, 9, 12, 23, 31, 66

Impact ionization297, 298, 299

Electromagnetic wave2, 3, 9, 12, 23, 31, 66

BBoron45, 171, 181, 188, 206, 207, 208, 209,

Plasma display panel; PDP39, 66

211, 212, 216, 254

Electroluminescence/electroactive; EL39, 52,

Borates206, 207, 208, 209, 211, 212, 216

59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 77, 100, 104, 105, 116,

Borate phosphors206, 207, 212

194, 272, 281, 282, 284

Hopping233, 271, 312, 323

EL lamp or EL light64

Carrier-to-carrier interaction253

Electroluminescent devices59, 60, 61,

Carrier coolin270, 296


Transition metal elements40, 44, 46, 47, 129,

63, 64, 65, 66, 77, 194


Electroluminescent phosphors59, 62,

177, 254, 271

63, 65

Gate57

0D224, 234, 259, 261, 272

Electron spin resonance, ESR242

Zero-transition43

Electron beam52, 53, 54, 55, 58

Saturation21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 28, 30, 32, 37, 58,

Quantum Tunneling57

74, 130, 162, 166, 245, 257, 273, 280, 284, 286

Energy gap49, 50

Saturated colors23, 28

Electronic configuration45, 46, 47, 48, 49,

232
Nephelauxetic effect48, 49, 50, 51,
129, 202

Saturation/Chroma/Color purity

21
CeCerium44, 49, 50, 51, 132, 135, 137, 138, 139,
158, 160, 272

electron-electron coupling253

Molybdenum; Mo57, 165, 216

Electron transition35, 43, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51,

Mo-Tips57

68, 129, 177, 178, 182, 188, 195, 200, 206, 213, 302
Radio wave2

Molybdates216
Pixel57, 281, 286

Electrical current52, 58, 59, 69, 71, 76, 99, 162,

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trial and error168

Self-Assembly255

Lifetime37, 38, 39, 58, 60, 62, 64, 65, 76, 92, 94,

CdCadmium54, 56, 254

95, 96, 97, 119, 120, 126, 173, 196, 239, 241, 242,
248, 249, 251, 268, 269, 274, 281, 284, 287, 289, 290,
299, 313, 324, 329, 331, 337

valence band37, 225, 233, 237, 239, 240, 242,


246, 248, 251, 253, 266, 268, 280, 295
Valence band edge246, 248, 251

Contrast61, 70

Valence electron47, 49, 225, 232

Dopants40, 44, 59, 254

Valence46, 47, 80, 81, 182, 188, 200, 206, 213

color rendering index24, 25, 27, 28, 29, 30, 32,

Spray pyrolysis142

70, 71, 74, 94, 95, 102, 110, 118, 130, 150, 199, 274,

Contact printing267, 278, 280, 284, 286

275, 276, 277, 278, 313, 328

Inkjet Printing278, 280

Color rendition/rendering24, 25, 27, 28, 29, 30,

Broadband49, 51, 129, 177

32, 70, 71, 74, 94, 95, 102, 110, 118, 130, 150, 199,

Broad-band emission51

274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 313, 328

Broadband44, 70, 106, 107, 113, 141, 157, 162,

Color rendering index; CRI25, 27, 28, 29,


30, 32

165, 246
Flexibility102, 118, 287

C; Carbon57, 80, 82, 85, 86, 87, 88, 92, 126, 158,

SIEMENS102, 103, 118, 274

159, 160, 161, 162, 199, 225, 226, 248, 299, 306

Normalization19, 289

Carbon emissions92, 126

Auger recombination239, 250, 253

carbonate82

Auger recombination rates253

Carbothermal Reduction and NItridation,

Auger recombination process253

CRN86, 87, 88

Auger nonradiative process253

Carbon Reduction and Nitridation, CRN


87

Auger transition253
Incandescence34, 35, 76

Green2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 17, 18, 21, 23, 28, 30,

