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DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06
RP-!"#:
Fatigue design of offshore steel structures
DNV GL AS 2014-06
Any comments may be sent by e-mail to rules@dnvgl.com
!is se"#ice $oc%ment !as been &"e&a"e$ base$ on a#ailable 'no(le$)e* tec!nolo)y an$+o" in,o"mation at t!e time o, iss%ance o, t!is $oc%ment* an$ is belie#e$
to "e,lect t!e best o, contem&o"a"y tec!nolo)y- !e %se o, t!is $oc%ment by ot!e"s t!an DNV GL is at t!e %se".s sole "is'- DNV GL $oes not acce&t any liability
o" "es&onsibility ,o" loss o" $ama)es "es%ltin) ,"om any %se o, t!is $oc%ment-
F$R%&$RD
!e "ecommen$e$ &"actices lay $o(n so%n$ en)inee"in) &"actice an$ )%i$ance-
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!is $oc%ment s%&e"se$es DNV-RP-1200* 2ctobe" 2012-
e3t a,,ecte$ by t!e main c!an)es in t!is e$ition is !i)!li)!te$ in "e$ colo%"- 4o(e#e"* i, t!e c!an)es
2n 12 Se&tembe" 2010* DNV an$ GL me")e$ to ,o"m DNV GL G"o%&- 2n 25 No#embe" 2010 Det No"s'e
Ve"itas AS became t!e 1005 s!a"e!ol$e" o, Ge"manisc!e" Lloy$ S6* t!e &a"ent com&any o, t!e GL G"o%&*
an$ on 27 No#embe" 2010 Det No"s'e Ve"itas AS* com&any "e)ist"ation n%mbe" 845 749 801* c!an)e$ its
name to DNV GL AS- :o" ,%"t!e" in,o"mation* see (((-$n#)l-com- Any "e,e"ence in t!is $oc%ment to ;Det
No"s'e Ve"itas AS<* ;Det No"s'e Ve"itas<* ;DNV<* ;GL<* ;Ge"manisc!e" Lloy$ S6<* ;GL G"o%&< o" any ot!e"
le)al entity name o" t"a$in) name &"esently o(ne$ by t!e DNV GL G"o%& s!all t!e"e,o"e also be consi$e"e$
a "e,e"ence to ;DNV GL AS<-
in#ol#e a (!ole c!a&te"* section o" s%b-section* no"mally only t!e title (ill be in "e$ colo%"-
.ain changes
= Gene"al
> A n%mbe" o, mino" e$ito"ial c!an)es !a#e been ma$e s%c! as to co""ect e?%ation n%mbe"in)-
= Sec-2 :ati)%e Analysis @ase$ on S-N Data
> A2-4-0B: A section on t!ic'ness e,,ect ,o" b%tt (el$s an$ c"%ci,o"m Coints !as been a$$e$- !e t!ic'ness
e3&onent ,o" S-N class 1 an$ 11 !as been mo$i,ie$ in able 2-1 an$ able 2-2-
> A2-4-10B: ;S-N c%"#es ,o" &iles< !as been a$$e$- !e consec%ti#e te3t !as been "en%mbe"e$
acco"$in)ly-
> A2-5B: Absol%te si)ns !a#e been incl%$e$ in e?%ation D2-5-1E-
= Sec-0 St"ess 1oncent"ation :acto"s
> A0-0-0B: ;%b%la" Coints (el$e$ ,"om one si$e< !as been "e#ise$- Also t!e commenta"y section on t!is
&a"t !as been c!an)e$ an$ te3t (it! $esi)n e?%ations is a$$e$-
> A0-0-7B: A$$itional :i)%"e 0-11 b !as been incl%$e$ to $emonst"ate t!at t!e met!o$olo)y can also be
%se$ ,o" $o%ble si$e$ Coints- Some im&"o#ement o, te3t-
> A0-0-12B: !is section !as been "e#ise$ an$ a commenta"y section to t!is &a"t* AD-16B !as been a$$e$-
= Sec-4 1alc%lation o, !ot s&ot st"ess by ,inite element analysis
> A4-2B: !is section !as been amen$e$-
> A4-0-5B !as been "est"%ct%"e$ to incl%$e &"e#io%s 4-0-7-
> P"e#io%s 4-0-9 !as been "en%mbe"e$ to A4-0-7B-
> A4-0-9B: A ne( section on (eb sti,,ene$ c"%ci,o"m Coints is a$$e$ in t!e main section an$ in t!e
commenta"y* AD-16B-
= A&&-A 1lassi,ication o, St"%ct%"al Details
> 1!an)e in S-N classi,ication ma$e on lon)it%$inal (el$s in able A-8 $etail cate)o"y 2- Also in,o"mation
on "e?%i"ements to ND an$ acce&tance c"ite"ia is )i#en to)et!e" (it! a ne( section on t!is ,o"
in,o"mation in t!e commenta"y section-
= A&&-D 1ommenta"y
> Section 1ommenta"y AD-15B- !e slo&e o, t!e S-N c%"#e ,o" )"o%n$ (el$s !as been c!an)e$ ,"om
m F 4-0 to m F 0-5-
Gn a$$ition to t!e abo#e state$ main c!an)es* e$ito"ial co""ections may !a#e been ma$e-
%ditorial corrections
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$)T%)T+
14ANG6S / 1HRR6N -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 0
+ec./ 0ntroduction.................................................................................................. 1
/./ *eneral...................................................................................................1
/.! 2alidity of standard................................................................................1
1-2-1 Iate"ial ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7
1-2-2 em&e"at%"e ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------7
1-2-0 Lo( cycle an$ !i)! cycle ,ati)%e ------------------------------------------------------7
/.# .ethods for fatigue analysis ..................................................................1
/.3 Definitions..............................................................................................4
/.5 +ymbols .............................................................................................../"
+ec.! Fatigue analysis based on +-) data............................................................. /!
!./ 0ntroduction........................................................................................./!
!.! Fatigue damage accumulation............................................................../#
!.# Fatigue analysis methodology and calculation of stresses..................../3
2-0-1 Gene"al -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 14
2-0-2 Plate$ st"%ct%"es %sin) nominal st"ess S-N c%"#es ---------------------------- 14
2-0-0 Plate$ st"%ct%"es %sin) !ot s&ot st"ess S-N c%"#es---------------------------- 15
2-0-4 %b%la" Coints ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 15
2-0-5 :illet (el$s at c"%ci,o"m Coints ------------------------------------------------------- 17
2-0-6 :illet (el$s at $o%blin) &lates -------------------------------------------------------- 17
2-0-7 :illet (el$e$ bea"in) s%&&o"ts ------------------------------------------------------- 19
!.3 +-) curves............................................................................................/4
2-4-1 Gene"al -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 19
2-4-2 :ail%"e c"ite"ion in!e"ent t!e S-N c%"#es ----------------------------------------- 19
2-4-0 S-N c%"#es an$ Coint classi,ication -------------------------------------------------- 18
2-4-4 S-N c%"#es in ai"-------------------------------------------------------------------------- 20
2-4-5 S-N c%"#es in sea(ate" (it! cat!o$ic &"otection------------------------------- 22
2-4-6 S-N c%"#es ,o" t%b%la" Coints---------------------------------------------------------- 20
2-4-7 S-N c%"#es ,o" cast no$es ------------------------------------------------------------- 20
2-4-9 S-N c%"#es ,o" ,o")e$ no$es ---------------------------------------------------------- 24
2-4-8 S-N c%"#es ,o" ,"ee co""osion--------------------------------------------------------- 24
2-4-10 S-N c%"#es ,o" base mate"ial o, !i)! st"en)t! steel--------------------------- 24
2-4-11 S-N c%"#es ,o" stainless steel--------------------------------------------------------- 25
2-4-12 S-N c%"#es ,o" small $iamete" %mbilicals----------------------------------------- 25
2-4-10 S-N $ata ,o" &iles------------------------------------------------------------------------- 26
2-4-14 J%ali,ication o, ne( S-N c%"#es base$ on ,ati)%e test $ata ---------------- 26
!.5 .ean stress influence for non welded structures .................................!1
!.6 %ffect of fabrication tolerances.............................................................!1
!.1 Re7uirements to )D% and acceptance criteria......................................!1
!.4 Design chart for fillet and partial penetration welds ............................!4
!.8 9olts.....................................................................................................!8
2-8-1 Gene"al -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 28
2-8-2 @olts s%bCecte$ to tension loa$in) -------------------------------------------------- 28
2-8-0 @olts s%bCecte$ to s!ea" loa$in) ---------------------------------------------------- 28
!./" Pipelines and risers..............................................................................!8
2-10-1 St"esses at )i"t! (el$s in seam (el$e$ &i&es an$ S-N $ata --------------- 28
2-10-2 1ombine$ eccent"icity ,o" ,ati)%e analysis o, seamless &i&es-------------- 00
2-10-0 S1:s ,o" &i&es (it! inte"nal &"ess%"e ---------------------------------------------- 00
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s !.// *uidance to when a detailed fatigue analysis can be omitted...............#/
+ec.# +tress concentration factors ....................................................................... #!
#./ +tress concentration factors for plated structures................................#!
0-1-1 Gene"al -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 02
0-1-2 St"ess concent"ation ,acto"s ,o" b%tt (el$s -------------------------------------- 02
0-1-0 St"ess concent"ation ,acto"s ,o" c"%ci,o"m Coints------------------------------- 02
0-1-4 St"ess concent"ation ,acto"s ,o" "o%n$e$ "ectan)%la" !oles --------------- 00
0-1-5 St"ess concent"ation ,acto"s ,o" !oles (it! e$)e "ein,o"cement----------- 05
0-1-6 St"ess concent"ation ,acto"s ,o" scallo&s------------------------------------------ 06
#.! +tress concentration factors for ship details ........................................#1
#.# Tubular :oints and members.................................................................#1
0-0-1 St"ess concent"ation ,acto"s ,o" sim&le t%b%la" Coints ------------------------ 07
0-0-2 S%&e"&osition o, st"esses in t%b%la" Coints --------------------------------------- 07
0-0-0 %b%la" Coints (el$e$ ,"om one si$e ----------------------------------------------- 08
0-0-4 Sti,,ene$ t%b%la" Coints ----------------------------------------------------------------- 08
0-0-5 G"o%te$ t%b%la" Coints ------------------------------------------------------------------ 08
0-0-6 1ast no$es---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 40
0-0-7 %b%la" b%tt (el$ connections ------------------------------------------------------- 40
0-0-9 St"ess concent"ation ,acto"s ,o" sti,,ene$ s!ells-------------------------------- 46
0-0-8 St"ess concent"ation ,acto"s ,o" conical t"ansitions---------------------------- 47
0-0-10 St"ess concent"ation ,acto"s ,o" t%b%la"s s%bCecte$ to a3ial ,o"ce-------- 50
0-0-11 St"ess concent"ation ,acto"s ,o" Coints (it! s?%a"e sections---------------- 51
0-0-12 St"ess concent"ation ,acto"s ,o" Coints (it! )%sset &lates------------------- 52
+ec.3 alculation of hot spot stress by finite element analysis ............................. 5#
3./ *eneral.................................................................................................5#
3.! Tubular :oints.......................................................................................5#
3.# &elded connections other than tubular :oints......................................53
4-0-1 St"ess ,iel$ at a (el$e$ $etail -------------------------------------------------------- 54
4-0-2 :6 mo$ellin) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 55
4-0-0 De"i#ation o, st"ess at "ea$ o%t &oints 0-5 t an$ 1-5 t ----------------------- 56
4-0-4 De"i#ation o, !ot s&ot st"ess---------------------------------------------------------- 56
4-0-5 4ot s&ot S-N c%"#e----------------------------------------------------------------------- 57
4-0-6 De"i#ation o, e,,ecti#e !ot s&ot st"ess ,"om :6 analysis --------------------- 59
4-0-7 Ve"i,ication o, analysis met!o$olo)y----------------------------------------------- 59
4-0-9 P"oce$%"e ,o" analysis o, (eb sti,,ene$ c"%ci,o"m connections ------------ 61
4-0-8 Analysis o, (el$e$ &enet"ations ----------------------------------------------------- 65
+ec.5 +implified fatigue analysis .......................................................................... 61
5./ *eneral.................................................................................................61
5.! Fatigue design charts ...........................................................................64
5.# %;ample of use of design charts...........................................................1!
5.3 (nalysis of connectors..........................................................................1#
+ec.6 Fatigue analysis based on fracture mechanics ............................................ 13
+ec.1 0mprovement of fatigue life by fabrication.................................................. 15
1./ *eneral.................................................................................................15
1.! &eld profiling by machining and grinding ............................................15
1.# &eld toe grinding.................................................................................16
1.3 T0* dressing.........................................................................................11
1.5 'ammer peening..................................................................................11
+ec.4 %;tended fatigue life ................................................................................... 14
+ec.8 -ncertainties in fatigue life prediction ........................................................ 18
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s 8./ *eneral.................................................................................................18
8.! Re7uirements to in-service inspection for fatigue crac<s .....................4!
+ec./" References .................................................................................................. 4#
(pp. ( lassification of structural details ............................................................... 41
(./ )on-welded details ............................................................................. 41
(.! 9olted connections.............................................................................. 44
(.# ontinuous welds essentially parallel to the direction of
applied stress...................................................................................... 48
(.3 0ntermittent welds and welds at cope holes........................................ 8/
(.5 Transverse butt welds= welded from both sides .................................. 8!
(.6 Transverse butt welds= welded from one side ..................................... 85
(.1 &elded attachments on the surface or the edge of a stressed
member............................................................................................... 86
(.4 &elded :oints with load carrying welds............................................. /""
(.8 'ollow sections ................................................................................. /"#
(./" Details relating to tubular members.................................................. /"6
(pp. 9 +F>s for tubular :oints.............................................................................. /"4
9./ +tress concentration factors for simple tubular :oints and
overlap :oints .................................................................................... /"4
(pp. +F>s for penetrations with reinforcements .............................................. //8
./ +F>s for small circular penetrations with reinforcement .................. //8
.! +F>s at man-hole penetrations......................................................... /35
.# Results .............................................................................................. /36
(pp. D ommentary.............................................................................................. /6"
D./ omm. /.!.# ?ow cycle and high cycle fatigue................................... /6"
D.! omm. /.# .ethods for fatigue analysis............................................ /6/
D.# omm. !.! ombination of fatigue damages from two dynamic
processes .......................................................................................... /6!
D.3 omm. !.#.! Plated structures using nominal stress +-) curves ....... /6#
D.5 omm. !.3.# +-) curves and :oint classification................................ /63
D.6 omm. !.3.8 +-) curves and efficiency of corrosion protection......... /64
D.1 omm. !.3./3 @ualification of new +-) curves based on fatigue
test data............................................................................................ /68
D.4 omm. !./".# +Fs for pipes with internal pressure ......................... /16
D.8 omm. #.# +tress concentration factors............................................ /18
D./" omm. #.#.# Tubular :oints welded from one side ............................ /18
D.// omm. 3./ The application of the effective notch stress method for
fatigue assessment of structural details............................................ /4!
D./! omm. 3.#.1 2erification of analysis methodology for F% hot spot
stress analysis................................................................................... /45
D./# omm. 5 +implified fatigue analysis.................................................. /8#
D./3 omm. !./"./ +tresses at girth welds in pipes and +-) data............. /86
D./5 omm. 1. 0mprovement of fatigue life by fabrication ........................ /84
D./6 omm. #.#./!.................................................................................... /88
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+%T0$) / 0)TR$D-T0$)
/./ *eneral
!is Recommen$e$ P"actice &"esents "ecommen$ations in "elation to ,ati)%e analyses base$ on ,ati)%e
tests an$ ,"act%"e mec!anics- 1on$itions ,o" t!e #ali$ity o, t!e Recommen$e$ P"actice a"e )i#en in section
A1-2B-
!e aim o, ,ati)%e $esi)n is to ens%"e t!at t!e st"%ct%"e !as an a$e?%ate ,ati)%e li,e- 1alc%late$ ,ati)%e
li#es also ,o"m t!e basis ,o" e,,icient ins&ection &"o)"ammes $%"in) ,ab"ication an$ t!e o&e"ational li,e o,
t!e st"%ct%"e-
o ens%"e t!at t!e st"%ct%"e (ill ,%l,il its inten$e$ ,%nction* a ,ati)%e assessment* s%&&o"te$ (!e"e
a&&"o&"iate by a $etaile$ ,ati)%e analysis* s!o%l$ be ca""ie$ o%t ,o" eac! in$i#i$%al membe"* (!ic! is
s%bCecte$ to ,ati)%e loa$in)- See also section A2-11B- Gt s!o%l$ be note$ t!at any element o" membe" o, t!e
st"%ct%"e* e#e"y (el$e$ Coint an$ attac!ment o" ot!e" ,o"m o, st"ess concent"ation* is &otentially a so%"ce
o, ,ati)%e c"ac'in) an$ s!o%l$ be in$i#i$%ally consi$e"e$-
/.! 2alidity of standard
1-2-1 Iate"ial
!is Recommen$e$ P"actice is #ali$ ,o" steel mate"ials in ai" (it! yiel$ st"en)t! less t!an 860 IPa- :o" steel
mate"ials in sea(ate" (it! cat!o$ic &"otection o" steel (it! ,"ee co""osion t!e Recommen$e$ P"actice is
#ali$ %& to 550 IPa-
!is Recommen$e$ P"actice is also #ali$ ,o" bolts in ai" en#i"onment o" (it! &"otection co""es&on$in) to
t!at con$ition o, )"a$es %& to 10-8* ASI A480 o" e?%i#alent-
!is Recommen$e$ P"actice may be %se$ ,o" stainless steel-
1-2-2 em&e"at%"e
!is Recommen$e$ P"actice is #ali$ ,o" mate"ial tem&e"at%"es o, %& to 1001- :o" !i)!e" tem&e"at%"es t!e
,ati)%e "esistance $ata may be mo$i,ie$ (it! a "e$%ction ,acto" )i#en as:
(!e"e is )i#en in 1 DDe"i#e$ ,"om ,i)%"e in GGK $oc%ment LGG-1865-00+LV-1127-00E- :ati)%e "esistance
is %n$e"stoo$ to mean st"en)t! ca&acity- !e "e$%ce$ "esistance in t!e S-N c%"#es can be $e"i#e$ by a
mo$i,ication o, t!e as:
1-2-0 Lo( cycle an$ !i)! cycle ,ati)%e
!is Recommen$e$ P"actice !as been &"o$%ce$ (it! t!e &%"&ose o, assessin) ,ati)%e $ama)e in t!e !i)!
cycle "e)ion- See also A&&-D* 1ommenta"y-
/.# .ethods for fatigue analysis
!e ,ati)%e analysis s!o%l$ be base$ on S-N $ata* $ete"mine$ by ,ati)%e testin) o, t!e consi$e"e$ (el$e$
$etail* an$ t!e linea" $ama)e !y&ot!esis- K!en a&&"o&"iate* t!e ,ati)%e analysis may alte"nati#ely be base$
on ,"act%"e mec!anics- G, t!e ,ati)%e li,e estimate base$ on S-N $ata is s!o"t ,o" a com&onent (!e"e a
,ail%"e may lea$ to se#e"e conse?%ences* a mo"e acc%"ate in#esti)ation consi$e"in) a la")e" &o"tion o, t!e
st"%ct%"e* o" a ,"act%"e mec!anics analysis* s!o%l$ be &e",o"me$- :o" calc%lations base$ on ,"act%"e
mec!anics* it s!o%l$ be $oc%mente$ t!at t!e"e is a s%,,icient time inte"#al bet(een time o, c"ac' $etection
$%"in) in-se"#ice ins&ection an$ t!e time o, %nstable ,"act%"e-
D1-2-1E
D1-2-2E
2 6 3
T
T 10 372 . 1 T 10 239 . 0 0376 . 1 R

=
a log
T RT
R Log m a Log a Log + =
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All si)ni,icant st"ess "an)es* (!ic! cont"ib%te to ,ati)%e $ama)e* s!o%l$ be consi$e"e$- !e lon) te"m
$ist"ib%tion o, st"ess "an)es may be ,o%n$ by $ete"ministic o" s&ect"al analysis* see also "e,- +1+- Dynamic
e,,ects s!all be $%ly acco%nte$ ,o" (!en establis!in) t!e st"ess !isto"y- A ,ati)%e analysis may be base$ on
an e3&ecte$ st"ess !isto"y* (!ic! can be $e,ine$ as e3&ecte$ n%mbe" o, cycles at eac! st"ess "an)e le#el
$%"in) t!e &"e$icte$ li,e s&an- A &"actical a&&lication o, t!is is to establis! a lon) te"m st"ess "an)e !isto"y
t!at is on t!e sa,e si$e- !e &a"t o, t!e st"ess "an)e !isto"y cont"ib%tin) most si)ni,icantly to t!e ,ati)%e
$ama)e s!o%l$ be most ca"e,%lly e#al%ate$- See also A&&-D* 1ommenta"y* ,o" )%i$ance-
Gt s!o%l$ be note$ t!at t!e s!a&e &a"amete" ! in t!e Keib%ll $ist"ib%tion !as a si)ni,icant im&act on
calc%late$ ,ati)%e $ama)e- :o" e,,ect o, t!e s!a&e &a"amete" on ,ati)%e $ama)e see also $esi)n c!a"ts in
:i)%"e 5-1 an$ :i)%"e 5-2- !%s* (!en t!e ,ati)%e $ama)e is calc%late$ base$ on close$ ,o"m sol%tions (it!
an ass%m&tion o, a Keib%ll lon) te"m st"ess "an)e $ist"ib%tion* a s!a&e &a"amete" to t!e sa,e si$e s!o%l$
be %se$-
/.3 Definitions
Classified structural detail: A st"%ct%"al $etail containin) a st"%ct%"al $iscontin%ity incl%$in) a (el$ o" (el$s*
,o" (!ic! t!e nominal st"ess a&&"oac! is a&&licable* an$ (!ic! a&&ea" in t!e tables o, t!is Recommen$e$
P"actice- Also "e,e""e$ to as stan$a"$ st"%ct%"al $etail-
Constant amplitude loading: A ty&e o, loa$in) ca%sin) a "e)%la" st"ess ,l%ct%ation (it! constant ma)nit%$es
o, st"ess ma3ima an$ minima-
Crack propagation rate: Amo%nt o, c"ac' &"o&a)ation $%"in) one st"ess cycle-
Crack propagation threshold: Limitin) #al%e o, st"ess intensity ,acto" "an)e belo( (!ic! t!e st"ess cycles
a"e consi$e"e$ to be non-$ama)in)-
Eccentricity: Iisali)nment o, &lates at (el$e$ connections meas%"e$ t"ans#e"se to t!e &lates-
Effective notch stress: Notc! st"ess calc%late$ ,o" a notc! (it! a ce"tain e,,ecti#e notc! "a$i%s-
Fatigue deterioration o, a com&onent ca%se$ by c"ac' initiation an$+o" by t!e )"o(t! o, c"ac's-
Fatigue action: Loa$ e,,ect ca%sin) ,ati)%e-
Fatigue damage ratio: Ratio o, ,ati)%e $ama)e at consi$e"e$ n%mbe" o, cycles an$ t!e co""es&on$in)
,ati)%e li,e at constant am&lit%$e loa$in)-
Fatigue life: N%mbe" o, st"ess cycles at a &a"tic%la" ma)nit%$e "e?%i"e$ to ca%se ,ati)%e ,ail%"e o, t!e
com&onent-
Fatigue limit: :ati)%e st"en)t! %n$e" constant am&lit%$e loa$in) co""es&on$in) to a !i)! n%mbe" o, cycles
la")e eno%)! to be consi$e"e$ as in,inite by a $esi)n co$e-
Fatigue resistance: St"%ct%"al $etailMs "esistance a)ainst ,ati)%e actions in te"ms o, S-N c%"#e o" c"ac'
&"o&a)ation &"o&e"ties-
Fatigue strength: Ia)nit%$e o, st"ess "an)e lea$in) to &a"tic%la" ,ati)%e li,e-
Fracture mechanics: A b"anc! o, mec!anics $ealin) (it! t!e be!a#io%" an$ st"en)t! o, com&onents
containin) c"ac's-
Design Fatigue Factor: :acto" on ,ati)%e li,e to be %se$ ,o" $esi)n-
Geometric stress: See ;!ot s&ot st"ess<-
Hot spot: A &oint in st"%ct%"e (!e"e a ,ati)%e c"ac' may initiate $%e to t!e combine$ e,,ect o, st"%ct%"al
st"ess ,l%ct%ation an$ t!e (el$ )eomet"y o" a simila" notc!-
Hot spot stress: !e #al%e o, st"%ct%"al st"ess on t!e s%",ace at t!e !ot s&ot Dalso 'no(n as )eomet"ic st"ess
o" st"%ct%"al st"essE-
Local nominal stress: Nominal st"ess incl%$in) mac"o-)eomet"ic e,,ects* concent"ate$ loa$ e,,ects an$
misali)nments* $is"e)a"$in) t!e st"ess "aisin) e,,ects o, t!e (el$e$ Coint itsel,-
Local notch: A notc! s%c! as t!e local )eomet"y o, t!e (el$ toe* incl%$in) t!e toe "a$i%s an$ t!e an)le
bet(een t!e base &late s%",ace an$ (el$ "ein,o"cement- !e local notc! $oes not alte" t!e st"%ct%"al st"ess
b%t )ene"ates non-linea" st"ess &ea's-
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Macrogeometric discontinuity: A )lobal $iscontin%ity* t!e e,,ect o, (!ic! is %s%ally not ta'en into acco%nt
in t!e collection o, stan$a"$ st"%ct%"al $etails* s%c! as la")e o&enin)* a c%"#e$ &a"t in a beam* a ben$ in
,lan)e not s%&&o"te$ by $ia&!"a)ms o" sti,,ene"s* $iscontin%ities in &"ess%"e containin) s!ells* eccent"icity
in la& Coints-
Macrogeometric effect: A st"ess "aisin) e,,ect $%e to mac"o-)eomet"y in t!e #icinity o, t!e (el$e$ Coint*
b%t not $%e to t!e (el$e$ Coint itsel,-
Mem!rane stress: A#e"a)e no"mal st"ess ac"oss t!e t!ic'ness o, a &late o" s!ell-
Miner sum: S%mmation o, in$i#i$%al ,ati)%e $ama)e "atios ca%se$ by eac! st"ess cycle o" st"ess "an)e bloc'
acco"$in) to Palm)"en-Iine" "%le-
Misalignment: A3ial an$ an)%la" misali)nments ca%se$ eit!e" by $etail $esi)n o" by ,ab"ication-
"ominal stress: A st"ess in a com&onent* "esol#e$* %sin) )ene"al t!eo"ies s%c! as beam t!eo"y-
"onlinear stress peak: !e st"ess com&onent o, a notc! st"ess (!ic! e3cee$s t!e linea"ly $ist"ib%te$
st"%ct%"al st"ess at a local notc!-
"otch stress: otal st"ess at t!e "oot o, a notc! ta'in) into acco%nt t!e st"ess concent"ation ca%se$ by t!e
local notc!- !%s t!e notc! st"ess consists o, t!e s%m o, st"%ct%"al st"ess an$ non-linea" st"ess &ea'-
"otch stress concentration factor: !e "atio o, notc! st"ess to st"%ct%"al st"ess-
#aris$ la%: An e3&e"imentally $ete"mine$ "elation bet(een c"ac' )"o(t! "ate an$ st"ess intensity ,acto"
"an)e-
#almgrenMiner rule: :ati)%e ,ail%"e is e3&ecte$ (!en t!e Iine" s%m "eac!es %nity- Re,e"ence is also ma$e
to 1!a&te" 8 on %nce"taintiesE-
&ainflo% counting: A stan$a"$ise$ &"oce$%"e ,o" st"ess "an)e co%ntin)-
'hell !ending stress: @en$in) st"ess in a s!ell o" &late li'e &a"t o, a com&onent* linea"ly $ist"ib%te$ ac"oss
t!e t!ic'ness as ass%me$ in t!e t!eo"y o, s!ells-
'" curve: G"a&!ical &"esentation o, t!e $e&en$ence o, ,ati)%e li,e DNE on ,ati)%e st"en)t! DSE-
'tress cycle: A &a"t o, a st"ess !isto"y containin) a st"ess ma3im%m an$ a st"ess minim%m-
'tress intensity factor: :acto" %se$ in ,"act%"e mec!anics to c!a"acte"ise t!e st"ess at t!e #icinity o, a c"ac'
ti&-
'tress range: !e $i,,e"ence bet(een st"ess ma3im%m an$ st"ess minim%m in a st"ess cycle-
'tress range !lock: A &a"t o, a total s&ect"%m o, st"ess "an)es (!ic! is $isc"etiNe$ in a ce"tain n%mbe" o,
bloc's-
'tress range e(ceedances: A tab%la" o" )"a&!ical &"esentation o, t!e c%m%lati#e ,"e?%ency o, st"ess "an)e
e3cee$ances* i- e- t!e n%mbe" o, "an)es e3cee$in) a &a"tic%la" ma)nit%$e o, st"ess "an)e in st"ess !isto"y-
4e"e ,"e?%ency is t!e n%mbe" o, occ%""ences-
'tress ratio: Ratio o, minim%m to ma3im%m #al%e o, t!e st"ess in a cycle-
'tructural discontinuity: A )eomet"ic $iscontin%ity $%e to t!e ty&e o, (el$e$ Coint* %s%ally ,o%n$ in tables
o, classi,ie$ st"%ct%"al $etails- !e e,,ects o, a st"%ct%"al $iscontin%ity a"e DiE concent"ation o, t!e memb"ane
st"ess an$ DiiE ,o"mation o, secon$a"y ben$in) st"ess-
'tructural stress: A st"ess in a com&onent* "esol#e$ ta'in) into acco%nt t!e e,,ects o, a st"%ct%"al
$iscontin%ity* an$ consistin) o, memb"ane an$ s!ell ben$in) st"ess com&onents- Also "e,e""e$ to as
)eomet"ic st"ess o" !ot s&ot st"ess-
'tructural stress concentration factor: !e "atio o, !ot s&ot Dst"%ct%"alE st"ess to local nominal st"ess- Gn
t!is RP t!e s!o"te" notation: ;St"ess concent"ation ,acto"< DS1:E is %se$-
)aria!le amplitude loading: A ty&e o, loa$in) ca%sin) i""e)%la" st"ess ,l%ct%ation (it! st"ess "an)es Dan$
am&lit%$esE o, #a"iable ma)nit%$e-
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/.5 +ymbols
1 mate"ial &a"amete"
D acc%m%late$ ,ati)%e $ama)e* $iamete" o, c!o"$
D:: Desi)n :ati)%e :acto"
D
C
cylin$e" $iamete" at C%nction
6 Oo%n)Ms mo$%l%s
: ,ati)%e li,e
G moment o, ine"tia o, t%b%la"s
P
ma3
P
min
ma3im%m an$ minim%m st"ess intensity ,acto"s "es&ecti#ely
P
(
st"ess concent"ation ,acto" $%e to (el$ )eomet"y
P P
ma3
- P
min
L len)t! o, c!o"$* len)t! o, t!ic'ness t"ansition
N n%mbe" o, cycles to ,ail%"e
N
i
n%mbe" o, cycles to ,ail%"e at constant st"ess "an)e
i
N a3ial ,o"ce in t%b%la"
R o%te" "a$i%s o, consi$e"e$ c!o"$* "e$%ction ,acto" on ,ati)%e li,e
S1: st"ess concent"ation ,acto"
S1:
AS
st"ess concent"ation ,acto" at t!e sa$$le ,o" a3ial loa$
S1:
A1
st"ess concent"ation ,acto" at t!e c"o(n ,o" a3ial loa$
S1:
IGP
st"ess concent"ation ,acto" ,o" in &lane moment
S1:
I2P
st"ess concent"ation ,acto" ,o" o%t o, &lane moment
R
a
s%",ace "o%)!ness
R

"e$%ction ,acto" on ,ati)%e "esistance


t!ic'ness o, c!o"$

e
e?%i#alent t!ic'ness o, c!o"$

$
$esi)n li,e in secon$s
J &"obability ,o" e3cee$ance o, t!e st"ess "an)e
A c"ac' $e&t!
a
i
!al, c"ac' $e&t! ,o" inte"nal c"ac's
inte"ce&t o, t!e $esi)n S-N c%"#e (it! t!e lo) N a3is
e
-
e3&D-E
) )a& F a+DQ ,acto" $e&en$in) on t!e )eomet"y o, t!e )a& bet(een t!e b"ace inte"sections (it!
t!e c!o"$ in ,o" e3am&le a P-Coint
! Keib%ll s!a&e &a"amete"* (el$ siNe o" (el$ le) len)t!
' n%mbe" o, st"ess bloc's* e3&onent on t!ic'ness
l se)ment len)t!s o, a t%b%la"
m ne)ati#e in#e"se slo&e o, t!e S-N c%"#eQ c"ac' )"o(t! &a"amete"
n
i
n%mbe" o, st"ess cycles in st"ess bloc' i
n
o
is t!e n%mbe" o, cycles o#e" t!e time &e"io$ ,o" (!ic! t!e st"ess "an)e le#el
o
is $e,ine$
t
"e,
"e,e"ence t!ic'ness
&late t!ic'ness* t!ic'ness o, c!o"$ membe"
t
c
cone t!ic'ness
t
&
&late t!ic'ness
J Keib%ll scale &a"amete"
)amma ,%nction
%sa)e ,acto"
t!e slo&e an)le o, t!e coneQ F L+D
a
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$+D
eccent"icity

0
eccent"icity in!e"ent in t!e S-N c%"#e
R+

o
a#e"a)e Ne"o-%&-c"ossin) ,"e?%ency
PoissonMs "atio

local
local st"ess

nominal
nominal st"ess

!ot s&ot
!ot s&ot st"ess o" )eomet"ic st"ess

3
ma3im%m nominal st"esses $%e to a3ial ,o"ce

my

mN
ma3im%m nominal st"esses $%e to ben$in) abo%t t!e y-a3is an$ t!e N-a3is
st"ess "an)e

