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Sulzer Chemtech

Internals
for packed columns
0699 2501
Introduction
This brochure provides an overview of Sulzer Chemtech Column In-
ternals, which have be developed in Sulzer Chemtechs extensive test
facility and used in commercial applications for many years. The fol-
lowing pages will provide you with detailed information on our inter-
nals for structured and random packings.
At Sulzer Chemtech, decades of design, construction and manufac-
turing experience are combined with on-going development and sta-
te-of-the-art production methods to guarantee you products of the
highest possible quality.
In order to comply with your specifc requirements, our sales engi-
neers and specialists will always be ready to discuss detail inquiries
with you personally.
We look forward to working with you to develop a customized
packed tower solution that will exceed your expectations.

Page

Introduction 2

Column types 3
Liquid distributors 4

Selection of liquid distributors 4

Splash-plate distributor VEP 5

Channel-type distributors VKG and VKR 6 7

Collector / distributor VS 8
Distributors for corrosive media 9 10
Distributors for further applications 11 13
Distributor hole size 14
Liquid collectors 15 16
Support and locating systems 17
Gas / Liquid inlet systems 18 19
Table of contents
2
Column type
When preparing column internals
specifcations, you must know
whether you will be using a fanged
column or a welded vessel. If your
column is a welded vessel, then you
must know the inside diameter of
the manhole.
Prior to beginning engineering of
your column and internals, Sulzer
Chemtech will verify with you the
overall column height, and the man-
hole inside diameter.
Flanged columns
Packings and internals are instal-
led through the column fange.
Welded vessel columns
Packing and segmental internals
are installed through manholes.
Internals for packed columns
3
0600 2508-4 0600 2508-2
200
100
1.0
0.5
f
0.25 0.8 4.0 8.0
50
:
20
Selection of liquid distributors
For every process application, Sul-
zer Chemtech can offer you a so-
lution ftted to your own particular
needs.
When selecting the optimal dis-
tributor, professional advice from
Sulzer Chemtechs specialists is
always valuable. Our decades of
experience and well-founded ex-
pertise make your distributor selec-
tion decisions easy.
Peak performance of your column
is achievable only if you precise-
ly match your column internals to
both your packings and their spe-
cifc process application.
The following chart shows a choice
of Sulzer Chemtech distributors to
match your own particular liquid
loading and column size. Sulzer
Chemtech specialists will help you
select just the right liquid distributor
for your process application.
These distributors are suitable for most applications. For very diffcult applications, Sulzer Chemtech can provide
customdesigned distributors that will ft your specifc requirements.
Liquid distributors
Column diameter (m)
S
p
e
c
i
f
c

l
i
q
u
i
d

l
o
a
d

(
m
3
/
m
2
h
)
1)
Can be supplied in a fanged version, also for diameters > 0,8 m
Collector/distributor, VS
Channel-type distributor, VKG
Channel-type distributor
Low-liquid load distributor,
VKRPW
1
)
Splash-plate distributor, VEPW
Splash-plate distributor, VEP
High-liquid
load distributor, VKH/VEH
VKG1) VKR1)
4
0600 2512-3
0600 2503-3
0600 2507-2
0600 2507-6
Midget load distributor VEPK
Specications
Diameter > 0.8 m
Liquid load 0.5 to 30 m
3
/m
2
h VEPW: 0.1 to 1.0 m
3
/m
2
h
Drip-point density 40 to 200 drip points per m
2