pyrolysis82, 142, 257

31, 49, 51, 53, 54, 55, 56, 59, 61, 64, 70, 71, 72, 73,

Hot carriers296, 297

75, 76, 80, 85, 87, 92, 106, 107, 108, 109, 126, 130,

Hot carrier solar cell297

131, 141, 142, 144, 145, 147, 149, 153, 155, 164, 167,

thermo-mechanical properties84

168, 173, 199, 241, 243, 252, 269, 272, 274, 275, 280,

Hot excitons296, 299

281, 282, 284, 285, 286, 313, 323, 335, 337

Incandescent lamp27, 76, 92, 119, 126

Green light2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 10, 17, 23, 54, 55, 56, 59,


70, 71, 72, 75, 76, 106, 107, 108, 130, 131, 141, 145,

Coefficient of expansion,
COE118

149, 153, 155, 164, 167, 199, 241, 243, 252, 269, 274,

Thermal radiation35, 126

282, 285, 313, 323, 335

epitaxially247

tight binding approximation227


polydimethylsiloxane, PDMS286

Relax41, 239, 240, 250, 251, 253, 270, 272, 281,


299

Planckian Locus25, 26, 27, 313

out-coupling281

Vacuum deposition60, 63, 280, 282

Coupling240, 253, 266, 281, 300

382

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Luminance or Brightness; Lv17, 19, 20, 21, 22

Brightness/Lightness/Value21, 22

Excitation39, 52, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66,
70, 77, 100, 104, 105, 107, 116, 141, 150, 151, 158,

Emission74

160, 163, 173, 194, 239, 240, 245, 251, 255, 269, 272,

Excitation74

273, 281, 282, 284, 288, 291, 304, 315, 316, 317, 318,

Mobility271, 299, 302, 305

319, 321, 322, 323, 324, 334, 335

Al; Aluminium45, 72, 81, 82, 132, 135, 137, 138,

Energy41, 43, 240, 251, 298

139, 158, 159, 160, 162, 171, 179, 181, 183, 184, 187,

Excited state41, 43, 69, 240, 253, 300

188, 206, 216, 220, 272, 302, 303

PLE/PL Spectrum163, 182, 188, 195,

Aluminates181, 183, 184, 187, 216, 220

200, 206, 213

Aluminate phosphors181, 183

Excited state239

-AlxOy171, 179, 181

sintering80

Sclera5

All luminaries26, 27, 29

Sol-gel method; gel79, 82, 112, 137, 138, 144,

combustion80

156
conduction band37, 225, 233, 239, 240, 242, 246,
248, 251, 252, 253, 266, 268, 280, 295, 300
Conduction-to-valence band251

Thermal/Electrical materials94

discrete224, 237, 244


Triboluminescence52
Schottky296
Emission27, 33, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42,
43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57,
58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71,

72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 79, 80, 81, 82, 84, 85, 86, 87, 91,

Orange6, 21, 23, 25, 64, 199

92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104,

Exciton235, 236, 238, 239, 240, 245, 246, 247,

105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115,

248, 249, 251, 254, 255, 260, 261, 265, 266, 268, 269,

116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 125, 126, 128, 129,

270, 290, 294, 295, 296, 298, 299, 301, 302, 304, 306

130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 136, 137, 138, 139, 141, 142,

Binding energy235, 236, 254

144, 145, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 77, 88, 123, 152,

Excitation; EXC.34, 35, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 43,

151, 152, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162,

45, 47, 48, 49, 52, 53, 54, 55, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64,

163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 171, 172, 173, 174, 177,

65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 74, 77, 86, 93, 96, 99, 100, 101,

178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 187, 188, 189, 190,

104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 113, 115, 116, 119,

193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203,

129, 132, 141, 142, 145, 146, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153,

205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216,

154, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166,

217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 235, 239, 242, 245, 246, 248,

167, 173, 177, 178, 182, 183, 188, 189, 194, 195, 199,

250, 251, 259, 260, 261, 267, 268, 269, 270, 271, 272,

200, 201, 202, 206, 207, 212, 213, 216, 217, 218, 219,

273, 274, 275, 278, 279, 280, 281, 283, 284, 287, 288,

235, 239, 240, 241, 242, 245, 250, 251, 253, 255, 267,

289, 290, 291, 306, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317,

268, 269, 270, 272, 273, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279,