0
st"ess "an)e e3cee$e$ once o%t o, n
0
cycles
t+* s!ea" st"ess
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+%T0$) ! F(T0*-% ()(?A+0+ 9(+%D $) +-) D(T(
!./ 0ntroduction
!e main &"inci&les ,o" ,ati)%e analysis base$ on ,ati)%e tests a"e $esc"ibe$ in t!is section- !e ,ati)%e
analysis may be base$ on nominal S-N c%"#es ,o" &late$ st"%ct%"es (!en a&&"o&"iate- A$$itional st"esses
"es%ltin) ,"om ,ab"ication tole"ances ,o" b%tt (el$s an$ c"%ci,o"m Coints s!o%l$ be consi$e"e$ (!en t!e
,ab"ication tole"ances e3cee$ t!at in!e"ent t!e S-N $ata- Re,e"ence is ma$e to A0-1B an$ A0-0B-
K!en &e",o"min) ,inite element analysis ,o" $esi)n o, &late$ st"%ct%"es it is o,ten ,o%n$ mo"e con#enient
to e3t"act !ot s&ot st"ess ,"om t!e analysis t!an t!at o, a nominal st"ess- G%i$ance on ,inite element
mo$ellin) an$ !ot s&ot st"ess $e"i#ation is &"esente$ in A4-0B- !e calc%late$ !ot s&ot st"ess is t!en ente"e$
a !ot s&ot S-N c%"#e ,o" $e"i#ation o, cycles to ,ail%"e- Also !e"e a$$itional st"esses "es%ltin) ,"om
,ab"ication tole"ances ,o" b%tt (el$s an$ c"%ci,o"m Coints s!o%l$ be consi$e"e$-
:o" $esi)n o, sim&le t%b%la" Coints it is stan$a"$ &"actice to %se &a"amet"ic e?%ations ,o" $e"i#ation o, st"ess
concent"ation ,acto"s to obtain !ot s&ot st"ess ,o" t!e act%al )eomet"y- !en t!is !ot s&ot st"ess is ente"e$
a "ele#ant !ot s&ot st"ess S-N c%"#e ,o" t%b%la" Coints-
Res%lts ,"om &e",o"me$ ,ati)%e analyses a"e &"esente$ in Sec-5 in te"ms o, $esi)n c!a"ts t!at &"esent
allo(able st"esses as ,%nction o, t!e Keib%ll s!a&e &a"amete"- !e basis ,o" t!e $esi)n c!a"ts is t!at lon)
te"m st"ess "an)es can be $esc"ibe$ by a t(o &a"amete" Keib%ll $ist"ib%tion- !e &"oce$%"e can be %se$
,o" $i,,e"ent $esi)n li#es* $i,,e"ent Desi)n :ati)%e :acto"s an$ $i,,e"ent &late t!ic'ness-
!e ,ollo(in) ,ati)%e c"ac'in) ,ail%"e mo$es a"e consi$e"e$ in t!is $oc%ment Dsee also :i)%"e 2-1E:
> Fatigue crack gro%th from the %eld toe into the !ase material-
Gn (el$e$ st"%ct%"es ,ati)%e c"ac'in) ,"om (el$ toes into t!e base mate"ial is a ,"e?%ent ,ail%"e mo$e-
!e ,ati)%e c"ac' is initiate$ at small $e,ects o" %n$e"c%ts at t!e (el$ toe (!e"e t!e st"ess is !i)!est
$%e to t!e (el$ notc! )eomet"y- A la")e amo%nt o, t!e content in t!is RP is ma$e (it! t!e &%"&ose o,
ac!ie#in) a "eliable $esi)n (it! "es&ect to t!is ,ail%"e mo$e-
> Fatigue crack gro%th from the %eld root through the fillet %eld-
:ati)%e c"ac'in) ,"om "oot o, ,illet (el$s (it! a c"ac' )"o(t! t!"o%)! t!e (el$ is a ,ail%"e mo$e t!at
can lea$ to si)ni,icant conse?%ences- Hse o, ,illet (el$s s!o%l$ be a#oi$e$ in connections (!e"e t!e
,ail%"e conse?%ences a"e la")e $%e to less "eliable ND6 o, t!is ty&e o, connection com&a"e$ (it! a ,%ll
&enet"ation (el$- 4o(e#e"* in some (el$e$ connections %se o, ,illet (el$s can !a"$ly be a#oi$e$ an$ it
is also e,,icient ,o" ,ab"ication- !e s&eci,ie$ $esi)n &"oce$%"e in t!is $oc%ment is consi$e"e$ to &"o#i$e
"eliable connections also ,o" ,illet (el$s-
> Fatigue crack gro%th from the %eld root into the section under the %eld-
:ati)%e c"ac' )"o(t! ,"om t!e (el$ "oot into t!e section %n$e" t!e (el$ is obse"#e$ $%"in) se"#ice li,e
o, st"%ct%"es in labo"ato"y ,ati)%e testin)- !e n%mbe" o, cycles to ,ail%"e ,o" t!is ,ail%"e mo$e is o, a
simila" ma)nit%$e as ,ati)%e c"ac'in) ,"om t!e (el$ toe in as-(el$e$ con$ition- !e"e is no met!o$olo)y
t!at can be "ecommen$e$ %se$ to a#oi$ t!is ,ail%"e mo$e e3ce&t ,"om %sin) alte"nati#e ty&es o, (el$s
locally- !is means t!at i, ,ati)%e li,e im&"o#ement o, t!e (el$ toe is "e?%i"e$* t!e connection is
s%bCecte$ to !i)! $ynamic st"ess "an)es- !%s* t!e connection becomes also !i)!ly %tilise$ (it! "es&ect
to $ynamic loa$in) an$ it is also "e?%i"e$ to ma'e im&"o#ement ,o" t!e "oot- !is can be &e",o"me$
%sin) a ,%ll &enet"ation (el$ alon) some $istance o, t!e sti,,ene" nose-
> Fatigue crack gro%th from a surface irregularity or notch into the !ase material-
:ati)%e c"ac'in) in t!e base mate"ial is a ,ail%"e mo$e t!at is o, conce"n in com&onents (it! !i)! st"ess
cycles- !en t!e ,ati)%e c"ac's o,ten initiate ,"om notc!es o" )"oo#es in t!e com&onents o" ,"om small
s%",ace $e,ects+i""e)%la"ities- !e s&eci,ie$ $esi)n &"oce$%"e in t!is $oc%ment is consi$e"e$ to &"o#i$e
"eliable connections also (it! "es&ect to t!is ,ail%"e mo$e-
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aE :ati)%e c"ac' )"o(t! ,"om t!e (el$ toe into t!e base mate"ial
bE :ati)%e c"ac' )"o(t! ,"om t!e (el$ "oot t!"o%)! t!e ,illet (el$
cE :ati)%e c"ac' )"o(t! ,"om t!e (el$ "oot into t!e section %n$e" t!e (el$
$E :ati)%e c"ac' )"o(t! ,"om a s%",ace i""e)%la"ity o" notc! into t!e base mate"ial
Figure !-/ %;planation of different fatigue failure modes
!.! Fatigue damage accumulation
!e ,ati)%e li,e may be calc%late$ base$ on t!e S-N ,ati)%e a&&"oac! %n$e" t!e ass%m&tion o, linea"
c%m%lati#e $ama)e DPalm)"en-Iine" "%leE-
K!en t!e lon)-te"m st"ess "an)e $ist"ib%tion is e3&"esse$ by a st"ess !isto)"am* consistin) o, a con#enient
n%mbe" o, constant st"ess "an)e bloc's
i
eac! (it! a n%mbe" o, st"ess "e&etitions n
i
t!e ,ati)%e c"ite"ion
"ea$s:
(!e"e
D2-2-1E
D F acc%m%late$ ,ati)%e $ama)e
F inte"ce&t o, t!e $esi)n S-N c%"#e (it! t!e lo) N a3is
( ) = =
= =
m
k
i
i i
k
i
i
i
n
a N
n
D
1 1
1
a
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A&&lyin) a !isto)"am to e3&"ess t!e st"ess $ist"ib%tion* t!e n%mbe" o, st"ess bloc's* '* s!o%l$ be la")e
eno%)! to ens%"e "easonable n%me"ical acc%"acy* an$ s!o%l$ not be less t!an 20- D%e consi$e"ation s!o%l$
be )i#en to selection o, inte)"ation met!o$ as t!e &osition o, t!e inte)"ation &oints may !a#e a si)ni,icant
in,l%ence on t!e calc%late$ ,ati)%e li,e $e&en$ent on inte)"ation met!o$-
See Sec-5 ,o" calc%lation o, ,ati)%e $ama)e %sin) $esi)n c!a"ts base$ on a t(o-&a"amete" Keib%ll
$ist"ib%tion o, t!e lon) te"m st"ess "an)es-
Re,e"ence is ma$e to commenta"y section ,o" $e"i#ation o, ,ati)%e $ama)e calc%late$ ,"om $i,,e"ent
&"ocesses-
!.# Fatigue analysis methodology and calculation of stresses
2-0-1 Gene"al
:ati)%e analysis may be base$ on $i,,e"ent met!o$olo)ies $e&en$in) on (!at is ,o%n$ most e,,icient ,o" t!e
consi$e"e$ st"%ct%"al $etail- Di,,e"ent conce&ts o, S-N c%"#es a"e $e#elo&e$ an$ "e,e""e$ to in t!e lite"at%"e
an$ in t!is RP- Gt is t!%s im&o"tant t!at t!e st"esses a"e calc%late$ in a)"eement (it! t!e $e,inition o, t!e
st"esses to be %se$ to)et!e" (it! a &a"tic%la" S-N c%"#e- !"ee $i,,e"ent conce&ts o, S-N c%"#es a"e $e,ine$:
> Nominal st"ess S-N c%"#e t!at is $esc"ibe$ in A2-0-2B-
> 4ot s&ot st"ess S-N c%"#e t!at is $esc"ibe$ in A2-0-0B ,o" &late$ st"%ct%"es an$ in A2-0-4B ,o" t%b%la"
Coints-
> Notc! st"ess S-N c%"#e t!at is not %se$ in t!e main &a"t o, t!is RP- DA notc! st"ess S-N c%"#e is liste$
in t!e commenta"y t!at can be %se$ to)et!e" (it! ,inite element analysis (!e"e t!e local notc! is
mo$elle$ by an e?%i#alent "a$i%s- !is a&&"oac! is ,o"eseen %se$ only in s&ecial cases (!e"e it is ,o%n$
$i,,ic%lt to "eliably assess t!e ,ati)%e li,e %sin) ot!e" met!o$sE-
Nominal st"ess is %n$e"stoo$ to be a st"ess in a com&onent t!at can be $e"i#e$ by classical t!eo"y s%c! as
beam t!eo"y- Gn a sim&le &late s&ecimen (it! an attac!ment as s!o(n in :i)%"e 4-2 t!e nominal st"ess is
sim&ly t!e memb"ane st"ess t!at is %se$ ,o" &lottin) o, t!e S-N $ata ,"om t!e ,ati)%e testin)- An e3am&le
o, ,ati)%e $esi)n %sin) t!is &"oce$%"e is s!o(n in t!e commenta"y section D63am&le (it! ,ati)%e analysis
o, a $"%mE-
4ot s&ot st"ess is %n$e"stoo$ to be t!e )eomet"ic st"ess c"eate$ by t!e consi$e"e$ $etail- D!e notc! st"ess
$%e to t!e local (el$ )eomet"y is e3cl%$e$ ,"om t!e st"ess calc%lation as it is ass%me$ to be acco%nte$ ,o"
in t!e co""es&on$in) !ot s&ot S-N c%"#e- !e notc! st"ess is $e,ine$ as t!e total st"ess "es%ltin) ,"om t!e
)eomet"y o, t!e $etail an$ t!e non-linea" st"ess ,iel$ $%e to t!e notc! at t!e (el$ toeE-
De"i#ation o, st"esses to be %se$ to)et!e" (it! t!e $i,,e"ent S-N c%"#es a"e $esc"ibe$ in mo"e $etail in t!e
,ollo(in) section-
!e &"oce$%"e ,o" t!e ,ati)%e analysis is base$ on t!e ass%m&tion t!at it is only necessa"y to consi$e" t!e
"an)es o, cyclic st"esses in $ete"minin) t!e ,ati)%e en$%"ance Di- e- mean st"esses a"e ne)lecte$ ,o" ,ati)%e
assessment o, (el$e$ connectionsE-
!e selection o, S-N c%"#e is $e&en$ent on amo%nt an$ ty&e o, ins&ection $%"in) ,ab"icationQ "e,- A&&-A-
!e siNe o, $e,ects in!e"ent t!e S-N $ata a"e $esc"ibe$ in A&&en$i3 AD-5B-
2-0-2 Plate$ st"%ct%"es %sin) nominal st"ess S-N c%"#es
!e Coint classi,ication an$ co""es&on$in) S-N c%"#es ta'es into acco%nt t!e local st"ess concent"ations
c"eate$ by t!e Coints t!emsel#es an$ by t!e (el$ &"o,ile- !e $esi)n st"ess can t!e"e,o"e be "e)a"$e$ as
t!e nominal st"ess* a$Cacent to t!e (el$ %n$e" consi$e"ation- 4o(e#e"* i, t!e Coint is sit%ate$ in a "e)ion o,
m F ne)ati#e in#e"se slo&e o, t!e S-N c%"#e
k F n%mbe" o, st"ess bloc's
n
i
F n%mbe" o, st"ess cycles in st"ess bloc' i
"
i
F n%mbe" o, cycles to ,ail%"e at constant st"ess "an)e
i
F %sa)e ,acto"
F 1 + Desi)n :ati)%e :acto" ,"om 2S-1101 Section 6 :ati)%e Limit States-
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 15
DNV GL AS







st"ess concent"ation "es%ltin) ,"om t!e )"oss s!a&e o, t!e st"%ct%"e* t!is m%st be ta'en into acco%nt- As an
e3am&le* ,o" t!e (el$ s!o(n in :i)%"e 2-2 aE* t!e "ele#ant local st"ess ,o" ,ati)%e $esi)n (o%l$ be t!e tensile
st"ess*
nominal
- :o" t!e (el$ s!o(n in :i)%"e 2-2 bE* t!e st"ess concent"ation ,acto" ,o" t!e )lobal )eomet"y
m%st in a$$ition be acco%nte$ ,o"* )i#in) t!e "ele#ant local st"ess e?%al to S1:
nominal
* (!e"e S1: is t!e
st"ess concent"ation ,acto" $%e to t!e !ole- !%s t!e local st"ess is $e"i#e$ as

local
s!all be %se$ to)et!e" (it! t!e "ele#ant S-N c%"#es D t!"o%)! G* $e&en$ent on Coint classi,ication-
!e ma3im%m &"inci&al st"ess is consi$e"e$ to be a si)ni,icant &a"amete" ,o" analysis o, ,ati)%e c"ac'
)"o(t!- K!en t!e &"inci&al st"ess $i"ection is $i,,e"ent ,"om t!at o, t!e no"mal to t!e (el$ toe* it becomes
conse"#ati#e to %se t!e &"inci&le st"ess "an)e to)et!e" (it! a classi,ication o, t!e connection ,o" st"ess
"an)e no"mal to t!e (el$ toe as s!o(n in :i)%"e 2-0- As t!e an)le bet(een t!e &"inci&al st"ess $i"ection
an$ t!e no"mal to t!e (el$* * is inc"ease$ ,%"t!e"* ,ati)%e c"ac'in) may no lon)e" initiate alon) t!e (el$
toe* b%t may initiate in t!e (el$ an$ )"o( no"mal to t!e &"inci&al st"ess $i"ection as s!o(n in :i)%"e 2-4-
!is means t!at t!e notc! at t!e (el$ toe no lon)e" si)ni,icantly in,l%ences t!e ,ati)%e ca&acity an$ a !i)!e"
S-N c%"#e a&&lies ,o" t!is st"ess $i"ection-
Io"e )%i$ance on t!is ,o" %se o, nominal S-N c%"#es is &"esente$ in commenta"y D-4 1omm- 2-0-2 Plate$
st"%ct%"es %sin) nominal st"ess S-N c%"#es-
St"ess "an)es calc%late$ base$ on #on Iises st"ess can be %se$ ,o" ,ati)%e analysis o, notc!es in base
mate"ial (!e"e initiation o, a ,ati)%e c"ac' is a si)ni,icant &a"t o, t!e ,ati)%e li,e-
2-0-0 Plate$ st"%ct%"es %sin) !ot s&ot st"ess S-N c%"#es
:o" $etaile$ ,inite element analysis o, (el$e$ &late connections ot!e" t!an t%b%la" Coints it may also be
con#enient to %se t!e alte"nati#e !ot s&ot st"ess ,o" ,ati)%e li,e assessment* see section A4-0B ,o" ,%"t!e"
)%i$ance- A "elation bet(een nominal st"ess an$ !ot s&ot st"ess may be $e,ine$ as
(!e"e S1: is st"%ct%"al st"ess concent"ation ,acto" no"mally $enote$ as st"ess concent"ation ,acto"-
!e e,,ect o, st"ess $i"ection "elati#e to t!e (el$ toe as s!o(n in :i)%"e 2-0 an$ :i)%"e 2-4 (!en %sin) ,inite
element analysis an$ !ot s&ot st"ess S-N c%"#e is &"esente$ in section A4-0-4B-
2-0-4 %b%la" Coints
:o" a t%b%la" Coint* i- e- b"ace to c!o"$ connection* t!e st"ess to be %se$ ,o" $esi)n &%"&ose is t!e "an)e o,
i$ealise$ !ot s&ot st"ess $e,ine$ by: t!e )"eatest #al%e o, t!e e3t"a&olation o, t!e ma3im%m &"inci&al st"ess
$ist"ib%tion imme$iately o%tsi$e t!e "e)ion e,,ecte$ by t!e )eomet"y o, t!e (el$- !e !ot s&ot st"ess to be
%se$ in combination (it! t!e -c%"#e is calc%late$ as
(!e"e
D2-0-1E
D2-0-2E
D2-0-0E
S1: F st"ess concent"ation ,acto" as )i#en in section A0-0B-
nominal local
SCF =
nominal spot hot
SCF =
nominal spot hot
SCF =
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 16
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Figure !-! %;planation of local stresses
Figure !-# Fatigue crac<ing along weld toe
Principal stress
direction
Weld
toe
Section
Fatigue crack

Principal stress
direction
Weld
toe
Section
Fatigue crack
//

//

//

//

//

//

Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 17
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Figure !-3 Fatigue crac<ing when principal stress direction is more parallel with weld toe
2-0-5 :illet (el$s at c"%ci,o"m Coints
!e "ele#ant st"ess "an)e ,o" &otential c"ac's in t!e (el$ t!"oat o, loa$-ca""yin) ,illet-(el$e$ Coints an$
&a"tial &enet"ation (el$e$ Coints may be calc%late$ as:
(!e"e t!e st"ess com&onents a"e e3&laine$ in :i)%"e 2-5-
!e total st"ess ,l%ct%ation Di-e- ma3im%m com&"ession an$ ma3im%m tensionE s!o%l$ be consi$e"e$ to be
t"ansmitte$ t!"o%)! t!e (el$s ,o" ,ati)%e assessments-
Re,e"ence is ma$e to able A-9 ,o" selection o, S-N c%"#e-
Figure !-5 %;planation of stresses on the throat section of a fillet weld
2-0-6 :illet (el$s at $o%blin) &lates
:illet (el$s at $o%blin) &lates as s!o(n in :i)%"e 2-6 (ill be s%bCecte$ to ben$in) st"ess o#e" t!e t!"oat
t!ic'ness (!en t!e $o%blin) &late is loa$e$ by an a3ial ,o"ce o" a ben$in) moment- Gt is "ecommen$e$ to
&e",o"m a ,inite element analysis ,o" assessment o, ,ati)%e o, t!ese connections- !e ben$in) st"ess can be
analyse$ %sin) a mo$ellin) o, t!e (el$ (it! at least 2 secon$ o"$e" soli$ elements o#e" t!e t!"oat t!ic'ness
(!e"e eac! element "e&"esents a linea" st"ess $ist"ib%tion- !e calc%late$ st"ess com&onents at a &osition
0-25 a an$ 0-75 a* (!e"e a is t!"oat t!ic'ness* can be e3t"a&olate$ to t!e (el$ "oot (!e"e t!ese st"esses
a"e %se$ to calc%late t!e &"inci&al st"ess- !e "an)e o, t!e ma3im%m &"inci&al st"ess can t!en be %se$
to)et!e" (it! t!e :0 c%"#e ,o" calc%lation o, ,ati)%e $ama)e- !e S-N c%"#e ,o" ai" en#i"onment can be %se$-
D2-0-4E
Principal stress
direction
Weld
toe
Section
Fatigue crack

Principal stress
direction
Weld
toe
Section
Fatigue crack
//

//

//

//

//

//

2
//
2 2
w
0.2 + + =

Thoat
s!ction
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 19
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Alte"nati#ely t!e notc! st"ess met!o$olo)y $esc"ibe$ in A&&-D can be %se$ ,o" ,ati)%e analysis o, t!e (el$
"oot-
Figure !-6 Fillet welded doubling plate
2-0-7 :illet (el$e$ bea"in) s%&&o"ts
K!e"e s%&&o"t &latin) belo( bea"in)s a"e $esi)ne$ (it! ,illet (el$e$ connection* it s!o%l$ be #e"i,ie$ t!at
,ati)%e c"ac'in) o, t!e (el$ (ill not occ%"- 6#en t!o%)! t!e Coint may be "e?%i"e$ to ca""y (!olly
com&"essi#e st"esses an$ t!e &late s%",aces may be mac!ine$ to ,it* t!e total st"ess ,l%ct%ation s!o%l$ be
consi$e"e$ to be t"ansmitte$ t!"o%)! t!e (el$s ,o" ,ati)%e assessment-
G, it is ass%me$ t!at com&"essi#e loa$in) is t"ans,e""e$ t!"o%)! contact* it s!o%l$ be #e"i,ie$ t!at t!e
contact (ill not be lost $%"in) t!e (el$in)- !e act%al installation con$ition incl%$in) ma3im%m const"%ction
tole"ances s!o%l$ be acco%nte$ ,o"-
!.3 +-) curves
2-4-1 Gene"al
!e ,ati)%e $esi)n is base$ on %se o, S-N c%"#es* (!ic! a"e obtaine$ ,"om ,ati)%e tests- !e $esi)n S-N
c%"#es (!ic! ,ollo(s a"e base$ on t!e mean-min%s-t(o-stan$a"$-$e#iation c%"#es ,o" "ele#ant
e3&e"imental $ata- !e S-N c%"#es a"e t!%s associate$ (it! a 87-75 &"obability o, s%"#i#al-
2-4-2 :ail%"e c"ite"ion in!e"ent t!e S-N c%"#es
Iost o, t!e S-N $ata a"e $e"i#e$ by ,ati)%e testin) o, small s&ecimens in test labo"ato"ies- :o" sim&le test
s&ecimens t!e testin) is &e",o"me$ %ntil t!e s&ecimens !a#e ,aile$- Gn t!ese s&ecimens t!e"e is no
&ossibility ,o" "e$ist"ib%tion o, st"esses $%"in) c"ac' )"o(t!- !is means t!at most o, t!e ,ati)%e li,e is
associate$ (it! )"o(t! o, a small c"ac' t!at )"o(s ,aste" as t!e c"ac' siNe inc"eases %ntil ,"act%"e i, t!e
connection ot!e"(ise $oes not s!o( si)ni,icant "e$ist"ib%tion o, st"ess ,lo( $%"in) c"ac' )"o(t!-
:o" $etails (it! t!e same calc%late$ $ama)e* t!e initiation &e"io$ o, a ,ati)%e c"ac' ta'es lon)e" time ,o" a
notc! in base mate"ial t!an at a (el$ toe o" (el$ "oot- !is also means t!at (it! a !i)!e" ,ati)%e "esistance
o, t!e base mate"ial as com&a"e$ (it! (el$e$ $etails* t!e c"ac' )"o(t! (ill be ,aste" in base mate"ial (!en
,ati)%e c"ac's a"e )"o(in) as t!e st"ess "an)e in t!e base mate"ial can be si)ni,icantly !i)!e" t!an at t!e
(el$s i, t!ey a"e $esi)ne$ (it! t!e same ,ati)%e %tiliNation-

Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 18
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:o" &"actical &%"&ose one $e,ines t!ese ,ail%"es as bein) c"ac' )"o(t! t!"o%)! t!e t!ic'ness-
K!en t!is ,ail%"e c"ite"ion is t"ans,e""e$ into a c"ac' siNe in a "eal st"%ct%"e (!e"e some "e$ist"ib%tion o,
st"ess is mo"e li'ely* t!is means t!at t!is ,ail%"e c"ite"ion co""es&on$s to a c"ac' siNe t!at is some(!at less
t!an t!e &late t!ic'ness-
!e test s&ecimens (it! t%b%la" Coints a"e no"mally o, a la")e" siNe- !ese Coints also s!o( la")e" &ossibility
,o" "e$ist"ib%tion o, st"esses as a c"ac' is )"o(in)- !%s a c"ac' can )"o( t!"o%)! t!e t!ic'ness an$ also
alon) a &a"t o, t!e Coint be,o"e a ,"act%"e occ%" $%"in) t!e testin)- !e n%mbe" o, cycles at a c"ac' siNe
t!"o%)! t!e t!ic'ness is %se$ (!en t!e S-N c%"#es a"e $e"i#e$- As t!ese tests a"e not #e"y $i,,e"ent ,"om
t!at o, t!e act%al be!a#io%" in a st"%ct%"e* t!is ,ail%"e c"ite"ion ,o" S-N c%"#es ,o" t%b%la" co""es&on$s
a&&"o3imately to t!e t!ic'ness at t!e !ot s&ot Dc!o"$ o" b"ace as "ele#antE-
2-4-0 S-N c%"#es an$ Coint classi,ication
:o" &"actical ,ati)%e $esi)n* (el$e$ Coints a"e $i#i$e$ into se#e"al classes* eac! (it! a co""es&on$in) $esi)n
S-N c%"#e- All t%b%la" Coints a"e ass%me$ to be class - 2t!e" ty&es o, Coint* incl%$in) t%be to &late* may
,all in one o, t!e 14 classes s&eci,ie$ in able 2-1* able 2-2 an$ able 2-0* $e&en$in) %&on:
> t!e )eomet"ical a""an)ement o, t!e $etail
> t!e $i"ection o, t!e ,l%ct%atin) st"ess "elati#e to t!e $etail
> t!e met!o$ o, ,ab"ication an$ ins&ection o, t!e $etail-
6ac! const"%ction $etail at (!ic! ,ati)%e c"ac's may &otentially $e#elo& s!o%l$* (!e"e &ossible* be &lace$
in its "ele#ant Coint class in acco"$ance (it! c"ite"ia )i#en in A&&-A- Gt s!o%l$ be note$ t!at* in any (el$e$
Coint* t!e"e a"e se#e"al locations at (!ic! ,ati)%e c"ac's may $e#elo&* e- )- at t!e (el$ toe in eac! o, t!e
&a"ts Coine$* at t!e (el$ en$s* an$ in t!e (el$ itsel,- 6ac! location s!o%l$ be classi,ie$ se&a"ately-
!e basic $esi)n S-N c%"#e is )i#en as
(!e"e
!e ,ati)%e st"en)t! o, (el$e$ Coints is to some e3tent $e&en$ent on &late t!ic'ness- !is e,,ect is $%e to
t!e local )eomet"y o, t!e (el$ toe in "elation to t!ic'ness o, t!e a$Coinin) &lates- See also e,,ect o, &"o,ilin)
on t!ic'ness e,,ect in A7-2B- Gt is also $e&en$ent on t!e st"ess )"a$ient o#e" t!e t!ic'ness- Re,e"ence is
ma$e to A&&-D* 1ommenta"y- !e t!ic'ness e,,ect is acco%nte$ ,o" by a mo$i,ication on st"ess s%c! t!at
t!e $esi)n S-N c%"#e ,o" t!ic'ness la")e" t!an t!e "e,e"ence t!ic'ness "ea$s:
(!e"e
D2-4-1E
N F &"e$icte$ n%mbe" o, cycles to ,ail%"e ,o" st"ess "an)e
F st"ess "an)e (it! %nit IPa
m F ne)ati#e in#e"se slo&e o, S-N c%"#e
F inte"ce&t o, lo) N-a3is by S-N c%"#e
D2-4-2E
lo) a F Gnte"ce&t o, mean S-N c%"#e (it! t!e lo) N a3is
s
lo)N
F stan$a"$ $e#iation o, lo) N- Re,e"ence is ma$e to AD-5B* 1ommenta"y-
D2-4-0E
m F ne)ati#e in#e"se slo&e o, t!e S - N c%"#e
F inte"ce&t o, lo) N a3is
log m a log " log =
loga
log"
s 2 a log a log =
|
|

\
|
|
|

\
|
=
#
!$
t
t
log m a log " log
loga
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 20
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Gn )ene"al t!e t!ic'ness e3&onent is incl%$e$ in t!e $esi)n e?%ation to acco%nt ,o" a sit%ation t!at t!e act%al
siNe o, t!e consi$e"e$ st"%ct%"al com&onent is $i,,e"ent in )eomet"y ,"om t!at t!e S-N $ata a"e base$ on-
!e t!ic'ness e3&onent is consi$e"e$ to acco%nt ,o" $i,,e"ent siNe o, &late t!"o%)! (!ic! a c"ac' (ill most
li'ely )"o(- o some e3tent it also acco%nts ,o" local )eomet"y at t!e (el$ toe- 4o(e#e"* it $oes not acco%nt
,o" (el$ len)t! o" len)t! o, com&onent $i,,e"ent ,"om t!at teste$ s%c! as e- )- $esi)n o, moo"in) systems
(it! a si)ni,icant la")e" n%mbe" o, c!ain lin's in t!e act%al moo"in) line t!an (!at t!e test $ata a"e base$
on- !en t!e siNe e,,ect s!o%l$ be ca"e,%lly consi$e"e$ %sin) &"obabilistic t!eo"y to ac!ie#e a "eliable $esi)n*
see A&&en$i3 AD-5B* 1ommenta"y-
!e t!ic'ness o" siNe e,,ect is also $e&en$ent on (i$t! o, (el$ in b%tt (el$s an$ attac!ment len)t! in
c"%ci,o"m connections- !is &a"amete" is $enote$ L
t
in :i)%"e 2-7- :o" b%tt (el$s (!e"e t!e (i$t!s L
t
may
be $i,,e"ent on t!e t(o &late si$es* t!e (i$t! L
t
,o" t!e consi$e"e$ !ot s&ot si$e s!o%l$ be %se$- !e siNe
e,,ect is lo(e" t!an &"e$icte$ ,"om e?%ation D2-4-0E ,o" s!o"t len)t!s o, L
t
- !%s t!e t!ic'ness t in e?%ation
D2-4-0E ,o" b%tt (el$s an$ c"%ci,o"m Coints can be "e&lace$ by an e,,ecti#e t!ic'ness t
e,,
(!ic! can be $e"i#e$
as
(!e"e t!e &a"amete"s L an$ a"e meas%"e$ in mm an$ a"e $e,ine$ in :i)%"e 2-7-
Figure !-1 Definition of attachment length in cruciform :oints and weld width in butt welds
2-4-4 S-N c%"#es in ai"
S-N c%"#es ,o" ai" en#i"onment a"e )i#en in able 2-1 an$ :i)%"e 2-9 in t!e "e)ion less t!an 10
5
cycles- !e
c%"#e is s!o(n in :i)%"e 2-10-
!e ma3im%m st"ess "an)e is t!at o, t!e @1 c%"#e as s!o(n in :i)%"e 2-9- 4o(e#e"* ,o" o,,s!o"e st"%ct%"es
s%bCecte$ to ty&ical (a#e an$ (in$ loa$in) t!e main cont"ib%tion to ,ati)%e $ama)e is in t!e "e)ion N R
10
6
cycles an$ t!e bilinea" S-N c%"#es $e,ine$ in able 2-1 can be %se$-
t
"e,
F "e,e"ence t!ic'ness e?%al 25 mm ,o" (el$e$ connections ot!e" t!an t%b%la" Coints- :o" t%b%la" Coints
t!e "e,e"ence t!ic'ness is 02 mm- :o" bolts t
"e,
F 25 mm
t F t!ic'ness t!"o%)! (!ic! a c"ac' (ill most li'ely )"o(- t F t
"e,
is %se$ ,o" t!ic'ness less t!an t
"e,
' F t!ic'ness e3&onent on ,ati)%e st"en)t! as )i#en in able 2-1* able 2-2 an$ able 2-0-
' F 0-10 ,o" t%b%la" b%tt (el$s ma$e ,"om one si$e
' F 0-25 ,o" t!"ea$e$ bolts s%bCecte$ to st"ess #a"iation in t!e a3ial $i"ection-
D2-4-4E % %& 66 . 0 1' (( min T L mm t
t eff
+ =
L
t
t
L
t
L
t
T
L
t
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Figure !-4 +-) curves in air
Table !-/ +-) curves in air
'" curve " *+
,
cycles " - *+
,
cycles
m
.
/ 0.+
Fatigue limit at
*+
,
cycles 12
3hickness e(ponent k 'tructural stress
concentration em!edded
in the detail 4'" class25
ref. also e6uation 4..7..2
m
1

@1 4-0 15-117 17-146 106-87 0
@2 4-0 14-995 16-956 80-58 0
1 0-0 12-582 16-020 70-10 0-05
11 0-0 12-448 16-091 65-50 0-10
12 0-0 12-001 15-905 59-49 0-15
D 0-0 12-164 15-606 52-60 0-20 1-00
6 0-0 12-010 15-050 46-79 0-20 1-10
: 0-0 11-955 15-081 41-52 0-25 1-27
:1 0-0 11-688 14-902 06-94 0-25 1-40
:0 0-0 11-546 14-576 02-75 0-25 1-61
G 0-0 11-089 14-000 28-24 0-25 1-90
K1 0-0 11-261 14-101 26-02 0-25 2-00
K2 0-0 11-107 10-945 20-08 0-25 2-25
K0 0-0 10-870 10-617 21-05 0-25 2-50
0-0 12-164 15-606 52-60 0-25 ,o" S1: 10-0
0-00 ,o" S1: R10-0
1-00
SE see also A2-11B
2
loga
1
loga
10
100
1000
1.00E+04 1.00E+05 1.00E+06 1.00E+07 1.00E+08
Number of cycles
S
t
r
e
s
s

r
a
n
g
e

(
M
P
a
)
B1
B2
C
C1
C2
D
E
F
F1
F3
G
1
2
3
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2-4-5 S-N c%"#es in sea(ate" (it! cat!o$ic &"otection
S-N c%"#es ,o" sea(ate" en#i"onment (it! cat!o$ic &"otection a"e )i#en in able 2-2 an$ :i)%"e 2-8- !e
c%"#e is s!o(n in :i)%"e 2-10- :o" s!a&e o, S-N c%"#es see also comment in A2-4-4B-
Figure !-8 +-) curves in seawater with cathodic protection
Table !-! +-) curves in seawater with cathodic protection
'" curve " *+
8
cycles " - *+
8
cycles
m
.
/ 0.+
Fatigue limit at
*+
,
cycles12
3hickness e(ponent k 'tress concentration in
the '" detail as derived
!y the hot spot method m
1
@1 4-0 14-817 17-146 106-87 0
@2 4-0 14-695 16-956 80-58 0
1 0-0 12-182 16-020 70-10 0-05
11 0-0 12-048 16-091 65-50 0-10
12 0-0 11-801 15-905 59-49 0-15
D 0-0 11-764 15-606 52-60 0-20 1-00
6 0-0 11-610 15-050 46-79 0-20 1-10
: 0-0 11-455 15-081 41-52 0-25 1-27
:1 0-0 11-288 14-902 06-94 0-25 1-40
:0 0-0 11-146 14-576 02-75 0-25 1-61
G 0-0 10-889 14-000 28-24 0-25 1-90
K1 0-0 10-961 14-101 26-02 0-25 2-00
K2 0-0 10-707 10-945 20-08 0-25 2-25
K0 0-0 10-570 10-617 21-05 0-25 2-50
0-0 11-764 15-606 52-60 0-25 ,o" S1: 10-0
0-00 ,o" S1: R10-0
1-00
SE see also A2-11B
2
loga
1
loga
10
100
1000
1.00E+04 1.00E+05 1.00E+06 1.00E+07 1.00E+08
Number of cycles
S
t
r
e
s
s

r
a
n
g
e

(
M
P
a
)
B1
B2
C
C1
C2
D
E
F
F1
F3
G
1
2
3
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 20
DNV GL AS







2-4-6 S-N c%"#es ,o" t%b%la" Coints
S-N c%"#es ,o" t%b%la" Coints in ai" en#i"onment an$ in sea(ate" (it! cat!o$ic &"otection a"e )i#en in able
2-1* able 2-2 an$ able 2-0-
Figure !-/" +-) curves for tubular :oints in air and in seawater with cathodic protection
2-4-7 S-N c%"#es ,o" cast no$es
Gt is "ecommen$e$ to %se t!e 1 c%"#e ,o" cast no$es- ests may )i#e a mo"e o&timistic c%"#e- 4o(e#e"* t!e
1 c%"#e is "ecommen$e$ in o"$e" to allo( ,o" (el$ "e&ai"s a,te" &ossible castin) $e,ects an$ &ossible ,ati)%e
c"ac's a,te" some se"#ice li,e- !e &"obability o, a "e&ai" $%"in) se"#ice li,e $e&en$s on acc%m%late$ ,ati)%e
$ama)e- Re,e"ence is ma$e to section A8-1B an$ :i)%"e 8-0 (!ic! in$icates ,ati)%e ,ail%"e &"obability as
,%nction o, Desi)n :ati)%e :acto"-
:o" cast no$es a "e,e"ence t!ic'ness t
"e,
F 09 mm may be %se$ &"o#i$e$ t!at any &ossible "e&ai" (el$s
!a#e been )"o%n$ to a smoot! s%",ace-
:o" cast no$es (it! a st"ess )"a$ient o#e" t!e t!ic'ness a "e$%ce$ e,,ecti#e t!ic'ness may be %se$ ,o"
assessment o, t!ic'ness e,,ect- !e e,,ecti#e t!ic'ness to be %se$ in e?%ation D2-4-0E can be calc%late$ as:
K!e"e
S
0
F !ot s&ot st"ess on s%",ace
S
i
F st"ess 09 mm belo( t!e s%",ace* %n$e" t!e !ot s&ot
t
actual
F t!ic'ness o, cast &iece at consi$e"e$ !ot s&ot meas%"e$ no"mal to t!e s%",ace
t
e
F e,,ecti#e t!ic'ness- t
e
s!all not be less t!an 09 mm-
k F t!ic'ness e3&onent F 0-15-
D2-4-5E
1
10
100
1000
100E+04 100E+05 100E+06 100E+07 100E+08 100E+0!
Number of cycles
S
t
r
e
s
s

r
a
n
g
e

(
M
P
a
)Sea"ater "it$
cat$odic protection
%n air
k
i
actual e
S
S
t t
/ 1
0
|
|

\
|
=
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 24
DNV GL AS







2-4-9 S-N c%"#es ,o" ,o")e$ no$es
:o" ,o")e$ no$es t!e @1 c%"#e may be %se$ ,o" no$es $esi)ne$ (it! a Desi)n :ati)%e :acto" e?%al to 10- :o"
$esi)ns (it! D:: less t!an 10 it is "ecommen$e$ to %se t!e 1-c%"#e to allo( ,o" (el$ "e&ai" i, ,ati)%e c"ac's
s!o%l$ occ%" $%"in) se"#ice li,e-
2-4-8 S-N c%"#es ,o" ,"ee co""osion
S-N c%"#es ,o" ,"ee co""osion* i-e- (it!o%t co""osion &"otection* a"e )i#en in able 2-0-
See also 1ommenta"y section ,o" consi$e"ation o, co""osion &"otection o, connections in t!e s&las! None
an$ insi$e tan's in :PS2s-
2-4-10 S-N c%"#es ,o" base mate"ial o, !i)! st"en)t! steel
!e ,ati)%e ca&acity o, t!e base mate"ial is $e&en$in) on t!e s%",ace ,inis! o, t!e mate"ial an$ t!e yiel$
st"en)t!-
:o" !i)! st"en)t! steel ot!e" t!an cast steel (it! yiel$ st"en)t! abo#e 500 IPa an$ a s%",ace "o%)!ness
e?%al R
a
F 0-2 o" bette" t!e ,ollo(in) $esi)n S-N c%"#e can be %se$ ,o" ,ati)%e assessment o, t!e base
mate"ial
Gn ai" a ,ati)%e limit at 2T10
6
cycles at a st"ess "an)e e?%al 205 IPa can be %se$- :o" #a"iable am&lit%$e
loa$in) (it! one st"ess "an)e la")e" t!an t!is ,ati)%e limit a constant slo&e S-N c%"#e s!o%l$ be %se$-
Re,e"ence is also ma$e to section A2-11B-
D!e mean S-N c%"#e is )i#en by Log " / *,.,,+ 9 :.,+ LogE-
:o" sea(ate" (it! cat!o$ic &"otection a constant slo&e S-N c%"#e s!o%l$ be %se$- D!e same as ,o" ai" to
t!e le,t o, 2T10
6
cycles* see :i)%"e 2-11E- G, "e?%i"ements to yiel$ st"en)t!* s%",ace ,inis! an$ co""osion
&"otection a"e not met* t!e S-N c%"#es &"esente$ in sections A2-4-4B* A2-4-5B an$ A2-4-8B s!o%l$ be %se$-
!e t!ic'ness e3&onent ' F 0 ,o" t!is S-N c%"#e-
Table !-# +-) curves in seawater for free corrosion
S-N c%"#e
:o" all cycles m F 0-0
!ic'ness e3&onent '
@1 12-406 0
@2 12-262 0
1 12-115 0-15
11 11-872 0-15
12 11-924 0-15
D 11-697 0-20
6 11-500 0-20
: 11-079 0-25
:1 11-222 0-25
:0 11-069 0-25
G 10-821 0-25
K1 10-794 0-25
K2 10-600 0-25
K0 10-480 0-25
11-697 0-25 ,o" S1: 10-0
0-00 ,o" S1: R10-0
D2-4-6E
a log
= log 70 . ' ''6 . 17 log N
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 25
DNV GL AS







