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Historical and

Geographic Skills
SOL WH 1.1
Collection of Information
Before history was written down,
only physical evidence could be
collected through burial grounds
and ruins of old settlements.
Physical evidence, called artifacts,
are collected by archeologists.

Collection of Information
These artifacts can be dated using
a process called carbon dating.
Once prehistory ends, both written
and physical sources can be
collected and studied. (prehistory
is the time period before things
were written down)

Primary vs. Secondary sources
Primary sources: these are
documents written during the time
being studied; for example: birth
certificates, land deeds, texts of
speeches, letters, military orders,
diaries

Primary vs. Secondary sources
Secondary sources: these are
documents written after the time
being studied; for example:
historians own writings and
textbooks

Using Sources
Historians study the primary sources
and artifacts to interpret what
happened during that time period.
They can use pottery, sculptures,
weapons and buildings to infer what
life was like during the time period they
are studying.

Are maps created without bias?
Definition: Bias

A partiality that
prevents
objective
consideration of
an issue
A cartographer sees the world
through the lens of her own
consciousness.
Cartographers are mapmakers, their
perspective influences
the design of the map.
Using Maps, Globes, Artifacts
and Pictures
Maps show geographic information used
to explain and show locations.
All maps have distortion, which occurs
when a globe (3D) is flattened into a map
(2D). Landmasses and water can become
bigger or smaller than they really are.
Projection is a way of recording the round
earth on to a flat piece of paper.
Mercator Map
Used for ship navigation because it
shows true direction and shape.
Landmasses at high latitudes are
shown larger in size than they really
are.
Landmasses in lower latitudes may
appear smaller than they really are.
Robinson Map
Used for data representation.
Shows the correct size of landmasses
in relation to other landmasses.
Distorts both shape and direction.
Parts of a Map
Legend
Also called a map
key.
A guide to the
symbols used on a
map.
Compass Rose
Helps you find directions on
a map.
Displays the compass
directions - north, south, east
and west.
Also helps you to determine
the orientation of a map.
(Which way is north, south,
east and west.)
Runs Measures
Also
known as
Range Main Line
Latitude
East and
West
Distance
North and
South of
the
Equator
Parallels
90 degrees
North (North
Pole) to 90
degrees
South (South
Pole)
Equator -
(Northern
and Southern
Hemispheres
)
Longitude
North
and
South
Distance
east and
west of
the Prime
Meridian
Meridians
180 degrees
west to 180
degrees east
Prime
Meridian
(Eastern and
Western
Hemispheres
)
Four Main Types of Maps
Political Maps
Shows boundaries of countries,
states, counties, etc. and some
other human-made features such
as cities and towns.
There are political maps.
Physical Maps
Shows the surface features of the
land and bodies of water usually with
elevation data and water depth.
Thematic Maps
A map that shows a specific type
of information, such as the
distribution of world religions, the
location of natural resources, or
other data about the earth.
World Population Map
Population Density Map
Historical Map
These show change over time.
Tools located on historical maps are
called crosshatching and shading, they
are used to identify civilizations, areas
of conflict, and movement.
A 1482 C.E.
world map based
on Ptolemys
Geography (150 C.E.)
The Indian Ocean appears as a
lake and the cities of the
Middle East are the center of
the map.
1270.
A portolan map was
used by sailors. The
first known portolan
map was made
around.

A portolan map was focused
on the seas, ports, coves, and
sailing distances.
It was primarily used for sea
navigation. Therefore, it did
not focus on interior features.
Technologies that
influenced
Map-Making (Cartography)
&
Exploration
Of course, the compass, a Chinese
invention of its golden age, entered
Western Europe in the 1200s. It
increased European opportunities
for exploration.
The compass revolutionized sea travel.
Since its needle always pointed in the
same direction, a navigator could keep
his course without consulting the
position of the sun or stars.
Maps help historians visualize where
people lived and traveled.
Some geographic landmarks like
deserts, mountains, rivers and oceans
help to explain why people lived in
certain areas.
Most major civilizations are found
near water because there is more
access to food and travel/trade routes.

Reflection Questions
o Who and how do historians uncover information
about the past?
o How do we know the age of artifacts and how to
create historical periods?
o Explain the difference between prehistory and
history?
o What is the purpose of maps?
o What is the difference between a map and a
picture?