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PART 1
CHAPTER 1

CHAPTER 2

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

10

13

2.1

13

2.2

14

2.3

15

2.3.1

16

2.3.2

17

2.4

17

2.4.1

17

2.4.2

18

2.4.3

18

2.4.4

20

2.5

21

2.5.1

21

2.5.2

22

2.5.3

23

2.6

2.6.1

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24
24

CHAPTER 3

2.6.2

25

2.6.3

28

2.6.4

28

2.7

29

2.8

29

2.8.1

29

2.8.2

34

2.8.3

37

3.1

45

3.2

47

3.3

47

3.4

50

3.5

52

3.6

53

3.6.1

54

3.6.2

55

3.6.3

56

3.6.4

57

57

3.7.1

57

3.7.2

59

59

3.7

3.8

CHAPTER 4

45

3.8.1

59

3.8.2

60

3.8.3

60

63

4.1

63

4.2

63

4.3

66

4.4

68

4.4.1

68

4.4.2

69

4.5

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69

PART 1

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CHAPTER 1

C HAPTER

1.1

Engineering Geology

Geological Process

Geological Conditions

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1.2

Geologic Hazards

10

1.3

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CHAPTER 1

Rock Mass

Intact

ExtensometerInclinometer

Inherent Defect

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Extraneous Defect

High Susceptibility

Low Susceptibility

Bell,
2007a

Geologic Model

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CHAPTER 1

1.4

1.1


Site

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1.1

2D

4D

DisProduct covery

Geologic Model

HOW

WHY

94

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CHAPTER 1

Rock Head

Sense

3
15

Reasoning

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10

Approach

1.5

22 3

13

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CHAPTER 1

11

14

50

16

Trench
Melange
Karl Terzaghi

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12

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CHAPTER 2

C HAPTER

13

2.1

3,300

2.110 Rock-Forming Minerals


95%
2.1

12

11

4.6

1.5

10

0.9

12

39

12

1.5

10

4.5

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14

FeS2

FeS2

Fe2O3 nH2O

2.2

Hydrothermal Solution

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CHAPTER 2

15

K+Na+Ca++

2KAlSi3O8 + 2CO2 + 3H2O Al2Si2O3 (OH)4 + 4SiO2 + 2K(HCO3) 2.1

2.3

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16

NaCl Na+ Cl

2.3.1

7
47 1996 12
2.1

2.1 12 1996

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CHAPTER 2

2.3.2

17

2.4

2.4.1

Fe+++
Cu++

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18

2.4.2

2.4.3

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CHAPTER 2

19

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20

2.4.4

0.1mm

0.0010.1mm

0.001mm

2.2

2.2

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CHAPTER 2

2.5

21

2.5.1

10
10 2.3

2.3

Mg3(Si4O10)
(OH)2

K(AlSi3O8)

SiO2

CaCO3

Al2(SiO4)
(FOH)2

CaF2

Al2O3

Ca5(PO4)3
(FClOH)

10 C

CaSO4 2H2O

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22

1,150
3,500

22.5
55.5 5.56 67

2.4

2.4

22.5

55.5

5.56

67

2.5.2

Cleavage Mineral Cleavage

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CHAPTER 2

23

3 90
86.5

2.5.3

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24

2.6

Weathering

2.6.1

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CHAPTER 2

25

9%
14 kg/cm2

2.6.2

Dissolution
K+ Na+
Ca++ Mg++
Fe++ Al+++ Si+4
SiO2pH 9
Al+++ pH 9 pH 4

CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O Ca++ + 2HCO3 2.2

H+ OH H+ OH

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26

K+ Na+ Ca++ Mg++


HydrolysisK+
OH KOH

2KAlSi3O8 + 2H+ + 9H2O H4Al2Si2O9 + 4H4SiO4 + 2K+ 2.3

SiO2

H4Al2Si2O9 + nH2O Al2O3 nH2O + 2SiO2 + 2H2O 2.4

CO2
Carbonation H+ HCO3

K+ Na+
Ca++ Mg++

HydrationCaSO4CaSO4 2H2O

CaSO4 + 2H2O CaSO4 2H2O 2.5

2Fe2O3 + 3H2O 2Fe2O3 3H2O 2.6

60% 2,000%

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CHAPTER 2

27

Oxidation

4FeSiO3 + O2 2Fe2O3 + 4SiO2 2.7

2FeS2 + 2H2O + 7O2 2FeSO4 + 2H2SO4 2.8

4FeSO4 + 2H2SO4 + O2 2Fe2SO43 + 2H2O 2.9


Fe2SO43 + 6H2O 2FeOH3 + 3H2SO4 2.10

Bauxite
5

2.5

2.5

Si

Fe

Al

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28

2.6.3

CO2H2S

2.6.4

2.6

2.6

1
2

3
4

6
7

8
9 Gibbsite
10
11

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CHAPTER 2

2.7

29

2.8

2.8.1

50%

NaAlSi3O8 Ab
CaAl2Si2O8 An
Ca++ Na+
66.5
86.5 2.62.8
2.2

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30

A.

B.

2.2

KAlSi3O8

90 66.5
2.6 2.3

A.

B.

C.

2.3

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CHAPTER 2

31

KMgFe3

OHF2Mg
3AlO10

Fe 21 MgFe 21

23
2.73.3

KAl2AlSi3O10OH2

23
2.83.1

CaNaMgFe4Al

+++

SiAl4O112

OH2 MgFe
Ca2Mg5

2MgFe5NaMgAl

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32

56 124
56 3.03.5
2.4
60

CaNaMgFe++
AlFe+++SiAl2O6 Al2O34%9%
Fe2O3 CaMg
NaAlMg2MgFe

87 93 56 3.23.6
2.5

90

MgFe2SiO4

A.

B.

2.4

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CHAPTER 2

A.

2.5

B.

C.

33

6.57 3.33.5

12.6%

570 - SiO2

7 2.7
2.6

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34

1cm

2.6

2.8.2

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CHAPTER 2

35

1 2.12.2
3,000

MgAlFe
MgFe6SiAl4O10OH8
Hydrothermal Alteration

22.5
2.73.4

Mg3Si4O10OH2

1 2.72.8

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36

Al2SiO4O
6.57.5
4 3.13.2

4.5 6 3.63.7

7 3.23.3

Mg6Si4O10OH8

2.53.5 2.55

A3B2SiO43 A
Fe++Mg++Ca++Mn++ B
Al+++Fe+++Cr+++ FeAl Ca

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. .
, 2013.10

I S B N: 978-957-11-7371-9
1.
441.103

102020333

5H08

364.2

106 339 4

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