Figure !-// +-) curve for high strength steel B'+ , curveC
2-4-11 S-N c%"#es ,o" stainless steel
:o" D%&le3 an$ ,o" S%&e" D%&le3 steel one may %se t!e same classi,ication as ,o" 1-In steels-
Also ,o" a%stenitic steel one may %se t!e same classi,ication as ,o" 1-In steels-
2-4-12 S-N c%"#es ,o" small $iamete" %mbilicals
:o" ,ati)%e $esi)n o, small $iamete" &i&e %mbilicals Do%te" $iamete" in t!e "an)e 10 -100 mmE ma$e o,
s%&e" $%&le3 steel (it! a yiel$ st"en)t! la")e" t!an 500 IPa (it! t!ic'nesses in t!e "an)e 1-0 to 10 mm
t!e ,ollo(in) S-N c%"#e can be %se$ ,o" ,ati)%e assessment
(!e"e
A no"mal )oo$ ,ab"ication o, t!e %mbilicals is ass%me$ as basis ,o" t!is $esi)n S-N c%"#e- !e (el$s on t!e
insi$e an$ o%tsi$e o, t!e &i&es s!o%l$ s!o( a smoot! t"ansition ,"om t!e (el$ to t!e base mate"ial (it!o%t
notc!es an$+o" %n$e"c%ts- A $etaile$ ND6 ins&ection ,o" eac! connection is ass%me$-
!e ND6 met!o$s a"e #is%al ins&ection an$ L-"ay- :o" sin)le &ass (el$s* no in$ications a"e acce&table- :o"
m%lti&ass (el$s t!e acce&tance c"ite"ia s!all be acco"$in) to ASI6 @01-0* c!a&te" GL !i)! &"ess%"e se"#ice
)i"t! )"oo#e- Dye &enet"ant s!all be %se$ as a s%",ace test in a$$ition to #is%al ins&ection (!en "ele#ant
in$ications* as $e,ine$ by ASI6 VGGG $i#- 1* a&&-4- a"e ,o%n$ by L-"ay-
!e S-N c%"#e is base$ on ,ati)%e testin) o, s&ecimens s%bCecte$ to a mean st"ess %& to 450 IPa-
!e )i#en S-N c%"#e is establis!e$ ,"om test s&ecimens t!at a"e not &"est"aine$ ,"om "eelin)- 4o(e#e"*
base$ on a ,e( test $ata (it! &"est"aine$ s&ecimens it is consi$e"e$ acce&table to %se t!e S-N c%"#e also
,o" %mbilicals t!at !a#e been "eele$- !%s t!is S-N c%"#e a&&lies also (!en n%mbe" o, cycles %n$e" "eelin)
is less t!an 10 an$ t!e total st"ain "an)e $%"in) "eelin) is less t!an 25-
D2-4-7E
t F act%al t!ic'ness o, t!e %mbilical
t
"e,
F 1-0 mm
10
100
1000
10000 100000 1000000 10000000 100000000
&u'(er o) c*cles
S
t
r
e
s
s

r
a
n
g
e

(
M
P
a
)

+ir
Sea"ater "it$
cat$odic protection

|
|

\
|
=
>

|
|

\
|
=

2) . 0
7
2) . 0
7
log 0 . ) 376 . 17 log
10
log 0 . ' 301 . 1) log
* 10
ref
ref
t
t
N
N for and
t
t
N
N For

Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 26


DNV GL AS







!e ,ollo(in) $esi)n S-N c%"#e can be %se$ ,o" t!e base mate"ial o, %mbilical t%bes
Figure !-/! +-) curve for small diameter pipe for umbilicals
2-4-10 S-N $ata ,o" &iles
!e t"ansition o, t!e (el$ to base mate"ial on t!e o%tsi$e o, t%b%la" )i"t! (el$s can no"mally be classi,ie$
to S-N c%"#e 6- G, (el$in) is &e",o"me$ in a ,lat &osition* it can be classi,ie$ as D- G, (el$in) is &e",o"me$
,"om o%tsi$e only* it s!o%l$ be classi,ie$ as :0 ,o" t!e (el$ "oot-
S-N c%"#e 6 a&&lies to (el$ bea$s-
S-N $ata co""es&on$in) to ai" en#i"onment con$ition is %se$ ,o" t!e &ile $"i#in) &!ase-
S-N $ata co""es&on$in) to en#i"onment o, sea(ate" (it! cat!o$ic &"otection is %se$ ,o" t!e o&e"ational li,e-
!e e,,ect o, toe )"in$in) is $esc"ibe$ in section A7-0B an$ A&&en$i3 AD-15B- K!en ,l%s! )"in$in) o, t!e (el$
is &e",o"me$* t!e im&"o#ement is obtaine$ t!"o%)! %se o, a bette" S-N c%"#e as &"esente$ in able A-5 in
A&&-A-
2-4-14 J%ali,ication o, ne( S-N c%"#es base$ on ,ati)%e test $ata
:o" ?%ali,ication o, ne( S-N $ata to be %se$ in a &"oCect it is im&o"tant t!at t!e test s&ecimens a"e
"e&"esentati#e ,o" t!e act%al ,ab"ication an$ const"%ction- !is incl%$es &ossibility ,o" "ele#ant &"o$%ction
$e,ects as (ell as ,ab"ication tole"ances- !e sensiti#ity to $e,ects may also be assesse$ by ,"act%"e
mec!anics-
:o" ne( ty&es o, connections it is "ecommen$e$ to &e",o"m testin) o, at least 15 s&ecimens in o"$e" to
establis! a ne( S-N c%"#e- At least t!"ee $i,,e"ent st"ess "an)es s!o%l$ be selecte$ in t!e "ele#ant S-N
"e)ion s%c! t!at a "e&"esentati#e slo&e o, t!e S-N c%"#e can be $ete"mine$- Re,e"ence is ma$e to t!e
commenta"y section AD-7B* ,o" a b"oa$e" assessment o, !o( to $e"i#e S-N c%"#es ,"om ,e( ,ati)%e test $ata-
Re,e"ence is also ma$e to GGK $oc%ment no GGK-LGGG-KG1-114-00 ,o" statistical analysis o, t!e ,ati)%e test
$ata- No"mally ,ati)%e test $ata a"e $e"i#e$ ,o" n%mbe" o, cycles less t!an 10
7
- Gt s!o%l$ be note$ t!at ,o"
o,,s!o"e st"%ct%"es si)ni,icant ,ati)%e $ama)e occ%"s ,o" N 10
7
cycles- !%s !o( to e3t"a&olate t!e ,ati)%e
test $ata into t!is !i)! cycle "e)ion is im&o"tant in o"$e" to ac!ie#e a "eliable assessment &"oce$%"e- Gn
a$$ition to statistical analysis one s!o%l$ %se en)inee"in) C%$)ement base$ on e3&e"ience ,o" $e"i#ation o,
t!e S-N $ata in t!is "e)ion- Gt is (ell 'no(n t!at )oo$ $etails (!e"e ,ati)%e initiation cont"ib%te si)ni,icantly
to t!e ,ati)%e li,e s!o( a mo"e !o"iNontal S-N c%"#e t!an ,o" less )oo$ $etails (!e"e t!e ,ati)%e li,e consists
mainly o, c"ac' )"o(t!- Re,e"ence is also ma$e to S-N c%"#es (it! $i,,e"ent slo&es s!o(n in t!is c!a&te"-
D2-4-9E

=
>
=

log 0 . ) 376 . 17 log


10
log 0 . ' 301 . 1) log
* 10
7
7
N
N for and
N
N For
10
100
1000
1.00E+04 1.00E+05 1.00E+06 1.00E+07 1.00E+08 1.00E+0!
Number of cycles
S
t
r
e
s
s

r
a
n
g
e

(
M
P
a
)

Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 27
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!e "esi$%al st"esses at (el$ toes o, small scale test s&ecimens a"e no"mally small as com&a"e$ (it! t!at in
act%al ,%ll siNe st"%ct%"es $%e to $i,,e"ent "est"aints $%"in) ,ab"ication- !is is an item t!at is o, im&o"tance
(!en &lannin) ,ati)%e testin) an$ ,o" assessment o, $esi)n S-N c%"#es- Re,e"ence is ma$e to t!e
commenta"y section-
Gt s!o%l$ also be "emembe"e$ t!at ,o" N 10
7
cycles t!e"e is a$$itional %nce"tainty $%e to #a"iable
am&lit%$e loa$in)- !is is an iss%e t!at s!o%l$ be 'e&t in min$ i, less conse"#ati#e S-N c%"#es t!an )i#en
in t!is RP a"e aime$ ,o" by ?%ali,yin) a ne( S-N c%"#e-
Also t!e &"obability o, $etectin) $e,ects $%"in) a &"o$%ction s!o%l$ be 'e&t in min$ in t!is "es&ect- !e
$e,ects t!at no"mally can be $etecte$ by an acce&table &"obability a"e no"mally la")e" t!an t!at in!e"ent
in t!e test s&ecimens t!at a"e &"o$%ce$ to establis! test $ata ,o" a ne( S-N c%"#e-
!.5 .ean stress influence for non welded structures
:o" ,ati)%e analysis o, "e)ions in t!e base mate"ial not si)ni,icantly a,,ecte$ by "esi$%al st"esses $%e to
(el$in)* t!e st"ess "an)e may be "e$%ce$ i, &a"t o, t!e st"ess cycle is in com&"ession-
!is "e$%ction may e-)- be ca""ie$ o%t ,o" c%t-o%ts in t!e base mate"ial- !e calc%late$ st"ess "an)e
obtaine$ may be m%lti&lie$ by t!e "e$%ction ,acto" ,
m
as obtaine$ ,"om :i)%"e 2-10 be,o"e ente"in) t!e S-
N c%"#e-
!e "e$%ction ,acto" can be $e"i#e$ ,"om t!e ,ollo(in) e?%ation:
(!e"e
Figure !-/# +tress range reduction factor to be used with the +-) curve for base material
!.6 %ffect of fabrication tolerances
No"mally la")e" ,ab"ication tole"ances a"e allo(e$ in "eal st"%ct%"es t!an t!at acco%nte$ ,o" in t!e test
s&ecimens %se$ to $e"i#e S-N $ata* "e,- D") ;'C:+*< Fa!rication and 3esting of ;ffshore 'tructures-
!e"e,o"e* a$$itional st"esses "es%ltin) ,"om no"mal ,ab"ication tole"ances s!o%l$ be incl%$e$ in t!e ,ati)%e
$esi)n- S&ecial attention s!o%l$ be )i#en to t!e ,ab"ication tole"ances ,o" sim&le b%tt (el$s in &lates an$
t%b%la"s as t!ese )i#e t!e most si)ni,icant inc"ease in a$$itional st"ess- St"ess concent"ation ,acto"s ,o" b%tt
(el$s a"e )i#en in section A0-1-2B an$ at t%b%la" ci"c%m,e"ential (el$s in section A0-0-7B-
!.1 Re7uirements to )D% and acceptance criteria
Re,e"ence is ma$e to DNV-2S-1401 :ab"ication an$ estin) o, 2,,s!o"e St"%ct%"es ,o" "e?%i"ements to non
$est"%cti#e e3amination DND6E- Re,e"ence is also ma$e to DNV-2S-1401 (it! "es&ect to acce&tance
c"ite"ia- Some acce&tance c"ite"ia "elate$ to t!e $i,,e"ent classi,ication o, st"%ct%"al $etails a"e also
&"esente$ in A&&-A-
:o" %mbilical &i&es "e?%i"ements to ND6 a"e &"esente$ in section A2-4-12B- :o" &a"tial &enet"ation (el$s
"e?%i"ements to ND6 a"e &"esente$ in section A2-9B-
D2-5-1E

t
Fma3im%m tension st"ess (!e"e tension is $e,ine$ as &ositi#e

c
Fma3im%m com&"ession st"ess (!e"e com&"ession is $e,ine$ as ne)ati#e
,
m
F0 i, t!e ,%ll st"ess cycle is com&"essi#e-

c t
c t
m
f


+
+
=
6 . 0



1.0
0.6
f
m
Tension
Compression

m
= 0
m
= -/2

m
= /2
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 29
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Gn )ene"al t!e "e?%i"ements to ND6 an$ acce&tance c"ite"ia a"e bein) inc"ease$ (!en )oin) ,"om t!e lo(e"
to t!e !i)! le#el S-N c%"#es- !is s!o%l$ also be consi$e"e$ (!en $esi)nin) connections s!o(in) a !i)!
,ati)%e %tilisation-
!.4 Design chart for fillet and partial penetration welds
Desi)n s!o%l$ be &e",o"me$ s%c! t!at ,ati)%e c"ac'in) ,"om t!e "oot is less li'ely t!an ,"om t!e toe "e)ion-
!e "eason ,o" t!is is t!at a ,ati)%e c"ac' at t!e toe can be ,o%n$ by in-se"#ice ins&ection (!ile a ,ati)%e
c"ac' sta"tin) at t!e "oot can not be $isco#e"e$ be,o"e t!e c"ac' !as )"o(n t!"o%)! t!e (el$- !%s t!e
$esi)n o, t!e (el$ )eomet"y s!o%l$ be &e",o"me$ s%c! t!at t!e ,ati)%e li,e ,o" c"ac's sta"tin) at t!e "oot
is lon)e" t!an t!e ,ati)%e li,e o, t!e toe- :i)%"e 2-15 can be %se$ ,o" e#al%ation o, "e?%i"e$ &enet"ation- !e
notation %se$ is e3&laine$ by :i)%"e 2-14-
Gt s!o%l$ be a$$e$ t!at it is $i,,ic%lt to $etect inte"nal $e,ects by ND6 in ,illet+&a"tial &enet"ation (el$s- S%c!
connections s!o%l$ t!e"e,o"e not be %se$ in st"%ct%"al connections o, si)ni,icant im&o"tance ,o" t!e
inte)"ity-
Figure !-/3 &elded connection with partial penetration weld
Figure !-/5 &eld geometry with probability of root failure e7ual toe failure
0
0.,
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.,
0 0.1 0., 0.- 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.! 1
2a
!
"t
#
$
"
t
#
tp . 50 ''
tp . ,5 ''
tp . 1, ''
tp . 6''
Weld toe )ailure
Weld root )ailure
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 28
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!.8 9olts
2-8-1 Gene"al
A bolte$ Coint connection s%bCecte$ to $ynamic loa$in) s!o%l$ be $esi)ne$ (it! &"etensione$ bolts- !e
&"etension s!o%l$ be !i)! eno%)! to a#oi$ sli&&in) a,te" "ele#ant loss o, &"etension $%"in) se"#ice li,e-
2-8-2 @olts s%bCecte$ to tension loa$in)
1onnections (!e"e t!e &"etensione$ bolts a"e s%bCecte$ to $ynamic a3ial ,o"ces s!o%l$ be $esi)ne$ (it!
"es&ect to ,ati)%e ta'in) into acco%nt t!e st"ess "an)e in t!e bolts "es%ltin) ,"om tension an$ com&"ession
"an)e- !e st"ess "an)e in t!e bolts may be assesse$ base$ on e-)- ;Ias'in$ele" 2<* "e,- +20+* o"
;Systematic 1alc%lation o, 4i)! D%ty @olte$ Uoints<* "e,- +26+-
:o" S-N classi,ication see able A-2 o, A&&-A-
2-8-0 @olts s%bCecte$ to s!ea" loa$in)
:o" bolts s%bCect to s!ea" loa$in) t!e ,ollo(in) met!o$olo)y may be %se$ ,o" ,ati)%e assessment- !e
t!"ea$s o, t!e bolts s!o%l$ not be in t!e s!ea" &lane- !e met!o$olo)y may be %se$ ,o" ,itte$ bolts o" ,o"
no"mal bolts (it!o%t loa$ "e#e"sal- !e s!ea" st"ess to be calc%late$ base$ on t!e s!an' a"ea o, t!e bolt-
!en n%mbe" o, cycles to ,ail%"e can be $e"i#e$ ,"om
(!e"e F s!ea" st"ess base$ on s!a,t a"ea o, bolt-
!./" Pipelines and risers
2-10-1 St"esses at )i"t! (el$s in seam (el$e$ &i&es an$ S-N $ata
Kel$s in &i&elines a"e no"mally ma$e (it! a symmet"ic (el$ )"oo#e (it! (el$in) ,"om t!e o%tsi$e only-
!e tole"ances a"e "at!e" st"ict com&a"e$ (it! ot!e" st"%ct%"al elements (it! eccent"icity less t!an 0-1 t o"
ma3im%m 0 mm Dt F (all t!ic'nessE- !e ,ab"ication o, &i&elines also im&lies a systematic an$ stan$a"$ise$
ND6 o, t!e "oot a"ea (!e"e $e,ects a"e most c"itical- P"o#i$e$ t!at t!e same acce&tance c"ite"ia a"e %se$
,o" &i&elines (it! la")e" (all t!ic'ness as ,o" t!at %se$ as "e,e"ence t!ic'ness D25 mmE* a t!ic'ness
e3&onent ' F 0 may be %se$ ,o" !ot s&ot at t!e "oot an$ ' F 0-15 ,o" t!e (el$ toe- P"o#i$e$ t!at t!ese
"e?%i"ements a"e ,%l,ille$* t!e $etail at t!e "oot si$e may be classi,ie$ as :1 (it! S1: F 1-0* "e,- able 2-
4- !e :-c%"#e an$ S1: F 1-0 may be %se$ ,o" (el$in) on tem&o"a"y bac'in)* "e,- able 2-4-
Re,e"ence is ma$e to able 2-4 ,o" ot!e" tole"ances an$ (el$in) ,"om bot! si$es-
:o" (el$ )"oo#es t!at a"e not symmet"ical in s!a&e a st"ess concent"ation ,o" t!e (el$ "oot $%e to ma3im%m
allo(able eccent"icity s!o%l$ be incl%$e$- !is st"ess concent"ation ,acto" can be assesse$ base$ on t!e
,ollo(in) analytical e3&"ession:
(!e"e notations a"e s!o(n in :i)%"e 0-9-
!is st"ess concent"ation ,acto" can also be %se$ ,o" ,ati)%e assessments o, t!e (el$ toes* "e,- also able
2-4- !e
m
#al%e may be base$ on consi$e"ation o, !i+lo #al%es acce&te$ ,o" ,ab"ication+installation as
&"esente$ in A&&en$i3 A o, DNV-2S-:101-
!e nominal st"ess on t!e o%tsi$e o, t!e &i&e s!o%l$ be %se$ ,o" ,ati)%e assessment o, t!e o%tsi$e an$ t!e
nominal st"ess on t!e insi$e o, t!e &i&e s!o%l$ be %se$ ,o" ,ati)%e assessment o, t!e insi$e- !e memb"ane
st"ess in t!e consi$e"e$ section s!o%l$ be %se$ ,o" calc%lation o, local ben$in) st"ess o#e" t!e t!ic'ness
to)et!e" (it! st"ess concent"ation ,acto" ,"om e?%ation D2-10-1E-
lo)" F 16-001-5-0 lo) D2-8-1E
D2-10-1E
D t m /
!
t
+ 3
1 SCF

+ =
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Re,e"ence is also ma$e to t!e commenta"y section AD-14B(!e"e a mo"e $etaile$ )%i$ance is incl%$e$-
2-10-2 1ombine$ eccent"icity ,o" ,ati)%e analysis o, seamless &i&es
:o" (el$e$ &i&es it is o#ality t!at no"mally (ill )o#e"n t!e "es%ltin) eccent"icity- !%s t!e e,,ect o,
tole"ances can sim&ly be a$$e$ linea"ly-
:o" seamless &i&es it is "ealise$ t!at t!e t!ic'ness tole"ance cont"ib%tes by a simila" ma)nit%$e to t!e
"es%ltin) eccent"icity- A "es%ltin) tole"ance to be %se$ ,o" calc%lation o, st"ess concent"ation ,acto" %sin)
e?%ation D2-10-1E can be obtaine$ as
(!e"e
Re,e"ence is ma$e to DNV-2S-:101 Section 6 1la%se 61200 ,o" meas%"ements o, tole"ances-
2-10-0 S1:s ,o" &i&es (it! inte"nal &"ess%"e
Re,e"ence is ma$e to commenta"y ,o" st"ess concent"ation ,acto"s ,o" ot!e" $etails in &i&elines an$
cylin$"ical tan's (it! st"ess cyclin) mainly $%e to inte"nal &"ess%"e-
Table !-3 lassification of welds in pipelines
Description
3olerance re6uirement '" curve
3hickness
e(ponent k
'CF
=elding Geometry and hot spot
Sin)le si$e

m
min D0-15t* 0 mmE :1 0-00 1-0

m
R min D0-15t* 0 mmE :0 0-00 1-0
Sin)le si$e
on bac'in)

m
min D0-1t* 2 mmE : 0-00 1-0

m
R min D0-1t* 2 mmE :1 0-00 1-0
Sin)le si$e D 0-15 6?- D2-10-1E
Do%ble si$e D 0-15 6?- D2-10-1E
D2-10-2E

!ic'ness
F Dt
ma3
- t
min
E+2

2#ality
F D
ma3
- D
min
i, t!e &i&es a"e s%&&o"te$ s%c! t!at ,l%s! o%tsi$e at one &oint is ac!ie#e$ Dno &i&e
cent"alisin)E

2#ality
F DD
ma3
- D
min
E+2 i, t!e &i&es a"e cent"alise$ $%"in) const"%ction

2#ality
F DD
ma3
- D
min
E+4 i, t!e &i&es a"e cent"alise$ $%"in) const"%ction an$ "otate$ %ntil a )oo$ ,it
a"o%n$ t!e ci"c%m,e"ence is ac!ie#e$
,ot spot
,ot spot
,ot spot
,ot spot

2
Ovality
2
Thickness m
+ =
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!.// *uidance to when a detailed fatigue analysis can be omitted
A $etaile$ ,ati)%e analysis can be omitte$ i, t!e la")est local st"ess "an)e ,o" act%al $etails $e,ine$ in e?-
D2-0-1E is less t!an t!e ,ati)%e limit at 10
7
cycles in able 2-1 ,o" ai" an$ able 2-2 ,o" sea(ate" (it!
cat!o$ic &"otection- :o" Desi)n :ati)%e :acto"s la")e" t!an one t!e allo(able ,ati)%e limit s!o%l$ also !e"e
be "e$%ce$ by a ,acto" DD::E
-0-00
- :o" $e,inition o, D:: see 2S-1101 "e,- +29+-
Re?%i"ements to $etaile$ ,ati)%e analysis may also be assesse$ base$ on t!e ,ati)%e assessment c!a"ts in
:i)%"e 5-1 an$ :i)%"e 5-2-
!e %se o, t!e ,ati)%e limit is ill%st"ate$ in :i)%"e 2-15- A $etaile$ ,ati)%e assessment can be omitte$ i, t!e
la")est st"ess cycle is belo( t!e ,ati)%e limit- 4o(e#e"* in t!e e3am&le in :i)%"e 2-16 t!e"e is one st"ess
cycle
1
abo#e t!e ,ati)%e limit- !is means t!at a ,%"t!e" ,ati)%e assessment is "e?%i"e$- !is also means
t!at t!e ,ati)%e $ama)e ,"om t!e st"ess cycles
2
!as to be incl%$e$ in t!e ,ati)%e assessment-
Figure !-/6 +tress cycling where further fatigue assessment can be omitted
Figure !-/1 +tress cycling where a detailed fatigue assessment is re7uired
&
S
/0
1
Fatigue li'it
Stress c*cling
&
S
/0
1
Fatigue li'it
Stress c*cling
&
S
/0
1
/0
,
Fatigue li'it
Stress c*cling
&
S
/0
1
/0
,
Fatigue li'it
Stress c*cling
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+%T0$) # +TR%++ $)%)TR(T0$) F(T$R+
#./ +tress concentration factors for plated structures
0-1-1 Gene"al
A st"ess concent"ation ,acto" may be $e,ine$ as t!e "atio o, !ot s&ot st"ess "an)e o#e" nominal st"ess "an)e-
0-1-2 St"ess concent"ation ,acto"s ,o" b%tt (el$s
!e eccent"icity bet(een (el$e$ &lates may be acco%nte$ ,o" in t!e calc%lation o, st"ess concent"ation
,acto"- !e ,ollo(in) ,o"m%la a&&lies ,o" a b%tt (el$ in an %nsti,,ene$ &late o" ,o" a &i&e b%tt (el$ (it! a
la")e "a$i%s:
(!e"e

m
is eccent"icity Dmisali)nmentE an$ t is &late t!ic'ness* see :i)%"e 0-8-

0
F 0-1 t is misali)nment in!e"ent in t!e S-N $ata ,o" b%tt (el$s an$ analysis &"oce$%"e ,o" &late$
st"%ct%"es (it! an e3&ecte$ ,ab"ication tole"ance t!at is lo(e" t!an t!at allo(e$ in ,ab"ication s&eci,ication
an$ as %se$ in $esi)n- See DNV-2S-1401 ,o" ,ab"ication tole"ances-
!e st"ess concent"ation ,o" t!e (el$ bet(een &lates (it! $i,,e"ent t!ic'ness in a &late ,iel$ may be $e"i#e$
,"om t!e ,ollo(in) ,o"m%la:
(!e"e
See also :i)%"e 0-9-
0-1-0 St"ess concent"ation ,acto"s ,o" c"%ci,o"m Coints
!e st"ess concent"ation ,acto" ,o" c"%ci,o"m Coint at &late t!ic'ness t
i
may be $e"i#e$ ,"om ,ollo(in)
,o"m%la:
(!e"e
D0-1-1E
D0-1-2E

m
F ma3im%m misali)nment

t
F V D tE eccent"icity $%e to c!an)e in t!ic'ness-
Note: !is a&&lies also at t"ansitions slo&e$ as 1:4-

0
F 0-1 t is misali)nment in!e"ent in t!e S-N $ata ,o" b%tt (el$s an$ analysis &"oce$%"e ,o" &late$
st"%ct%"es (it! an e3&ecte$ ,ab"ication tole"ance t!at is lo(e" t!an t!at allo(e$ in ,ab"ication
s&eci,ication an$ as %se$ in $esi)n- See DNV-2S-1401 ,o" ,ab"ication tole"ances-
F t!ic'ness o, t!ic'e" &late
t F t!ic'ness o, t!inne" &late
D0-1-0E
F D
m
W
t
E is t!e total eccent"icity
t
% + ( 3
1 SCF
0 m

+ =
( )
(

+
+
+ =
) . 1
) . 1
0 m
1
6
1 SCF
t
T
t
t

|
|

\
|
+ + +

+ =
'
3
'
3
3
3
2
3
2
1
3
1
i
0
2
% ( 6
1 SCF
l
t
l
t
l
t
l
t
l
t
i

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!e ot!e" symbols a"e $e,ine$ in :i)%"e 0-1-
Figure #-/ ruciform :oint
0-1-4 St"ess concent"ation ,acto"s ,o" "o%n$e$ "ectan)%la" !oles
St"ess concent"ation ,acto"s ,o" "o%n$e$ "ectan)%la" !oles a"e )i#en in :i)%"e 0-2-
K!e"e t!e"e is one st"ess "aise" close to anot!e" $etail bein) e#al%ate$ (it! "es&ect to ,ati)%e* t!e
inte"action o, st"ess bet(een t!ese s!o%l$ be consi$e"e$- An e3am&le o, t!is is a (el$e$ connection in a
#icinity o, a !ole- !en t!e inc"ease in st"ess at t!e consi$e"e$ $etail $%e to t!e !ole can be e#al%ate$ ,"om
:i)%"e 0-0-
Some )%i$elines on e,,ect o, inte"action o, $i,,e"ent !oles can be ,o%n$ in Pete"son.s ;St"ess 1oncent"ation
:acto"s<* +15+E-

0
F 0-15 t
i
is misali)nment embe$$e$ in S-N $ata ,o" c"%ci,o"m Coints an$ analysis &"oce$%"e (!en
incl%$in) e,,ect o, ,ab"ication tole"ances- See DNV-2S-1401 ,o" ,ab"ication tole"ances-
t
i
F t!ic'ness o, t!e consi$e"e$ &late Di F 1* 2E
l
i
F len)t! o, consi$e"e$ &late Di F 1* 2E
l
3
l
'
l
2
l
1
t
2 t
1
t
3
t
'

l
3
l
'
l
2
l
1
t
2 t
1
t
3
t
'

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Figure #-! +tress concentration factors for rounded rectangular holes
Figure #-# +tress distribution at a hole
0
1
,
-
4
5
6
0 01 0, 0- 04 05 06
r " b
S
C
F
r
(1a.1.5
(1a.1.0
(1a.0.5
(1a.0.,5
(1a.,.0
a
(
0.00
0.20
0.'0
0.60
0.-0
1.00
1.20
1.'0
1.60
1.-0
2.00
2.20
2.'0
2.60
2.-0
3.00
1.00 1.20 1.'0 1.60 1.-0 2.00 2.20 2.'0 2.60 2.-0 3.00 3.20 3.'0 3.60 3.-0 '.00
Relative distance from centre of hole x/r
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

s
t
r
e
s
s

St!ss .i!ction
//
0in! $o calc1lation o$ st!ss
0in! $o calc1lation
o$ st!ss
r
2
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0-1-5 St"ess concent"ation ,acto"s ,o" !oles (it! e$)e "ein,o"cement
St"ess concent"ation ,acto"s ,o" !oles (it! "ein,o"cement a"e )i#en in A&&-1-
:ati)%e c"ac'in) a"o%n$ a ci"c%m,e"ential (el$ may occ%" at se#e"al locations at "ein,o"ce$ "in)s in &lates
$e&en$in) on )eomet"y o, "in) an$ (el$ siNe-
1E :ati)%e c"ac'in) t"ans#e"se to t!e (el$ toe in a "e)ion (it! a la")e st"ess concent"ation )i#in) la")e
st"ess &a"allel to t!e (el$ D:le3ible "ein,o"cementE- See :i)%"e 0-4 aE- !en
!ot s&ot F &
2E :ati)%e c"ac'in) &a"allel to t!e (el$ toe DSti,, "ein,o"cement (it! la")e (el$ siNeE- See :i)%"e 0-4 bE-
:ati)%e c"ac' initiatin) ,"om t!e (el$ toe- !e &"inci&al st"ess
1
is t!e c"ac' $"i#in) st"ess-
!en
!ot s&ot
/
1
Also t!e "e)ion at t!e c"o(n &osition nee$s to be c!ec'e$-
!en
!ot s&ot
/
n
As an alte"nati#e to %sin) t!e &"inci&al st"ess as !ot s&ot st"ess at 45X &osition in :i)%"e 0-4 bE one may
%se t!e conce&t o, e,,ecti#e !ot s&ot st"ess as $esc"ibe$ in section A4-0-4B- Re,e"ence is also ma$e to
section A4-0-8B-
0E :ati)%e c"ac'in) ,"om t!e (el$ "oot DSti,, "ein,o"cement (it! small ,illet (el$ siNeE- See :i)%"e 0-4 cE-
:o" ,illet (el$s all t!ese &ositions s!o%l$ be assesse$ (it! "es&ect to ,ati)%e- :o" ,%ll &enet"ation (el$s t!e
,i"st t(o &oints s!o%l$ be assesse$-
Figure #-3 Potential fatigue crac< locations at welded penetrations
aC
bC
cC

p
Fill!t w!l.

1
2ns!t
T131la
n
'
)
4

n
'
)
4

p
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 06
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All t!ese &otential "e)ions ,o" ,ati)%e c"ac'in) s!o%l$ be assesse$ in a $esi)n (it! %se o, a&&"o&"iate st"ess
concent"ation ,acto"s ,o" !oles (it! "ein,o"cement-
:o" st"esses to be %se$ to)et!e" (it! t!e $i,,e"ent S-N c%"#es see section A2-0B-
#otential fatigue cracking transverse to the %eld toe
:o" st"esses &a"allel (it! t!e (el$ t!e local st"ess to be %se$ to)et!e" (it! t!e 1 c%"#e is obtaine$ (it! S1:
,"om A&&-1 D
!ot s&ot
in :i)%"e 0-4 aE-
#otential fatigue cracking parallel %ith the %eld toe
:o" st"esses no"mal to t!e (el$ t!e "es%ltin) !ot s&ot st"ess to be %se$ to)et!e" (it! t!e D c%"#e is obtaine$
(it! S1: ,"om A&&en$i3 1 D
!ot s&ot
in :i)%"e 0-4 bE-
#otential fatigue cracking from the %eld root
At some locations o, t!e (el$s t!e"e a"e st"esses in t!e &late t"ans#e"se to t!e ,illet (el$*
n
* an$ s!ea"
st"ess in t!e &late &a"allel (it! t!e (el$
++&
see :i)%"e 0-4 cE- !en t!e ,illet (el$ is $esi)ne$ ,o" a combine$
st"ess obtaine$ as
(!e"e
!e total st"ess "an)e Di-e- ma3im%m com&"ession an$ ma3im%m tensionE s!o%l$ be consi$e"e$ to be
t"ansmitte$ t!"o%)! t!e (el$s ,o" ,ati)%e assessments- Re,e"ence is also ma$e to A&&-1 ,o" an e3am&le-
6?%ation D0-1-4E can be o%tline$ ,"om e?%ation D2-0-4E an$ t!e "es%ltin) st"ess "an)e is to be %se$ to)et!e"
(it! t!e K0 c%"#e- !e st"esses in t!e &late as s!o(n in :i)%"e 0-4 is $e"i#e$ ,"om A&&-1-
0-1-6 St"ess concent"ation ,acto"s ,o" scallo&s
Re,e"ence is ma$e to :i)%"e 0-5 ,o" st"ess concent"ation ,acto"s ,o" scallo&s-
!e st"ess concent"ation ,acto"s a"e a&&licable to sti,,ene"s s%bCect to a3ial loa$s- :o" si)ni,icant $ynamic
&"ess%"e loa$s on t!e &late t!ese $etails a"e s%sce&tible to ,ati)%e c"ac'in) an$ ot!e" $esi)n sol%tions
s!o%l$ be consi$e"e$ to ac!ie#e a &"o&e" ,ati)%e li,e-
D0-1-4E
t F &late t!ic'ness
a F t!"oat t!ic'ness ,o" a $o%ble si$e$ ,illet (el$
2
//
2
2 . 0
2
p n w
a
t
+ =
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 07
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Figure #-5 +tress concentration factors for scallops
#.! +tress concentration factors for ship details
St"ess concent"ation ,acto"s ,o" s!i& $etails may be ,o%n$ in ;:ati)%e Assessment o, S!i& St"%ct%"es< D1N
00-7E* "e,- +1+-
#.# Tubular :oints and members
0-0-1 St"ess concent"ation ,acto"s ,o" sim&le t%b%la" Coints
St"ess concent"ation ,acto"s ,o" sim&le t%b%la" Coints a"e )i#en in A&&-@-
0-0-2 S%&e"&osition o, st"esses in t%b%la" Coints
!e st"esses a"e calc%late$ at t!e c"o(n an$ t!e sa$$le &oints* see :i)%"e 0-6- !en t!e !ot s&ot st"ess at
t!ese &oints is $e"i#e$ by s%mmation o, t!e sin)le st"ess com&onents ,"om a3ial* in-&lane an$ o%t o, &lane
action- !e !ot s&ot st"ess may be !i)!e" ,o" t!e inte"me$iate &oints bet(een t!e sa$$le an$ t!e c"o(n-
!e !ot s&ot st"ess at t!ese &oints is $e"i#e$ by a linea" inte"&olation o, t!e st"ess $%e to t!e a3ial action
at t!e c"o(n an$ sa$$le an$ a sin%soi$al #a"iation o, t!e ben$in) st"ess "es%ltin) ,"om in-&lane an$ o%t o,
&lane ben$in)- !%s t!e !ot s&ot st"ess s!o%l$ be e#al%ate$ at 9 s&ots a"o%n$ t!e ci"c%m,e"ence o, t!e
inte"section* "e,- :i)%"e 0-7-
S1: F 2-4 at &oint A Dmisali)nment not incl%$e$E
S1: F 1-27 at &oint @
S1: F 1-17 at &oint A Dmisali)nment not incl%$e$E
S1: F 1-27 at &oint @
S1: F 1-27 at &oint A Dmisali)nment not incl%$e$E
S1: F 1-27 at &oint @
S1: F 1-17 at &oint A Dmisali)nment not incl%$e$E
S1: F 1-27 at &oint @
:o" scallo&s (it!o%t t"ans#e"se (el$s* t!e S1: at &oint @ (ill be )o#e"nin) ,o" t!e $esi)n-
D0-0-1E
5
6
1)0
3
)
6
5
5
6
3
)
120
120
1
0
3
)
6
5
m7 89: m; 82: / 5S 5C -
m7 89: / 5S 7
m7 89: m; 82: / 5S 5C 6
m; 82: / 5C )
m7 89: m; 82: / 5S 5C '
m7 89: / 5S 3
m7 89: m; 82: / 5S 5C 2
m; 82: / 5C 1
SCF 2
2
1
SCF 2
2
1
% SCF (SCF
2
1

SCF SCF
SCF 2
2
1
SCF 2
2
1
% SCF (SCF
2
1

SCF SCF
SCF 2
2
1
SCF 2
2
1
% SCF (SCF
2
1

SCF SCF
SCF 2
2
1
SCF 2
2
1
% SCF (SCF
2
1

SCF SCF
+ + + =
+ =
+ + =
=
+ =
=
+ + =
+ =
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 09
DNV GL AS