Turndown ratio 3:1 max.
Gas load F-factor up to 4.5 Pa
1/2

Sensitivity to contamination Slight
Construction details Can be levelled by a device supported on the packing
Special note If required, this distributor can be constructed as a self-supporting unit
(e.g. for use with random packings)
Splash-plate distributor VEP
The splash-plate distributor VEP
is Sulzer Chemtechs most widely
used distributor.
Its patented discharge system has
several advantages:
Fewer lateral holes, due to the sprea-
ding effect of the splash-plate.
Larger hole diameters than conven-
tional discharge systems.
Anti-plugging, due to large holes
and the lateral discharge of liquid.
The feed liquid is pre-distributed at
a precisely controlled rate from a
main channel (mounted above) into
the individual arm channels.
Splash-plate distributor VEPW
For low liquid fow rates, the special
splash-plate distributor VEPW is
used to accommodate liquid loads
as low as 0.1 m
3
/m
2
h.
Low pressure drop and no entrain-
ment up to F 4.5 Pa
0.5
Liquid distributors
Discharge system VEP
5
0600 2514
0600 2503-3
Channel-type distributor with
bottom holes VKG
The channel-type distributor VKG
has been successfullly used for
many years in columns up to 2 m
diameter.
It is one piece distributor with in-
tegral channels attached, suitable
for installation through a remo-
vable head of a vessel. A segmental
version can be installed through a
manhole in larger vessels.
The liquid is fed into a large center
channel, then distributed through
holes in the individual channel bot-
tom onto the packing. The VKG dis-
tributor is not recommended at low
liquid loads when suspended solids
are present.
Discharge system VKG
Liquid distributors
Specications
Diameter 0.25 to 2.0 m; fanged design above 0.8 m
Liquid load 1 to 100 m
3
/m
2
h
Drip-point density 40 to 200 drip points per m
2

Turndown ratio 3:1 max.
Gas load F-factor up to 4.5 Pa
1/2

Sensitivity to contamination At low liquid loads
Construction details Can be levelled by means of locating or suspension device
Special note In addition, a pre-distribution system is used at high liquid loads and
larger column diameters
6
0600 2507-7
0600 2507-6
VKR Discharge system VKRPW
Liquid distributors
Specications
Diameter > 0.25 m
Liquid load 1 to 20 m
3
/m
2
h for VKR; 0.05 to 1 m
3
/m
2
h for VKRPW
Drip-point density 40 to 200 drip points per m
2

Turndown ratio 3:1 max.; multiple-stage distributor, 10:1
Gas load F-factor up to 5 Pa
1/2
for VKR; up to 3.5 for Pa
1/2
for VKRPW


Sensitivity to contamination Slight
Construction details Can be levelled by means of locating or suspension device
Special note The low-liquid load distributor is constructed in diameters up to 4 m
7
Channel-type distributor with
lateral tubes VKR
The channel-type distributor VKR
resembles the distributor VKG ex-
cept that it uses tubes at the side
of the channels rather than holes in
the channel bottom to distribute the
liquid onto the packing. This fea-
ture makes the distributor VKR less
susceptible to plugging.
The multiple-stage version is able to
handle broad liquid loading ranges,
up to 10:1. The range of liquid loa-
ding must be carefully considered
when designing a distributor VKR.
Low-liquid load distributor
VKRPW
For extremely low-liquid loads, the
special channel distributor VKR-
PW is used to accommodate liquid
loads as low as 0.05 m
3
/m
2
h. Its has
a supplemental liquid distribution
system beneath each tube to dis-
tribute extremely low liquid volume
evenly to the packing.
0601 2503
0601 2501 0600 2507-10
Collector / distributor VS
The collector/distributor VS is used
whenever collection and redistribu-
tion of liquid is required at very high
liquid loads. It resembles a chimney
tray; however the chimney arrange-
ment is custom designed for your
applications liquid distribution and
pressure drop requirements.
For moderate liquid loads applica-
tions, where liquid mixing is impor-
tant, a separate accumulator tray
must collect the liquid and feed it to
a liquid distributor located below it.
Liquid distributors
8
Specications
Diameter 0.25 - 8.0 m
Liquid load >30 m
3
/m
2
h
Drip-point density 40 to 160 drip points per m
2

