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Engineering 138

Design of Civil Engineering Structures


LECTURE 5– Analysis of Tension
Members

EN138
Fall 2002
Lecture 5 Outline
• Types of tension members
• Limit states for design
• Net areas
• Staggered holes
• Effective net area and shear lag
• Block Shear

EN138
Fall 2002
Types of Tension Members
• Typical tension members in buildings
• Truss diagonals
• Columns in uplift
• Bracing members
• Suspension cables

• Typical shapes used for tension members

EN138
Fall 2002
Limit States for Design
• Two key limit states
– Yielding in the gross section
– Fracture in the net section where holes exist

Tension

“gross section” “net section”


Reduced area
at bolt holes EN138
Fall 2002
Limit States for Design
• Yielding of the “gross” section
– Can support load after yield due to strain hardening, but
excessive elongation would result
– Nominal strength = Pn = FyAg
– Ultimate strength = Pu = φtPn
– Pu=φtFyAg with φt=0.9

Pu

Yield in this entire area causes excessive elongation


EN138
Fall 2002
Limit States for Design
• Fracture in the “net” section
– May control if bolt holes are large
– Pn=FuAe
– Pu=φ tFuAe with φt=0.75
– NOTE: Yielding of net section not considered since
this area is usually short in length compared to the
overall length
Pu

Fracture in reduced section


EN138
Fall 2002
Net Areas
• Gross cross section area minus any holes, notches, or other
indentations
• Standard Bolt holes punched 1/16” larger than actual bolt
to allow for insertion, also assume 1/16” additional size for
damage around hole from punching (so add 1/8” to bolt
diameter)
3/4” bolt (typ)
3/8” Plate
8” (typ)

Net area = An = (3/8”)*(8”) – 2*(3/4” + 1/8”)*(3/8”) = 2.34 in2


EN138
Fall 2002
Effect of Staggered Holes
• Holes are often staggered to increase net area
B E D

C
g
B
A
A s

Failure planes: Failure planes:


AB ABE An = Ag – 1 hole
ABCD An = ???

EN138
Fall 2002
Effect of Staggered Holes
• Actual area stressed is combination of tension and
shear between holes
• Use empirical formula to estimate net area in
tension for staggered holes (per LRFD Section
B2)
E D An = Ag – (Ahole + s2/4g)

C Add (s2/4g) for each diagonal


g
B line in the failure section

A
s
EN138
Fall 2002
Effect of Staggered Holes
• Example Determine the net area:
¾” bolts Ahole = (¾” + 1/8”) = 7/8”
A

B 2.5” ABCD = 11”-2*(7/8”) = 9.25”


3”
ABCEF = 11”-3*(7/8”) +
C
3” (32/(4*3)) = 9.125”
E
D F 2.5”
ABEF = 11” –2*(7/8”) +
3” (32/(4*6)) = 9.625”
½” plate
So An = (9.125”)*(1/2”) = 4.56 in2

EN138
Fall 2002
Effective Net Area
• Entire net area may not be engaged if tensile stress
cannot be uniformly transferred between members

Pu
Pu

“shear lag” transition region,


area is not 100% effective in
transfer of tensile stresses EN138
Fall 2002
Effective Net Area
• Use a reduction factor U to account for
nonuniform stress distribution in shear lag region
Ae=AU (LRFD Equation B3-1)
A = net area or gross area
U = reduction factor (for bolted or welded conn)
L’
P

U factor effectively
reduces the length L
L
of a connection to L’
EN138
Fall 2002
Effective Net Area
• For bolted members:
U = 1- x/L < 0.9
L’
Pu
x

Centroid of beam
Centroid of “Tee”
Centroid of lower “Tee”
x
x
EN138
Fall 2002
Effective Net Area
• U factors for design
• Permissible U Values for bolted connections
– U=0.90 W,M,S shapes with flange widths not less than
2/3 of the depths, T’s cut from these shapes, provided
no fewer than three fasteners per line
– U = 0.85 W,M,S shapes not meeting conditions above,
but with at least three fasteners per line
– U=0.75 All members having only two fasteners per
line in the direction of stress

EN138
Fall 2002
Block Shear
• Tension on one plane and shear on perpendicular
plane can cause a “block” of steel to tear out
Shear plane

Shaded area
can tear out Tension plane
in “block shear”
Shear plane Tension plane

EN138
Fall 2002
Block Shear
• AISC Specification J5.2 for Block Shear:
• Total Block Shear Resistance = shear resistance
on shear-failure path + tensile resistance on
perpendicular path
– Use the ultimate strength in shear (or tension) on the
net section
– Use the yield strength in tension (or shear) on the gross
section of the perpendicular section
Shear plane

Tension plane EN138


Fall 2002
Block Shear

0.75 ( 0.6 Fy Agv + Fu Ant )


 Use larger
φ Rn = 
0.75 ( 0.6 Fu Anv + Fy Agt )
value

where:
Agv = gross area in shear
Agt = gross area in tension
Anv = net area in shear
Ant = net area in tension
EN138
Fall 2002
Block Shear Example

7/8” bolts ½” plates

7”

3” Standard holes
1 ½” 1 ½”

Determine the ultimate block shear strength


of the connected plates (assume A36 steel) EN138
Fall 2002
Block Shear Example
1
2 Shear path 1-2:
Agv = 4 12 × 12 = 2.25 in 2
7” Anv =  4 12 − 1 12 ( 87 + 81 )  × 12 = 1.50 in 2
1
2 Tension path 2-2:
Agt = 7 × 12 = 3.50 in 2

1 ½”
3” Ant =  7 − 2 × ( 87 + 81 )  × 12 = 3.00 in 2

0.75 ( 0.6 × 36 × 2 × 2.25 + 58 × 3.00 ) = 203 kips


φ Rn = 
0.75 ( 0.6 × 58 × 2 × 1.5 + 36 × 3.50 ) = 173 kips
Choosing the larger value, we have:
φ Rn = 203 kips for block shear
EN138
Fall 2002