4e"e
3
*
my
an$
mN
a"e t!e ma3im%m nominal st"esses $%e to a3ial loa$ an$ ben$in) in-&lane an$ o%t-
o,-&lane "es&ecti#ely- S1:
AS
is t!e st"ess concent"ation ,acto" at t!e sa$$le ,o" a3ial loa$ an$ t!e S1:
A1
is
t!e st"ess concent"ation ,acto" at t!e c"o(n- S1:
IGP
is t!e st"ess concent"ation ,acto" ,o" in &lane moment
an$ S1:
I2P
is t!e st"ess concent"ation ,acto" ,o" o%t o, &lane moment-
Figure #-6 *eometrical definitions for tubular :oints
Figure #-1 +uperposition of stresses
Gn,l%ence ,%nctions may be %se$ as an alte"nati#e to t!e &"oce$%"e )i#en !e"e to calc%late !ot s&ot st"ess-
See e-)- ;1ombine$ 4ot-S&ot St"ess P"oce$%"es ,o" %b%la" Uoints<* "e,- +24+ an$ ;De#elo&ment o, S1:
:o"m%lae an$ Gene"alise$ Gn,l%ence :%nctions ,o" %se in :ati)%e Analysis< "e,- +2+-
5/ial loa.
7
/
;
1
2
3
'
)
6
7
-
2n<plan! 91t<o$<plan!
3!n.ing mom!nt 3!n.ing mom!nt
"
8
2:
8
9:
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 08
DNV GL AS







0-0-0 %b%la" Coints (el$e$ ,"om one si$e
!e "oot a"ea o, sin)le-si$e$ (el$e$ t%b%la" Coints may be mo"e c"itical (it! "es&ect to ,ati)%e c"ac's t!an
t!e o%tsi$e "e)ion connectin) t!e b"ace to t!e c!o"$- Gn s%c! cases* it is "ecommen$e$ t!at st%bs a"e
&"o#i$e$ ,o" t%b%la" Coints (!e"e !i)! ,ati)%e st"en)t! is "e?%i"e$* s%c! t!at (el$in) ,"om t!e bac'si$e can
be &e",o"me$-
:ail%"e ,"om t!e "oot !as been obse"#e$ at t!e sa$$le &osition o, t%b%la" Coints (!e"e t!e b"ace $iamete"
is e?%al t!e c!o"$ $iamete"* bot! in labo"ato"y tests an$ in se"#ice- Gt is li'ely t!at ,ati)%e c"ac'in) ,"om
t!e "oot mi)!t occ%" ,o" "at!e" lo( st"ess concent"ations- !%s* s&ecial attention s!o%l$ be )i#en to Coints
ot!e" t!an sim&le Coints* s%c! as "in)-sti,,ene$ Coints an$ Coints (!e"e (el$ &"o,ilin) o" )"in$in) on t!e
s%",ace is "e?%i"e$ to ac!ie#e s%,,icient ,ati)%e li,e- Gt s!o%l$ be "emembe"e$ t!at s%",ace im&"o#ement
$oes not inc"ease t!e ,ati)%e li,e at t!e "oot-
Some )%i$ance on ,ati)%e assessment o, t!e "oot si$e is )i#en in section AD-10B o, A&&en$i3 D-
D%e to limite$ accessibility ,o" in se"#ice ins&ection a !i)!e" $esi)n ,ati)%e ,acto" s!o%l$ be %se$ ,o" t!e
(el$ "oot t!an ,o" t!e o%tsi$e (el$ toe !ot s&ot- Re,e"ence is also ma$e to A&&-D* 1ommenta"y
0-0-4 Sti,,ene$ t%b%la" Coints
6?%ations ,o" Coints ,o" "in) sti,,ene$ Coints a"e )i#en in ;St"ess 1oncent"ation :acto"s ,o" Rin)-Sti,,ene$
%b%la" Uoints<* "e,- +0+- !e ,ollo(in) &oints s!o%l$ be note$ "e)a"$in) t!e e?%ations:
> !e $e"i#e$ S1: "atios ,o" t!e b"ace+c!o"$ inte"section an$ t!e S1:s ,o" t!e "in) e$)e a"e mean #al%es*
alt!o%)! t!e $e)"ee o, scatte" an$ &"o&ose$ $esi)n ,acto"s a"e )i#en-
> S!o"t c!o"$ e,,ects s!all be ta'en into acco%nt (!e"e "ele#ant-
> :o" Coints (it! $iamete" "atio 0-9* t!e e,,ect o, sti,,enin) is %nce"tain- Gt may e#en inc"ease t!e S1:-
> !e ma3im%m o, t!e sa$$le an$ c"o(n st"ess concent"ation ,acto" #al%es s!o%l$ be a&&lie$ a"o%n$ t!e
(!ole b"ace+c!o"$ inte"section-
> !e ,ollo(in) &oints can be ma$e abo%t t!e %se o, "in) sti,,ene"s in )ene"al:
> !in s!ell :6 analysis s!o%l$ be a#oi$e$ ,o" calc%latin) t!e S1: i, t!e ma3im%m st"ess is e3&ecte$ to be
nea" t!e b"ace-"in) c"ossin) &oint in t!e ,ati)%e analysis- An alte"nati#e is to %se a t!"ee-$imensional soli$
element analysis mo$el-
> Rin) sti,,ene"s !a#e a ma"'e$ e,,ect on t!e ci"c%m,e"ential st"ess in t!e c!o"$* b%t !a#e little o" no e,,ect
on t!e lon)it%$inal st"ess-
> Rin) sti,,ene"s o%tsi$e t!e b"ace ,oot&"int !a#e little e,,ect on t!e S1:* b%t may be o, !el& ,o" t!e static
st"en)t!-
> :ail%"es in t!e "in) inne" e$)e o" b"ace "in) inte",ace occ%" inte"nally* an$ (ill &"obably only be $etecte$
a,te" t!"o%)! t!ic'ness c"ac'in)* at (!ic! t!e maCo"ity o, t!e ,ati)%e li,e (ill !a#e been e3&i"e$- !ese
a"eas s!o%l$ t!e"e,o"e be consi$e"e$ as non-ins&ectable %nless mo"e so&!isticate$ ins&ection met!o$s
a"e %se$-
0-0-5 G"o%te$ t%b%la" Coints
#.#.5./ *eneral
G"o%te$ Coints !a#e eit!e" t!e c!o"$ com&letely ,ille$ (it! )"o%t Dsin)le s'in )"o%te$ CointsE o" t!e ann%l%s
bet(een t!e c!o"$ an$ an inne" membe" ,ille$ (it! )"o%t D$o%ble s'in )"o%te$ CointsE- !e S1: o, a )"o%te$
Coint $e&en$s on loa$ !isto"y an$ loa$in) $i"ection- !e S1: is less i, t!e bon$ bet(een t!e c!o"$ an$ t!e
)"o%t is %nb"o'en- :o" mo$el testin) o, )"o%te$ Coints t!e bon$ s!o%l$ be b"o'en &"io" to S1:
meas%"ements- !e tensile an$ com&"essi#e S1: may be $i,,e"ent $%e to t!e bon$-
o ac!ie#e a ,ati)%e $esi)n t!at is on t!e sa,e si$e it is "ecommen$e$ to %se S1:s $e"i#e$ ,"om tests (!e"e
t!e bon$s a"e b"o'en an$ (!e"e t!e Coint is s%bCecte$ to tensile loa$in)- !e bon$s can be b"o'en by a
si)ni,icant tension loa$- !is loa$ may be $ete"mine$ $%"in) t!e testin) by an e#al%ation o, t!e ,o"ce
$is&lacement "elations!i&- DK!en inc"ementin) t!e loa$in) into a non-linea" be!a#io%"E-
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 40
DNV GL AS







#.#.5.! hord filled with grout
!e )"o%te$ Coints s!all be t"eate$ as sim&le Coints* e3ce&t t!at t!e c!o"$ t!ic'ness in t!e te"m ,o" sa$$le
S1: calc%lation ,o" b"ace an$ c!o"$ s!all be s%bstit%te$ (it! an e?%i#alent c!o"$ (all t!ic'ness )i#en by
(!e"e D an$ a"e c!o"$ $iamete" an$ t!ic'ness "es&ecti#ely- !e $imensions a"e to be )i#en in mm-
Uoints (it! !i)! o" lo( "atios !a#e little e,,ect ,"om t!e )"o%t- !e bene,its o, )"o%tin) s!o%l$ be
ne)lecte$ ,o" Coints (it! R 0-8 o" 12-0 %nless $oc%mente$ ot!e"(ise-
#.#.5.# (nnulus between tubular members filled with grout
:o" Coints (!e"e t!e ann%l%s bet(een t%b%la" membe"s a"e ,ille$ (it! )"o%t s%c! as Coints in le)s (it! inse"t
&iles* t!e )"o%te$ Coints s!all be t"eate$ as sim&le Coints* e3ce&t t!at t!e c!o"$ t!ic'ness in S1: calc%lation
,o" b"ace an$ c!o"$ s!all be s%bstit%te$ (it! an e?%i#alent c!o"$ (all t!ic'ness )i#en by
(!e"e is c!o"$ t!ic'ness an$
&
is t!ic'ness o, inse"t &ile-
0-0-6 1ast no$es
Gt is "ecommen$e$ t!at ,inite element analysis s!o%l$ be %se$ to $ete"mine t!e ma)nit%$e an$ location o,
t!e ma3im%m st"ess "an)e in castin)s sensiti#e to ,ati)%e- !e ,inite element mo$el s!o%l$ %se #ol%me
elements at t!e c"itical a"eas an$ &"o&e"ly mo$el t!e s!a&e o, t!e Coint- 1onsi$e"ation s!o%l$ be )i#en to
t!e insi$e o, t!e castin)s- !e b"ace to castin) ci"c%m,e"ential b%tt (el$ D(!ic! is $esi)ne$ to an
a&&"o&"iate S-N c%"#e ,o" s%c! connectionsE may be t!e most c"itical location ,o" ,ati)%e-
0-0-7 %b%la" b%tt (el$ connections
#.#.1./ +ources to eccentricities
St"ess concent"ations at t%b%la" b%tt (el$ connections a"e $%e to eccent"icities "es%ltin) ,"om $i,,e"ent
so%"ces- !ese may be classi,ie$ as concent"icity D$i,,e"ence in t%b%la" $iamete"sE* $i,,e"ences in t!ic'ness
o, Coine$ t%b%la"s* o%t o, "o%n$ness an$ cent"e eccent"icity* see :i)%"e 0-8 an$ :i)%"e 0-10- !e "es%ltin)
eccent"icity may be conse"#ati#ely e#al%ate$ by a $i"ect s%mmation o, t!e cont"ib%tion ,"om t!e $i,,e"ent
so%"ces- !e eccent"icity $%e to o%t o, "o%n$ness no"mally )i#es t!e la")est cont"ib%tion to t!e "es%ltin)
eccent"icity -
#.#.1.! +tress concentration factors for butt welds between members with e7ual thic<ness
!e ,ollo(in) e?%ation may be %se$ ,o" (el$ toes at b%tt (el$s bet(een membe"s (it! e?%al &late
t!ic'ness:
(!e"e
:o" #e"y na""o( ,ab"ication tole"ances it is "ecommen$e$ to &%t
+
F 0-
+
is int"o$%ce$ into t!e e?%ation
to acco%nt ,o" statistical scatte" o, tole"ances in combination (it! t!e statistical scatte" in test $ata ,o"
$e"i#ation o, S-N c%"#e- !%s i, t!e tole"ance is 'no(n* t!e act%al #al%e s!o%l$ be %se$ ,o" calc%lation o,
S1: (it!
+
F 0-
:o" tet!e"s it is "ecommen$e$ to &%t
+
F 0 $%e to t!e many (el$ connections in one tet!e" t!at is s%bCecte$
to a simila" loa$in) an$ t!at a &otential ,ail%"e (ill most li'ely occ%" ,"om t!e (ea'est &oint-
D0-0-2E
D0-0-0E
D0-0-4E

+
F 0-1t is misali)nment in!e"ent in t!e S-N $ata an$ analysis &"oce$%"e-
L F (i$t! o, (el$ at s%",ace-
13'T%/1'' ()= T
!
+ =
p
T T ') . 0 T
!
+ =
( )
e
t
SCF
m
3
1
0

+ =



t D
L 91 . 0
=
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 41
DNV GL AS







!e a$$itional st"ess $%e to ,ab"ication tole"ances is small at t!e (el$ "oot in sin)le si$e$ (el$s ma$e ,"om
V-)"oo#es "e,- :i)%"e 0-9 an$ t!e S1: can be &%t e?%al 1-0-
Figure #-4 +ection through weld
#.#.1.# +tress concentration factors for butt welds at thic<ness transitions
D%e to less se#e"e S-N c%"#e ,o" t!e o%tsi$e (el$ toe t!an ,o" t!e insi$e (el$ "oot* it is st"on)ly "ecommen$e$
t!at t%b%la" b%tt (el$ connections s%bCecte$ to a3ial loa$in) a"e $esi)ne$ s%c! t!at any t!ic'ness t"ansitions
a"e &lace$ on t!e o%tsi$e Dsee :i)%"e 0-11E- :o" t!is )eomet"y* t!e S1: ,o" t!e t"ansition a&&lies to t!e o%tsi$e-
2n t!e insi$e it is t!en conse"#ati#e to %se S1: F 1-0- !ic'ness t"ansitions a"e no"mally to be ,ab"icate$ (it!
slo&e 1:4-
Figure #-8 *eometric sources of local stress concentrations in tubular butt welds
t
=
0

m
5 5
S!ction 5<5 a% Conc!nticit;
t
t

m
5 5
3% Thic#n!ss S!ction 5<5
T
t
= > (T<t%
t
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 42
DNV GL AS







Figure #-/" *eometric sources of local stress concentrations in tubular butt welds
Gt is conse"#ati#e to %se t!e ,o"m%la ,o" &late eccent"icities ,o" calc%lation o, S1: at t%b%la" b%tt (el$s- !e
e,,ect o, t!e $iamete" in "elation to t!ic'ness may be incl%$e$ by %se o, t!e ,ollo(in) ,o"m%la* &"o#i$e$ t!at
+t 2:
(!e"e
!is ,o"m%la also ta'es into acco%nt t!e len)t! o#e" (!ic! t!e eccent"icity is $ist"ib%te$: L* "e,- :i)%"e 0-
11 an$ :i)%"e 0-9- !e st"ess concent"ation is "e$%ce$ as L is inc"ease$ an$ o" D is "e$%ce$- Gt is note$
t!at ,o" small L an$ la")e D t!e last ,o"m%la &"o#i$es st"ess concent"ation ,acto"s t!at a"e close to b%t lo(e"
t!an t!at o, t!e sim&le" ,o"m%la ,o" &lates-
D0-0-5E

0
F 0-1 t is misali)nment in!e"ent in t!e S-N $ata an$ analysis &"oce$%"e-
5
S!ction 5<5 c% 91t o$ o1n.n!ss
5
t
t
m
m
m
5 5
S!ction 5<5 .% C!nt! !cc!nticit;

t
t
m
m
? < 0 t
!
t
T
1
1
t
% 6(
1 SCF


|

\
|
+
+
+ =
m

\
|
+
=
t
T
1
1
t =
1.-20
?
1.5
1.0
Log
D
t
<<<
\
| |
<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
3.0
Log
D
t
<<<
\
| |
2
<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< + =
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 40
DNV GL AS







!e t"ansition o, t!e (el$ to base mate"ial on t!e o%tsi$e o, t!e t%b%la" can no"mally be classi,ie$ to S-N
c%"#e 6- G, (el$in) is &e",o"me$ in a ,lat &osition it can be classi,ie$ as D- !is means t!at t!e &i&e (o%l$
!a#e to be "otate$ $%"in) (el$in)-
6?%ation D0-0-5E a&&lies ,o" calc%lation o, st"ess concent"ation ,acto"s ,o" t!e o%tsi$e t%b%la" si$e s!o(n in
:i)%"e 0-12 aE (!en t!e t!ic'ness t"ansition is on t!e o%tsi$e- :o" t!e insi$e o, connections (it! t"ansitions
in t!ic'ness on t!e o%tsi$e as s!o(n in :i)%"e 0-12 bE t!e ,ollo(in) e?%ation may be %se$:
G, t!e t"ansition in t!ic'ness is on t!e insi$e o, t!e t%b%la" an$ t!e (el$ is ma$e ,"om bot! si$es* e?%ation
D0-0-5E may be a&&lie$ ,o" t!e insi$e (el$ toe an$ e?%ation D0-0-6E ,o" t!e o%tsi$e (el$ toe-
G, t!e t"ansition in t!ic'ness is on t!e insi$e o, t!e t%b%la" an$ t!e (el$ is ma$e ,"om t!e o%tsi$e only* as
s!o(n in :i)%"e 0-12 cE* e?%ation D0-0-6E may be %se$ ,o" calc%lation o, st"ess concent"ation ,o" t!e o%tsi$e
(el$ toe-
G, t!e t"ansition in t!ic'ness is on t!e insi$e o, t!e t%b%la" an$ t!e (el$ is ma$e ,"om t!e o%tsi$e only* as
s!o(n in :i)%"e 0-12 $E* e?%ation D0-0-5E may be %se$ ,o" calc%lation o, st"ess concent"ation ,o" t!e insi$e
(el$ "oot-
!e e?%ations liste$ ,o" S1:s abo#e a&&ly also to b%tt (el$s ma$e ,"om bot! si$es as s!o(n in :i)%"e 0-11
bE-
aE P"e,e""e$ t"ansition in t!ic'ness is on o%tsi$e o, t%b%la" b%tt (el$ (!en (el$in) is &e",o"me$ ,"om t!e
o%tsi$e only-
bE "ansition in t!ic'ness at b%tt (el$ in t%b%la" ma$e ,"om bot! si$es
Figure #-// Transition in thic<ness at tubular butt weld
D0-0-6E
! m t
e
t
T
"
"
t
# $% &
" SCF

\
|
+

=


Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 44
DNV GL AS







Figure #-/! Different combinations of geometry and fabrication tolerances for weld in tubulars made from
the outside
Gn t%b%la"s* t!e "oot si$e o, (el$s ma$e ,"om one si$e is no"mally classi,ie$ as :0- !is "e?%i"es )oo$
(o"'mans!i& $%"in) const"%ction* in o"$e" to ens%"e ,%ll &enet"ation (el$s* an$ t!at (o"' is c!ec'e$ by
non-$est"%cti#e e3amination- Gt may be $i,,ic%lt to $oc%ment a ,%ll &enet"ation (el$ in most cases $%e to
limitations in t!e non-$est"%cti#e e3amination tec!ni?%e to $etect $e,ects in t!e "oot a"ea- !e :0 c%"#e
can be consi$e"e$ to acco%nt ,o" some lac' o, &enet"ation* b%t it s!o%l$ be note$ t!at a maCo" &a"t o, t!e
,ati)%e li,e is associate$ (it! t!e initial c"ac' )"o(t! (!ile t!e $e,ects a"e small- !is may be e#al%ate$ by
,"act%"e mec!anics s%c! as $esc"ibe$ in @S 7810 ;G%i$ance on Iet!o$s ,o" Assessin) t!e Acce&tability o,
:la(s in :%sion Kel$e$ St"%ct%"es<* "e, +7+- !e"e,o"e* i, a ,ab"ication met!o$ is %se$ (!e"e lac' o,


a%



3%



c%



.%


Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 45
DNV GL AS







&enet"ation is to be e3&ecte$* t!e $esi)n S-N c%"#es s!o%l$ be a$C%ste$ to acco%nt ,o" t!is by %se o,
,"act%"e mec!anics-
!e local ben$in) st"ess o#e" t!e t!ic'ness o, a t%b%la" at a (el$e$ connection is $%e to t!e memb"ane
st"ess actin) o#e" t!e t!ic'ness- !%s t!e memb"ane st"ess s!all be %se$ ,o" calc%lation o, t!e a$$itional
st"ess "es%ltin) ,"om a st"ess concent"ation at a (el$- St"ess concent"ation "e&"esentati#e ,o" t!e o%tsi$e
s!all be %se$ ,o" calc%lation o, st"ess on t!e o%tsi$e- St"ess concent"ation "e&"esentati#e ,o" t!e insi$e s!all
be %se$ ,o" calc%lation o, st"ess on t!e insi$e- !e local ben$in) st"ess o#e" t!e t!ic'ness is $e"i#e$ as t!e
st"ess concent"ation min%s 1-0 times t!e memb"ane st"ess Dst"ess $%e to a3ial ,o"ce an$ )lobal ben$in)
moment in t!e mi$$le o, t!e t!ic'nessE- !en t!is local ben$in) st"ess s!o%l$ be a$$e$ to t!at ,"om t!e
)lobal st"ess in t!e t%b%la" "es%ltin) ,"om a3ial ,o"ce an$ )lobal ben$in) moment- Io"e $etaile$ )%i$ance
on t!is is &"esente$ in section AD-14B- Also )%i$ance on !o( to calc%late t!e st"ess on t!e insi$e is &"esente$
mo"e in $etail in section AD-14B- !e st"ess on t!e o%tsi$e s!all be %se$ ,o" ,ati)%e c"ac' initiation ,"om t!e
o%tsi$e an$ t!e st"ess on t!e insi$e s!all be %se$ ,o" ,ati)%e c"ac' initiation ,"om t!e insi$e-
Io"e mac!inin) o, t!e en$s o, t!e t%b%la"s can be &e",o"me$ to se&a"ate t!e )eomet"ic e,,ects ,"om
t!ic'ness t"ansition ,"om t!at o, t!e ,ab"ication tole"ances at t!e (el$ as s!o(n in :i)%"e 0-10- !e
inte"action o, st"esses ,"om t!ese so%"ces is small (!en t!e len)t! L
2
1-4 l
e
(!e"e
(!e"e
r F "a$i%s to mi$ s%",ace o, t!e &i&e
t F t!ic'ness o, t!e &i&e
F PoissonMs "atio
Kit! s!o"te" len)t! L
2
one s!o%l$ consi$e" inte"action bet(een t!e ben$in) st"ess at t!e notc! at t!ic'ness
t"ansition an$ t!e tole"ances at t!e (el$-
:o" s!o"te" len)t!s o, L
2
(it! inte"action o, ben$in) st"esses t!e S1: can be calc%late$ base$ on
s%&e"&osition o, ben$in) st"esses- !en t!e "es%ltin) S1:s can be $e"i#e$ as ,ollo(s- !is S1: "elates to
nominal st"esses in t!e &i&e (it! t!ic'ness t-
For hot spot >?
St"ess concent"ation at !ot s&ot A D:i)%"e 0-10E
(!e"e
an$
D0-0-7E
D0-0-9E
'
2
% 1 ( 3
=
t r
l
e

cos e e
t
% '
e
t
T
"
"
t
% &
" SCF
! D ( t m ! t
+
|

\
|
+
+ =

\
|
+
=
t
T
"
"
t D
")*2L

"
2
0 . 3 0 . 1
) . 1
|
|

\
|
|

\
|
+
|

\
|
=
t
D
Log
t
D
Log

e
2
l
L
=
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De&en$in) on !o( t!e mac!inin) o, t!e notc! a"ea is &e",o"me$* one may consi$e" an a$$itional st"ess
concent"ation $%e to t!is notc!- !is $e&en$s on t"ansition "a$i%s ,"om t!e slo&e$ a"ea an$ t!e t!inne"
section in "elation to selecte$ S-N c%"#e-
G, t!e !i)!est S-N c%"#e ,o" base mate"ial D@1 o" t!e 4S c%"#eE is %se$* one may incl%$e an a$$itional S1:
$e&en$in) on t"ansition "a$i%s- G%i$ance can be ,o%n$ in Pete"sons St"ess 1oncent"ation :acto"s* "e,- +15+*
o" alte"nati#e a ,ine mes! ,inite element analysis is "ecommen$e$-
DGn a ,inite element analysis t!e combine$ e,,ects o, notc! an$ ben$in) $%e to t!ic'ness t"ansition a"e
incl%$e$E-
For hot spot @?
St"ess concent"ation at !ot s&ot @ D:i)%"e 0-10E
For hot spot C?
St"ess concent"ation at !ot s&ot 1 D:i)%"e 0-10E
Figure #-/# *eometry with thic<ness transition away from the butt weld
0-0-9 St"ess concent"ation ,acto"s ,o" sti,,ene$ s!ells
!e st"ess concent"ation at a "in) sti,,ene" can be calc%late$ as
(!e"e
D0-0-8E
D0-0-10E
D0-0-11E
A
"
F a"ea o, "in) sti,,ene" (it!o%t e,,ecti#e s!ell
" F "a$i%s o, s!ell meas%"e$ ,"om cent"e to mean s!ell t!ic'ness
t F t!ic'ness o, s!ell &latin)
D ( t m ! t
e
t
% '
cos e e
t
T
"
"
t
% &
" SCF

+
|

\
|
+
+ =

cos e e
t
T
"
"
t
% &
" SCF
! t
|

\
|
+
=

5
t 1.)6t
1 ?
sh!ll th! o$ insi.! $o th!
?
0.)'
1 SCF
sh!ll th! o$ o1tsi.! $o th!
?
0.)'
1 SCF
+ =
=
+ =
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DNV GL AS







D%e to less st"ess on t!e insi$e it is mo"e e,,icient to &lace "in) sti,,ene"s on t!e insi$e o, s!ell* as com&a"e$
(it! t!e o%tsi$e- Gn a$$ition* i, t!e s!ell com&"ises lon)it%$inal sti,,ene"s t!at a"e en$e$* it is "ecommen$e$
to en$ t!e lon)it%$inal sti,,ene"s a)ainst "in) sti,,ene"s at t!e insi$e- !e co""es&on$in) combination on t!e
o%tsi$e )i#es a consi$e"ably la")e" st"ess concent"ation-
!e S1: F 1-0 i, contin%o%s lon)it%$inal sti,,ene"s a"e %se$-
Gn t!e case o, a b%l'!ea$ instea$ o, a "in)* A
"
is ta'en as (!e"e t
b
is t!e t!ic'ness o, t!e b%l'!ea$-
Figure #-/3 Ring stiffened shell
0-0-8 St"ess concent"ation ,acto"s ,o" conical t"ansitions
!e st"ess concent"ation at eac! si$e o, %nsti,,ene$ t%b%la"-cone C%nction can be estimate$ by t!e ,ollo(in)
e?%ations Dt!e S1: s!all be %se$ to)et!e" (it! t!e st"ess in t!e t%b%la" at t!e C%nction ,o" bot! t!e t%b%la"
an$ t!e cone si$e o, t!e (el$E:
(!e"e
,o" t!e t%b%la" si$e D0-0-12E
,o" t!e cone si$e
D0-0-10E
D
C
F cylin$e" $iamete" at C%nction DD
s
* D
L
E
t F t%b%la" membe" (all t!ic'ness Dt
s
* t
L
E
t
c
F cone t!ic'ness
F t!e slo&e an)le o, t!e cone Dsee :i)%"e 0-15E
( ) @ 1
t
3

tan?
t
% t (t = t 0.6
1 SCF
2
c A
+
+ =
tan?
t
% t (t = t 0.6
1 SCF
2
c
c A
+
+ =
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!e st"ess concent"ation at a C%nction (it! "in) sti,,ene" can be calc%late$ as
(!e"e
A "in) sti,,ene" may be &lace$ cent"ic at t!e cone C%nction- !en t!e b%tt (el$ s!o%l$ be )"o%n$ an$ ND6
e3amine$ be,o"e t!e "in) sti,,ene" is (el$e$-
G, a "in) sti,,ene" is &lace$ a $istance
e
a(ay ,"om t!e inte"section lines* an a$$itional st"ess concent"ation
s!o%l$ be incl%$e$ to acco%nt ,o" t!is eccent"icity:
(!e"e
D0-0-14E
A
"
F a"ea o, "in) sti,,ene" (it!o%t e,,ecti#e s!ell
D0-0-15E
D
A
F cylin$e" $iamete" at C%nction DD
s
* D
L
E
t F t%b%la" membe" (all t!ic'ness Dt
s
* t
L
E
t
c
F cone t!ic'ness
F t!e slo&e an)le o, t!e cone Dsee :i)%"e 0-15E
B F moment o, ine"tia abo%t t!e L-L a3is in :i)%"e 0-16 calc%late$ as
D0-0-16E

A
5
t = 1.10t
1 B
an. A1nction& .iam!t! lag! insi.! th! at
B
1
tan?
5
t 0.91=
0.)' 1 SCF
A1nction .iam!t! lag! o1tsi.! th! at
B
1
tan?
5
t 0.91=
0.)' 1 SCF
A1nction .iam!t! small! insi.! th! at
B
1
tan?
5
t 0.91=
0.)' 1 SCF
A1nction .iam!t! small! o1tsi.! th! at
B
1
tan?
5
t 0.91=
0.)' 1 SCF
+ =
|
|

\
|
=
|
|

\
|
+ =
|
|

\
|
+ =
|
|

\
|
+ + =
) 3
% (
6-
1
1 tan 3
1
c +
e
t t D
, t
SCF
+
+
+ =

% %
2
(
12
(
% ( %
2
( ) . 0
12
2
2
2
3
y
h h
h t
t t y
t
h -
t
- ,
r
s c
+
+ + + + =
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(!e"e
(!e"e
G, a "in) sti,,ene" (it! a ,lan)e is %se$ t!e e,,ect o, t!e ,lan)e s!o%l$ be incl%$e$ (!en calc%latin) t!e
moment o, ine"tia abo%t t!e ne%t"al a3is 3-3 s!o(n in :i)%"e 0-16-
!e st"ess concent"ation ,acto" ,"om e?%ation D0-0-15E s!all be m%lti&lie$ to)et!e" (it! t!e "ele#ant st"ess
concent"ation ,acto" ,"om e?%ation D0-0-14E-
A ,%ll &enet"ation (el$ connectin) t!e "in) sti,,ene" to t!e t%b%la" is o,ten &"e,e""e$ as &otential ,ati)%e
c"ac's ,"om t!e "oot o, ,illet (el$ into t!e cylin$e" can !a"$ly be $etecte$ $%"in) in se"#ice ins&ection- G,
im&"o#ement met!o$s a"e %se$ ,o" t!e (el$ toe t!e "e?%i"ement o, a ,%ll &enet"ation (el$ (ill be en!ance$-
Figure #-/5 one geometry
D0-0-17E
h F !ei)!t o, "in) sti,,ene"
t
r
F t!ic'ness o, "in)sti,,ene"
! F e,,ecti#e ,lan)e (i$t! calc%late$ as
D0-0-19E
- t t t h
t t -
t
h t h
y
c r
c r
% ( 2
% ( %
2
(
2
+ +
+ + +
=
e c +
t t D - + + = % ( 7- . 0
=s
=0
ts
t0

.
t
C
=s
= 0
ts
t 0

t
c
!
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Figure #-/6 )otations for calculation of moment of inertia
0-0-10 St"ess concent"ation ,acto"s ,o" t%b%la"s s%bCecte$ to a3ial ,o"ce
!is section a&&lies to t%b%la" sections (el$e$ to)et!e" to lon) st"in)s an$ s%bCecte$ to a3ial tension-
et!e"s an$ "ise"s o, a LP a"e e3am&les o, s%c! st"%ct%"es-
!e co-linea"ity (it! small an)le $e#iation bet(een consec%ti#e ,ab"icate$ t%b%la" se)ments "es%lts in
inc"ease$ st"ess $%e to a "es%ltin) )lobal ben$in) moment* see :i)%"e 0-19- !e eccent"icity $%e to co-
linea"ity is a ,%nction o, a3ial tension in t!e t%b%la" an$ is si)ni,icantly "e$%ce$ as t!e a3ial ,o"ce is inc"ease$
by tension- Ass%min) t!at t!e moment I "es%lts ,"om an eccent"icity
N
(!e"e &"etension is acco%nte$ ,o"
in t!e analysis* t!e ,ollo(in) $e"i#ation o, a st"ess concent"ation ,acto" is &e",o"me$:
(!e"e t!e st"ess concent"ation ,acto" is:
(!e"e
N
is eccent"icity as ,%nction o, t!e a3ial ,o"ce N an$ D is o%te" $iamete"- !e eccent"icity ,o" t(o
elements is in$icate$ in :i)%"e 0-19- Kit! Ne"o tension t!e eccent"icity is - Kit! an a3ial tension ,o"ce N
t!e eccent"icity becomes:
(!e"e
!e ,o"m%la ,o" "e$%ction in eccent"icity $%e to inc"ease$ a3ial ,o"ce can be $e$%ce$ ,"om $i,,e"ential
e?%ation ,o" t!e $e,lecte$ s!a&e o, t!e mo$el s!o(n in :i)%"e 0-19- !%s t!e non-linea"ity in te"ms o,
)eomet"y is incl%$e$ in t!e ,o"m%la ,o" t!e st"ess concent"ation ,acto"-
U%$)ement s!o%l$ be %se$ to e#al%ate t!e n%mbe" o, elements to be consi$e"e$* an$ (!et!e" $e#iation
,"om a st"ai)!t line is systematic o" "an$om* "e,- :i)%"e 0-17- Gn t!e ,i"st case* t!e e""o"s m%st be a$$e$
linea"ly* in t!e secon$ case it may be a$$e$ ?%a$"atically-
D0-0-18E
D0-0-20E
D0-0-21E
' F

l F se)ment len)t!s o, t!e t%b%la"s
N F a3ial ,o"ce in t%b%la"s
G F moment o, ine"tia o, t%b%la"s
6 F Oo%n)Ms mo$%l%s
h
t
b

t
c
t
r
x x
y
h
t
b

t
c
t
r
x x
y
( )
SCF
t t = C
"

=
t =
'
1 SCF
"

+ =

#l
#l tanh
"
=
D2
"
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Figure #-/1 olinearity or angle deviation in pipe segment fabrication=
0 D +ystematic deviation= 00 D random deviation
Figure #-/4 %ccentricity due to co-linearity
0-0-11 St"ess concent"ation ,acto"s ,o" Coints (it! s?%a"e sections
St"ess concent"ation ,acto"s m%st be $ete"mine$ ,o" t!e &a"tic%la" )eomet"ies bein) %se$ in a $esi)n- !ese
may be establis!e$ ,"om ,inite element analysis o" ,"om &a"amet"ic e?%ations (!e"e t!ese can be ,o%n$ ,o"
t!e Coints %n$e" consi$e"ation-
St"ess concent"ation ,acto"s ,o" s?%a"e to s?%a"e Coints may be ,o%n$ in ;Desi)n )%i$e ,o" ci"c%la" an$
"ectan)%la" !ollo( section (el$e$ Coints %n$e" ,ati)%e loa$in)<* "e,- +27+- !ese st"ess concent"ation ,acto"s
may be %se$ to)et!e" (it! t!e D-c%"#e-
!e ,ollo(in) st"ess concent"ation ,acto"s may be %se$ ,o" $+ D
(
F 1-0* (!e"e $ F $e&t! an$ (i$t! o, b"aceQ
D
(
F $e&t! an$ (i$t! o, c!o"$:
> A3ial: 1-80
> Gn-&lane ben$in): 4-00
> 2%t-o, &lane ben$in): 1-05
!ese st"ess concent"ation ,acto"s s!o%l$ be %se$ to)et!e" (it! t!e :-c%"#e-
&
&