Turndown ratio 3:1 max.
Gas load F-factor up to 3 Pa
1/2

Sensitivity to contamination Slight
Construction details Tray construction, bolted and supported on ring with chimney types
corresponding to hydraulic requirements
Special note Truss supports are used in large column diameters
0600 2512-3
Plastic distributor
The bottom-hole distributor VEG
and the channel-type distributor
VKR are available in PP, PVDF, PVC,
and other plastic materials.
The maximum operating tempera-
ture is 60 to 100
o
C depending on
plastic material.
Graphite distributor VSTG
The one-piece distributor VSTG is
constructed of graphite for use in
highly corrosive environments. It
uses tubes with lateral outlets to
distribute the liquid onto the pa-
cking. It is installed in fanged co-
lumn only.
Graphite distributors VSTG can be
used to collect and redistribute li-
quids between packed sections.
Liquid distributors for corrosive media
Specications
Diameter 0.25 - 6 m
Liquid load 1 - 20 m
3
/m
2
h
Drip-point density 80 to 200 drip points per m
2

Turndown ratio 3:1 max.; multiple-stage, 10:1
Gas load F-factor up to 4.5 Pa
1/2

Sensitivity to contamination Slight for VKR
Construction details Supported on the packing
9
Specications
Diameter 0.25 - 1.6 m
Liquid load 1 to 20 m
3
/m
2
h
Drip-point density 40 to 160 drip points per m
2

Turndown ratio 3:1 max., multiple-stage, 10:1
Gas load F-factor up to 3 Pa
1/2

Sensitivity to contamination Slight
Construction details Supported on the packing
0600 2503-7
0600 2512-1
Glass distributor VRGG
The distributor VRGG is made of glass
for use in small columns. The paten-
ted closed tube discharge system
has special outlets on the under-
side of the distribution tubes to dis-
tribute the liquid onto the packing.
It is a one-piece distributor that can
be installed through a column fange
by following the prescribed installa-
tion procedures.
Liquid distributors for corrosive media
Specications
Diameter 0.25 - 1.2 m
Liquid load 1 to 20 m
3
/m
2
h
Drip-point density 40 to 200 drip points per m
2

Turndown ratio 3:1 max.
Gas load F-factor up to 4.5 Pa
1/2

Sensitivity to contamination High
Construction details Supported on the packing
10
0600 2511-3
Spray nozzle distributor VRD
The spray nozzle distributor VRD is
specially designed for and used in
refnery and scrubber columns. Pro-
per spray nozzle selection is crucial
to the operation of your columns.
Sulzer Chemtech specialists will
help you chose from a variety of full-
cone, axial, and tangential nozzles
to customize your spray patterns to
your specifc applications require-
ments.
Midget load distributor VEPK
This distributor is applied for very
low liquid loads < 100 l/m
2
h
The orifces are placed in sidewalls
to allow catching of sinking dirt.
High-liquid load
distributor VKH/VEH
The distributor VKH is used for
high liquid loads, e.g. greater than
20 m
3
/m
2
h. This is an excellent non-
plugging distributor. The liquid is
discharged laterally from rectangu-
lar channels onto the packing.
Liquid distributors for further applications
11
0600 2511-6
0609 2500-5
0609 2500-3

