You are on page 1of 54

AGENDA SETTING

Russel Ann L. Rica


MPA Student
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
Agenda Setting Theory
In 1922, Lippman, described in Public
Opinion that people did not respond directly
to events in the real world but instead lived in
a pseudo-environment composed of the
pictures in our head, this is where MEDIA
would play an important part in furnishing
these pictures and shaping the pseudo-
environment
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
Agenda Setting Theory
According to the AST first developed by Prof.
Maxwell McCombs and Prof. Donald Shaw in
their Chapel Hill study in 1968, MASS MEDIA
set the agenda for public opinion by
highlighting certain issues.
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
Agenda Setting Theory
Studying the way political campaigns were
covered in the media, Shaw and McCombs
found that the main effect of news media was
agenda-setting, i.e. telling people not what to
think, but what to think about.
Which actually supports the statement of Bernard Cohen
(1963) stated: The press may not be successful much of
the time in telling people what to think, but it is
stunningly successful in telling its readers what to think
about.
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
Agenda Setting Theory
AST explains the correlation between the rate
at which media cover a story and the extent to
which people think that this story is
important.
News outlets act as gatekeepers of
information and make choices about what to
report and what not.
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
The Classic Model
GRAPHICS FROM*:McQuail & Windahl (1993), Prof. Frank
Brettschneider, University Hhenheim, Germany
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
Agenda setting functions 3 part-process:
Media Agenda
issues discussed in the media
Public Agenda
issues discussed and personally relevant to the
public
Policy Agenda
issues that policy makers consider important
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
The Perception Model
GRAPHICS FROM*:McQuail & Windahl (1993), Prof. Frank
Brettschneider, University Hhenheim, Germany
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
Agenda Setting
is a crucial stage in public policy making
process because this is the process which
will determine whether a problem will be
considered as an issue by the
government or not.
Therefore, problemand issue are two
different things.
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
problem is a condition or situation that
produces needs or dissatisfaction among people
and for which relief or redress by governmental
action is sought (Anderson, 2008)
when a problem receives attention from
government, it becomes an issue.
Agenda Setting
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
According to Cobb and Elder (1983), issue is a
conflict between two or more identifiable
groups over procedural or substantive matters
relating to the distribution of position or
resources---it can be generated through
different means.
Agenda Setting
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
Cobb and Elder (1983) indicates that
the formation of issue depends on the
dynamic interplay between the
initiator and the triggering device.
Agenda Setting
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
Initiators are people who initiate an issue--
-consist of exploiters, people who create an
issue for their own benefit; readjustors,
people who generate issue to redress
imbalance in the society; do-gooders, people
who do not have power to gain over an issue
they created before; and circumstantial
reactors, an unanticipated event which
creates an issue
Agenda Setting
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
1. Internal events consist of natural
disaster, unanticipated human events,
technological change, imbalance in the
distribution of resources, and the last is
ecological change.
(Cobb and Elder, 1983)
Agenda Setting: TRIGGER DEVICES
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
2. External trigger mechanisms consist of
an act of war, innovation in weapons
technology, international conflict, and
the last is changing world alignment
patterns.
(Cobb and Elder, 1983)
Agenda Setting: TRIGGER DEVICES
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
Certain issues need good strategy to be put into
political agenda. Only a portion of problems
will succeed in securing agenda because
officials lack of time, resources, information,
and others (Anderson, 2008).
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
TWO TYPES OF AGENDA SETTING
(Cobb and Elder, 1983)
1. systemic agenda consists of all
issues that are commonly perceived by
members of community as meriting
public attention and as involving
matters within the legitimate
jurisdiction of existing governmental
authority.
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
TWO TYPES OF AGENDA SETTING
(Cobb and Elder, 1983)
2. institutional agenda tends to be
specific, concrete, and limited in the
number of items.