N
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0-0-12 St"ess concent"ation ,acto"s ,o" Coints (it! )%sset &lates
Gnse"t )%sset &lates a"e sometimes %se$ in Coints in to&si$e st"%ct%"es to connect R4S o" t%b%la" membe"s
to main )i"$e"s- Re,e"ence is ma$e to :i)%"e 0-18-
K!en s%c! connections a"e s%bCecte$ to $ynamic loa$in) a ,%ll &enet"ation (el$ bet(een t!e membe" an$
t!e )%sset &late is &"e,e""e$- 2t!e"(ise it is consi$e"e$ $i,,ic%lt to $oc%ment t!e ,ati)%e ca&acity ,o" ,ati)%e
c"ac'in) sta"tin) ,"om t!e (el$ "oot- Gn $ynamically loa$e$ st"%ct%"es it is also "ecommen$e$ to s!a&e t!e
)%sset &late so as to smoot! t!e st"ess ,lo( ,"om t!e membe" into t!e )%sset &lateQ "e,- :i)%"e 0-18 aE-
K!e"e a "eliable ,ati)%e li,e is to be $oc%mente$* it is "ecommen$e$ to &e",o"m ,inite element analysis- !is
is beca%se s%c! Coints can c"eate !i)! st"ess concent"ations- 4ot s&ot st"esses $e"i#e$ by ,inite element
analysis can be combine$ (it! t!e D-c%"#e- !e :0 o" t!e K0 c%"#e s!o%l$ be %se$ ,o" t!e !ot s&ot on t!e
insi$e o, t!e t%b%la" i, t!e connection is ma$e (it!o%t any bac' (el$* as is )ene"ally t!e case- Re)a"$in)
selection o, S-N c%"#e "e,e"ence is ma$e to able A-6 in A&&en$i3 A as it also $e&en$s on amo%nt o,
ins&ection &e",o"me$-
Hse o, s!ell elements ,o" s%c! analysis &"o#i$es conse"#ati#e st"ess concent"ation ,acto"s com&a"e$ to
analysis (it! t!"ee-$imensional elements t!at incl%$e mo$ellin) o, an e3te"nal ,illet (el$- D!e"e s!o%l$
no"mally be a ,illet (el$ on t!e o%tsi$e o, a ,%ll o" &a"tial &enet"ation (el$ t!at inc"eases t!e e,,ecti#e a"ea-
A ,illet (el$ on t!e o%tsi$e e,,ecti#ely "e$%ces t!e st"ess in t!e (el$ "oot $%e to eccent"icityQ "e,- section
A0-0-7BE- Re,e"ence is also ma$e to t!e commenta"y section AD-16B-
aE
bE
Figure #-/8 Eoints with gusset plates
aC Favourable geometry bC +imple geometry
10
T
E
:
.
'0
T
E
:
.
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+%T0$) 3 (?-?(T0$) $F '$T +P$T +TR%++ 9A F0)0T%
%?%.%)T ()(?A+0+
3./ *eneral
:"om $etaile$ ,inite element analysis o, st"%ct%"es it may be $i,,ic%lt to e#al%ate (!at is ;nominal st"ess<
to be %se$ to)et!e" (it! t!e S-N c%"#es* as some o, t!e local st"ess $%e to a $etail is acco%nte$ ,o" in t!e
S-N c%"#e-
Gn many cases it may t!e"e,o"e be mo"e con#enient to %se an alte"nati#e a&&"oac! ,o" calc%lation o, ,ati)%e
$ama)e (!en local st"esses a"e obtaine$ ,"om ,inite element analysis-
Gt is "ealise$ t!at it is $i,,ic%lt to calc%late t!e notc! st"ess at a (el$ $%e to a si)ni,icant scatte" in local (el$
)eomet"y an$ $i,,e"ent ty&es o, im&e",ections- !is scatte" is no"mally mo"e e,,iciently acco%nte$ ,o" by %se
o, an a&&"o&"iate S-N c%"#e- Gn t!is "es&ect it s!o%l$ also be mentione$ t!at t!e (el$ toe "e)ion !as to be
mo$elle$ (it! a "a$i%s in o"$e" to obtain "eliable "es%lts ,o" t!e notc! st"ess-
G, a (el$ co"ne" $etail (it! Ne"o "a$i%s is mo$elle$ t!e calc%late$ st"ess (ill a&&"oac! in,inity as t!e element
siNe is $ec"ease$ to Ne"o- !e mo$ellin) o, a "ele#ant "a$i%s "e?%i"es a #e"y ,ine element mes!* inc"easin)
t!e siNe o, t!e com&%te" mo$el-
!e notc! st"ess conce&t may be %se$ in s&ecial cases (!e"e ot!e" met!o$s a"e not ,o%n$ a&&"o&"iate* see
A&&en$i3 AD-11B 1ommenta"y-
4ence* ,o" $esi)n analysis a sim&li,ie$ n%me"ical &"oce$%"e is %se$ in o"$e" to "e$%ce t!e $eman$ ,o" la")e
,ine mes! mo$els ,o" t!e calc%lation o, S1: ,acto"s:
> !e st"ess concent"ation o" t!e notc! ,acto" $%e to t!e (el$ itsel, is incl%$e$ in t!e S-N c%"#e to be
%se$* t!e D-c%"#e- !is S-N c%"#e can no"mally be consi$e"e$ as t!e !ot s&ot S-N c%"#e* see also
section A4-0-5B-
> !e st"ess concent"ation $%e to t!e )eomet"y e,,ect o, t!e act%al $etail is calc%late$ by means o, a ,ine
mes! mo$el %sin) s!ell elements Do" soli$ elementsE* "es%ltin) in a )eomet"ic S1: ,acto"-
!is &"oce$%"e is $enote$ t!e !ot s&ot met!o$-
Gt is im&o"tant to !a#e a contin%o%s an$ not too stee&* c!an)e in t!e $ensity o, t!e element mes! in t!e
a"eas (!e"e t!e !ot s&ot st"esses a"e to be calc%late$-
!e )eomet"y o, t!e elements s!o%l$ be e#al%ate$ ca"e,%lly in o"$e" to a#oi$ e""o"s $%e to $e,o"me$
elements D,o" e3am&le co"ne" an)les bet(een 60 an$ 120 an$ len)t!+b"ea$t! "atio less t!an 5 a"e
"ecommen$e$E-
!e siNe o, t!e mo$el s!o%l$ be so la")e t!at t!e calc%late$ "es%lts a"e not si)ni,icantly a,,ecte$ by
ass%m&tions ma$e ,o" bo%n$a"y con$itions an$ a&&lication o, loa$s-
Gt s!o%l$ be note$ t!at t!e !ot s&ot conce&t cannot be %se$ ,o" ,ati)%e c!ec's o, c"ac's sta"tin) ,"om t!e
(el$ "oot o, ,illet+&a"tial &enet"ation (el$s- A ,illet (el$ s!o%l$ be c!ec'e$ se&a"ately consi$e"in) t!e
st"esses in t!e (el$ itsel,* "e,- section A2-0-5B-
3.! Tubular :oints
!e st"ess "an)e at t!e !ot s&ot o, t%b%la" Coints s!o%l$ be combine$ (it! t!e -c%"#e-
Io"e "eliable "es%lts a"e obtaine$ by incl%$in) t!e (el$ in t!e mo$el- !is im&lies %se o, t!"ee-$imensional
elements-
!e !ot s&ot st"ess o" )eomet"ic st"ess at t%b%la" Coints can also be obtaine$ by a linea" e3t"a&olation o,
t!e st"esses obtaine$ ,"om analysis at &ositions at $istances a an$ b ,"om t!e (el$ toe as in$icate$ in :i)%"e
4-1-
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 54
DNV GL AS







:o" e3t"a&olation o, st"ess alon) t!e b"ace s%",ace no"mal to t!e (el$ toe
:o" e3t"a&olation o, st"ess alon) t!e c!o"$ s%",ace no"mal to t!e (el$ toe at t!e c"o(n &osition
:o" e3t"a&olation o, st"ess alon) t!e c!o"$ s%",ace no"mal to t!e (el$ toe at t!e sa$$le &osition
Figure 3-/ Points for read out of stresses for derivation of hot spot stress in tubular :oints
An alte"nati#e analysis a&&"oac! is to %se t!e st"esses at t!e Ga%ssian &oints i, t!ese a"e &lace$
,"om t!e (el$ toe D" F "a$i%s o, consi$e"e$ t%b%la" an$ t F t!ic'nessE- !e st"ess at t!is &oint may be %se$
$i"ectly in t!e ,ati)%e assessment-
3.# &elded connections other than tubular :oints
4-0-1 St"ess ,iel$ at a (el$e$ $etail
D%e to t!e nat%"e o, t!e st"ess ,iel$ at a !ot s&ot "e)ion t!e"e a"e ?%estions on !o( to establis! t!e !ot
s&ot st"ess* see :i)%"e 4-2- !e notc! e,,ect $%e to t!e (el$ is incl%$e$ in t!e S-N c%"#e an$ t!e !ot s&ot
D4-2-1E
D4-2-2E
D4-2-0E
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Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 55
DNV GL AS







st"ess is $e"i#e$ by e3t"a&olation o, t!e st"%ct%"al st"ess to t!e (el$ toe as in$icate$ in :i)%"e 4-2- Gt is
obse"#e$ t!at t!e st"ess %se$ as basis ,o" s%c! an e3t"a&olation s!o%l$ be o%tsi$e t!at a,,ecte$ by t!e (el$
notc!* b%t close eno%)! to &ic' %& t!e st"ess $%e to local )eomet"y-
4-0-2 :6 mo$ellin)
!e ,ollo(in) )%i$ance is ma$e to t!e com&%tation o, !ot s&ot st"esses (it! &otential ,ati)%e c"ac'in) ,"om
t!e (el$ toe (it! local mo$els %sin) t!e ,inite element met!o$-
4ot s&ot st"esses a"e calc%late$ ass%min) linea" mate"ial be!a#io%" an$ %sin) an i$ealiNe$ st"%ct%"al mo$el
(it! no ,ab"ication-"elate$ misali)nment- !e e3tent o, t!e local mo$el !as to be c!osen s%c! t!at e,,ects
$%e to t!e bo%n$a"ies on t!e consi$e"e$ st"%ct%"al $etail a"e s%,,iciently small an$ "easonable bo%n$a"y
con$itions can be ,o"m%late$-
Gn &late st"%ct%"es* t!"ee ty&es o, !ot s&ots at (el$ toes can be i$enti,ie$ as e3em&li,ie$ in :i)%"e 4-4:
aE at t!e (el$ toe on t!e &late s%",ace at an en$in) attac!ment
bE at t!e (el$ toe a"o%n$ t!e &late e$)e o, an en$in) attac!ment
cE alon) t!e (el$ o, an attac!e$ &late D(el$ toes on bot! t!e &late an$ attac!ment s%",aceE-
Io$els (it! t!in &late o" s!ell elements o" alte"nati#ely (it! soli$ elements a"e no"mally %se$- Gt s!o%l$ be
note$ t!at on t!e one !an$ t!e a""an)ement an$ ty&e o, elements !a#e to allo( ,o" stee& st"ess )"a$ients
as (ell as &late ben$in)* an$ on t!e ot!e" !an$* only t!e linea" st"ess $ist"ib%tion in t!e &late t!ic'ness
$i"ection nee$s to be e#al%ate$ (it! "es&ect to t!e $e,inition o, !ot s&ot st"ess-
!e ,ollo(in) met!o$s o, mo$ellin) a"e "ecommen$e$-
!e sim&lest (ay o, mo$ellin) is o,,e"e$ by t!in &late an$ s!ell elements (!ic! !a#e to be a""an)e$ in t!e
mi$-&lane o, t!e st"%ct%"al com&onents* see also :i)%"e 4-5-
9-no$e$ elements a"e "ecommen$e$ &a"tic%la"ly in case o, stee& st"ess )"a$ients- 1a"e s!o%l$ be )i#en to
&ossible st"ess %n$e"estimation es&ecially at (el$ toes o, ty&e bE in :i)%"e 4-4- Hse o, 4-no$e$ elements
(it! im&"o#e$ in-&lane ben$in) mo$es is a )oo$ alte"nati#e-
!e (el$s a"e %s%ally not mo$elle$ e3ce&t ,o" s&ecial cases (!e"e t!e "es%lts a"e a,,ecte$ by !i)! local
ben$in)* e- )- $%e to an o,,set bet(een &lates o" $%e to a small ,"ee &late len)t! bet(een a$Cacent (el$s
s%c! as at l%) Do" colla"E &lates- 4e"e* t!e (el$ may be incl%$e$ by t"ans#e"se &late elements !a#in)
a&&"o&"iate sti,,ness o" by int"o$%cin) const"aine$ e?%ations ,o" co%&le$ no$e $is&lacements-
A t!ic'ness e?%al 2 times t!e t!ic'ness o, t!e &lates may be %se$ ,o" mo$ellin) o, t!e (el$s by t"ans#e"se
&lates-
:o" 4-no$e s!ell elements (it! a$$itional inte"nal $e)"ees o, ,"ee$om ,o" im&"o#e$ in &lane be!a#io%" an$
,o" 9-no$e s!ell elements a mes! siNe ,"om t t %& to 2 t 2 t may be %se$- La")e" mes! siNes at t!e !ot
s&ot "e)ion may &"o#i$e non-conse"#ati#e "es%lts- D:o" e,,icient "ea$ o%t o, element st"esses an$ !ot s&ot
st"ess $e"i#ation a mes! t3t is in )ene"al &"e,e""e$ at t!e !ot s&ot "e)ionE-
An alte"nati#e &a"tic%la"ly ,o" com&le3 cases is o,,e"e$ by soli$ elements (!ic! nee$ to !a#e a $is&lacement
,%nction allo(in) stee& st"ess )"a$ients as (ell as &late ben$in) (it! linea" st"ess $ist"ib%tion in t!e &late
t!ic'ness $i"ection- !is is o,,e"e$* e- )-* by iso&a"amet"ic 20-no$e elements D(it! mi$-si$e no$es at t!e
e$)esE (!ic! mean t!at only one element in &late t!ic'ness $i"ection is "e?%i"e$- An easy e#al%ation o, t!e
memb"ane an$ ben$in) st"ess com&onents is t!en &ossible i, a "e$%ce$ inte)"ation o"$e" (it! only t(o
inte)"ation &oints in t!e t!ic'ness $i"ection is c!osen- A ,ine" mes! s%b-$i#ision is necessa"y &a"tic%la"ly i,
9-no$e$ soli$ elements a"e selecte$- 4e"e* at least ,o%" elements a"e "ecommen$e$ in t!ic'ness $i"ection-
Io$ellin) o, t!e (el$s by soli$ elements is )ene"ally "ecommen$e$ an$ can be &e",o"me$ as s!o(n in
:i)%"e 4-6-
:o" mo$ellin) (it! t!"ee $imensional elements t!e $imensions o, t!e ,i"st t(o o" t!"ee elements in ,"ont o,
t!e (el$ toe s!o%l$ be c!osen as ,ollo(s- !e element len)t! may be selecte$ to co""es&on$ to t!e &late
t!ic'ness- Gn t!e t"ans#e"se $i"ection* t!e &late t!ic'ness may be c!osen a)ain ,o" t!e b"ea$t! o, t!e &late
elements- 4o(e#e"* t!e b"ea$t! s!o%l$ not e3cee$ t!e ;attac!ment (i$t!<* i- e- t!e t!ic'ness o, t!e
attac!e$ &late &l%s 2 t!e (el$ le) len)t! Din case o, ty&e c: t!e t!ic'ness o, t!e (eb &late be!in$ &l%s 2
(el$ le) len)t!E- !e len)t! o, t!e elements s!o%l$ be limite$ to 2 t-
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 56
DNV GL AS







Gn cases (!e"e t!"ee-$imensional elements a"e %se$ ,o" t!e :6 mo$ellin) it is "ecommen$e$ t!at also t!e
,illet (el$ is mo$elle$ to ac!ie#e &"o&e" local sti,,ness an$ )eomet"y-
Gn o"$e" to ca&t%"e t!e &"o&e"ties o, b%lb sections (it! "es&ect to St Venant to"sion it is "ecommen$e$ to
%se se#e"al t!"ee-$imensional elements ,o" mo$ellin) o, a b%lb section- G, in a$$ition t!e (el$ ,"om
sti,,ene"s in t!e t"ans#e"se ,"ames is mo$elle$ t!e "e?%i"ements (it! "es&ect to element s!a&e (ill li'ely
)o#e"n t!e :6 mo$el at t!e !ot s&ot "e)ion-
4-0-0 De"i#ation o, st"ess at "ea$ o%t &oints 0-5 t an$ 1-5 t
!e st"ess com&onents on t!e &late s%",ace s!o%l$ be e#al%ate$ alon) t!e &at!s s!o(n in :i)%"e 4-5 an$
:i)%"e 4-6 an$ e3t"a&olate$ to t!e !ot s&ot- !e a#e"a)e st"ess com&onents bet(een a$Cacent elements
a"e %se$ ,o" t!e e3t"a&olation-
Recommen$e$ st"ess e#al%ation &oints a"e locate$ at $istances 0-5 t an$ 1-5 t a(ay ,"om t!e !ot s&ot*
(!e"e t is t!e &late t!ic'ness at t!e (el$ toe- !ese locations a"e also $enote$ as st"ess "ea$ o%t &oints-
G, t!e element siNe at a !ot s&ot "e)ion o, siNe t3t is %se$* t!e st"esses may be e#al%ate$ as ,ollo(s:
> Gn case o, &late o" s!ell elements t!e s%",ace st"ess may be e#al%ate$ at t!e co""es&on$in) mi$-si$e
&oints- !%s t!e st"esses at mi$ si$e no$es alon) line A-@ in :i)%"e 4-0 may be %se$ $i"ectly as st"ess
at "ea$ o%t &oints 0-5 t an$ 1-5 t-
> Gn case o, soli$ elements t!e st"ess may ,i"st be e3t"a&olate$ ,"om t!e Ga%ssian &oints to t!e s%",ace-
!en t!ese st"esses can be inte"&olate$ linea"ly to t!e s%",ace cent"e o" e3t"a&olate$ to t!e e$)e o, t!e
elements i, t!is is t!e line ,o" !ot s&ot st"ess $e"i#ation-
:o" mes!es (it! 4-no$e s!ell elements la")e" t!an t t it is "ecommen$e$ to ,it a secon$ o"$e" &olynomial
to t!e element st"esses in t!e t!"ee ,i"st elements an$ $e"i#e st"esses ,o" e3t"a&olation ,"om t!e 0-5 t an$
1-5 t &oints- An e3am&le o, t!is is s!o(n sc!ematically in :i)%"e 4-7- !is &"oce$%"e may be %se$ to
establis! st"ess #al%es at t!e 0-5 t an$ 1-5 t &oints- :o" 9-no$e elements a secon$ o"$e" &olynomial may
be ,itte$ to t!e st"ess "es%lts at t!e mi$-si$e no$es o, t!e t!"ee ,i"st elements an$ t!e st"ess at t!e "ea$
o%t &oints 0-5 t an$ 1-5 t can be $e"i#e$-
4-0-4 De"i#ation o, !ot s&ot st"ess
(o alte"nati#e met!o$s can be %se$ ,o" !ot s&ot st"ess $e"i#ation: met!o$ A an$ met!o$ @-
Method >
:o" mo$ellin) (it! s!ell elements (it!o%t any (el$ incl%$e$ in t!e mo$el a linea" e3t"a&olation o, t!e
st"esses to t!e inte"section line ,"om t!e "ea$ o%t &oints at 0-5t an$ 1-5t ,"om t!e inte"section line can be
&e",o"me$ to $e"i#e !ot s&ot st"ess-
:o" mo$ellin) (it! t!"ee-$imensional elements (it! t!e (el$ incl%$e$ in t!e mo$el a linea" e3t"a&olation
o, t!e st"esses to t!e (el$ toe ,"om t!e "ea$ o%t &oints at 0-5t an$ 1-5t ,"om t!e (el$ toe can be &e",o"me$
to $e"i#e !ot s&ot st"ess-
!e notations ,o" st"ess com&onents a"e s!o(n in :i)%"e 2-0 an$ :i)%"e 2-4-
!e e,,ecti#e !ot s&ot st"ess "an)e to be %se$ to)et!e" (it! t!e !ot s&ot S-N c%"#e is $e"i#e$ as
(!e"e
F 0-80 i, t!e $etail is classi,ie$ as 12 (it! st"ess &a"allel to t!e (el$ at t!e !ot s&ot* "e,- able A-0-
F 0-90 i, t!e $etail is classi,ie$ as 11 (it! st"ess &a"allel to t!e (el$ at t!e !ot s&ot* "e,- able A-0-
F 0-72 i, t!e $etail is classi,ie$ as 1 (it! st"ess &a"allel to t!e (el$ at t!e !ot s&ot* "e,- able A-0-
('.3.1%

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ma1


Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 57


DNV GL AS







!e ,i"st &"inci&al st"ess is calc%late$ as
an$
!e e?%ation ,o" e,,ecti#e st"ess is ma$e to acco%nt ,o" t!e sit%ation (it! ,ati)%e c"ac'in) alon) a (el$ toe
as s!o(n in :i)%"e 2-0 an$ ,ati)%e c"ac'in) (!en t!e &"inci&al st"ess $i"ection is mo"e &a"allel (it! t!e
(el$ toe as s!o(n in :i)%"e 2-4-
Method @
:o" mo$ellin) (it! s!ell elements (it!o%t any (el$ incl%$e$ in t!e mo$el t!e !ot s&ot st"ess is ta'en as t!e
st"ess at t!e "ea$ o%t &oint 0-5t a(ay ,"om t!e inte"section line-
:o" mo$ellin) (it! t!"ee-$imensional elements (it! t!e (el$ incl%$e$ in t!e mo$el t!e !ot s&ot st"ess is
ta'en as t!e st"ess at t!e "ea$ o%t &oint 0-5t a(ay ,"om t!e (el$ toe-
!e e,,ecti#e !ot s&ot st"ess "an)e is $e"i#e$ as
(!e"e
*
1
an$
2
a"e e3&laine$ %n$e" met!o$ A-
!e e?%ation ,o" e,,ecti#e st"ess is ma$e to acco%nt ,o" t!e sit%ation (it! ,ati)%e c"ac'in) alon) a (el$ toe
as s!o(n in :i)%"e 2-0 an$ ,ati)%e c"ac'in) (!en t!e &"inci&al st"ess $i"ection is mo"e &a"allel (it! t!e
(el$ toe as s!o(n in :i)%"e 2-4-
4-0-5 4ot s&ot S-N c%"#e
Gt is )ene"ally "ecommen$e$ to lin' t!e !ot s&ot st"ess $e"i#e$ ,"om ,inite element analysis to t!e D-c%"#e-
!is a&&lies ,o" met!o$ A- Gt a&&lies to Iet!o$ @ (!en t!e st"esses so $e"i#e$ incl%$e t!e a$$itional 1-12
e3t"a&olation ,acto" o, e?%ation D4-0-4E-
Gt s!o%l$ be note$ t!at t!e $e,inition o, t!e st"ess ,iel$ t!"o%)! t!e &late t!ic'ness in section A4-0-1B im&lies
t!at t!e !ot s&ot st"ess met!o$olo)y is not "ecommen$e$ ,o" sim&le c"%ci,o"m Coints* sim&le -Coints in
&late$ st"%ct%"es o" sim&le b%tt Coints t!at a"e (el$e$ ,"om one si$e only- !is is beca%se analysis o, s%c!
connections (it! s!ell elements (o%l$ "es%lt in a !ot s&ot st"ess e?%al t!e nominal st"ess-
!is is ill%st"ate$ by t!e s!ell mo$el s!o(n in :i)%"e 4-9- :o" st"esses in t!e $i"ection no"mal to t!e s!ell
D$i"ection GE t!e"e (ill be no st"ess ,lo( into t!e t"ans#e"se s!ell &latin) (!ic! is "e&"esente$ only by one
&lane in t!e s!ell mo$el- 4o(e#e"* it att"acts st"esses ,o" in-&lane D$i"ection GGE s!o(n in :i)%"e 4-9- !e
$esc"ibe$ !ot s&ot conce&t lin'e$ (it! t!e D-c%"#e )i#es acce&table "es%lts (!en t!e"e is a b"ac'et be!in$
t!e t"ans#e"se &late as s!o(n in :i)%"e 4-4 actin) (it! its sti,,ness in t!e $i"ection o, G D:i)%"e 4-9E-
As t!e nominal st"ess S-N c%"#e ,o" $i"ection G is lo(e" t!an t!at o, t!e D-c%"#e* it (o%l$ be non-
conse"#ati#e to %se !ot s&ot st"esses e3t"acte$ ,"om ,inite element analysis ,o" t!is connection ,o" $i"ection
G* (!e"eas it (o%l$ be acce&table ,o" $i"ection GG at &osition ;a<- !e"e,o"e* t!e nominal st"ess a&&"oac! is
"ecommen$e$ ,o" %se ,o" $i"ection G at &osition ;c<- !is nominal st"ess can be easily $e"i#e$ ,"om t!e
analysis o, t!ese connections* an$ is "ecommen$e$ to be %se$ (it! t!e a&&"o&"iate $etail S-N class as )i#en
in A&&-A- !%s* t!e calc%lation can sim&ly be &e",o"me$ by %sin) t!ese nominal S-N c%"#es as !ot s&ot
S-N c%"#es ,o" t!is $etail- K!en t!e nominal st"ess S-N c%"#es a"e %se$* t!e st"esses e3t"acte$ ,"om t!e
,inite element mo$el may %se Iet!o$ @ (it!o%t incl%sion o, t!e 1-12 ,acto" in$icate$ in e?%ations D4-0-4E-
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ma1


Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 59


DNV GL AS







:o" sim&le c"%ci,o"m Coints* sim&le -Coints in &late$ st"%ct%"es o" sim&le b%tt (el$s t!at a"e (el$e$ ,"om
one si$e only it is "ecommen$e$ to %se t!e calc%late$ !ot s&ot st"ess ,"om ,inite element analysis to)et!e"
(it! t!e "e&"esentati#e nominal S-N c%"#es &"esente$ ,o" t!ese $etails as &"esente$ in A&&-A- !%s t!e
"ele#ant nominal S-N c%"#e is $e,ine$ as t!e "ele#ant !ot s&ot S-N c%"#e also ,o" t!ese $etails-
Gt s!o%l$ also be note$ t!at ,ab"ication tole"ances a"e most im&o"tant C%st ,o" t!ese Coints Db%tt (el$s an$
c"%ci,o"m CointsE an$ !ence nee$ to be consi$e"e$ in a ,ati)%e assessment- K!en misali)nments e3cee$
t!e #al%es e3&licitly incl%$e$ in t!e S-N c%"#e* it is "ecommen$e$ t!at a&&"o&"iate ,acto"s a"e a&&lie$ to
t!e analysis "es%lts* o" t!e analysis s!o%l$ e3&licitly mo$el misali)nments in a conse"#ati#e (ay-
A simila" sit%ation occ%"s (!en a b"ace (it! a sim&le "in) sti,,ene" is analyse$- !e !ot s&ot st"ess (ill
incl%$e t!e e,,ect o, $ec"ease$ st"ess on t!e insi$e an$ inc"ease$ st"ess on t!e o%tsi$e $%e to t!e
ci"c%m,e"ential sti,,ness o, t!e "in)- 4o(e#e"* t!e "in) (ill not att"act st"ess no"mal to its &lane- !e"e,o"e*
a lo(e" S-N c%"#e t!an D !as to be %se$ ,"om t!e ables o, S-N classi,ication in A&&-A D!is ty&ically "es%lts
in an 6 o" :- c%"#e $e&en$in) on t!e t!ic'ness o, t!e sti,,ene"E- :"om a ,inite element analysis %sin) s!ell
elements t!e la")est st"ess at t!e no$e at t!e s!ell-"in) sti,,ene" inte",ace s!o%l$ be %se$ as nominal st"ess-
!is is im&o"tant at an o%tsi$e "in) sti,,ene" in o"$e" to incl%$e t!e ben$in) st"ess in t!e s!ell $%e to its
$e,o"me$ s!a&e* "e,- :i)%"e 0-14- Re,e" also to t!e e3am&le ,ati)%e analysis o, t!e $"%m in A&&en$i3
AD-10B* 1ommenta"y- 4o(e#e"* t!e S-N c%"#e D is a&&"o&"iate (!e"e a lon)it%$inal sti,,ene" en$s at a
ci"c%m,e"ential "in) sti,,ene"-
!ese consi$e"ations also a&&ly to t!e assessment o, ,illet (el$s* an$ ,o" connections s%c! as )%sset Coints
analyse$ by ,inite element met!o$sQ see section A0-0-12B- :o" connections o, t!is ty&e mo"e a$#e"se S-N
c%"#es ,o" t!e "oot a"eas o, (el$s s!o%l$ %se e3t"a&olate$ st"esses in t!e case o, Iet!o$ A* o" t!e 1-12
e3t"a&olation ,acto" o, Iet!o$ @-
4-0-6 De"i#ation o, e,,ecti#e !ot s&ot st"ess ,"om :6 analysis
At !ot s&ots (it! si)ni,icant &late ben$in) one mi)!t $e"i#e an e,,ecti#e !ot s&ot st"ess ,o" ,ati)%e
assessment base$ on t!e ,ollo(in) e?%ation:
(!e"e
!e "e$%ction ,acto" on t!e ben$in) st"ess can be e3&laine$ by "e$ist"ib%tion o, loa$s to ot!e" a"eas $%"in)
c"ac' )"o(t! (!ile t!e c"ac' ti& is )"o(in) into a "e)ion (it! "e$%ce$ st"ess- !e e,,ect is limite$ to a"eas
(it! a localise$ st"ess concent"ation* (!ic! occ%"s ,o" e3am&le at a !o&&e" co"ne" in a s!i& s!a&e$
st"%ct%"e- 4o(e#e"* in a case (!e"e t!e st"ess #a"iation alon) t!e (el$ is small* t!e $i,,e"ence in ,ati)%e
li,e bet(een a3ial loa$in) an$ &%"e ben$in) is m%c! smalle"- !e"e,o"e it s!o%l$ be note$ t!at it is not
co""ect to )ene"ally "e$%ce t!e ben$in) &a"t o, t!e st"ess to 60 &e"cent- !is !as to be "est"icte$ to cases
(it! a &"ono%nce$ st"ess concent"ation D(!e"e t!e st"ess $ist"ib%tion %n$e" ,ati)%e c"ac' $e#elo&ment is
mo"e simila" to a $is&lacement cont"olle$ sit%ation t!an t!at o, a loa$ cont"olle$ $e#elo&mentE- !%s* it
s!o%l$ be note$ t!at its %se in &"actise is consi$e"e$ to be "at!e" limite$-
4-0-7 Ve"i,ication o, analysis met!o$olo)y
!e analysis met!o$olo)y may be #e"i,ie$ base$ on analysis o, $etails (it! $e"i#e$ ta")et !ot s&ot st"ess-
S%c! $etails (it! ta")et !ot s&ot st"ess a"e s!o(n in A&&en$i3 AD-12B* 1ommenta"y-

e*!ot s&ot
F
a*!ot s&ot
W 0-60
b*!ot s&ot D4-0-5E

a*!ot s&ot
F memb"ane st"ess

b*!ot s&ot
F ben$in) st"ess
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 58
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Figure 3-! +chematic stress distribution at a hot spot
Figure 3-# %;ample of derivation of hot spot stress
St!ss !Fal1ation plan!
"otch st!ss
,ot spot st!ss
8!m3an! st!ss
5ttachm!nt
plat!
t
Fill!t w!l.
"otch st!ss
t/2 3t/2
St!ss
,ot spot st!ss
S1$ac! st!ss
5ttachm!nt plat!
Fill!t w!l.
5ttachm!nt plat!
Fill!t w!l.
5
5
"ominal st!ss "ominal st!ss

%ntersect!on
l!ne
&ot
s#ot
1
4 -
,
+
0.5 t
Gauss!an !ntegrat!on
#o!nt
1
4 -
,
1.5 t
E2trapolated
$ot spot stress
3
%ntersect!on
l!ne
&ot
s#ot
1
4 -
,
+
0.5 t
Gauss!an !ntegrat!on
#o!nt
1
4 -
,
1.5 t
E2trapolated
$ot spot stress
3
%ntersect!on
l!ne
&ot
s#ot
1
4 -
,
+
0.5 t
Gauss!an !ntegrat!on
#o!nt
1
4 -
,
1.5 t
E2trapolated
$ot spot stress
3
%ntersect!on
l!ne
&ot
s#ot
1
4 -
,
+
0.5 t
Gauss!an !ntegrat!on
#o!nt
1
4 -
,
1.5 t
E2trapolated
$ot spot stress
3
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Figure 3-3 Different hot spot positions
Figure 3-5 +tress e;trapolation in a three-dimensional F% model to the weld toe
Figure 3-6 +tress e;trapolation in a three-dimensional F% model to the weld toe
c
c
3
a
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Figure 3-1 Derivation of hot spot stress for element siFe different from t t
Figure 3-4 Different stress flow normal to and in plane of a shell element model which implies use of
different hot spot +-) curves for hot spot c as compared with hot spot a
4-0-9 P"oce$%"e ,o" analysis o, (eb sti,,ene$ c"%ci,o"m connections
A n%mbe" o, :6-analyses %sin) mo$els (it! t!"ee-$imensional elements an$ mo$els (it! s!ell elements
!a#e been &e",o"me$ o, (eb sti,,ene$ c"%ci,o"m Coints s%c! as ty&ical ,o%n$ at !o&&e" connections* at
st"in)e" !eels an$ at Coints connectin) $ec' st"%ct%"es to #e"tical membe"s in s!i& st"%ct%"es %sin) s!ell
elements* "e,- :i)%"e 4-8 !e (el$ le) len)t! is a &a"amete" t!at !as been incl%$e$ in t!ese analyses- @ase$
on t!e "es%lt ,"om t!ese analyses a met!o$olo)y ,o" $e"i#ation o, !ot s&ot st"ess at (el$e$ connections
%sin) s!ell ,inite element mo$els !as been $e#elo&e$-
t ) t 6 t ' t 3 t 2 t
0
=istanc! $om hot spot
,ot spot
st!ss
S!con. o.! pol;nomial
0.) t 1.) t
R!s1lts $om FD anal;sis
t ) t 6 t ' t 3 t 2 t
0
=istanc! $om hot spot
,ot spot
st!ss
S!con. o.! pol;nomial
0.) t 1.) t
R!s1lts $om FD anal;sis

c
a

%
%%
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Gt s!o%l$ be note$ t!at t!e &"oce$%"e $esc"ibe$ in t!e ,ollo(in) is limite$ to t!e &late ,lan)e connection-
2t!e" !ot s&ots as in$icate$ in :i)%"e 4-8 s!o%l$ be c!ec'e$ acco"$in) to t!e )ene"al &"oce$%"e )i#en in
section A4-0B-
!is &"oce$%"e is $esc"ibe$ as ,ollo(s:
Gt is ass%me$ t!at t!e (el$ is not incl%$e$ in t!e s!ell ,inite element analysis- !e &"oce$%"e is calib"ate$
s%c! t!at s%",ace st"ess can be "ea$ o%t ,"om "ea$ o%t &oints s!i,te$ a(ay ,"om t!e inte"section line at a
&osition o, t!e act%al (el$ toe- !e $istance ,"om t!e inte"section line to t!e (el$ toe is obtaine$ as
(!e"e
!e st"ess at t!e s!i,t &osition is $e"i#e$ $i"ectly ,"om t!e analysis D(it!o%t any e3t"a&olation o, st"essesE-
!e s%",ace st"ess Dincl%$in) memb"ane an$ ben$in) st"essE is $enote$
s%",ace
D3
s!i,t
E- !e memb"ane
st"ess an$ t!e ben$in) st"ess a"e $enote$
memb"ane
D3
s!i,t
E an$
ben$in)
D3
s!i,t
E "es&ecti#ely-
aE 4o&&e" 'n%c'le in tan'e"
bE 4eel o, st"in)e" in tan'e"
D4-0-6E
t
1
F &late t!ic'ness o, &late (el$e$ to t!e &late n%mbe" 1 in :i)%"e 4-10- See also commenta"y section
(
%t
F ,illet (el$ le) len)t!

wt shift
1
t
1 + =
2
1

Other hot
spots

Hot spot t
2
t
1
Hot spot t
2
t
1
- t
3
-

Hot spot
T/Bhd
S
i
d
e

s
h
e
l
l
L
/
B
h
d
Hot spot
T/Bhd
S
i
d
e

s
h
e
l
l
L
/
B
h
d
Other hot
spots
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cE 1onnection bet(een $ec' (eb ,"ame an$ si$e (eb ,"ame in #e!icle ca""ie"
Figure 3-8 %;ample of web stiffened cruciform :oints
!e !ot s&ot st"ess is $e"i#e$ as
(!e"e
:o" F 45Y connections a co""ection ,acto" is $e"i#e$ as
:o" F 60 Y connections a co""ection ,acto" is $e"i#e$ as
:o" F 80 Y connections a co""ection ,acto" is $e"i#e$ as
!e &"oce$%"e is calib"ate$ ,o" 0 3
(t
+t
1
1-0-
!e $e"i#e$ !ot s&ot st"ess is to be ente"e$ t!e !ot s&ot S-N c%"#e ,o" (el$e$ connections-
!e analysis &"oce$%"e is ill%st"ate$ in :i)%"e 4-11-
2t!e" !ot s&ots locate$ in (ay o, t!e (eb as in$icate$ in :i)%"e 4-8 can be c!ec'e$ by t!e ,ollo(in)
&"oce$%"e: !e ma3im%m &"inci&al s%",ace st"ess $e,ine$ at a $istance 3
!
F t
0
+2W3
(t
D(!e"e t
0
is (eb
t!ic'ness an$ 3
(t
is t!e smallest #al%e ,o" t!e t(o (el$s meetin) in t!e co"ne"E ,"om t!e c"ossin)
inte"section lines to t!e !ot s&ot an$ not close" to t!e inte"section lines t!an t
0
+2* see :i)%"e 4-12* s!o%l$
be %se$ ,o" ,ati)%e e#al%ation- !is st"ess s!o%l$ be combine$ (it! nominal st"ess S-N c%"#es 6 o" : ,o"
c"%ci,o"m Coints as &"esente$ in able A-7 $etails 9-10-
D4-0-7E
D4-0-9E
D4-0-8E
D4-0-10E
D4-0-11E

Hot spot
Hot spot at flange
connection
Deck
S
i
d
e

s
h
e
l
l
Hot spot
Hot spot at flange
connection
Hot spot
Hot spot at flange
connection
Deck
S
i
d
e

s
h
e
l
l
Other hot
spots
( ) + = G 60 . 0 G % / ( % / (
shi$t 3!n.ing shi$t m!m3an! spot hot
% / ( % / ( % / (
shi$t m!m3an! shi$t s1$ac! shi$t 3!n.ing
=

2
1
wt
1
wt
t
/
22 . 0
t
/
1) . 0 07 . 1
|
|

\
|
+ =

2
1
wt
1
wt
t
/
36 . 0
t
/
16 . 0 09 . 1
|
|

\
|
+ =

2
1 1
30 . 0 0' . 0 20 . 1
|
|

\
|
+ + =
t
1
t
1
wt wt

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Figure 3-/" Three dimensional model used for calibration of analysis procedure
Figure 3-// 0llustration of procedure for derivation of hot spot stress using shell finite element model
Figure 3-/! Read out of hot spot stress for other hot spots in Figure 3-8

Hot spot 1
Hot spot 2
Hot spot 1
Hot spot 2
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )

Shell FE model
wt shift
x
t
x + =
2
1
Intersection line
Shell FE model
( )
shift
X
( ) * 60 . 0 * ) ( ) (
shift bending shift membrane spot hot
x x + =
Shell FE model
wt shift
x
t
x + =
2
1
wt shift
x
t
x + =
2
1
Intersection line
Shell FE model
( )
shift
X
( ) * 60 . 0 * ) ( ) (
shift bending shift membrane spot hot
x x + =
Shell FE model
wt shift
x
t
x + =
2
1
Intersection line
Shell FE model
( )
shift
X
( ) * 60 . 0 * ) ( ) (
shift bending shift membrane spot hot
x x + =
Shell FE model
wt shift
x
t
x + =
2
1
wt shift
x
t
x + =
2
1
Intersection line
Shell FE model
( )
shift
X
( ) * 60 . 0 * ) ( ) (
shift bending shift membrane spot hot
x x + =
Plate 1
Plate 2