Bottom-hole distributor VEG
The distributor VEG resembles the
widely used splash-plate distribu-
tor VEP. The difference is that the
li quid is discharged through holes
in the channel bottoms rather than
laterally against a vertical baffe. It
is not recommended for liquids con-
taining solids.
Lateral distributor VER
The liquid is discharged laterally
and guided by conducting elements
to the packing surface.
The distributor allows high vapor
loads F > 5 Pa
1/2
.
Tube distributor VRG
The distributor is non sensitive on
moving conditions like columns
operated off shore or on vessels. Li-
quid is discharged from the under-
side of the tubes. This distributor is
not suited for liquids containing so-
lids or contamination.
Liquid distributors for further applications
12
0600 2511-5
0609 2500-3
0600 2503-6
Extraction distributor VRX
The distributor VRX is a two-stage
distributor for use in packed liquid-
liquid extraction columns. Its spe-
cial design, specifc for continuous
and dispersed phase, prevents emul-
sions from occurring, even when
surface tensions are low.
Radial distributor VFS
The distributor VFS was developed
and especially designed for emul-
sions and liquids with high solids
contents. It uses open, radial chan-
nels with defector plates to direct
the liquid onto the packing.
The distributor is a cost effcient so-
lution for applications where some-
what increased liquid maldis-tributi-
on can be tolerated.
Slotted distributor VES
The distributor VES is used to distri-
bute liquids containing catalyst re-
sidues. It uses open channels with
lateral slots and defector plates to
distribute the liquid.
Liquid distributors for further applications
13
0600 2503-8
0600 2502-1
0600 2511-1
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0
4
8
12
16
20
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
L (m
3
/m
2
h)
L (m
3
/m
2
h)
VD 80 VD 160 VD 200 VD 330
Outlet hole sizes in distributor channels
The following table enables the de-
termination of approximate distri-
butor channel hole sizes at normal
liquid loadings.
The hole size can be roughly deter-
mined in relation to the liquid load
and the required drip-point densi-
ty. The choice of drip-point density
must be made in accordance with
the specifc surface area of the pa-
cking used. Exact hole sizes will be
determined by Sulzer Chemtechs
specialists after all necessary para-
meters have been defned. In this
way your distributor will be con-f-
gured to match your application
and achieve optimal hydraulic con-
ditions.
Distributor test rig
All Sulzer Chemtech liquid distribu-
tor confgurations are routinely perfor-
mance tested in Sulzer Chemtechs
liquid distributor test rig prior to de-
livery. Minimum and maximum fow
rates measurements are always
performed. Surface area measure-
ments are possible, with the detec-
tion of standard deviations.
Liquid distributors
14
Distributor test rig
0600 2511-3
VEP splash-plate
Drip point density (VD) fgures con-
sider the distribution effect of the
splash-plate.
Hole sizes in other distributors
h
o
l
e