318, 319, 320, 321, 322, 323, 324, 325, 327, 328, 329,

281, 282, 284, 285, 286, 288, 289, 290, 291, 298, 299,
300, 302, 304, 306, 312, 313, 315, 316, 317, 318, 319,
321, 322, 323, 324, 334, 335, 337

330, 331, 332, 334, 335, 336, 337, 338, 339


Fluorescence27, 33, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42,
43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57,

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58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71,
72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 79, 80, 81, 82, 84, 85, 86, 87, 91,

Fluorescence resonance energy transfer,


FRET289

92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104,

Luminescent materials/Phosphors33, 36, 37,

105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115,

38, 39, 40, 42, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 51, 52, 53, 58,

116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 125, 126, 128, 129,

59, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 69, 70, 71, 73, 76, 79,

130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 136, 137, 138, 139, 141, 142,

81, 82, 84, 85, 86, 87, 91, 93, 94, 95, 97, 98, 99, 100,

144, 145, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 77, 88, 123, 152,

101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111,

151, 152, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162,

112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 123, 125,

163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 171, 172, 173, 174, 177,

126, 128, 129, 130, 77, 88, 130, 129, 131, 132, 137,

178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 187, 188, 189, 190,

139, 141, 144, 145, 147, 149, 150, 152, 163, 164, 165,

193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203,

166, 167, 172, 173, 177, 178, 179, 181, 183, 184, 187,

205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216,

188, 190, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 202, 203,

217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 235, 239, 242, 245, 246, 248,

205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 211, 212, 214, 215, 216, 217,

250, 251, 259, 260, 261, 267, 268, 269, 270, 271, 272,

218, 219, 220, 221, 279, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 317,

273, 274, 275, 278, 279, 280, 281, 283, 284, 287, 288,

318, 319, 320, 321, 322, 323, 324, 328, 329, 331, 332,

289, 290, 291, 306, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317,
318, 319, 320, 321, 322, 323, 324, 325, 327, 328, 329,
330, 331, 332, 334, 335, 336, 337, 338, 339
Photoluminescence27, 33, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40,

334, 335, 336, 337, 338, 339


Category of luminescent materials33,
36, 52
Phosphor screen53, 54, 55, 56

41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55,

phosphors49, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58,

56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69,

59, 60, 64, 65, 66, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 80,

70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 79, 80, 81, 82, 84, 85, 86,

81, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 103, 111,

87, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102,

112, 113, 116, 118, 119, 120, 122, 125, 126, 129, 130,

103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113,

131, 132, 133, 134, 136, 138, 139, 141, 142, 144, 145,

114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 125, 126,

147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158,

128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 136, 137, 138, 139,

159, 160, 161, 162, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 171, 172,

141, 142, 144, 145, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 77, 88,

173, 174, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 187,

123, 152, 151, 152, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160,

188, 189, 190, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200,

161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 171, 172, 173,

201, 202, 205, 206, 207, 208, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215,

174, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 187, 188,

216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 267, 272, 273, 274, 275,

189, 190, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201,

278, 280, 283, 306, 311, 312, 313, 315, 317, 320, 321,

202, 203, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 211, 212, 213, 214,

323, 324, 325, 327, 329, 330, 331, 332, 334, 335, 337,

215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 235, 239, 242, 245,

339

246, 248, 250, 251, 259, 260, 261, 267, 268, 269, 270,

Formulations; Blends187, 193,

271, 272, 273, 274, 275, 278, 279, 280, 281, 283, 284,

198, 205, 212, 216, 221

287, 288, 289, 290, 291, 306, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315,

uoresceins290

316, 317, 318, 319, 320, 321, 322, 323, 324, 325, 327,

Luminescence quenching86, 246, 260, 270

328, 329, 330, 331, 332, 334, 335, 336, 337, 338, 339

PL lifetime242, 248, 268, 269, 289, 290

384

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Fluorescent lamp27, 39, 67, 68, 69, 71, 72, 77,
92, 119, 126, 278, 284, 338