Position for read out
of hot spot stress
Element intersection lines
t
3
/2
t
3
/2
x
h
- t
3
-
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4-0-8 Analysis o, (el$e$ &enet"ations
:inite element analysis is no"mally %se$ to analyse &late$ st"%ct%"es in ,loatin) o,,s!o"e st"%ct%"es- !e
(el$e$ &enet"ations a"e no"mally not incl%$e$ in t!e analysis mo$els $%e to mo$ellin) time an$ analysis
ca&acity- At a &osition o, a &enet"ation a t(o-$imensional st"ess ,iel$ is calc%late$ %sin) s!ell elements ,o"
mo$ellin) o, t!e &late$ st"%ct%"es- !is im&lies st"esses in 3- an$ y-$i"ection in t!e coo"$inate system o,
t!e element an$ a s!ea" st"ess- :"om t!ese st"esses t!e &"inci&al st"esses can be calc%late$ as
Figure 3-/# 'ot spot locations around penetration relative to principal stress direction
'tresses for fatigue design at position a2 in Figure :*7
:o" a sin)le st"ess state t!e !ot s&ot st"ess at &osition a in :i)%"e 4-10 can be $e"i#e$ ,"om t!e )"a&!s in
:i)%"e 1-0 an$ :i)%"e 1-4 in A&&en$i3 1 ,o" !ot s&ot &osition s!o(n in le,t &a"t o, :i)%"e 4-14- !ese )"a&!s
can be %se$ to calc%late t!e st"ess "an)e $%e to t!e ,i"st &"inci&al st"ess-
!is &"inci&al st"ess (ill also c"eate a &a"allel st"ess at &osition c in :i)%"e 4-10 as s!o(n in :i)%"e 4-14-
!e )"a&! in :i)%"e 1-15 can be %se$ to calc%late t!e !ot s&ot st"ess at &osition a D:i)%"e 4-10E ,o" t!e
secon$ &"inci&al st"ess Ds!o(n to t!e "i)!t in :i)%"e 4-14E-
!en t!e "es%ltin) !ot s&ot st"ess $%e to t!e ,i"st an$ t!e secon$ &"inci&al st"esses a"e $e"i#e$ by
s%mmation o, $e"i#e$ !ot s&ot st"esses- :inally t!is !ot s&ot st"ess can be ente"e$ into t!e c%"#e 1 ,o"
calc%lation o, ,ati)%e $ama)e-
Figure 3-/3 +tresses re7uired for derivation of hot spot stress at position a in Figure 3-/#
D4-0-12E
o be analyse$ (it!
1
o be analyse$ (it!
2
( )
2 2
2
'
2
1
2
y 1 y 1
y 1


+
+
=
( )
2 2
1
'
2
1
2
y 1 y 1
y 1


+ +
+
=
2
1
,
a
(

1
c
45
o
2
1
,
2
1
,
a
(

1
c
45
o
a
(

1
c
45
o
2

1y

1y

1y

1y

1y

1y
y

1y

1y

1y

1y

1y

1y

1

+ +
r
t
r

+ +
r
t
r + +
r
t
r
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'tresses for fatigue design at position !2 in Figure :*7
!e st"ess com&onents no"mal to an$ &a"allel (it! t!e (el$ toe Dsee :i)%"e 0-4 c ,o" notationsE a"e
e#al%ate$ ,o" ,i"st &"inci&al st"ess an$ ,o" t!e secon$ &"inci&al st"ess s!o(n in :i)%"e 4-10 se&a"ately- !en
t!ese st"ess com&onents a"e a$$e$ to)et!e" be,o"e t!ey a"e inse"te$ into e?%ations D4-0-10E an$ D4-0-14E-
!en t!e &"inci&al st"esses at &osition b in :i)%"e 4-10 can be calc%late$ as
:inally t!e e,,ecti#e !ot s&ot st"ess at &osition b is calc%late$ as
!en t!is st"ess "an)e is ente"e$ t!e !ot s&ot st"ess c%"#e D-
'tresses for fatigue design at position c2 in Figure :*7
G"a&!s ,o" st"ess concent"ation ,acto"s ,o" t!e con$itions s!o(n in :i)%"e 4-15 a"e "e?%i"e$ ,o" calc%lation
o, !ot s&ot st"ess at &osition c in :i)%"e 4-10- 2ne set o, st"ess concent"ation ,acto"s is combine$ (it! t!e
,i"st &"inci&al st"ess an$ anot!e" set o, st"ess concent"ation ,acto"s is combine$ (it! t!e secon$ &"inci&al
st"ess* see )"a&!s in A&&-1- !en t!ese !ot s&ot st"esses a"e a$$e$ to)et!e" be,o"e t!e D-c%"#e is ente"e$
,o" calc%lation o, ,ati)%e $ama)e-
Figure 3-/5 +tresses re7uired for derivation of hot spot stress at position c in Figure 3-/#
D4-0-10E
D4-0-14E
o be analyse$ (it!
1
o be analyse$ (it!
2
( )
2
//
2
//
//
1
'
2
1
2
p p n
p n
-


+ +
+
=
( )
2
//
2
//
//
2
'
2
1
2
p p n
p n
-


+
+
=

+
=
- 2
- "
2
p ((
2
np
0ff
22 ) /
22 ) /
*" ) /
ma1





+ +
r
t
r

+ +
r
t
r + +
r
t
r + +
r
t
r
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 67
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+%T0$) 5 +0.P?0F0%D F(T0*-% ()(?A+0+
5./ *eneral
!e lon) te"m st"ess "an)e $ist"ib%tion may be &"esente$ as a t(o-&a"amete" Keib%ll $ist"ib%tion
(!e"e

0
is t!e la")est st"ess "an)e o%t o, n
0
cycles-
K!en t!e lon)-te"m st"ess "an)e $ist"ib%tion is $e,ine$ a&&lyin) Keib%ll $ist"ib%tions ,o" t!e $i,,e"ent loa$
con$itions* an$ a one-slo&e S-N c%"#e is %se$* t!e ,ati)%e $ama)e is )i#en by
(!e"e
Hse o, one slo&e S-N c%"#es lea$s to "es%lts on t!e sa,e si$e ,o" calc%late$ ,ati)%e li#es D(it! slo&e o, c%"#e
at N Z 10
6
- 10
7
cyclesE-
:o" ot!e" e3&"essions ,o" ,ati)%e $ama)e see A&&en$i3 AD-10B* 1ommenta"y-
D5-1-1E
J F &"obability ,o" e3cee$ance o, t!e st"ess "an)e
! F Keib%ll s!a&e &a"amete"
? F Keib%ll scale &a"amete" is $e,ine$ ,"om t!e st"ess "an)e le#el*
0
* as:
D5-1-2E
D5-1-0E

$
F $esi)n li,e in secon$s
! F Keib%ll st"ess "an)e s!a&e $ist"ib%tion &a"amete"
? F Keib%ll st"ess "an)e scale $ist"ib%tion &a"amete"

0
F a#e"a)e Ne"o %&-c"ossin) ,"e?%ency

F )amma ,%nction- Val%es o, t!e )amma ,%nction a"e liste$ in able 5-1-
Table 5-/ )umerical values for B/G m/hC
h m / 7.+ h m / 7.+ h m / 7.+
0-60
0-61
0-62
0*60
0-64
0-65
0-66
0-67
0-69
0-68
0-70
0-71
0-72
0-70
0*74
0-75
0-76
120-000
104-400
81-050
90-059
71-049
60-118
56-001
50-481
45-442
41-059
07-204
00-996
00-842
29-044
26-044
24-000
22-179
0-77
0-79
0-78
0-90
0-91
0-92
0-90
0-94
0-95
0-96
0-97
0-99
0-98
0-80
0-81
0-82
0-80
20-549
18-097
17-772
16-596
15-514
14-542
10-659
12-950
12-119
11-446
10-928
10-260
8-741
8-261
9-916
9-405
9-024
0-84
0-85
0-86
0-87
0-89
0-88
1-00
1-01
1-02
1-00
1-04
1-05
1-06
1-07
1-09
1-08
1-10
7-671
7-042
7-005
6-750
6-490
6-204
6-000
5-791
5-575
5-092
5-200
5-028
4-969
4-715
4-571
4-405
4-006
(
(

|
|

\
|
=
h
H

!/p % I(
1/h
0
0
% n (ln

H =
J %
h
m
K(1 H
a
T @
=
m . 0
+ =
%
h
m
K(1+
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 69
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5.! Fatigue design charts
Desi)n c!a"ts ,o" steel com&onents in ai" an$ in sea(ate" (it! cat!o$ic &"otection a"e s!o(n in :i)%"e 5-1
an$ :i)%"e 5-2 "es&ecti#ely- !ese c!a"ts !a#e been $e"i#e$ base$ on t!e t(o slo&es S-N c%"#es )i#en in
t!is RP an$ calc%late$ ,ati)%e $ama)e %sin) e?%ation DD-10-1E- !e co""es&on$in) n%me"ical #al%es a"e
)i#en in able 5-2 an$ able 5-0-
!ese $esi)n c!a"ts !a#e been $e"i#e$ base$ on an ass%m&tion o, an allo(able ,ati)%e $ama)e F 1-0
$%"in) 10
9
cycles D20 yea"s se"#ice li,e (!ic! co""es&on$s to an a#e"a)e cyclin) &e"io$ o, 6-0 secE- :o"
$esi)n (it! ot!e" allo(able ,ati)%e $ama)es* * t!e allo(able st"ess ,"om t!e $esi)n c!a"ts s!o%l$ be
"e$%ce$ by ,acto"s $e"i#e$ ,"om able 5-4 an$ able 5-5 ,o" con$itions in ai" an$ able 5-6 an$ able 5-7
,o" con$itions in sea(ate" (it! cat!o$ic &"otection-
!e ,ati)%e %tilisation ,acto" as a ,%nction o, $esi)n li,e an$ $esi)n ,ati)%e ,acto" DD::E is )i#en in able
5-9-
!e st"esses $e"i#e$ !e"e co""es&on$ to t!e "e,e"ence t!ic'ness- :o" t!ic'ness la")e" t!an t!e "e,e"ence
t!ic'ness* an allo(able e3t"eme st"ess "an)e $%"in) 10
9
cycles may be obtaine$ as
(!e"e
Figure 5-/ (llowable e;treme stress range during /"
4
cycles for components in air
D5-2-1E
' F t!ic'ness e3&onent* see section A2-4B an$ able 2-1* able 2-2 an$ able 2-0

0*t"e,
F allo(able st"ess as $e"i#e$ ,"om able 5-2 an$ able 5-0
k
|

\
|
=
t
t

!$
t!$ 0& t 0&
0
100
,00
-00
400
500
600
700
800
0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.! 1 1.1 1.,
e!bull s$a#e #arameter $
'
l
l
o
(
a
b
l
e

s
t
r
e
s
s

r
a
n
g
e

!
n

M
P
a
F
F1
F-
5
W1
W,
W-
E 6 7, 71 7 3, 31
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Figure 5-! (llowable e;treme stress range during /"
4
cycles for components in seawater with cathodic
protection
Table 5-! (llowable e;treme stress range in .Pa during /"
4
cycles for components in air
'" curves =ei!ull shape parameter h
+.0+ +.8+ +.,+ +.C+ +.D+ *.++ *.*+ *..+
@1 1448-0 1082-2 961-2 704-7 584-1 512-8 451-4 400-6
@2 1269-1 855-7 750-6 616-6 518-7 449-7 084-8 050-1
1 1018-0 818-6 699-1 542-9 445-5 077-2 026-8 298-0
11 1192-0 924-0 616-5 496-2 088-2 007-9 282-8 259-8
12 1055-0 705-6 550-0 404-1 056-0 001-6 261-5 201-1
D an$ 848-8 662-1 485-4 080-7 020-9 271-5 205-4 209-1
6 940-8 599-0 440-2 047-2 294-8 241-2 208-2 194-8
: 748-2 522-0 080-9 009-2 250-0 214-1 195-6 164-1
:1 664-9 460-4 046-7 270-5 224-5 180-0 164-7 145-6
:0 581-1 412-0 009-0 240-2 188-6 168-0 146-5 128-4
G 527-6 067-9 275-2 217-1 179-2 150-9 100-9 115-6
K1 475-0 001-0 247-9 185-4 160-4 105-9 117-7 104-0
K2 422-1 284-1 220-1 170-6 142-5 120-6 104-6 82-5
K0 078-8 264-9 189-2 156-0 129-2 109-6 84-2 90-2
0
100
,00
-00
400
500
600
700
800
0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.! 1 1.1 1.,
e!bull s$a#e #arameter $
'
l
l
o
(
a
b
l
e

s
t
r
e
s
s

r
a
n
g
e

!
n

M
#
a


7, 71 7 3, 31
6
E
F
F1
F-
5
W1
W,
W-
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Table 5-# (llowable e;treme stress range in .Pa during /"
4
cycles for components in seawater with
cathodic protection
'" curves =ei!ull shape parameter h
+.0+ +.8+ +.,+ +.C+ +.D+ *.++ *.*+ *..+
@1 1008-9 886-0 780-0 655-2 557-4 495-0 400-5 097-6
@2 1146-0 971-5 680-8 570-0 497-7 424-7 076-6 008-1
1 1009-5 745-5 570-6 464-0 098-9 006-7 287-0 266-5
11 800-5 669-0 510-8 415-9 048-0 001-5 266-1 209-7
12 900-7 586-0 459-7 071-0 011-7 268-2 207-6 210-1
D an$ 747-9 506-7 410-0 004-2 290-7 242-4 210-8 181-8
6 664-0 476-8 067-0 287-0 248-0 215-0 180-1 170-5
: 598-9 420-4 025-9 260-6 221-4 181-1 169-6 151-0
:1 520-0 075-7 298-0 200-8 186-4 168-6 148-6 104-0
:0 465-0 004-0 257-0 209-0 174-6 150-8 100-1 118-0
G 415-0 289-2 228-4 195-7 155-8 104-6 119-9 106-6
K1 070-8 269-0 206-6 167-1 140-0 121-2 106-8 85-8
K2 002-0 209-4 190-5 149-5 124-7 107-7 85-0 95-0
K0 288-1 214-7 165-2 100-4 112-2 86-8 95-6 76-7
Table 5-3 Reduction factor on stress to correspond with utilisation factor for 9/ and 9! curves in air
environment
Fatigue
damage
utilisation
=ei!ull shape parameter h
+.0+ +.8+ +.,+ +.C+ +.D+ *.++ *.*+ *..+
0-10 0-570 0-575 0-591 0-597 0-582 0-587 0-602 0-600
0-20 0-674 0-679 0-692 0-696 0-680 0-684 0-689 0-701
0-22 0-680 0-680 0-687 0-701 0-705 0-708 0-712 0-715
0-27 0-725 0-729 0-701 0-705 0-709 0-742 0-745 0-749
0-00 0-744 0-747 0-750 0-750 0-756 0-758 0-762 0-765
0-00 0-762 0-764 0-767 0-770 0-770 0-776 0-779 0-791
0-40 0-789 0-900 0-900 0-905 0-909 0-910 0-912 0-915
0-50 0-940 0-945 0-946 0-949 0-950 0-952 0-954 0-956
0-60 0-992 0-990 0-994 0-996 0-997 0-999 0-980 0-981
0-67 0-806 0-807 0-809 0-808 0-810 0-811 0-812 0-810
0-70 0-816 0-817 0-817 0-818 0-820 0-820 0-821 0-822
0-90 0-846 0-847 0-847 0-849 0-848 0-848 0-850 0-850
1-00 1-000 1-000 1-000 1-000 1-000 1-000 1-000 1-000
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Table 5-5 Reduction factor on stress to correspond with utilisation factor for - &# curves in air
environment
Fatigue
damage
utilisation
=ei!ull shape parameter h
+.0+ +.8+ +.,+ +.C+ +.D+ *.++ *.*+ *..+
0-10 0-487 0-511 0-526 0-540 0-552 0-560 0-570 0-592
0-20 0-608 0-620 0-602 0-642 0-652 0-661 0-670 0-677
0-22 0-627 0-609 0-649 0-658 0-669 0-677 0-695 0-682
0-27 0-661 0-676 0-696 0-685 0-700 0-711 0-718 0-725
0-00 0-699 0-687 0-706 0-715 0-720 0-700 0-707 0-740
0-00 0-709 0-717 0-725 0-700 0-741 0-749 0-754 0-760
0-40 0-751 0-759 0-765 0-772 0-778 0-795 0-780 0-785
0-50 0-905 0-910 0-916 0-921 0-926 0-901 0-905 0-908
0-60 0-952 0-956 0-960 0-964 0-969 0-971 0-975 0-979
0-67 0-992 0-995 0-999 0-981 0-984 0-987 0-800 0-802
0-70 0-984 0-987 0-800 0-802 0-805 0-809 0-810 0-812
0-90 0-802 0-804 0-806 0-809 0-808 0-841 0-842 0-844
1-00 1-000 1-000 1-000 1-000 1-000 1-000 1-000 1-000
Table 5-6 Reduction factor on stress to correspond with utilisation factor for 9/ and 9! curves in
seawater with cathodic protection
Fatigue
damage
utilisation
=ei!ull shape parameter h
+.0+ +.8+ +.,+ +.C+ +.D+ *.++ *.*+ *..+
0-10 0-590 0-580 0-602 0-610 0-617 0-621 0-625 0-627
0-20 0-694 0-681 0-688 0-705 0-711 0-715 0-719 0-720
0-22 0-688 0-706 0-714 0-720 0-725 0-728 0-702 0-705
0-27 0-700 0-740 0-746 0-752 0-757 0-760 0-760 0-766
0-00 0-751 0-759 0-764 0-768 0-770 0-777 0-790 0-792
0-00 0-769 0-774 0-790 0-795 0-798 0-782 0-785 0-782
0-40 0-904 0-908 0-914 0-919 0-922 0-925 0-927 0-928
0-50 0-949 0-951 0-955 0-959 0-961 0-964 0-966 0-967
0-60 0-995 0-999 0-981 0-980 0-986 0-987 0-988 0-800
0-67 0-808 0-811 0-810 0-815 0-817 0-818 0-820 0-821
0-70 0-819 0-820 0-822 0-824 0-826 0-827 0-829 0-828
0-90 0-849 0-848 0-850 0-852 0-850 0-854 0-855 0-855
1-00 1-000 1-000 1-000 1-000 1-000 1-000 1-000 1-000
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5.# %;ample of use of design charts
!e allo(able st"ess "an)e in a $ec' st"%ct%"e o, a :PS2 is to be $ete"mine$-
!e ma3im%m t!ic'ness o, t!e steel &lates is 05-0 mm- :"om DNV 1lassi,ication Note No- 00-7 a Keib%ll
s!a&e &a"amete" e?%al 0-87 is $ete"mine$- Gt is ass%me$ t!at $etails co""es&on$in) to a classi,ication :0
is )oin) to be (el$e$ to t!e $ec' st"%ct%"e-
!e $esi)n li,e o, t!e :PS2 is 25 yea"s an$ t!e o&e"ato" (o%l$ li'e to %se a Desi)n :ati)%e :acto" e?%al 2-
!e $etail is in ai" en#i"onment- !e ,ollo(in) allo(able st"ess "an)e is $e"i#e$ by a linea" inte"&olation o,
st"ess "an)es ,o" !-#al%es 0-80 an$ 1-0 in able 5-2 ,o" S-N c%"#e :0 is obtaine$:
188-6 - D188-6 - 168-0E DD0-87 - 0-80E+D1-0 - 0-80EE F 179-19 IPa-
!is co""es&on$s to an allo(able st"ess ,o" 20 yea"s $esi)n li,e an$ a D:: e?%al 1- !en ,"om able 5-9 an
%tilisation ,acto" e?%al 0-40 is obtaine$ ,o" 25 yea"s se"#ice li,e an$ a D:: e?%al 2-0-
!en ,"om able 5-5 a "e$%ction ,acto" is obtaine$ by linea" inte"&olation bet(een t!e ,acto"s ,o" !-#al%es
0-80 an$ 1-0 ,o" F 0-40- !e ,ollo(in) "e$%ction ,acto" is obtaine$:
0-778 W D0-795-0-778E DD0-87 - 0-80E+D1-0 - 0-80EE F 0-790-
!%s t!e allo(able st"ess "an)e ,o" a 25 mm t!ic' &late is obtaine$ as 179-19T0-790 F 108-55-
!e t!ic'ness e3&onent ,o" a :0 $etail is ' F 0-25 ,"om able 2-1-
!en t!e allo(able st"ess "an)e ,o" t!e 05 mm t!ic' &late is obtaine$ as: 108-55TD25+05E 0-25 F 129-28
IPa-
Table 5-1 Reduction factor on stress to correspond with utilisation factor for - &# curves in seawater
with cathodic protection
Fatigue
damage
utilisation
=ei!ull shape parameter h
+.0+ +.8+ +.,+ +.C+ +.D+ *.++ *.*+ *..+
0-10 0-505 0-559 0-577 0-580 0-605 0-610 0-618 0-620
0-20 0-640 0-658 0-676 0-698 0-688 0-707 0-710 0-717
0-22 0-657 0-675 0-681 0-700 0-710 0-721 0-727 0-701
0-27 0-684 0-710 0-725 0-706 0-745 0-752 0-759 0-762
0-00 0-714 0-728 0-740 0-754 0-760 0-768 0-775 0-778
0-00 0-702 0-747 0-760 0-770 0-778 0-795 0-780 0-784
0-40 0-772 0-795 0-786 0-905 0-912 0-919 0-922 0-925
0-50 0-921 0-901 0-940 0-947 0-950 0-959 0-962 0-964
0-60 0-964 0-972 0-978 0-995 0-998 0-980 0-986 0-989
0-67 0-982 0-989 0-800 0-809 0-812 0-815 0-817 0-818
0-70 0-800 0-809 0-810 0-817 0-821 0-824 0-826 0-827
0-90 0-809 0-841 0-845 0-847 0-848 0-851 0-850 0-854
1-00 1-000 1-000 1-000 1-000 1-000 1-000 1-000 1-000
Table 5-4 -tilisation factors as function of design life and design fatigue factor
DFF Design life in years
0 *+ *0 .+ .0 7+ 0+
1 4-0 2-0 1-00 1-00 0-90 0-67 0-40
2 2-0 1-0 0-67 0-50 0-40 0-00 0-20
0 1-00 0-67 0-44 0-00 0-27 0-22 0-10
5 0-90 0-40 0-27 0-20 0-16 0-10 0-09
10 0-40 0-20 0-10 0-10 0-09 0-07 0-04
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5.3 (nalysis of connectors
:o" ,ati)%e analysis o, connecto"s it is "ecommen$e$ to establis! a ,inite element mo$el (it! contact
s%",aces on t!e t!"ea$s incl%$in) non-linea" mate"ial c!a"acte"istics- !e mate"ial non-linea"ity may be
"e&"esente$ by an isot"o&ic !a"$enin) "%le to allo( ,o" local yiel$in) $%"in) ma'e-%&* &"ess%"e testin) an$
,o" sim%latin) t!e ,i"st loa$ cycle- A ,ine mes! mo$el is "e?%i"e$ at t!e t!"ea$ "oots to allo( ,o" local yiel$in)
$%"in) ma'e-%& to"?%e an$ ,o" sim%lation o, a ,i"st loa$ cycle- !en t!e calc%late$ st"ess "an)e $%"in) a
loa$ cycle can be ente"e$ t!e !i)! st"en)t! S-N c%"#e in section A2-4-10B ,o" calc%lation o, ,ati)%e $ama)e-
@ase$ on e3&e"ience t!is a&&"oac! is consi$e"e$ to be mo"e "e&"esentati#e ,o" act%al ,ati)%e be!a#io%" t!an
t!at o, t!e initial st"ain met!o$ "ecommen$e$ by GS2 18802 t!at can be %n$%ly conse"#ati#e-
:o" t!"ea$s (it! a small "a$i%s an$ stee& st"ess )"a$ient a notc! st"ess a&&"oac! may be %se$- Alte"nati#ely
a ,"act%"e mec!anics a&&"oac! may be %se$ ass%min) c"ac' )"o(t! ,"om a 1 mm $ee& c"ac' ta'in) into
acco%nt t!e act%al st"ess ,iel$ in t!e connection-
!e total n%mbe" o, cycles to ,ail%"e may be $e"i#e$ as a s%m o, cycles ,"om initiation Dinitial st"ain met!o$
"e&"esentin) ,ati)%e initiation %ntil t!e c"ac' is 1 mm $ee&E to t!at o, c"ac' )"o(t! D,"act%"e mec!anics
analysisE-
:o" #ali$ation o, connecto"s by ,ati)%e testin) "e,e"ence is ma$e to A&&en$i3 D section AD-7B ;Eustifying the
use of a given design curve from a ne% data set<-
63am&les o, $i,,e"ent $esi)n a&&"oac! o, connecto"s can be liste$ as:
1E A linea" elastic ,inite element analysis a&&"oac! combine$ (it! S-N c%"#e @1 (it!o%t "e?%i"ement to
a$$itional ,ati)%e testin)
2E A$#ance$ ,inite element analysis a&&"oac! (it! non-linea" analysis to $ete"mine initial be!a#io%" be,o"e
an elastic state is ac!ie#e$- !en t!e st"ess "an)e may be combine$ (it! t!e !i)! st"en)t! S-N c%"#e-
!ese analyses may be s%&&o"te$ by a$$itional ,ati)%e testin) $e&en$in) on conse?%ences o, a ,ati)%e
,ail%"e-
:o" assessment o, a ,ati)%e $esi)n c%"#e ,o" connecto"s $e"i#e$ ,"om testin) as $esc"ibe$ in A&&en$i3 D
section AD-7B* t!e st"ess mo$i,ication &a"amete" DSI:E acco%nts ,o" a n%mbe" o, $i,,e"ent &a"amete"s:
> St"ess concent"ation ,acto" in connection-
> St"ess )"a$ient at t!"ea$s-
> :ab"ication tole"ances in connectin) &a"ts-
> Ia'e-%& to"?%e-
> Local yiel$in) at t!"ea$ "oots-
> Iean st"ess e,,ects (!en t!e testin) is &e",o"me$ (it! &a"t o, t!e st"ess cycle as com&"essi#e- Re,-
section A2-5B-
!e %nce"tainty in t!ese &a"amete"s s!o%l$ be assesse$ (!en $ete"minin) stan$a"$ $e#iation to be %se$
in $e"i#ation o, a $esi)n S-N c%"#e base$ on ,e( ne( test $ata-
Gt is ass%me$ t!at connecto"s a"e s%bCecte$ to 1005 ND an$ t!at s%",ace $e,ects a"e not allo(e$ s%c!
t!at a !omo)eno%s $ata set (o%l$ be e3&ecte$ i, many connecto"s (e"e ,ati)%e teste$-
G, t!e calc%late$ st"ess concent"ation in a connecto" is $e&en$ent on loa$ le#el an$ loa$ se?%ence* it is
"ecommen$ to &%t on a loa$ t!at t!e connecto" (ill li'ely e3&e"ience $%"in) t!e ,i"st yea" o, se"#ice* to allo(
,o" local yiel$in) at !i)! st"esse$ a"eas* be,o"e a loa$ "an)e ty&ically co""es&on$in) to t!e "e)ion (it!
!i)!est cont"ib%tion to ,ati)%e $ama)e is selecte$ ,o" analysis o, st"ess concent"ation ,acto" base$ on linea"
elastic analysis- Simila" consi$e"ations may also be ma$e ,o" ,ati)%e testin) o, t!ese connections-
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 74
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+%T0$) 6 F(T0*-% ()(?A+0+ 9(+%D $) FR(T-R% .%'()0+
:"act%"e mec!anics may be %se$ ,o" ,ati)%e analyses as s%&&lement to S-N $ata-
:"act%"e mec!anics is "ecommen$e$ ,o" %se in assessment o, acce&table $e,ects* e#al%ation o, acce&tance
c"ite"ia ,o" ,ab"ication an$ ,o" &lannin) in-se"#ice ins&ection-
!e &%"&ose o, s%c! analysis is to $oc%ment* by means o, calc%lations* t!at ,ati)%e c"ac's* (!ic! mi)!t
occ%" $%"in) se"#ice li,e* (ill not e3cee$ t!e c"ac' siNe co""es&on$in) to %nstable ,"act%"e- !e calc%lations
s!o%l$ be &e",o"me$ s%c! t!at t!e st"%ct%"al "eliability by %se o, ,"act%"e mec!anics (ill not be less t!an
t!at ac!ie#e$ by %se o, S-N $ata- !is can be ac!ie#e$ by &e",o"min) t!e analysis acco"$in) to t!e ,ollo(in)
&"oce$%"e:
> c"ac' )"o(t! &a"amete" 1 $ete"mine$ as mean &l%s 2 stan$a"$ $e#iation
> a ca"e,%l e#al%ation o, initial $e,ects t!at mi)!t be &"esent in t!e st"%ct%"e (!en ta'in) into acco%nt
t!e act%al ND6 ins&ection met!o$ %se$ to $etect c"ac's $%"in) ,ab"ication
> %se o, )eomet"y ,%nctions t!at a"e on t!e sa,e si$e
> %se o, %tilisation ,acto"s o" Desi)n :ati)%e :acto"s simila" to t!ose %se$ (!en t!e ,ati)%e analysis is
base$ on S-N $ata-
As c"ac' initiation is not incl%$e$ in t!e ,"act%"e mec!anics a&&"oac!* s!o"te" ,ati)%e li,e is no"mally $e"i#e$
,"om ,"act%"e mec!anics t!an by S-N $ata-
Gn a case t!at t!e "es%lts ,"om ,"act%"e mec!anics analyses cannot be $i"ectly be com&a"e$ (it! S-N $ata
it mi)!t be "ecommen$e$ to &e",o"m a com&a"ison ,o" a $etail (!e"e S-N $ata a"e a#ailable* in o"$e" to
#e"i,y t!at t!e ass%m&tions ma$e ,o" t!e ,"act%"e mec!anics analyses a"e acce&table-
!e initial c"ac' siNe to be %se$ in t!e calc%lation s!o%l$ be consi$e"e$ in eac! case* ta'in) acco%nt o,
e3&e"ience$ im&e",ection o" $e,ect siNes ,o" #a"io%s (el$ments* )eomet"ies* access an$ "eliability o, t!e
ins&ection met!o$- :o" s%",ace c"ac's sta"tin) ,"om t"ansitions bet(een (el$+base mate"ial* a c"ac' $e&t!
o, 0-5 mm De-)- $%e to %n$e"c%ts an$ mic"oc"ac's at bottom o, t!e %n$e"c%tsE may be ass%me$ i, ot!e"
$oc%mente$ in,o"mation abo%t c"ac' $e&t! is not a#ailable-
Gt is no"mally* ass%me$ t!at com&"essi#e st"esses $o not cont"ib%te to c"ac' &"o&a)ation- 4o(e#e"* ,o"
(el$e$ connections containin) "esi$%al st"esses* t!e (!ole st"ess "an)e s!o%l$ be a&&lie$- 2nly st"ess
com&onents no"mal to t!e &"o&a)ation &lane nee$ to be consi$e"e$-
!e Pa"isM e?%ation may be %se$ to &"e$ict t!e c"ac' &"o&a)ation o" t!e ,ati)%e li,e:
(!e"e
!e st"ess intensity ,acto" P may be e3&"esse$ as:
(!e"e
See @S 7810* "e,- +7+* ,o" ,%"t!e" )%i$elines "elate$ to ,ati)%e assessment base$ on ,"act%"e mec!anics-
D6-1-1E
P F P
ma3
- P
min
N F N%mbe" o, cycles to ,ail%"e
a F c"ac' $e&t!- Gt is !e"e ass%me$ t!at t!e c"ac' $e&t!+len)t! "atio is lo( Dless t!an 1:5E-
2t!e"(ise c"ac' )"o(t! analysis alon) t(o a3es is "ecommen$e$-
1* m F mate"ial &a"amete"s* see @S 7810* "e,- +7+
D6-1-2E
F nominal st"ess in t!e membe" no"mal to t!e c"ac'
) F ,acto" $e&en$in) on t!e )eomet"y o, t!e membe"* t!e (el$ an$ t!e c"ac' )eomet"y
( )
m
L C
."
.a
=
a C g L =
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+%T0$) 1 0.PR$2%.%)T $F F(T0*-% ?0F% 9A F(9R0(T0$)
1./ *eneral
Gt s!o%l$ be note$ t!at im&"o#ement o, t!e (el$ toe (ill not im&"o#e t!e ,ati)%e li,e i, ,ati)%e c"ac'in) ,"om
t!e "oot is t!e most li'ely ,ail%"e mo$e- !e consi$e"ations ma$e in t!e ,ollo(in) a"e ,o" con$itions (!e"e
t!e "oot is not consi$e"e$ to be a c"itical initiation &oint- 63ce&t ,o" (el$ &"o,ilin) Dsection A7-2BE t!e e,,ect
,"om $i,,e"ent im&"o#ement met!o$s as )i#en in t!e ,ollo(in) can not be a$$e$-
Re,e"ence is ma$e to GGK Recommen$ations* on &ost (el$ im&"o#ement (it! "es&ect to tools an$ e3ec%tion
o, t!e im&"o#ement-
1.! &eld profiling by machining and grinding
@y (el$ &"o,ilin) in t!is section is %n$e"stoo$ &"o,ilin) by mac!inin) o" )"in$in) as &"o,ilin) by (el$in) only
is not consi$e"e$ to be an e,,icient mean to im&"o#e ,ati)%e li#es-
Gn $esi)n calc%lations* t!e t!ic'ness e,,ect may be "e$%ce$ to an e3&onent 0-15 &"o#i$e$ t!at t!e (el$ is
&"o,ile$ by eit!e" mac!inin) o" )"in$in) to a "a$i%s o, a&&"o3imately !al, t!e &late t!ic'ness* D+2 (it!
st"ess $i"ection as s!o(n in :i)%"e 7-2 @E-
K!e"e (el$ &"o,ilin) is %se$* t!e calc%late$ ,ati)%e li,e can be inc"ease$ ta'in) acco%nt o, a "e$%ce$ local
st"ess concent"ation ,acto"- A "e$%ce$ local st"ess $%e to (el$ &"o,ilin) can be obtaine$ as ,ollo(s-
K!en (el$ &"o,ilin) is &e",o"me$* a "e$%ce$ !ot s&ot st"ess can be calc%late$ as
(!e"e an$ a"e $e"i#e$ ,"om e?%ations D7-2-2E an$ D7-2-0E "es&ecti#ely-
:o" $esc"i&tion o, )eomet"ic &a"amete"s see :i)%"e 7-1-
!e memb"ane &a"t an$ t!e ben$in) &a"t o, t!e st"ess !a#e to be se&a"ate$ ,"om t!e local st"ess as
(!e"e
G, a ,inite element analysis o, t!e consi$e"e$ connection !as been &e",o"me$* t!e "es%lts ,"om t!is can be
%se$ $i"ectly to $e"i#e memb"ane st"ess an$ ben$in) st"ess-
:o" c"%ci,o"m Coints an$ !ea#y sti,,ene$ t%b%la" Coints it may be ass%me$ t!at t!e !ot s&ot st"ess is mainly
$%e to memb"ane st"ess-
:o" sim&le t%b%la" Coints it may be ass%me$ t!at t!e !ot s&ot st"ess in t!e c!o"$ is $%e to ben$in) only-
4o(e#e"* ,o" L-Coints (it! a la")e -"atio t!e"e is mainly memb"ane st"ess at t!e !ot s&ot-
!e "e$%ce$ local st"ess in e?%ation D7-2-1E is to be %se$ to)et!e" (it! t!e same S-N c%"#es as t!e $etail
is classi,ie$ ,o" (it!o%t (el$ &"o,ilin)- DGt is ass%me$ t!at R+ F 0-1 (it!o%t (el$ &"o,ilin) ,o" a &late
t!ic'ness F 25 mmE-
Gn a$$ition t!e ,ati)%e li,e can be inc"ease$ ta'in) acco%nt o, local toe )"in$in)* "e,e"ence is ma$e to Section
A7-0B- 4o(e#e"* t!e ma3im%m im&"o#ement ,acto" ,"om )"in$in) only s!o%l$ t!en be limite$ to a ,acto" 2
on ,ati)%e li,e-
D7-2-1E
D7-2-2E
D7-2-0E
D7-2-4E