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
GETTING INTO
AGENDA SETTING
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
Cobb and Elder (1983) state that three
conditions to be met for particular problem to
be put into agenda setting:
widespread attention from public
shared concern of a sizable portion that
some type of action is required
shared perception that the matter is an
appropriate concern of some governmental
unit and falls within the bounds of its
authority
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
Portz (1996) opinion on how certain
issues can be put into agenda setting:
role of policy entrepreneurs
which are people who are able to move
problems to the decision agenda
Kingdon (1995) also mentions the importance
of policy entrepreneur as a person who takes
advantage to raise problem and solution into a
public attention
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
Portz (1996) opinion on how certain
issues can be put into agenda setting:
role of policy entrepreneurs
Mintrom(1997) highlights the role of policy
entrepreneurs by defining policy entrepreneurs
as people who seek to initiate dynamic policy
change. They attempt to win support for ideas
by using network, identifying problems,
shaping the terms of policy debates, and also
building coalitions.
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
role of media
mobilization of criticism or enthusiasm for change or
support of existing political institutions, and the nature
if problem itself.
The importance of media in agenda setting is also
stated by Cobb and Elder (1983) by saying that media
can elevate issues to the systemic agenda and
increasing their chances to receive formal agenda
consideration. Sometimes certain persons in media can
act as opinion leaders in bringing a particular issue into
public area.
Portz (1996) opinion on how certain
issues can be put into agenda setting:
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
Problem visibility
Visibility of a problem can be reached in several
ways. Cobb and Elder (1983) mention some
factors; such as severity, incidence, novelty,
proximity, and crisis.
media also can help some problems to be
visible by the government since media
promotes an atmosphere of enthusiasm or
criticism that can focus attention on particular
problem definition.
Portz (1996) opinion on how certain
issues can be put into agenda setting:
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
The role of political sponsorship
it is the person who has political power to push the
problem into policy process. It can be business leaders,
government leaders, or presidents who support the
issue.
Viable and applicable solution
solutions of problems should be available, acceptable,
and affordable.
Portz (1996) opinion on how certain
issues can be put into agenda setting:
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
Losing Agenda Setting
Policy makers may feel that the
problems have been solved and they
turn to other issues.
(Anderson, 2008)
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
FACTORS which may lead to loss of
Agenda Status:
People become accustomed to a
problem so they no longer label it as
a problem.
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
Changes in the condition that give rise to
a problem also contribute to losing
agenda setting. When there is a change
in government or decision maker, an
issue may not get attention anymore
from new government.
FACTORS which may lead to loss of
Agenda Status:
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
a new and more pressing problem may
distract government attention on previous
problem; so that new and more pressing
problem will be prioritized to be put into
agenda setting.
FACTORS which may lead to loss of
Agenda Status:
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
Theoretical Application:
THE PHILIPPINE CONTEXT
In the Philippines, the press goes
beyond setting the board for public
debate it plays the pieces.
Chanco, Taongan and Capuz (2013)
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
Theoretical Application:
THE PHILIPPINE CONTEXT
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
The Philippine Press shares a dual
history of resistance and
repression
(Coronel 1998, Teodoro 2001)
Theoretical Application:
THE PHILIPPINE CONTEXT
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
Having developed, changed and adapted to
centuries of colonial rule and two decades of
Martial Law, it boasts of its own samizdat
tradition, a legacy of generations of writers and
journalists who, having mastered the art of
underground publishing and trumping
government censors
Theoretical Application:
THE PHILIPPINE CONTEXT
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
UNDERGROUND JOURNALISTS
Theoretical Application:
THE PHILIPPINE CONTEXT
(Marcelo H. del Pilar) (Amado Hernandez)
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
1986. As anti-administration papers
published damning investigative reports of
corruption, human rights violations, and
electoral fraud by the Marcos regime and
the Catholic radio station Veritas aired
frequent reports of ensuing nationwide
protests, the press was instrumental in the
events leading up to EDSA II.
Theoretical Application:
THE PHILIPPINE CONTEXT
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
The Agenda was set: the End of a Dictatorship. Journalists
relished in their new-found freedom. The shift in Agenda
accompanied a shift in ownership. Having no real tradition
of public broadcasting, practically all forms of mainstream
media, from newspapers to radio, had been in private
commercial hands, triggering a reversion to the American
Model and its bottom-line fixation on advertising and
subscription profits now freed from the restraints of Martial
Law (Teodoro 2001).
Theoretical Application:
THE PHILIPPINE CONTEXT
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
Years following the 1986 Revolution, the initial
explosion of post-dictatorship media
organizations died down with increasingly
prohibitive capital costs.
Journalist-owned and run papers like the
Philippine Daily Inquirer and Ang Pahayagang
Malaya were eventually sold off to more
established entrepreneurs (Coronel 1998).