Phosphate phosphors212, 214


phonons43, 44, 233, 239, 240, 253, 296, 297, 299

Fluorescent labeling39

Sonoluminescence52

Phosphor41, 43, 46, 47, 63, 80, 81, 82, 87, 88,

Thin-lm60, 61, 62, 63, 65

96, 97, 98, 102, 106, 107, 109, 111, 112, 115, 116, 118,

Thin-lm EL; TFEL60, 61, 63,

123, 133, 136, 137, 138, 145, 154, 158, 159, 160, 161,
162, 166, 167

65
Thin-lm panels280

Radiant exitance14, 15, 17

Schrodinger228, 244

Radiometry12, 13, 16, 17, 32

Schrodinger wave equation244

Radiant intensity/Watt/sr14, 17

Bonding37, 225, 237, 246, 250, 253

Radiance15, 16, 17

--bonding37

Radiant uxRadiant Power14, 15, 17, 313,


317, 319
Radiant flux density; Radiant Power
density14

citric aicd82, 135, 136, 138, 144


citrate82

Radiative transition240, 253

Sputtering60, 63

Irradiance15

Blue2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 18, 21, 23, 25, 26, 28, 30, 31,

Selection rule41, 42

34, 49, 53, 54, 55, 56, 59, 61, 64, 67, 70, 71, 72, 73,

Selection rules35, 41, 42, 49, 241, 242

74, 76, 93, 99, 104, 106, 107, 108, 110, 112, 113, 121,

Cone4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 18, 22

126, 129, 130, 132, 141, 145, 147, 149, 150, 151, 153,

Indigo or Cyan6, 8, 9, 21, 23

154, 155, 156, 157, 163, 164, 167, 173, 182, 189, 195,

HertzHz13, 43, 64, 66, 77, 338

200, 207, 212, 213, 214, 218, 235, 243, 244, 248, 256,

Spectral Efciency313, 314, 323, 324

261, 264, 265, 266, 269, 272, 273, 274, 275, 276, 277,

Phosphine oxide259

278, 280, 281, 283, 284, 285, 286, 294, 312, 313, 322,

Phosphines258, 259

323, 324, 330, 331, 332, 333, 334, 335, 336, 337, 339

Germanates216, 217

Three primary colors3

Blue shift244, 256


Transition energy235, 239

Photodegradation246

Tungstates216, 217

Thermal quenching74

CadmiumCd38, 234, 254, 257, 258, 259, 286,

Mechanoluminescence52

291, 302

Coherency strains235, 247

Ionic size182, 188, 200, 206, 207, 213

wet chemical method80

Auto-ionized254, 270

Epoxy95, 96, 97, 119, 120

Double shell249, 250

Pupil5

Color mixing7

Phosphorescence35, 41, 42, 279, 281

Gallates216

Apatite212
Phosphates212, 214, 215, 216

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LED

rhodamines290
band-edge states246
Correlated color temperature; CCT26

Driving force85
Magic-sized277
Display1, 9, 10, 12, 24, 30, 31, 38, 39, 53, 54, 55,
56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 66, 72, 74, 76, 77, 93, 94, 98, 101,
103, 104, 105, 108, 112, 115, 119, 121, 122, 130, 133,
134, 136, 137, 138, 142, 145, 146, 147, 153, 154, 158,
159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 165, 167, 168, 172, 194, 221,
228, 249, 252, 253, 263, 264, 272, 274, 277, 278, 280,
281, 283, 284, 285, 286, 287, 297, 304, 305, 306
Lanthanum44, 46, 47, 164, 165

386

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LED. .
, 2014.01

ISBN 978-957-11-7450-1 ()
1.2.
469.45

102024494

5DH3

LED

The Fundamentals, Characterizations and


Applications of LED Phosphors









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