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Open-Channel Hydraulics Henderson Open


Channel Flow

2010/09

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Chapter 1

14

30

46

Chapter 2

49

50

60

75

93

Chapter 3

97

98

108

124

152

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.2.

Chapter 4

155

156

169

184

214

Chapter 5

217

218

243

261

295

Chapter 6

299

300

313

328

343

Chapter 7

345

346

349

357

365

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.3.

Chapter 8

369

370

388

403

425

428

429

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Chapter

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.2.

1. open channel ow
free surface

2. culvert

3. channel section
A
4. vertical channel section

5. depth of ow
y
6. depth of ow section

d
7. slope of channel
tan
tan sin
y = d d = ycos
cos 1 y d

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Chapter 1 .3.
8. top width
T B
9. stage
h
10.wetted perimeter

P
11.hydraulic radius
A P R R =

12.hydraulic depth
A T D D =

13.compound section

(1)
(2)
14.prismatic channel

15.non-prismatic channel

16.mobile boundary channel

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.4.

17.rigid boundary channel

1.
(1)steady flow

(2)unsteady flow

2.
(1)uniform ow

(2)non-uniform ow

3.
(1)steady uniform ow

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Chapter 1 .5.

(2)steady non-uniform ow

(3)unsteady uniform ow

(4)unsteady non-uniform flow

4.
ReReynold number
inertial forceviscous force

V L
R

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.6.
(1)laminar owRe < 500

(2)transitional ow500 < Re < 2000

(3)turbulent owRe > 2000

5.
FrFroude number

g L D

(1)subcrtical owFr < 1

(2)critical owFr = 1
standing wave

(3)supercritical owFr > 1

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Chapter 1 .7.

1. energy coefcient or Coriolis coefcient

kinetic energy

v dA
V
2. momentum coefcient or Boussinesq coefcient
QV

3. Rohbock
= 1 + 3
= 1 +

23

= Vm / V - 1
Vm
V
> > 1

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.8.

1.
p = y

y d

2.
p = dcos = ycos2

cos

= ycos2
3.

h
hs
d
g
V
r
concave ow

convex flow

1. continuity equation
Q = A1V1 = A2V2 =

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Chapter 1 .9.

2. energy equation

hL = 0 1 =
2 = 1

3. momentum equation

p1A1 - p2A2 + W sin - Ff = Q(2V2 - 1V1)

Ff = 0 = 0
1 = 2 = 1
p1A1 - p2A2 = Q(V2 - V1)

1 2

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.10.

1.
Lr = Lm / Lp
2.
Vr = Vm / Vp =
3.
qr = qm / qp =
4.
Qr = Qm / Qp =
5.
nr = nm / np =
6.
Sr = Sm / Sp = (LV / LH)m / (LV / LH)p = (LV / LH)r
(LV)r = (LH)r Sr = 1
m p r
V H

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Chapter 1 .11.

specic energy
1.
z = 0 E
2.
= 1
3.
= 1

q E y E y

(1)E = y E y

y
y

q1
q2
q3

y2
yc
y1

q1 < q2 < q3

45

Ec E0

E
1-1

(2)y = 0

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.12.
4. alternative depthcritical depth
E c

y2 y1
Ec

specic force
1.
F M
2.

3.

= 0Ff = 01 = 2 = 1
M.E.P1 - P2 = Q(V2 - V1)

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Chapter 1 .13.

F M Q q
F M y F M y
y

y2
yc
y1
Fc

F0

1-2
4. conjugate depth
F c

y2 y1
y 1
y 2
sequent depth

1.

E = 0F 0

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.14.
2. simple hydraulic jump

E 0F = 0
3. dentated sill

E 0F 0

B y 0
k1

A = By0

= 1.35

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Chapter 1 .15.

= 1.125

100 500

transitional ow 2000

Frm = Frp

Vp = Q/A = 500/(4100) = 1.25

Rm = Rp(Lm/Lp)
Rp = Ap/Pp = (4100)/(100 + 42) =

(Re)m 2000

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.16.

A1 A2 1 2 y

y = (z1 + y1) - (z2 + y2)


C.E.Q = A1V1 = A2V2
V1 = A2V2/A1

hf
y1
z1

V1

V2
datum

y2
z2

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Chapter 1 .17.

E.E.

80000cfs
1.5ft 1mile
4mile

Qd = 80000cfs

= 1.5ft/hr = 1.5

ft/sec

B = 1mile = 5280ftx = 4mile = 45280ft


C.E.

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.18.
Qu = 126464cfs

20 10
10

9.5

C.V.
V1

y1

y2

V2

20ft
p1

Ft

p2

B = 20fty1 = 10ftV1 = 10ft/secy2 = 9.5ft


C.E. q

V2 = y1V1/y2 = 1010/9.5 = 10.53(ft/sec)

Q = A1V1 = 201010 = 2000(cfs)


M.E.p1A1 - p2A2 - Ft = Q(V2 - V1)

= 1.942000(10.53 - 10)
Ft = 4028lb
4028lb

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Chapter 1 .19.

3.5 2.5
0.25 2.0 0.20

(1)
(2)

y1 = 2.0my2 = 2.0 - 0.25 - 0.20 = 1.55m


C.E.B1y1V1 = B2y2V2

B1 = 3.5m

B2 = 2.5m

Energy line
0.20m

y1 = 2.0m

y2
0.25m

(1)hL = 0

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.20.
V2 = 2.379m/s
Q = 2.51.552.379 = 9.217m3/s
(2)

V22 - 0.9V21 = 2g(y1 - y2 - z)


V22 [1 - 0.9(0.5536)2] = 0.202g
V2 = 2.328m/s
3
Q = 2.51.552.328 = 9.021m /s

sluice gate

F
V1

y1
y2

V2

F
C.E.q = V1y1 = V2y2
M.E.

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. .
, 2014.02

ISBN 978-957-11-7492-1 ()
1.
443.1

102028071

5G24

Open Channel Flow


397.4





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