Theoretical Application:
THE PHILIPPINE CONTEXT
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
The once-vibrant era of relatively independent
newspapers, television shows, and radio stations
playing each other out in a truly competitive
market shriveled up once the industry came to
be dominated by a few influential families
often with vested interests in business or
politics.
Theoretical Application:
THE PHILIPPINE CONTEXT
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
Today, public service has given way to a
new Agenda crime, celebrity gossip,
showbiz.
These are ISSUES otherwise deemed safe
and that sell.
Theoretical Application:
THE PHILIPPINE CONTEXT
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
The slogan of objectivity is itself often a cover for the
unwillingness to dig the dirt or rock the boat through
solid investigative reporting. Stories deemed too
controversial or threatening to the status quo are
deliberately softened up or shot down (Chua & Vinia
1998, Coronel 1998).
Theoretical Application:
THE PHILIPPINE CONTEXT
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
The rule now is that if news does not make
money, then it must be retooled and repackaged
until it does.
Coronel (2001)
Theoretical Application:
THE PHILIPPINE CONTEXT
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
Example
Bulatlat- was a fledgling project of left-leaning
journalists, activists, and college professors
including the Danilo Arao, Sonny Africa, Benjie
Oliveros, Ronalyn Olea and Bobby Tuazon.
Born in the aftermath of EDSA II and the ouster of the
Estrada administration in 2001
Bulatlat.com asserts itself as a viable alternative to
the mainstream press, securing most of its funding
from donations under the slogans support
progressive journalism and journalism for the
people.
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
AGENDA SET
labor unions
womens groups
non-government organizations
civil society
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
-end-
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Playing the Pieces: Agenda-Setting and the Philippine Press by Chanco, CJ et.al, January 21, 2013
Anderson, James. 2008. Public Policymaking. Houghton-Mifflin.
Cobb, Roger and Charles D. Elder. 1983. What is an Issue? What Makes an Issue? In Participation in American Politics: the Dynamics of
Agenda Building, 82-93. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Kingdom, John. 1996. Agendas, alternatives, and public policies. New York: Harper Collins. (originally published in 1984). Chapters 1 and 2.
Mintrom, Michael. 1997. Policy Entrepreneurs and the Diffusion of Innovation. American Journal of Political Science, 41(3): 738-770.
Mintrom, Michael and Sandra Vergari. 1996. Advocacy Coalitions, Policy Entrepreneurs and Policy Change.Policy Studies Journal, 24:420-
38.
Portz, John. 1996. Problem Definitions and Policy Agendas: Shaping the Educational Agenda in Boston.Policy Studies Journal, 24: 371-86.
Sabatier, Paul A. 2007. The Need for Better Theories. In Theories of the Policy Process. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.
Zahariadis, Nikolaos. 2007. The Multiple Streams Framework. In Theories of the Policy Process, 2
nd
ed. Paul A. Sabatier, ed. Chapter 3.
Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.
Chua, Yvonne T. and Vinia M. Datinguinoo. 1998. The Media as Marketplace. In C. F. Hofilea
(ed.), News for Sale: The Corruption of the Philippine Media, 90-109. Quezon City: Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism.
Coronel, S. S. (1998). Media ownership and control in the Philippines. Media Development. Retrieved from
http://wacc.org.uk/modules.php?name=News&file=print&sid=479
Coronel, S.S. (2001). The Media,The Market and Democracy: The Case of the Philippines. The Public, 109-125.
Coronel, S.S. () The Role of the Media in Deepening Democracy.
http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/un/unpan010194.pdf
Corpuz, O. D. 1989. The Roots of the Filipino Nation, Vol. II. Quezon City: Aklahi Foundation.
Kleinnijenhuis, J. & Rietberg, E.M. (1995). Parties, media, the public and the economy: Patterns of societal agenda-setting. European journal
of political research: official journal of the European Consortium for Political Research, 28(1),95-118
McCombs, M.E. (1972). Mass Communication in Political Campaigns: Information, Gratification and Persuasion. In: Kline, F. & Tichenor, Ph.J.
(Eds.) Current Perspectives in Mass Communication Research. Beverly Hills, CA.: Sage.
Russel Ann L. Rica, MPA Student, Ateneo de
Davao University