s
i
z
e

(
m
m
)
h
o
l
e

s
i
z
e

(
m
m
)
0600 2566-1
Vane collector SL
The collector SL is used as a sepa-
rate unit to accumulate liquids from
packed sections within a column.
This collector requires a ring chan-
nel welded to the column wall.
The pressure drop of this collector
is negligible.
Collector support grid SLT
The collector SLT combines a pa-
cking support grid with a vane coll-
ector. As a packing support, it can
support the direct load of packings
with surface areas up to 350 m
2
/m
3
.
For fner packings, additional drip
plates are used.
This non-welded collector SLT is
often used in applications where
space between packed beds is cri-
tical. This collector requires a sup-
port ring inside the column.
Collector SLF
The collector SLF is designed to be
installed between the column fanges
in smaller fanged columns.
Liquid collectors
15
0600 2509-2
0600 2509-1
0600 2509-4
Chimney tray collector SK
The collector SK is an established
and versatile accumulator tray de-
sign, available either as bolted or
sealwelded construction. It is gene-
rally used in large diameter columns
with high liquid loads.
Pressure drop is a function of the
type and confguration of the chim-
neys. Sulzer Chemtech specialists
can design your collector SK to
your process specifcations. Whe-
ther you need a total draw-off, a
fash tray, a gas distribution device,
or a unique chimney confguration,
the collector SK can be custom de-
signed to meet your specifc appli-
cation needs.
Liquid collectors
16
0600 2506-1
0600 2506-3 0600 2506-2
Support grids TEB / TSB
TEB and TSB are used with struc-
tured packings. Both require sup-
port rings to be welded to the co-
lumn wall. TEBs are grids for fan-
ged columns. The segmental grids
of the TSB pass through manholes
and are clamped together for con-
venient installation. The grid is a
non welded construction.
TEB and TSB support grids are ide-
al for applications requiring expen-
sive alloys.
Certain high performance packings
require additional drip plates.
Support grids TE / TS
TE and TS are intended for struc-
tured packings with surface area
over 350 m
2
/m
3
packing volume.
They are designed with drip plates
to prevent premature fooding of the
packing.
These support grids rest on support
rings or gussets welded to the co-
lumn shell. For columns over 3 m
ID, additional supports and major
beams may be required.
Random packing support grid
GIS / EMS
GIS and EMS are used with random
packings and serve as gas injection
trays to distribute the gas to bottom
layers of the packing. Both grids
have an open cross sectional area
of 0%, GIS and EMS differ only in
their overall height.
EMS is used in small column up to
1.2 m diameter. GIS is used in larger
diameter columns.
Retaining grid for random
packings RPB
Retaining grids, consisting of wire
mesh welded to the underside of
grid frames, are required above
random packing beds. Such grids
may be either suspended from a li-
quid distributor above it or bolted to
a support ring welded to the column
wall.
Support and locating systems
17
0600 2513-5
0600 2513-2
0600 2513-4
0600 2513-6
GDP
Splash plate inlet
When preparing column specifca-
tions, the method of feeding the
column, drawing off liquids, and re-
moving gases must not be over-loo-
ked. They are as important as se-
lecting of the optimum packing and
matching it to the proper internals
to get peak performance from your
packed column.
Owing to years of experience and
continuous development at Sulzer
Chemtech, we are always in a posi-
tion to offer you both standard gas
inlet systems and specialty tailored
solutions based on CFD studies.
GIV
Vane inlet
GIG
Tube inlet
GITV
Cyclon inlet
GD
Open inlet
CFD-simulations to analyse and
improve vapour distribution
Gas inlet systems
Gas inlet systems
18
0600 2505-2
0600 2505-4
0600 2505-3 0600 2505-1
0600 2505-5
Liquid inlet systems
LV inlet
100% liquid feeds to small diameter
columns
LV (2) inlet
100% liquid feeds to larger diameter
columns
LRR inlet
Super-heated liquid feeds
Liquid inlet systems
19
LRP inlet
Liquid feeds containing gases
0600 2504-2
0600 2504-4
0600 2504-3 0600 2504-1
Distributed by:
www.sulzer.com
Please check for your local contact
22.51.06.40 - V.13 - 20 - Printed in Switzerland
Legal Notice: The information contained in this publication is believed to be accurate and reliable, but is not to be construed as implying any
warranty or guarantee of performance. Sulzer Chemtech waives any liability and indemnity for effects resulting from its application.
The activity program comprises:
Process components such as fractionation trays, structured and ran-
dom packings, liquid and gas distributors, gas-liquid separators, and
internals for separation columns
Engineering services for separation and reaction technology such as
conceptual process design, feasibilities studies, plant optimizations in-
cluding process validation in the test center
Recovery of virtually any solvents used by the pharmaceutical and
chemical industry, or difcult separations requiring the combination of
special technologies, such as thin lm/short-path evaporation, distilla-
tion under high vacuum, liquid-liquid extraction, membrane technology
or crystallization.
Complete separation process plants, in particular modular plants
(skids)
Advanced polymerization technology for the production of PLA and
EPS
Tower eld services performing tray and packing installation, tower
maintenance, welding, and plant turnaround projects
Mixing and reaction technology with static mixers
Cartridge-based metering, mixing and dispensing systems, and dis-
posable mixers for reactive multi-component material
Sulzer Chemtech Ltd, a member of the Sulzer Corporation, with headquar-
ters in Winterthur, Switzerland, is active in the eld of process engineering
and employs some 4000 persons worldwide.
Sulzer Chemtech is represented in all important industrial countries and
sets standards in the eld of mass transfer and static mixing with its ad-
vanced and economical solutions.