Iemb"ane
F memb"ane st"ess

@en$in)
F ben$in) st"ess

3ending 4em-rane reduced Local
+ =
) . 0 2) . 0
% / ( % (tan 17 . 0 '7 . 0 R T + =
) . 0 2) . 0
% / ( % (tan 13 . 0 60 . 0 R T + =
3ending 4em-rane Local
+ =
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Figure 1-/ &eld profiling of cruciform :oint
1.# &eld toe grinding
K!e"e local )"in$in) o, t!e (el$ toes belo( any #isible %n$e"c%ts is &e",o"me$ t!e ,ati)%e li,e may be
inc"ease$ by a ,acto" )i#en in able 7-1- Gn a$$ition t!e t!ic'ness e,,ect may be "e$%ce$ to an e3&onent '
F 0-20- Re,e"ence is ma$e to :i)%"e 7-2- G"in$in) a (el$ toe tan)entially to t!e &late s%",ace* as at A* (ill
&"o$%ce only little im&"o#ement in ,ati)%e st"en)t!- o be e,,icient* )"in$in) s!o%l$ e3ten$ belo( t!e &late
s%",ace* as at @* in o"$e" to "emo#e (el$ toe $e,ects- G"in$in) is no"mally ca""ie$ o%t by a "ota"y b%""- !e
t"eatment s!o%l$ &"o$%ce a smoot! conca#e &"o,ile at t!e (el$ toe (it! t!e $e&t! o, t!e $e&"ession
&enet"atin) into t!e &late s%",ace to at least 0-5 mm belo( t!e bottom o, any #isible %n$e"c%t Dsee :i)%"e
7-2E- !e )"in$in) $e&t! s!o%l$ not e3cee$ 2 mm o" 75 o, t!e &late t!ic'ness* (!ic!e#e" is smalle"-
G"in$in) !as been %se$ as an e,,icient met!o$ ,o" "eliable ,ati)%e li,e im&"o#ement a,te" ,ab"ication-
G"in$in) also im&"o#es t!e "eliability o, ins&ection a,te" ,ab"ication an$ $%"in) se"#ice li,e- 4o(e#e"*
e3&e"ience in$icates t!at it may be a )oo$ $esi)n &"actice to e3cl%$e t!is ,acto" at t!e $esi)n sta)e- !e
$esi)ne" is a$#ise$ to im&"o#e t!e $etails locally by ot!e" means* o" to "e$%ce t!e st"ess "an)e t!"o%)!
$esi)n an$ 'ee& t!e &ossibility o, ,ati)%e li,e im&"o#ement as a "ese"#e to allo( ,o" &ossible inc"ease in
,ati)%e loa$in) $%"in) t!e $esi)n an$ ,ab"ication &"ocess* see also DNV-2S-1101 Desi)n o, Steel
St"%ct%"es* section 6-
Gt s!o%l$ also be note$ t!at i, )"in$in) is "e?%i"e$ to ac!ie#e a s&eci,ie$ ,ati)%e li,e* t!e !ot s&ot st"ess is
"at!e" !i)!- D%e to )"in$in) a la")e" ,"action o, t!e ,ati)%e li,e is s&ent $%"in) t!e initiation o, ,ati)%e c"ac's*
an$ t!e c"ac' )"o(s ,aste" a,te" initiation D$%e to t!e !i)!e" st"ess "an)eE- !is im&lies %se o, s!o"te"
ins&ection inte"#als $%"in) se"#ice li,e in o"$e" to $etect t!e c"ac's be,o"e t!ey become $an)e"o%s ,o" t!e
inte)"ity o, t!e st"%ct%"e-
:o" )"in$in) o, (el$ toes it is "ecommen$e$ to %se a "ota"y ball s!a&e$ b%"" (it! ty&ical $iamete" o, 12 mm-
Figure 1-! *rinding of welds
M!l. :o$iling
T
R

=!pth o$ gin.ing sho1l.
3! 0.)mm 3!low 3ottom
o$ an; Fisi3l! 1n.!c1t.
6 5

T
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Gn some st"%ct%"es t!e (el$s a"e mac!ine$ ,l%s! to ac!ie#e a !i)! S-N class- Re,e"ence is ma$e to able
A-5- Gt !as to be $oc%mente$ t!at (el$ o#e",ill !as been "emo#e$ by )"in$in) an$ t!at t!e s%",ace !as been
&"o#en ,"ee ,"om $e,ects- !e (el$ o#e",ill may be "emo#e$ by a coa"se )"in$e" tool s%c! as a coa"se )"it
,la&&e" $is'* )"it siNe 40-60- !e ,inal s%",ace s!o%l$ be ac!ie#e$ by ,ine )"it )"in$in) belo( t!at o, (el$
toe $e,ects- !e s%",ace s!o%l$ s!o( a smoot! o" &olis!e$ ,inis! (it! no #isible sco"e ma"'s- !e "o%)!ness
s!o%l$ co""es&on$ to Ra F 0-2 m o" bette"- DGt s!o%l$ be "emembe"e$ t!at i, t!e a"ea is &lanne$ to be
coate$* a "o%)!ness a"o%n$ Ra F 0-2 m is o,ten "ecommen$e$E- !e s%",ace s!o%l$ be c!ec'e$ by
ma)netic &a"ticle ins&ection- Gt is ass%me$ t!at )"in$in) is &e",o"me$ %ntil all in$ications o, $e,ects a"e
"emo#e$- !en &ossible &"esence o, inte"nal $e,ects in t!e (el$ may be a limitation ,o" %se o, a !i)! S-N
class an$ it is im&o"tant to &e",o"m a "eliable non-$est"%cti#e e3amination an$ %se acce&tance c"ite"ia t!at
a"e in co""es&on$ence (it! t!e S-N classi,ication t!at is %se$- Re,e"ence is also ma$e to t!e commenta"y
section-
1.3 T0* dressing
!e ,ati)%e li,e may be im&"o#e$ by GG $"essin) by a ,acto" )i#en in able 7-1-
D%e to %nce"tainties "e)a"$in) ?%ality ass%"ance o, t!is &"ocess* t!is met!o$ may not be "ecommen$e$ ,o"
)ene"al %se at t!e $esi)n sta)e-
1.5 'ammer peening
!e ,ati)%e li,e may be im&"o#e$ by means o, !amme" &eenin) by a ,acto" )i#en in able 7-1-
4o(e#e"* t!e ,ollo(in) limitations a&&ly:
> 4amme" &eenin) s!o%l$ only be %se$ on membe"s (!e"e ,ail%"e (ill be (it!o%t s%bstantial
conse?%ences* "e,- 2S-1101 Desi)n o, Steel St"%ct%"es* Section 6-
> 2#e"loa$ in com&"ession m%st be a#oi$e$* beca%se t!e "esi$%al st"ess set %& by !amme" &eenin) (ill
be $est"oye$-
> Gt is "ecommen$e$ to )"in$ a stee"in) )"oo#e by means o, a "ota"y b%"" o, a $iamete" s%itable ,o" t!e
!amme" !ea$ to be %se$ ,o" t!e &eenin)- !e &eenin) ti& m%st be small eno%)! to "eac! t!e (el$ toe-
D%e to %nce"tainties "e)a"$in) (o"'mans!i& an$ ?%ality ass%"ance o, t!e &"ocess* t!is met!o$ may not be
"ecommen$able ,o" )ene"al %se at t!e $esi)n sta)e-
Table 1-/ 0mprovement on fatigue life by different methods
3C
Bmprovement method Minimum specified yield strength Bncrease in fatigue life
4factor on life2
*2
G"in$in)
Less t!an 050 IPa 0-01,
y
4i)!e" t!an 050 IPa 0-5
GG $"essin)
Less t!an 050 IPa 0-01,
y
4i)!e" t!an 050 IPa 0-5
4amme" &eenin)
0E
Less t!an 050 IPa 0-011,
y
4i)!e" t!an 050 IPa 4-0
1E !e ma3im%m S-N class t!at can be claime$ by (el$ im&"o#ement is 11 o" 1 $e&en$in) on ND6 an$ ?%ality
ass%"ance ,o" e3ec%tion see able A-5 in A&&en$i3 A-
2E ,
y
F c!a"acte"istic yiel$ st"en)t! ,o" t!e act%al mate"ial-
0E !e im&"o#ement e,,ect is $e&en$ent on tool %se$ an$ (o"'mans!i&- !e"e,o"e* i, t!e ,ab"icato" is (it!o%t
e3&e"ience (it! "es&ect to !amme" &eenin)* it is "ecommen$e$ to &e",o"m ,ati)%e testin) o, "ele#ant $etail D(it!
an$ (it!o%t !amme" &eenin)E be,o"e a ,acto" on im&"o#ement is $eci$e$-
4E Gm&"o#ement o, (el$e$ connections &"o#i$es S-N $ata t!at s!o(s inc"ease$ im&"o#ement in t!e !i)! cycle "e)ion
o, t!e S-N c%"#e as com&a"e$ (it! t!at o, lo( cycle "e)ion- !%s t!e slo&e ,acto" m is inc"ease$ by im&"o#ement-
!e ,acto" on ,ati)%e li,e a,te" im&"o#ement in t!is table is base$ on a ty&ical lon) te"m st"ess "an)e $ist"ib%tion
t!at co""es&on$s to (a#e en#i"onment ,o" a se"#ice li,e o, 20 yea"s o" mo"e- !%s t!e ,acto" on im&"o#ement may
be lo(e" t!an t!is ,o" lo( cycle ,ati)%e in t!e "e)ion N Z 10
6
cycles- Gn t!e !i)! cycle "e)ion an alte"nati#e (ay o,
calc%latin) ,ati)%e li,e a,te" im&"o#ement is by analysis o, ,ati)%e $ama)e by %sin) S-N c%"#es "e&"esentin) bette"
t!e im&"o#e$ state- S%c! S-N c%"#es can be ,o%n$ in A&&en$i3 D* 1ommenta"y-
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+%T0$) 4 %HT%)D%D F(T0*-% ?0F%
An e3ten$e$ ,ati)%e li,e is consi$e"e$ to be acce&table an$ (it!in no"mal $esi)n c"ite"ia i, t!e calc%late$
,ati)%e li,e is lon)e" t!an t!e total $esi)n li,e times t!e :ati)%e Desi)n :acto"-
2t!e"(ise an e3ten$e$ li,e may be base$ on "es%lts ,"om &e",o"me$ ins&ections t!"o%)!o%t t!e &"io" se"#ice
li,e- S%c! an e#al%ation s!o%l$ be base$ on:
1E 1alc%late$ c"ac' )"o(t!-
1"ac' )"o(t! c!a"acte"isticsQ i- e- c"ac' len)t!+$e&t! as ,%nction o, time+n%mbe" o, cycles Dt!is $e&en$s
on ty&e o, Coint* ty&e o, loa$in)* an$ &ossibility ,o" "e$ist"ib%tion o, st"essE-
2E Reliability o, ins&ection met!o$ %se$-
6la&se$ time ,"om last ins&ection &e",o"me$-
Gt is "ecommen$e$ to %se 6$$y 1%""ent o" Ia)netic Pa"ticle Gns&ection ,o" ins&ection o, s%",ace c"ac's
sta"tin) at !ot s&ots-
:o" (el$e$ connections t!at a"e )"o%n$ an$ ins&ecte$ ,o" ,ati)%e c"ac's t!e ,ollo(in) &"oce$%"e may be
%se$ ,o" calc%lation o, an elon)ate$ ,ati)%e li,e- P"o#i$e$ t!at )"in$in) belo( t!e s%",ace to a $e&t! o,
a&&"o3imately 1-0 mm is &e",o"me$ an$ t!at ,ati)%e c"ac's a"e not ,o%n$ by a $etaile$ Ia)netic Pa"ticle
Gns&ection o, t!e consi$e"e$ !ot s&ot "e)ion at t!e (el$ toe* t!e ,ati)%e $ama)e at t!is !ot s&ot may be
consi$e"e$ to sta"t a)ain at Ne"o- G, a ,ati)%e c"ac' is ,o%n$* a ,%"t!e" )"in$in) s!o%l$ be &e",o"me$ to
"emo#e any in$ication o, t!is c"ac'- G, mo"e t!an 75 o, t!e t!ic'ness is "emo#e$ by )"in$in)* t!e e,,ect o,
t!is on inc"ease$ st"ess s!o%l$ be incl%$e$ (!en a ne( ,ati)%e li,e is assesse$- Gn some cases as m%c! as
005 o, t!e &late t!ic'ness may be "emo#e$ by )"in$in) be,o"e a (el$ "e&ai" nee$s to be &e",o"me$- !is
$e&en$s on ty&e o, Coint* loa$in) con$ition an$ accessibility ,o" a "e&ai"-
Gt s!o%l$ be note$ t!at ,ati)%e c"ac's )"o(in) ,"om t!e (el$ "oot o, ,illet (el$s can !a"$ly be $etecte$ by
ND6- Also* t!e ,ati)%e li,e o, s%c! "e)ions can not be im&"o#e$ by )"in$in) o, t!e s%",ace-
Gt s!o%l$ also be "emembe"e$ t!at i, "ene(al o, one !ot s&ot a"ea is &e",o"me$ by local )"in$in)* t!e"e a"e
li'ely ot!e" a"eas close to t!e consi$e"e$ !ot s&ot "e)ion t!at a"e not )"o%n$ an$ t!at also e3&e"ience a
si)ni,icant $ynamic loa$in)- !e ,ati)%e $ama)e at t!is "e)ion is t!e same as ea"lie"- 4o(e#e"* also t!is
,ati)%e $ama)e may be "eassesse$ ta'in) into acco%nt:
> t!e co""elation (it! a )"o%n$ nei)!bo%" !ot s&ot "e)ion t!at !as not c"ac'e$
> an %&$ate$ "eliability ta'in) t!e "eliability o, &e",o"me$ in-se"#ice ins&ections into acco%nt as $isc%sse$
abo#e-
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+%T0$) 8 -)%RT(0)T0%+ 0) F(T0*-% ?0F% PR%D0T0$)
8./ *eneral
La")e %nce"tainties a"e no"mally associate$ (it! ,ati)%e li,e assessments- Reliability met!o$s may be %se$
to ill%st"ate t!e e,,ect o, %nce"tainties on &"obability o, a ,ati)%e ,ail%"e- An e3am&le o, t!is is s!o(n in
:i)%"e 8-1 base$ on mean e3&ecte$ %nce"tainties ,o" a Cac'et $esi)n ,"om ;Reliability o, 1alc%late$ :ati)%e
Li#es o, 2,,s!o"e St"%ct%"es<* "e,- +17+-
:"om :i)%"e 8-1 it mi)!t be concl%$e$ t!at a $esi)n mo$i,ication to ac!ie#e a lon)e" calc%late$ ,ati)%e li,e
is an e,,icient mean to "e$%ce &"obability o, a ,ati)%e ,ail%"e-
!e e,,ect o, scatte" in S-N $ata may be ill%st"ate$ by :i)%"e 8-2 (!e"e t!e $i,,e"ence bet(een calc%late$
li,e is s!o(n ,o" mean S-N $ata an$ $esi)n S-N $ata D(!ic! is $ete"mine$ as mean min%s 2 stan$a"$
$e#iationsE-
!e e,,ect o, %sin) Desi)n :ati)%e :acto"s DD::E la")e" t!an 1-0 is s!o(n in :i)%"e 8-0- !is ,i)%"e s!o(s
t!e calc%late$ &"obability o, a ,ati)%e ,ail%"e t!e last yea" in se"#ice (!en a st"%ct%"e is $esi)ne$ ,o" 20
yea"s $esi)n li,e- Hnce"tainties on t!e most im&o"tant &a"amete"s in t!e ,ati)%e $esi)n &"oce$%"e a"e
acco%nte$ ,o" (!en &"obability o, ,ati)%e ,ail%"e is calc%late$- !is ,i)%"e is $e"i#e$ by &"obabilistic analysis
(!e"e t!e %nce"tainty in loa$in) is incl%$e$ in a$$ition to %nce"tainties in S-N $ata an$ t!e Palm)"en-Iine"
$ama)e acc%m%lation "%le- D!e loa$in) incl%$in) all analyses o, st"ess is ass%me$ no"mal $ist"ib%te$ (it!
1oV F 255* Stan$a"$ $e#iation F 0-20 in S-N $ata t!at is ass%me$ no"mal $ist"ib%te$ in lo)a"it!mic scale
an$ t!e Palm)"en-Iine" is ass%me$ lo) no"mal $ist"ib%te$ (it! me$ian 1-0 an$ 1oV F 0-0E-
!e same ,i)%"e also s!o(s t!e calc%late$ acc%m%late$ &"obability o, ,ail%"e $%"in) t!e se"#ice li,e as
,%nction o, D::- !e acc%m%late$ &"obability o, ,ail%"e is in$e&en$ent o, $esi)n li,e Dan$ nee$ not be lin'e$
to 20 yea"s se"#ice li,e-
An e3&ecte$ lon) te"m st"ess "an)e is aime$ ,o" in t!e $esi)n "es&onse analysis- A Desi)n :ati)%e :acto"
e?%al 1-0 im&lies a &"obability o, a ,ati)%e c"ac' $%"in) se"#ice li,e e?%al 2-05 $%e to t!e sa,ety in t!e S-
N c%"#e i, %nce"tainties in ot!e" &a"amete"s a"e ne)lecte$-
:i)%"e 8-4 s!o(s t!e calc%late$ acc%m%late$ &"obability o, a ,ati)%e ,ail%"e as ,%nction o, yea"s in se"#ice
,o" $i,,e"ent ass%m&tions o, %nce"tainty in t!e in&%t &a"amete"s- !is ,i)%"e s!o(s t!e "es%lts ,o" D:: F
1-0- !e le,t &a"t o, t!is ,i)%"e co""es&on$in) to t!e ,i"st 20 yea"s se"#ice li,e is s!o(n in :i)%"e 8-5-
2ne may ac!ie#e "es%lts ,o" ot!e" #al%es o, D::s by m%lti&lication o, t!e time scale on t!e abscissa a3is by
t!e act%al D:: t!at is consi$e"e$ %se$-
:i)%"e 8-4 an$ :i)%"e 8-5 s!o(s t!e calc%late$ acc%m%late$ &"obability o, ,ati)%e ,ail%"e ,o" %nce"tainty in
S-N $ata co""es&on$in) to a stan$a"$ $e#iation o, 0-20 in lo) N scale- A no"mal $ist"ib%tion in lo)a"it!mic
scale is ass%me$- !e %nce"tainty in Iine" s%mmation is $esc"ibe$ as lo) no"mal (it! me$ian 1-0 an$ 1oV
e?%al 0-00- 2t!e" %nce"tainties on loa$ an$ "es&onse a"e ass%me$ as no"mal $ist"ib%te$ (it! 1oV 15-205
an$ t!e !ot s&ot st"ess $e"i#ation also ass%me$ as no"mal $ist"ib%te$ (it! 1oV e?%al 5-105-
1alc%late$ ,ati)%e li,e ,o"ms t!e basis ,o" assessment o, &"obability o, ,ati)%e c"ac'in) $%"in) se"#ice li,e-
!%s* it im&licitly ,o"ms t!e basis ,o" "e?%i"ement to in-se"#ice ins&ection* "e,- also section A8-2B- :o" $etails
s!o(in) a s!o"t ,ati)%e li,e at an ea"ly $esi)n sta)e* it is "ecommen$e$ t!at t!e consi$e"e$ $etails a"e
e#al%ate$ in te"ms o, im&"o#ement o, local )eomet"y to "e$%ce its st"ess concent"ation- At an ea"ly $esi)n
sta)e it is consi$e"e$ mo"e cost e,,icient to &"e&a"e ,o" mino" )eomet"ic mo$i,ications t!an to "ely on
met!o$s ,o" ,ati)%e im&"o#ement %n$e" ,ab"ication an$ const"%ction* s%c! as )"in$in) an$ !amme"
&eenin)-
Desi)n :ati)%e :acto"s ,o" $i,,e"ent a"eas s!o%l$ be $e,ine$ in 1om&any s&eci,ications to be %se$ as a
cont"act $oc%ment ,o" const"%ction as ,acto"s $e,ine$ by classi,ication societies a"e mainly inten$e$ to
ass%"e st"%ct%"al inte)"ity-
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Figure 8-/ alculated probability of fatigue failure as function of calculated damage
Figure 8-! %ffect of scatter in +-) data on calculated fatigue life
0.000000001
0.00000001
0.0000001
0.000001
0.00001
0.0001
0.001
0.01
0.1
1
0 0.2 0.' 0.6 0.- 1 1.2
Calculated fatigue damage
P
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0
,0
40
60
80
100
1,0
140
160
180
,00
,00 ,50 -00 -50 400
Ma)!mum allo(able stress range !n MPa
C
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*

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st andar d de:i at i ons;
<ean S8 & dat a
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Figure 8-# Fatigue failure probability as function of design fatigue factor BThe annual probability of failure
is shown for a design life e7ual !" yearsC
Figure 8-3 (ccumulated probability of fatigue failure Bthrough thic<ness crac<C as function of service life
for !" years design life
0.00001
0.0001
0.001
0.01
0.1
1 2 3 ' ) 6 7 - 9 10
=!sign Fatig1! Facto
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5cc1m1lat!. :o3a3ilit;
5nn1al :o3a3ilit;
0.00
0.10
0.,0
0.-0
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
0.!0
1.00
0 50 100 150 ,00
Ti'e in ser:ice 9*ears;
+
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=ncertaint* in S8&87ur:e onl*
=ncertaint* in S8& <iner
7o>no' . 0.15 7o>$s . 0.05
=ncertaint* in S8& <iner
7o>no' . 0.,0 7o>$s . 0.05
=ncertaint* in S8& <iner
7o>no' . 0.15 7o>$s . 0.10
=ncertaint* in S8& <iner
7o>no' . 0.,0 7o>$s . 0.10
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Figure 8-5 (ccumulated probability of through wall fatigue crac< as function of service life for !" years
calculated fatigue life B?eft part from Figure 8-3C
8.! Re7uirements to in-service inspection for fatigue crac<s
Hnce"tainties associate$ (it! ,ati)%e li,e calc%lation no"mally im&ly t!at some in-se"#ice ins&ection ,o"
,ati)%e c"ac's (ill be "e?%i"e$ $%"in) se"#ice li,e $e&en$in) on conse?%ence o, a ,ati)%e ,ail%"e an$
calc%late$ ,ati)%e li,e- :i)%"e 8-5 may be %se$ ,o" a ,i"st estimate o, time to a ,i"st ins&ection base$ on t!e
lo(e" )"a&! in t!is ,i)%"e i, no"mal %nce"tainties a"e associate$ (it! t!e ,ati)%e li,e calc%lation- :i)%"e 8-5
is $e"i#e$ ,o" a calc%late$ ,ati)%e li,e e?%al 20 yea"s- :o" ot!e" calc%late$ ,ati)%e li#es DL
calc
E t!e n%mbe"s
on t!e abscissa a3is can be scale$ by a ,acto" , F L
calc
+20 ,o" estimate o, time to ,i"st "e?%i"e$ ins&ection-
G, a ,ati)%e c"ac' is (it!o%t s%bstantial conse?%ences an acc%m%late$ &"obability o, 10
-2
may be consi$e"e$
acce&table an$ ,"om :i)%"e 8-5 it is not "e?%i"e$ ins&ection t!e ,i"st 6 yea"s- G, t!e conse?%ence o, a ,ati)%e
c"ac' is s%bstantial t!e acc%m%late$ &"obability o, a ,ati)%e ,ail%"e s!o%l$ be less t!an 10
-4
an$ ,"om :i)%"e
8-5 an ins&ection (o%l$ be "e?%i"e$ a,te" 2 yea"s-
DNo"mally a calc%late$ ,ati)%e li,e si)ni,icantly lon)e" t!an 20 yea"s (o%l$ be "e?%i"e$ ,o" a la")e
conse?%ence connection $%"in) $esi)nE-
A,te" a ,i"st ins&ection t!e time inte"#al to t!e ne3t ins&ection can be estimate$ base$ on ,"act%"e mec!anics
an$ &"obabilistic analysis ta'in) t!e %nce"tainty in t!e ins&ection met!o$ into acco%nt-
0.00000001
0.0000001
0.000001
0.00001
0.0001
0.001
0.01
0.1
1
0 , 4 6 8 10 1, 14 16 18 ,0
Ti'e in ser:ice 9*ears;
+
c
c
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l
a
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e
d

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*

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=ncertaint* in S8& cur:e onl*
=ncertaint* in S8& <iner Stress?
7o>no' . 0.15 7o>$s . 0.05
=ncertaint* in S8& <iner Stress?
7o>no' . 0.,0 7o>$s . 0.05
=ncertaint* in S8& <inerStress?
7o>no' . 0.15 7o>$s . 0.10
=ncertaint* in S8& <iner Stress?
7o>no' . 0.,0 7o>$s . 0.10
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 90
DNV GL AS







