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CONTENTS
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4

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2
3
4

1
2

............................................. 5-2
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1 .............................................................. 7-2
2 ................................................... 7-11
.......................................................................... 7-26

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1.
2. H2O CO2
H2 + Cl2 2HCl
H2S + Cl2 2HCl + S

1.
2.

1.

2.

1.

(1)
(2)

2.

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1.

2.

1.

2.

1.

(1) Oxygen

(2) Fuel
(3) Heat

(4) Chain reaction

2.

Oxygen

15% CO2

fuel

heat

chain
reaction

1.
2.

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3. H+ OH
H+ OH

Back
draft


1. Pool fire

(1)Boilover

(2)slopover

(3)

(4)
2. Fire ball

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(1)

BLEVE
BLEVE Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion

BLEVE

BLEVE

Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion

1.

2.

3.
BLEVE

4.

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1.

BLEVE
BLEVE 2.

3.
BLEVE

1.
2.
3.
1.
2.
3.

1.

2.
1.

2.
1.
2.

3.
1.

2.

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1.
2.

3.
4.

500 m

1.
2.
3.

1.
2.

3.
8001200

1.
(1)
01

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(2)
CHOS

1 CO2
CO2 C+O2 CO2
123244
1 12 1 32

1000 C X O X
1232 1232=1000X X=2666.67

23% Y 2666.67
O Y
Y23%=2666.67Y=11594.2g=11.594kg
1kg 11.594kg

21%
(V)=(2666.67/32)22.4=1866.67
22.4
V1=1866.67(100/21)=8888.9 =8.89m3

1 HH2O

H2O H2 + 1/2O2 H2O


21618
1 2 1/2 16

1000 X O X
216=1000X2X=16000 X=8000
23% Y 8000
O Y
Y23%=8000Y=34782.6g=34.783kg
1kg 34.783kg

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21%
(V)=(8000/32)22.4=5600

22.4
V1=5600(100/21)=26666.67 =26.667m3

1 S SO2

SO2 S + O2 SO2
323264
1 32 1 32

1000 X O X
3232=1000X32X=32000 X=1000
23% Y 8000
O Y
Y23%=1000Y=4347.826g=4.348kg
1kg 4.348kg

21%
V=1000/3222.4=700
22.4
V1=700(100/21)=3333.333 =3.333m3

(a)1kg 11.594kg
(b)1kg 34.783kg
(c)1kg 4.348kg
C%H%S%

1
O
Aw={11.594C+34.783(H
(kg)
)+4.348S}
8
100
Aw=
C=

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H=
O=
S=

(a)1kg 8.889m3
(b)1kg 26.667m3
(c)1kg 3.333m3
C%H%S%

1
O
)+3.333S}
Av={8.889C+26.667(H
(m3)
8
100
Av=
C=
H=
O=
S=
2.
15% 20% 15% 20% 1kg

(1)

1
O
)+4.348S}
(kg)
8
100
Aw=C=15H=20O=20S=15
Aw={11.594C+34.783(H

1
20
(kg)
+4.34815}
8
100
=8.48(kg)

Aw={11.59415+34.78320
(2)

1
O
)+3.333S}
(m3)
8
100
Av=C=15H=20O=20S=15
Av={8.889C+26.667(H

1
20
)+3.33315}
(m3)
8
100
=6.5(m3)

Av={8.88915+26.667(20

10

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62.5% 4.5% 2.6% 12.4%


1.5% 16.5% 1% 1kg

(1)
1
O
)+4.348S}
(kg)
8
100
Aw=C=62.5H=4.5O=12.4S=2.6
Aw={11.594C+34.783(H

Aw={11.59462.5+34.783(4.5

12.4
1
)+4.3482.6}
(kg)
8
100

=8.385kg
(2)
1
O
)+3.333S}
(m3)
8
100
Av=C=62.5H=4.5O=12.4S=2.6

Av={8.889C+26.667(H

1
12.4
)+3.3332.6}
(m3)
8
100
=6.428(m3)

Av={8.88962.5+26.667(4.5

1.
(1)
(2)

(3)

2.

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11

H2

4.0

75.0

CO

12.5

74.0

CH4

5.3

14.0

C3H8

2.2

9.5

C6H14

1.2

7.5

C2H2

2.5

81.0

CH3OH

7.3

36.0

C2H5OH

4.3

19.0

(CH3)2CO

2.6

12.8

(C2H5)2O
CS2
C6H6
NH3

1.9
1.3
1.4
1.6
1.4
5.3

48.0
44.0
7.1
25.0
7.6
32.0

3. Lechatelier's principle

1
(%)
PM1 PM2 PM3 PM4
+
+
+
AD1
AD2
AD3
AD4
PM1PM4=

(1)Amin =

AD1AD4=%
1
(2)Amax =
(%)
PM1 PM2 PM3 PM4
+
+
+
AU1
AU2
AU3
AU4
AU1AU4=%
CH4C3H8CO 532

(1)
1
(%)
PM1 PM2 PM3 PM4
+
+
+
AD1
AD2
AD3
AD4

Amin =

CH4AD1=5.3
C3H8AD2=2.2
COAD3=12.5

12

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CH4PM1=5/10=0.5
C3H8PM2=3/10=0.3

COPM3=2/10=0.2

1
1
=
= 4.05(%)
0.2 0.2467032
0.5 0.3
+
+
5.3 2.2 12.5
(2)
1
(%)
Amax =
PM1 PM2 PM3 PM4
+
+
+
AU1
AU2
AU3
AU4

Amin =

CH4AU1=14
C3H8AU2=9.5
COAU3=74

CH4PM1=5/10=0.5
C3H8PM2=3/10=0.3
COPM3=2/10=0.2

1
1
=
= 14.29(%)
0.5 0.3 0.2 0.07
+
+
14
9.5
74

Amax =

C3H840% 2.4%9.5%C4H1060%
1.8%8.4%
(1)
1
Amin =
PM1 PM2
+
AD1
AD2
C3H8AD1=2.4
C4H10AD2=1.8
C3H8PM1=0.4
C4H10PM2=0.6

Amin =

1
1
=
= 2 2%
0.4 0.6 0.5
+
2.4 1.8

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13

(2)
1
Amax =
PM1 PM2
+
AU1
AU2
C3H8AU1=9.5
C4H10AU2=8.4
C3H8PM1=0.4
C4H10PM2=0.6

Amax =

1
=8.81 8.81%
0.4 0.6
+
9.5 8.4

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7. BLEVE
8.
9.
10.
11.

14

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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
1. 70%

2. 2070%

3. 20%
1. A

2. B
3. C
4. D

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15

1.
2.

1. COCO2

2.

16

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1.
(1)

(2)

(3)

2.

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
3.
1.

(1)

(2)
(3)

2.
(1)
(2)

(3)

(4)
(5)
(6)

3.
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

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17

1.
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

2.
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
3.
(1)
(2)

(3)
(4)
4.
(1) 2400kcal/m2h
(2) 2050kcal/m2h

NFPA

18

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1.

2.

3.
(1)
(2)
4.
5.
(1)
(2)

(3)

1.53.5 23m/sec

0.5m/sec

0.50.75 0.51.0m/sec

0.51.5m/sec

I0
I
I0
I
Butcher
D=2
D=log10

optical density
1. D=1 1m 90%
10%
2. D=2 1m 99%
1%

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19

S=

(I I I) 100%
0

67 S
I0
I

D=2 log10100 S

kg/m3

/m3

1.

2.

20

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. .
, 2010.09

I S B N: 978-957-11-6104-4
1.
575.87

2. 3.
99017552

5T01

58.1

106 339 4

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