+%T0$) /" R%F%R%)%+
+1+ 1lassi,ication Note No 00-7 Fatigue >ssessment of 'hip 'tructures- Det No"s'e Ve"itas 2010-
+2+ 6,t!ymio%* I-: Development of 'CF Formulae and Generalised Bnfluence Functions for use in Fatigue
>nalysis- Recent De#elo&ments in %b%la" Uoint ec!nolo)y* 2UM99* 2ctobe" 1899* Lon$on-
+0+ Sme$ley* S- an$ :isc!e"* P-: 'tress Concentration Factors for &ing'tiffened 3u!ular Eoints. Fourth
Bnt. 'ymp. on 3u!ular 'tructures5 Del,t 1881- &&- 208-250-
+4+ Lotsbe")* G-* 1"ame"* 6-* 4oltsma"'* G-* L[set!* R-* 2laisen* P- an$ Vals)\"$* S-: Fatigue >ssessment
of Floating #roduction )essels- @2SSM87* U%ly 1887-
+5+ 6%"oco$e: Design of steel structures- Pa"t 1-1: Gene"al "%les an$ "%les ,o" b%il$in)s- :eb"%a"y 1880-
+6+ G%i$ance on Desi)n* 1onst"%ction an$ 1e"ti,ication- 4S6- :eb"%a"y 1885-
+7+ @S7810:2005- Guidance on Methods for >ssessing the >ccepta!ility of Fla%s in Metallic 'tructures-
@SG* U%ly 2005-
+9+ Van Kin)e"$e* A- I- Pa"'e"* U- A- an$ Ka"$enie"* U-: BB= Fatigue &ules for 3u!ular Eoints. Bnt. conf.
on #erformance of Dynamic Loaded =elded 'tructrues* San :"ancisco* U%ly 1887-
+8+ G%lati* P- 1-* Kan)* K- U- an$ Pan* P- O-: >n >nalytical study of 'tress Concentration Effects in
Multi!race Eoints under Com!ined Loading. 21 &a&e" no 4407* 4o%ston* Iay 1892-
+10+ G%"ney*-R-: Fatigue Design &ules for %elded 'teel Eoints5 the =elding Bnstitute &esearch @ulletin-
Vol%me 17* n%mbe" 5* Iay 1876-
+11+ G%"ney* - R-: 3he @asis for the &evised Fatigue Design &ules in the Department of Energy ;ffshore
Guidance "otes. Pa&e" No 55-
+12+ @e")e* S-: Effect of #late 3hickness in Fatigue Design of =elded 'tructures- 21 Pa&e" no 4928-
4o%ston* Iay 1894-
+10+ @%it"a)o* U- an$ ]ettlemoye"* N-: Fatigue of =elded Eoints #eened Fnder%ater. 1887 2IA6* ASI6
1887-
+14+ Stacey* A-* S!a"&* U- V- an$ Nic!ols* N- K-: Fatigue #erformance of 'inglesided Circumferential and
Closure =elds in ;ffshore Eacket 'tructures. 1887 2IA6* ASI6-
+15+ Pil'ey* K- D-: #eterson$s 'tress Concentration Factors. 'econd Edition- Uo!n Kiley ^ Sons- 1887-
+16+ 4aa)ensen* P- U- an$ Ia$$o3* S- U-: BB= &ecommendations on #ost =eld Bmprovement of 'teel and
>luminium 'tructures- Doc- LGGG-1915-00- Re#ision 5 U%ly 2004-
+17+ Lotsbe")* G-* :ines* S- an$ :oss* G-: &elia!ility of Calculated Fatigue Lives of ;ffshore 'tructures*
:ati)%e 94* 2n$ Gnt- 1on,- on :ati)%e an$ :ati)%e !"es!ol$s* 0-7 Se&tembe" 1894- @i"min)!am-
+19+ 4aa)ensen* P- U-*Slin$* - an$ _"Cas`te"* 2-: 'cale Effects in Fatigue Design Data for =elded and
Fn%elded Components. P"oc- Nint! Gnt- 1on,- 2n 2,,s!o"e Iec!anics an$ A"ctic 6n)inee"in)-
4o%ston* :eb"%a"y 1880-
+18+ @e")e* S-* 6i$e* 2-* Ast"%&* 2- 1-* Palm* S-* Kastbe")* S-* G%nlei's"%$* b- an$ Lian* @-: Effect of #late
3hickness in Fatigue of =elded Eoints in >ir ans in 'ea =ater. 'teel in Marine 'tructures* e$ite$ by
1- Noo"!oo' an$ U- $e@ac' 6lse#ie" Science P%blis!e"s @-V-* Amste"$am* 1897* &&- 788-910-
+20+ RaNmCoo* G- R-: Design Guidance on Fatigue of =elded 'tainless 'teel Eoints. 2IA6 1885-
+21+ Ia$sen* 4- 2-* P"en'* S- an$ Lin$* N- 1- D1896E Methods of 'tructural 'afety* P"entice-4all* Gnc-* NU-
+22+ Ia"s!all* P- K-: >#B #rovisions for 'CF5 '"5 and 'iGe#rofile Effects. 21 Pa&e" no 7155- 4o%ston*
Iay 1880-
+20+ Kal[en* b- _-: Maskindeler .* a&i"* NNH DGn No"(e)ianE-
+24+ @%it"a)o* U-* ]ettlemoye"* N- an$ Pa!lis!* U- L-: Com!ined Hot'pot 'tress #rocedures for 3u!ular
Eoints. 21 Pa&e" No- 4775- 4o%ston* Iay 1894-
+25+ Lotsbe")* G-: 'tress Concentration Factors at Circumferential =elds in 3u!ulars. Uo%"nal o, Ia"ine
St"%ct%"es* Uan%a"y 1888-
+26+ VDG 2200 Pa"t 1: 'ystematic Calculation of High Duty @olted Eoints- Ve"ein De%tsc!e Gn)enie%"e*
A%)%st 1899-
+27+ ]!ao L-L* 4e"ion S* Pac'e" U A* P%t!li R S* Se$lace' G* Ka"$enie" U* Keynan$ P* #an Kin)e"$e A I
^ Oeomans N : D2000E Design guide for circular and rectangular hollo% section %elded Aoints under
fatigue loading5 &%blis!e$ by cV-Ve"la) ,o" 1omitd Gnte"national &o%" le Dd#elo&&ement et l.6t%$e
$e la 1onst"%ction %b%lai"e-
+29+ DNV 2,,s!o"e Stan$a"$- 2S-1101 Design of 'teel 'tructures-
+28+ Lotsbe")* G-* an$ Ro#e* 4-: 'tress Concenteration Factors for @utt =elds in 'tiffened #lates.
2IA62014-20016-
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+00+ GGK- Fatigue Design of =elded Eoints and Components. &ecommendations of BB= Eoint =orking Group
HBBB*07DD8IH)C:0D8- 6$ite$ by A- 4obbac!e" Abin)ton P%blis!in)* 1886* !e Gnte"national
Gnstit%te o, Kel$in)-
+01+ :"ic'e* K- D2001E* &ecommended Hot 'pot >nalysis #rocedure for 'tructural Details of F#';s and
'hips @ased on &ound&o!in FE >nalyses- P"oc- 11t! GS2P6* Sta#an)e"- Also Gnt- U- o, 2,,s!o"e an$
Pola" 6n)inee"in)- Vol- 12* No- 1* Ia"c! 2002-
+02+ Lotsbe")* G- D2004E* &ecommended Methodology for >nalysis of 'tructural 'tress for Fatigue
>ssessment of #lated 'tructures- 2IA6-:PS2.04-0010* Gnt- 1on,- 4o%ston-
+00+ Lotsbe")* G- an$ La"sen* P- P-: Developments in Fatigue Design 'tandards for ;ffshore 'tructures-
GS2P6* Sta#an)e"* U%ne 2001-
+04+ @e")an* P- G-* Lotsbe")* G-: >dvances in Fatigue >ssessment of F#';s. 2IA6-:PS2.04-0012* Gnt-
1on,- 4o%ston 2004-
+05+ Si)%"$sson* S-* Lan$et* 6- an$ Lotsbe")* G- * Bnspection #lanning of a Critical @lock =eld in an F#';-
2IA6-:PS2.04-0002* Gnt- 1on,- 4o%ston* 2004-
+06+ Sto"s%l* R-* Lan$et* 6- an$ Lotsbe")* G- * Convergence >nalysis for =elded Details in 'hip 'haped
'tructures- 2IA6-:PS2.04-0016* Gnt- 1on,- 4o%ston 2004-
+07+ Sto"s%l* R-* Lan$et* 6- an$ Lotsbe")* G-* Calculated and Measured 'tress at =elded Connections
!et%een 'ide Longitudinals and 3ransverse Frames in 'hip 'haped 'tructures- 2IA6-:PS2.04-0017*
Gnt- 1on,- 4o%ston 2004-
+09+ Lotsbe")* G-* Fatigue Design of =elded #ipe #enetrations in #lated 'tructures- Ia"ine St"%ct%"es* Vol
17+1 &&- 28-51* 2004-
+08+ GS2 18802 Fi(ed 'teel 'tructures- 2007-
+40+ Lotsbe")* G-* &ecommended Methodology for >nalysis of 'tructural 'tress for Fatigue >ssessment of
#lated 'tructures- 2IA6-:PS2.04-0010* Gnt- 1on,- 4o%ston 2004-
+41+ Lotsbe")* G- an$ Si)%"$sson* G-* Hot 'pot '" Curve for Fatigue >nalysis of #lated 'tructures- 2IA6-
:PS2.04-0014* Gnt- 1on,- 4o%ston 2004-
+42+ Lin$ema"'* -* Lotsbe")* G-* Pan)* U-P-* Pim* P-S- an$ 2ma* N-: Fatigue Capacity of 'tiffener to =e!
Frame Connections- 2IA62008-78061- 2IA6 2008-
+40+ H"m* 4- S-* Ooo* G- S-* 4eo* U- 4-* Pim* S- 1- an$ Lotsbe")* G-: Lo% Cycle Fatigue 'trength >ssessment
for 'hip 'tructures- PRADS 2004-
+44+ Pim* K-S- an$ Lotsbe")* G-* Fatigue 3est Data for =elded Connections in 'hip 'haped 'tructures
2IA6-:PS2.04-0019* Gnt- 1on,- 4o%ston 2004-
+45+ Ia$$o3* S- U- Jey Development in the Fatigue Design of =elded Constructions* Po"te(in Lect%"e GGK
Gnt- 1on,- @%c!a"est* 2000-
+46+ P"isto,,e"esen* S- an$ 4aa)ensen* P- U-: Fatigue Design Criteria for 'mall 'uper Duple( 'teel #ipes*
P"ocee$in)s 2IA6 Vanco%#e"* 2004-
+47+ @e")e* S-* Pi!l* D-* Lotsbe")* G-* Ia!e"a%lt* S-* Ii''ola* - P- U-* Nielsen* L- P-* PaetNol$* 4-* S!in* 1-
/4-* S%n* 4- /4 an$ omita* O-: 'pecial 3ask Committee )B.. Fatigue 'trength >ssessment- 15t!
GSS1* San Die)o* 2000-
+49+ 1!en* K- an$ Lan$et* 6- D2001E* 'tress >nalysis of Cutouts %ith and %ithout &einforcement- 2IA6
Rio $e Uanei"o-
+48+ 1!oo* O-S- an$ ]a!i$%l 4asan* I- D2004E* Hot 'pot 'tress Evaluation for 'elected Connection Details-
2IA6-:PS2.04-0029- Gnt- 1on,- 4o%ston-
+50+ :"ic'e* K-* Doe"'* 2- an$ G"%enitN* L- D2004E* Fatigue 'trength Bnvestigation and >ssessment of
Fillet=elds around 3oes of 'tiffeners and @rackets- 2IA6-:PS2.04-0010- Gnt- 1on,- 4o%ston-
+51+ Ra$aC* D-* Sonsino* 1- I- an$ :"ic'e* K-: D2006E: Fatigue >ssessment of =elded Eoints !y Local
>pproaches- Koo$!ea$ P%blis!in) in Iate"ials-
+52+ Ranesta$ Paase* G- 2-: Finite Element >nalysis of 'CF in 'tiffener to #late Connections* P"e-P"oCect
!esis* Ia"ine St"%ct%"es NNH 2002-
+50+ DNV-2S-:201 Dynamic &isers- 2010-
+54+ DNV-2S-:101 'u!marine #ipeline 'ystems-
+55+ Sc!nei$e"* 1- R- A- an$ Ia$$o3* S- U-: @est #ractice Guide on 'tatistical >nalysis of Fatigue Data- Doc-
GGK-LGGG-KG1-114-00-
+56+ 4obbac!e"* A-: GGK $oc%ment LGG-1865-00+LV-1127-00 &ecommendations for Fatigue Design of
=elded Aoints and Components- U%ly 2004-
+57+ ASI6 @-01-4* Code for #ressure #iping* 1!a&te" GL-
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 95
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+59+ Lotsbe")* G-* @ac')"o%n$ ,o" Re#ision o, DNV-RP-1200 Fatigue >nalysis of ;ffshore 'teel 'tructures-
2IA6 2005-67548- Gnt- 1on,- 4al'i$i'i* G"eece* U%ne 2005-
+58+ Kastbe")* S-Q Salama* I- Fatigue 3esting and >nalysis of Full 'cale Girth %eld 3u!ulars- 2IA62007-
28088-
+60+ DNV-2S-401 Fa!rication and 3esting of ;ffshore 'tructures- 2ctobe" 2008-
+61+ Lotsbe")* G-: Fatigue Design of #lated 'tructures using Finite Element >nalysis. Eournal of 'hips and
;ffshore 'tructures- 2006 Vol- 1 No 1 &&- 45-54-
+62+ Lotsbe")* G an$ Lan$et* 6-* Fatigue Capacity of 'ide Longitudinals in Floating 'tructures- Ia"ine
St"%ct%"es* Vol 19* 2005* &&- 25-42-
+60+ Lotsbe")* G-* Fatigue Capacity of Fillet =elded Connections su!Aected to >(ial and 'hear Loading-
P"esente$ at 2IA6 in 4amb%")* 4 - 8 U%ne 2006- 2IA6 &a&e" no 2006 - 82096- Also in Uo%"nal o,
2,,s!o"e an$ A"ctic 6n)inee"in)-
+64+ Lotsbe")* G- &ecent >dvances on Fatigue Limit 'tate Design for F#';s* Uo%"nal o, S!i&s an$ 2,,s!o"e
St"%ct%"es* 2007 Vol- 2 No- 1 &&- 48-69-
+65+ Lotsbe")* G- an$ 4olt!* P- A-: 'tress Concentration Factors at =elds in 3u!ular 'ections and #ipelines.
P"esente$ at 2IA6 2007- 2IA6 &a&e" no 2007-28571- 26t! Gnte"national 1on,e"ence on 2,,s!o"e
Iec!anics an$ A"ctic 6n)inee"in)* San Die)o* 1ali,o"nia* U%ne 2007- Also GGK $oc%ment no LGGG-2158-07-
+66+ Lotsbe")* G-* R%n$!a%)* - A-* !o"'il$sen* 4-* @[e* b- an$ Lin$ema"'* -: Fatigue Design of =e!
'tiffened Cruciform Connections. P"esente$ at PRADS 2007-
+67+ Lotsbe")* G-: 'tress Concentration Factors at =elds in #ipelines and 3anks su!Aected to Bnternal
#ressure- Gn Uo%"nal o, Ia"ine 6n)inee"in) 2009-
+69+ Sele* A-* 1ollbe")* L-* La%e"sen* 4-: Dou!le 'kin Grout &einforced Eoints5 #art #roAect ;ne and 3%o-
:ati)%e ests on G"o%te$ Uoints- DNV-Re&o"t No 90-0118-
+68+ Lotsbe")* G-: Fatigue Design Criteria as Function of the #rincipal 'tress Direction &elative to the =eld
3oe- 2IA6 2009-57248- 2IA6 2009 6sto"il* Po"t%)al-
+70+ Lotsbe")* G-* Kastbe")* S-* Hlle* 4-* 4aa)ensen* P- an$ 4all* I- 6-: Fatigue 3esting and '" data for
Fatigue >nalysis of #iles- 2IA6 2009-57250- 2IA6 2009 6sto"il* Po"t%)al-
+71+ Lotsbe")* G-* Si)%"$sson* G- A"nesen* P- an$ 4all* I- 6-: &ecommended Design Fatigue Factors for
&eassessment of #iles su!Aected to Dynamic >ctions from #ile Driving- 2IA6 2009-57251- 2IA6
2009 6sto"il* Po"t%)al-
+72+ Lotsbe")* G-: 'tress Concentrations at @utt =elds in #ipelines. Ia"ine St"%ct%"es 22 D2008E 005-007-
+70+ Sollan$* G-* Lotsbe")* G-* @C["!eim* L- G-* 6"s$al* G-* GCe"sta$* V-- A-* an$ Sme$ley* P-: "e% 'tandard
for >ssessment of 'tructural Bntegrity for E(isting Load@earing 'tructures / No"so' N-006* 2IA6
2008-78078-
+74+ Lotsbe")* G- an$ :"e$!eim* S-: >ssessment of Design '" curve for Fm!ilical 3u!es- 2IA62008-
78201- 2IA6 2008-
+75+ GS2 2084 General principles on relia!ility of structures- 1889-
+76+ GS2 12107 Metallic materials 9 Fatigue testing 9 'tatistical planning and analysis of test data. :i"st
e$ition 2000-00-15-
+77+ Lotsbe")* G-: 'tress Concentration due to Misalignment at @utt =elds in #lated 'tructures and at Girth
=elds in 3u!ulars. Gnte"national Uo%"nal o, :ati)%e 01 D2008E* &&- 1007-1045 D2G in,o"mation:
10-1016+C-iC,ati)%e-2008-00-005
+79+ Lotsbe")* G-* R%n$!a%)* - A- an$ An$e"sen* _-: Fatigue Design Methodology for =elded #ipe
#enetrations in #lated 'tructures. GGK &a&e" LGGG-2298-08 P"esente$ at GGK in Sin)a&o"e U%ly 2008-
+78+ Lotsbe")* G-* I["'* P-* Vals)\"$* S- an$ Si)%"$sson* G-: 'ystem effects in Fatigue Design of Long #ipes
and #ipelines. 2I62010-20647- 2IA6 2010* S!an)!ai* 1!ina-
+90+ Lotsbe")* G-: @ackground for &evision of D")&#C.+7 Fatigue Design of ;ffshore 'teel 'tructures-
2I62010-20468- 2IA6 2010* S!an)!ai* 1!ina-
+91+ No"so' N-006 >ssessment of structural integrity for e(isting offshore load!earing structures-
Re#ision 01* Ia"c! 2008-
+92+ An)* A- 4-S- an$ an)* K- 4-: #ro!a!ility Concepts in Engineering #lanning and Design* Vol%me G -
@asic P"inci&les* Uo!n Kiley an$ Sons* Ne( Oo"'* N-O-* 1875-
+90+ DNV-RP-1207 'tatistical &epresentation of 'oil Data- A&"il 2007-
+94+ S["ensen* U- D-* yc!sen* U-* An$e"sen* U- H- an$ @"an$st"%&* R- D-: Fatigue >nalysis of Loadcarrying
Fillet =elds5 Eournal of ;ffshore Mechanics and >rctic Engineering5 :eb"%a"y 2006* Vol- 129* &&- 65 - 74-
+95+ Lotsbe")* G-: ;n 'tress Concentration Factors for 3u!ular K and 3Aoints. Uo%"nal o, Ia"ine St"%ct%"es
D20E 2011* &&- 60-68- $oi:10:1016+C-ma"st"%c 2011-01-002-
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+96+ Lotsbe")* G- an$ Ronol$* P-: ;n the Derivation of Design '" Curves !ased on Limited Fatigue 3est
Data. 2IA6 2011* U%ne 2011-
+97+ Oil$i"im* 4- 1- an$ Ia"?%is* G- I-: ;vervie% of Fatigue Data for High Fre6uency 3reated =elded
Eoints5 GGK Pa&e" no LGGG-2062-11- GGK 2011-
+99+ Lotsbe")* G-* :Cel$sta$* A-* Ro 4elsen* I- an$ 2ma* N-: Fatigue Life Bmprovement of =elded Dou!ling
#lates. 2IA6* Rio $e Uanei"o* U%ly 2012-
+98+ Ronol$* P- an$ Lotsbe")* G-: ;n the Estimation of Characteristic '" curves %ith Confidence. Marine
'tructures5 #ol- 27* 2012* &&- 28-44-
+80+ DNV-2S-1101 Design of ;ffshore 'teel 'tructures5 General 4L&FD Method2-
+81+ GS2 5917 =elding 9 Fusion%elded Aoints in steel5 nickel5 titanium and their alloys 4!eam %elding
e(cluded2 Luality levels for imperfections-
+82+ N2RS2P stan$a"$ I-101 'tructural steel fa!rication. 6$ition 5* Decembe" 2011-
+80+ Lotsbe")* G-* R%n$!a%)* - A-* !o"'il$sen* 4-* @[e* b- an$ Lin$ema"'* -: > #rocedure Fatigue Design
of =e! 'tiffened Cruciform Connections. Uo%"nal o, S!i&s an$ 2,,s!o"e St"%ct%"es* 2009* Vol- 0* Gss%e
2* &&- 110-126-
+84+ Lotsbe")* G-: >ssessment of Design Criteria for Fatigue Cracking from =eld 3oes su!Aected to
#roportional Loading- Uo%"nal o, S!i&s an$ 2,,s!o"e St"%ct%"es* Vol%me 4* Gss%e 2* U%ne 2008-
+85+ Lotsbe")* G-* :Cel$sta$* A-* Ro 4elsen* I- an$ 2ma* N-: Fatigue Life Bmprovement of =elded Dou!ling
#lates !y Grinding and Fltrasonic #eening5 Essen 'eptem!er .+*7. GGK Doc- No LGGG-2505-10-
+86+ Lotsbe")* G-: >ssessment of the 'iGe Effect in Fatigue >nalysis of @utt =elds and Cruciform Eoints.
2IA62014-20197-
+87+ Ia$$o3* S-: &ecommended Hot'pot 'tress Design '" Curves for Fatigue >ssessment of F#';s.
#roceedings of the Eleventh Bnternational ;ffshore and #olar Engineering Conference* Sta#an)e"*
No"(ay* U%ne 2001-
+89+ Lotsbe")* G- an$ Si)%"$sson* G-: > "e% &ecommended #ractice for Bnspection #lanning of Fatigue
Cracks in ;ffshore 'tructures !ased on #ro!a!ilistic Methods. 2IA62014-20197-
+88+ Lee* I- I- P-: Estimation of stress concentrations in singlesided %elds in offshore tu!ular Aoints.
Gnte"national Uo%"nal o, :ati)%e 21* 1888* &&- 985-809-
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(PP%)D0H ( ?(++0F0(T0$) $F +TR-T-R(? D%T(0?+
(./ )on-welded details
Table (-/ )on-welded details
)otes on potential modes of failure
Gn &lain steel* ,ati)%e c"ac's (ill initiate at t!e s%",ace* %s%ally eit!e" at s%",ace i""e)%la"ities o" at co"ne"s o, t!e c"oss-
section- Gn (el$e$ const"%ction* ,ati)%e ,ail%"e (ill "a"ely occ%" in a "e)ion o, &lain mate"ial since t!e ,ati)%e st"en)t!
o, t!e (el$e$ Coints (ill %s%ally be m%c! lo(e"- Gn steel (it! bolt !oles o" ot!e" st"ess concent"ations a"isin) ,"om t!e
s!a&e o, t!e membe"* ,ail%"e (ill %s%ally initiate at t!e st"ess concent"ation- !e a&&lie$ st"ess "an)e s!all incl%$e
a&&licable st"ess concent"ation ,acto"s a"isin) ,"om t!e s!a&e o, t!e membe"-
Re,e"ence is ma$e to section A2-4-10B ,o" non-(el$e$ com&onents ma$e o, !i)! st"en)t! steel (it! a s%",ace ,inis!
Ra F 0-2 m o" bette"-
Detail
category
Constructional details Description &e6uirement
@1 1-
2-
1-
Rolle$ o" e3t"%$e$ &lates an$
,lats
2-
Rolle$ sections
1- to 2-
> S!a"& e$)es* s%",ace an$
"ollin) ,la(s to be
im&"o#e$ by )"in$in)-
> :o" membe"s t!at can
ac?%i"e st"ess
concent"ations $%e to "%st
&ittin) etc- c%"#e 1 is
"e?%i"e$-
@2 0- 0-
Iac!ine )as c%t o" s!ea"e$
mate"ial (it! no $"a) lines
0-
> All #isible si)ns o, e$)e
$iscontin%ities s!o%l$ be
"emo#e$-
> No "e&ai" by (el$ "e,ill-
> Re-ent"ant co"ne"s Dslo&e
Z1:4E o" a&e"t%"e s!o%l$
be im&"o#e$ by )"in$in)
,o" any #isible $e,ects-
> At a&e"t%"es t!e $esi)n
st"ess a"ea s!o%l$ be
ta'en as t!e net c"oss-
section a"ea-
1 4- 4-
Ian%ally )as c%t mate"ial o"
mate"ial (it! mac!ine )as c%t
e$)es (it! s!allo( an$ "e)%la"
$"a)lines-
4-
> S%bse?%ently $"esse$ to
"emo#e all e$)e
$iscontin%ities
> No "e&ai" by (el$ "e,ill-
> Re-ent"ant co"ne"s Dslo&e
Z1:4E o" a&e"t%"e s!o%l$
be im&"o#e$ by )"in$in)
,o" any #isible $e,ects-
> At a&e"t%"es t!e $esi)n
st"ess a"ea s!o%l$ be
ta'en as t!e net c"oss-
section a"ea-
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(.! 9olted connections
Table (-! 9olted connections
Detail
category
Constructional details Description &e6uirement
11 1- 2- 1-
Hns%&&o"te$ one-si$e$
connections s!all be a#oi$e$
o" else e,,ects o,
eccent"icities s!all be ta'en
into acco%nt (!en
calc%latin) st"esses-
2-
@eam s&lices o" bolte$ co#e"
&lates-
1- an$ 2-
> St"esses to be calc%late$
in t!e )"oss section-
> @olts s%bCecte$ to
"e#e"sal ,o"ces in s!ea"
s!all be $esi)ne$ as a sli&
"esistant connection an$
only t!e membe"s nee$ to
be c!ec'e$ ,o" ,ati)%e-
0- 0-
@olts an$ t!"ea$e$ "o$s in
tension-
0-
> ensile st"esses to be
calc%late$ %sin) t!e
tensile st"ess a"ea o, t!e
bolt-
> :o" &"eloa$e$ bolts* t!e
st"ess-"an)e in t!e bolt
$e&en$s %&on t!e le#el o,
&"eloa$ an$ t!e )eomet"y
o, t!e connection* see e-)-
;Maskindeler .<* "e,- +20+-
:1 1ol$ "olle$ t!"ea$s (it! no
,ollo(in) !eat t"eatment li'e
!ot )al#anisin)
K0 1%t t!"ea$s
See
Section
A2-8-0B
4-
@olts in sin)le o" $o%ble
s!ea"-
:itte$ bolts an$ no"mal bolts
(it!o%t loa$ "e#e"sal-
!"ea$ not in s!ea" &lane-
!e s!ea" st"ess to be
calc%late$ on t!e s!an' a"ea
o, t!e bolt-
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(.# ontinuous welds essentially parallel to the direction of
applied stress
Table (-# ontinuous welds essentially parallel to the direction of applied stress
Detail
category
Constructional details Description &e6uirement
)otes on potential modes of failure.
Kit! t!e e3cess (el$ mate"ial $"esse$ ,l%s!* ,ati)%e c"ac's (o%l$ be e3&ecte$ to initiate at (el$ $e,ect locations- Gn
t!e as (el$e$ con$ition* c"ac's may initiate at sta"t-sto& &ositions o"* i, t!ese a"e not &"esent* at (el$ s%",ace "i&&les-
*eneral comments
a2 @acking strips
G, bac'in) st"i&s a"e %se$ in t!ese Coints* t!ey m%st be contin%o%s- G, t!ey a"e attac!e$ by (el$in)* s%c! (el$s
m%st also com&ly (it! t!e "ele#ant Coint classi,ication "e?%i"ements Dnote &a"tic%la"ly t!at tac' (el$s* %nless
s%bse?%ently )"o%n$ o%t o" co#e"e$ by a contin%o%s (el$* (o%l$ "e$%ce t!e Coint to class :E
!2 Edge distance
An e$)e $istance c"ite"ion e3ists to limit t!e &ossibility o, local st"ess concent"ations occ%""in) at %n(el$e$ e$)es
as a "es%lt* ,o" e3am&le* o, %n$e"c%t* (el$ s&atte"* o" acci$ental o#e"(ea#e in man%al ,illet (el$in) Dsee also notes
in able A-7E- Alt!o%)! an e$)e $istance can be s&eci,ie$ only ,o" t!e ;(i$t!< $i"ection o, an element* it is e?%ally
im&o"tant to ens%"e t!at no acci$ental %n$e"c%ttin) occ%"s on t!e %n(el$e$ co"ne"s o,* ,o" e3am&le co#e" &lates
o" bo3 )i"$e" ,lan)es- G, %n$e"c%ttin) occ%"s it s!o%l$ s%bse?%ently be )"o%n$ smoot!-
1 1-
2-
1-
A%tomatic (el$s ca""ie$ o%t
,"om bot! si$es-
2-
A%tomatic ,illet (el$s- 1o#e"
&late en$s s!all be #e"i,ie$
%sin) $etail 5- in able A-9
1- an$ 2-
> No sta"t-sto& &osition is
&e"mitte$ e3ce&t (!en
t!e "e&ai" is &e",o"me$
by a s&ecialist an$
ins&ection ca""ie$ o%t to
#e"i,y t!e &"o&e"
e3ec%tion o, t!e "e&ai"-
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11 0-
4-
0-
A%tomatic ,illet o" b%tt (el$s
ca""ie$ o%t ,"om bot! si$es
b%t containin) sto&-sta"t
&ositions-
4-
A%tomatic b%tt (el$s ma$e
,"om one si$e only* (it! a
bac'in) ba"* b%t (it!o%t
sta"t-sto& &ositions-
4-
> K!en t!e $etail
contains sta"t-sto&
&ositions %se cate)o"y
12
12 5-
Ian%al ,illet o" b%tt (el$s-
6-
Ian%al o" a%tomatic b%tt
(el$s ca""ie$ o%t ,"om one
si$e only* &a"tic%la"ly ,o"
bo3 )i"$e"s
6-
> A #e"y )oo$ ,it bet(een
t!e ,lan)e an$ (eb
&lates is essential-
P"e&a"e t!e (eb e$)e
s%c! t!at t!e "oot ,ace
is a$e?%ate ,o" t!e
ac!ie#ement o, "e)%la"
"oot &enet"ation-
12 7-
Re&ai"e$ a%tomatic o"
man%al ,illet o" b%tt (el$s
7-
> Gm&"o#ement met!o$s
t!at a"e a$e?%ately
#e"i,ie$ may "esto"e t!e
o"i)inal cate)o"y-
Table (-# ontinuous welds essentially parallel to the direction of applied stress BontinuedC
Detail
category
Constructional details Description &e6uirement
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(.3 0ntermittent welds and welds at cope holes
Table (-3 0ntermittent welds and welds at cope holes
Detail
category
Constructional details Description &e6uirement
6 1- 1-
Stitc! o" tac' (el$s not
s%bse?%ently co#e"e$
by a contin%o%s (el$
1-
> Gnte"mittent ,illet
(el$ (it! )a& "atio
)+! 2-5-
: 2- 2-
6n$s o, contin%o%s
(el$s at co&e !oles-
!e S-N classi,ication is
t!e same (it! an$
(it!o%t (el$in) t!"o%)!
t!e !ole-
2-
> 1o&e !ole not to be
,ille$ (it! (el$
mate"ial-
0- 0-
1o&e !ole an$
t"ans#e"se b%tt (el$-
0-
> A$#ice on ,ati)%e
assessment ,o" b%tt
(el$ in mate"ial
(it! co&e !ole may
be ,o%n$ in 0-1-6-
> !e S1:s ,"om 0-1-6
may be %se$
to)et!e" (it! t!e D-
c%"#e-
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(.5 Transverse butt welds= welded from both sides
Table (-5 Transverse butt welds= welded from both sides
Detail
category
Constructional details Description &e6uirement
)otes on potential modes of failure
Kit! t!e (el$ en$s mac!ine$ ,l%s! (it! t!e &late e$)es* ,ati)%e c"ac's in t!e as-(el$e$ con$ition no"mally initiate at
t!e (el$ toe* so t!at t!e ,ati)%e st"en)t! $e&en$s la")ely %&on t!e s!a&e o, t!e (el$ o#e",ill- G, t!e o#e",ill is $"esse$
,l%s!* t!e st"ess concent"ation ca%se$ by it is "emo#e$* an$ ,ail%"e is t!en associate$ (it! (el$ $e,ects-
Design stresses
Gn t!e $esi)n o, b%tt (el$s t!at a"e not symmet"ic abo%t t!e "oot an$ a"e not ali)ne$* t!e st"esses m%st incl%$e t!e
e,,ect o, any eccent"icity Dsee section A0-1B an$ A0-0BE-
Kit! connections t!at a"e s%&&o"te$ late"ally* e-)- ,lan)es o, a beam t!at a"e s%&&o"te$ by t!e (eb* eccent"icity may
be ne)lecte$- 4o(e#e"* t!is $e&en$s on (i$t! o, ,lan)es* see e-)- "e,- +28+-
D%e to %se o, a !i)! S-N c%"#e ,o" (el$s mac!ine$ ,l%s! one cannot ass%me t!at si)ni,icant tole"ances a"e acco%nte$
,o" in t!e S-N c%"#e an$ !ence t!e
0
s!o%l$ be &%t e?%al 0-05 in t!e e?%ations ,o" st"ess concent"ation ,acto"s ,o" b%tt
(el$s in section A0-0-7B (!en %se$ to)et!e" (it! t!is S-N c%"#e- !is is base$ on assessment o, &"obability o,
occ%""ence o, !i)!e" tole"ances to)et!e" (it! lo(e" S-N $ata at t!e same !ot s&ot- :o" tet!e"s it is "ecommen$e$ to
ass%me t!at
0
F 0 $%e to a "at!e" %ni,o"m loa$in) o#e" a lon)e" !ot s&ot a"ea-
11 1-
2-
0-
1-
"ans#e"se s&lices in &lates
,lats an$ "olle$ sections
2-
:lan)e s&lices in &late
)i"$e"s-
0-
"ans#e"se s&lices in &lates
o" ,lats ta&e"e$ in (i$t! o" in
t!ic'ness (!e"e t!e slo&e is
not )"eate" t!an 1:4-
1- an$ 2-
> Details 1- an$ 2- may be
inc"ease$ to 1ate)o"y 1
(!en !i)! ?%ality
(el$in) is ac!ie#e$ an$
t!e (el$ is &"o#e$ ,"ee
,"om si)ni,icant $e,ects
by non-$est"%cti#e
e3amination-
Note t!at s&ecial
consi$e"ation (it!
"es&ect to ND an$
acce&tance c"ite"ia a"e
"e?%i"e$ ,o" b%tt (el$s
(!e"e a !i)!e"
classi,ication t!an D is
%se$- See commenta"y
section-
1-* 2- an$ 0-
> All (el$s )"o%n$ ,l%s! to
&late s%",ace &a"allel to
$i"ection o, t!e a""o(-
> Kel$ "%n-o,, &ieces to
be %se$ an$
s%bse?%ently "emo#e$-
Plate e$)es to be
)"o%n$ ,l%s! in $i"ection
o, st"ess-
> All (el$s (el$e$ in ,lat
&osition in s!o&-
'
1
'
1
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D 4-
5
6-
4-
"ans#e"se s&lices in &lates
an$ ,lats-
5-
"ans#e"se s&lices in "olle$
sections o" (el$e$ &late
)i"$e"s
6-
"ans#e"se s&lices in &lates
o" ,lats ta&e"e$ in (i$t! o" in
t!ic'ness (!e"e t!e slo&e is
not )"eate" t!an 1:4-
4-* 5- an$ 6-
> !e !ei)!t o, t!e (el$
con#e3ity not to be
)"eate" t!an 105 o, t!e
(el$ (i$t!* (it! smoot!
t"ansitions to t!e &late
s%",ace-
> Kel$s ma$e in ,lat
&osition in s!o&-
> Kel$ "%n-o,, &ieces to
be %se$ an$
s%bse?%ently "emo#e$-
Plate e$)es to be
)"o%n$ ,l%s! in $i"ection
o, st"ess-
Table (-5 Transverse butt welds= welded from both sides BontinuedC
Detail
category
Constructional details Description &e6uirement
'
1
'
1
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6 7- 7-
"ans#e"se s&lices in &lates*
,lats* "olle$ sections o" &late
)i"$e"s ma$e at site-
DDetail cate)o"y D may be
%se$ ,o" (el$s ma$e in ,lat
&osition at site meetin) t!e
"e?%i"ements %n$e" 4-* 5-
an$ 6 an$ (!en 1005 IPG
o, t!e (el$ is &e",o"me$-E
7-
> !e !ei)!t o, t!e (el$
con#e3ity not to be
)"eate" t!an 205 o, t!e
(el$ (i$t!-
> Kel$ "%n-o,, &ieces to
be %se$ an$
s%bse?%ently "emo#e$-
Plate e$)es to be
)"o%n$ ,l%s! in $i"ection
o, st"ess-
9- 9-
"ans#e"se s&lice bet(een
&lates o, %ne?%al (i$t!*
(it! t!e (el$ en$s )"o%n$
to a "a$i%s-
9-
> !e st"ess
concent"ation !as been
acco%nte$ ,o" in t!e
Coint classi,ication-
> !e (i$t! "atio 4+!
s!o%l$ be less t!an 2-
:1
:0
Table (-5 Transverse butt welds= welded from both sides BontinuedC
Detail
category
Constructional details Description &e6uirement
'
1
'
1
0.16
h

11 . 0
h

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(.6 Transverse butt welds= welded from one side
Table (-6 Transverse butt welds= welded from one side
)otes on potential modes of failure
Kit! t!e (el$ en$s mac!ine$ ,l%s! (it! t!e &late e$)es* ,ati)%e c"ac's in t!e as-(el$e$ con$ition no"mally initiate at
t!e (el$ toe* so t!at t!e ,ati)%e st"en)t! $e&en$s la")ely %&on t!e s!a&e o, t!e (el$ o#e",ill- G, t!e o#e",ill is $"esse$
,l%s!* t!e st"ess concent"ation ca%se$ by it is "emo#e$* an$ ,ail%"e is t!en associate$ (it! (el$ $e,ects- Gn (el$s ma$e
on &e"manent bac'in) st"i&* ,ati)%e c"ac's most li'ely initiate at t!e (el$ metal+st"i& C%nction-
@y )"in$in) o, t!e "oot a,te" (el$in) t!is si$e o, t!e (el$e$ connection can be cate)o"ise$ to 11 o" 1Q "e,- able A-5-
Design stresses
Gn t!e $esi)n o, b%tt (el$s t!at a"e not symmet"ic abo%t t!e "oot an$ a"e not ali)ne$* t!e st"esses m%st incl%$e t!e
e,,ect o, any eccent"icity Dsee section A0-1B an$ A0-0BE-
Kit! connections t!at a"e s%&&o"te$ late"ally* e-)- ,lan)es o, a beam t!at a"e s%&&o"te$ by t!e (eb* eccent"icity may
be ne)lecte$- 4o(e#e"* t!is $e&en$s on (i$t! o, ,lan)es* see e-)- "e,- +28+-
Detail
category
Constructional details Description &e6uirement
K0 1- 1-
@%tt (el$ ma$e ,"om
one si$e only an$
(it!o%t bac'in) st"i&-
1-
Kit! t!e "oot &"o#e$ ,"ee ,"om
$e,ects la")e" t!an 1-2 mm Din t!e
t!ic'ness $i"ectionE by non-
$est"%cti#e testin)* $etail 1 may be
cate)o"ise$ to :0 Dit is ass%me$ t!at
t!is is ,%l,ille$ by ins&ection
cate)o"y GE- See also commenta"y
sectionE- G, it is li'ely t!at la")e"
$e,ects may be &"esent a,te" t!e
ins&ection t!e $etail may be
$o(n)"a$e$ ,"om :0 base$ on
,ati)%e li,e calc%lation %sin) ,"act%"e
mec!anics- !e analysis s!o%l$ t!en
be base$ on a "ele#ant $e,ect siNe-
: 2- 2-
"ans#e"se b%tt (el$ on
a tem&o"a"y o" a
&e"manent bac'in) st"i&
(it!o%t ,illet (el$s-
G 0- 0-
"ans#e"se b%tt (el$ on
a bac'in) st"i& ,illet
(el$e$ to t!e &late-
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 86
DNV GL AS







(.1 &elded attachments on the surface or the edge of a stressed
member
Table (-1 &elded attachments on the surface or the edge of a stressed member
Detail
category
Constructional details Description &e6uirement
)otes on potential modes of failure
K!en t!e (el$ is &a"allel to t!e $i"ection o, t!e a&&lie$ st"ess* ,ati)%e c"ac's no"mally initiate at t!e (el$ en$s- K!en
t!e (el$ is t"ans#e"se to $i"ection o, st"essin)* c"ac's %s%ally initiate at t!e (el$ toeQ !o(e#e"* (el$ c"ac's may also
initiate at t!e (el$ "oot- !e c"ac's t!en &"o&a)ate into t!e st"esse$ membe"- K!en t!e (el$s a"e on o" a$Cacent to
t!e e$)e o, t!e st"esse$ membe" t!e st"ess concent"ation is inc"ease$ an$ t!e ,ati)%e st"en)t! is "e$%ce$Q t!is is t!e
"eason ,o" s&eci,yin) an ;e$)e $istance< in some o, t!is Coints Dsee also note on e$)e $istance in able A-0E-
1-
2-
1-
Kel$e$ lon)it%$inal
attac!ment
2-
Do%blin) &late (el$e$ to a
&late-
1- an$ 2- !e $etail cate)o"y
is )i#en ,o":
> 6$)e $istance 10mm
> :o" e$)e $istance Z 10
mm t!e $etail cate)o"y
s!all be $o(n)"a$e$
(it! one S-N-c%"#e
6 l 50 mm
: 50 Z l 120 mm
:1 120 Z l 000 mm
:0 l R 000 mm
0- 0-
Lon)it%$inal attac!ment
(el$e$ to t"ans#e"se
sti,,ene"-
6 l 120 mm
: 120 Z l 000 mm
:1 l R 000 mm
l
l
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 87
DNV GL AS







6 4-
" R 150 mm
4-
Lon)it%$inal ,illet (el$e$
)%sset (it! "a$i%s t"ansition
to &late o" t%beQ en$ o, ,illet
(el$ "ein,o"cement D,%ll
&enet"ationEQ len)t! o,
"ein,o"cement (el$ R "-
4-
Smoot! t"ansition "a$i%s "
,o"me$ by initially
mac!inin) o" )as c%ttin) t!e
)%sset &late be,o"e (el$in)-
!en s%bse?%ently )"in$in)
t!e (el$ a"ea &a"allel to t!e
$i"ection o, t!e a""o( so t!at
t!e t"ans#e"se (el$ toe is
,%lly "emo#e$-
5- 5-
G%sset &late (it! a "a$i%s
(el$e$ to t!e e$)e o, a &late
o" beam ,lan)e-
5-
!e s&eci,ie$ "a$i%s to be
ac!ie#e$ by )"in$in)-
6
:
:1
:0
G
Table (-1 &elded attachments on the surface or the edge of a stressed member BontinuedC
Detail
category
Constructional details Description &e6uirement


1)0mm &
M

3
1

3
1
M

6
1
<
6
1
M

10
1
<
10
1
M

16
1
<
16
1
M

2)
1
<
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 89
DNV GL AS







6-
7-
6-
G%sset &late (el$e$ to t!e
e$)e o, a &late o" beam
,lan)e-
7-
:lan)e (el$e$ to anot!e"
,lan)e at c"ossin) Coints-
6- an$ 7:
!e $istance l is )o#e"nin)
t!e $etail cate)o"y ,o" t!e
st"ess $i"ection s!o(n in
s'etc!- !e $istance L (ill
)o#e"n $etail cate)o"y ,o"
main st"ess in t!e ot!e"
beam-
G l 150 mm
K1 150 Z l 000 mm
K2 l R 000 mm
Table (-1 &elded attachments on the surface or the edge of a stressed member BontinuedC
Detail
category
Constructional details Description &e6uirement
l
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 88
DNV GL AS







9-
8-
10-
9-
"ans#e"se attac!ments
(it! e$)e $istance 10 mm
8-
Ve"tical sti,,ene" (el$e$ to a
beam o" a &late )i"$e"-
10-
Dia&!"a)ms o, bo3 )i"$e"s
(el$e$ to t!e ,lan)e o" (eb
8-
> !e st"ess "an)e s!o%l$
be calc%late$ %sin)
&"inci&al st"esses o" t!e
&"oce$%"e $esc"ibe$ in
section A4-0-4B i, t!e
sti,,ene" te"minates in
t!e (eb-
9-* 8- an$ 10-
!e $etail cate)o"y is )i#en
,o":
> 6$)e $istance 10 mm
> :o" e$)e $istance Z 10
mm t!e $etail cate)o"y
s!all be $o(n)"a$e$
(it! one S-N-c%"#e
6 t 25 mm
: t R 25 mm
11- 11-
Kel$e$ s!ea" connecto" to
base mate"ial-
6 6$)e $istance 10 mm
G 6$)e $istance Z 10 mm
Table (-1 &elded attachments on the surface or the edge of a stressed member BontinuedC
Detail
category
Constructional details Description &e6uirement
t
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 100
DNV GL AS







(.4 &elded :oints with load carrying welds
Table (-4 &elded :oints with load carrying welds
Detail
category
Constructional details Description &e6uirement
)otes on potential modes of failure
:ail%"e in c"%ci,o"m o" Coints (it! ,%ll &enet"ation (el$s (ill no"mally initiate at t!e (el$ toe- Gn Coints ma$e (it! loa$-
ca""yin) ,illet o" &a"tial &enet"ation b%tt (el$s* c"ac'in) may initiate eit!e" at t!e (el$ toe an$ &"o&a)ate into t!e &late*
o" at t!e (el$ "oot an$ &"o&a)ate t!"o%)! t!e (el$- Gn (el$s &a"allel to t!e $i"ection o, t!e a&&lie$ st"ess* !o(e#e"*
(el$ ,ail%"e is %ncommon- Gn t!is case* c"ac's no"mally initiate at t!e (el$ en$ an$ &"o&a)ate into t!e &late
&e"&en$ic%la" to t!e $i"ection o, a&&lie$ st"ess- !e st"ess concent"ation is inc"ease$* an$ t!e ,ati)%e st"en)t! is
t!e"e,o"e "e$%ce$* i, t!e (el$ en$ is locate$ on o" a$Cacent to t!e e$)e o, a st"esse$ membe" "at!e" t!an on its s%",ace-
Design stresses
Gn t!e $esi)n o, c"%ci,o"m Coints* (!ic! a"e not ali)ne$ t!e st"esses* m%st incl%$e t!e e,,ect o, any eccent"icity- !e
ma3im%m #al%e o, t!e eccent"icity may no"mally be ta'en ,"om t!e ,ab"ication tole"ances- !e $esi)n st"ess may be
obtaine$ as t!e nominal st"ess m%lti&lie$ by t!e st"ess concent"ation ,acto" $%e to t!e eccent"icity-
1- 1-:%ll &enet"ation b%tt
(el$e$ c"%ci,o"m Coint
1-:
> Gns&ecte$ an$ ,o%n$ ,"ee
,"om si)ni,icant $e,ects-
!e $etail cate)o"y is )i#en ,o":
> 6$)e $istance 10mm
> :o" e$)e $istance Z 10mm
t!e $etail cate)o"y s!all be
$o(n)"a$e$ (it! one
S-N-c%"#e
6
t 25 m
:
t R 25
mm
K0 2- 2-Pa"tial &enet"ation tee-
b%tt Coint o" ,illet (el$e$
Coint an$ e,,ecti#e ,%ll
&enet"ation in tee-b%tt
Coint- See also A2-9B-
2-:
> (o ,ati)%e assessments a"e
"e?%i"e$- :i"stly* "oot
c"ac'in) is e#al%ate$ ta'in)
1ate)o"y K0 ,o"
(
-
(
is
$e,ine$ in section A2-0-5B-
Secon$ly* toe c"ac'in) is
e#al%ate$ by $ete"minin) t!e
st"ess "an)e in t!e loa$-
ca""yin) &lates an$ %se
1ate)o"y G-
> G, t!e "e?%i"ement in section
A2-9B t!at toe c"ac'in) is t!e
most li'ely ,ail%"e mo$e is
,%l,ille$ an$ t!e e$)e
$istance 10mm* 1ate)o"y
:1 may be %se$ ,o" &a"tial
&enet"ation (el$s an$ :0 ,o"
,illet (el$s-

Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 101


DNV GL AS







:1 0- 0-
:illet (el$e$ o#e"la& Coint-
1"ac' in main &late-
0-
> St"ess in t!e main &late to be
calc%late$ on t!e basis o,
a"ea s!o(n in t!e s'etc!-
> Kel$ te"mination mo"e t!an
10 mm ,"om &late e$)e-
> S!ea" c"ac'in) in t!e (el$
s!o%l$ be #e"i,ie$ %sin) $etail
7-
K1 4- 4-
:illet (el$e$ o#e"la& Coint-
1"ac' in o#e"la&&in) &late-
4-
> St"ess to be calc%late$ in t!e
o#e"la&&in) &late elements
> Kel$ te"mination mo"e t!an
10 mm ,"om &late e$)e-
> S!ea" c"ac'in) in t!e (el$
s!o%l$ be #e"i,ie$ %sin) $etail
7-
5- 5-
6n$ Nones o, sin)le o"
m%lti&le (el$e$ co#e"
&lates in beams an$ &late
)i"$e"s- 1o#e" &lates (it!
o" (it!o%t ,"ontal (el$-
5-
> K!en t!e co#e" &late is (i$e"
t!an t!e ,lan)e* a ,"ontal
(el$* ca"e,%lly )"o%n$ to
"emo#e %n$e"c%t* is
necessa"y-
G t an$ t
c
20 mm
K0 t an$ t
c
R 20 mm
6 6- an$ 7- 6-
1ontin%o%s ,illet (el$s
t"ansmittin) a s!ea" ,lo(*
s%c! as (eb to ,lan)e
(el$s in &late )i"$e"s- :o"
contin%o%s ,%ll &enet"ation
b%tt (el$ in s!ea" %se
1ate)o"y 12-
7-
:illet (el$e$ la& Coint-
6-
> St"ess "an)e to be calc%late$
,"om t!e (el$ t!"oat a"ea-
7-
> St"ess "an)e to be calc%late$
,"om t!e (el$ t!"oat a"ea
consi$e"in) t!e total len)t!
o, t!e (el$-
> Kel$ te"minations mo"e t!an
10 mm ,"om t!e &late e$)e-
Table (-4 &elded :oints with load carrying welds BontinuedC
Detail
category
Constructional details Description &e6uirement
N
1
0

m
m
o$ main plat!
St!ss!. a!a
2
1
t
t
c
t
t
c
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6 9- 9-
St%$ connecto"s D,ail%"e in
t!e (el$ o" !eat a,,ecte$
NoneE-
9-
> !e s!ea" st"ess to be
calc%late$ on t!e nominal
c"oss section o, t!e st%$-
8- 8-
"a&eNoi$al sti,,ene"
(el$e$ to $ec' &late (it!
,illet (el$ o" ,%ll o" &a"tial
&enet"ation b%tt (el$-
8-
> :o" a ,%ll &enet"ation b%tt
(el$* t!e ben$in) st"ess
"an)e s!all be calc%late$ on
t!e basis o, t!e t!ic'ness o,
t!e sti,,ene"-
> :o" a ,illet (el$ o" a &a"tial
&enet"ation b%tt (el$* t!e
ben$in) st"ess "an)e s!all be
calc%late$ on t!e basis o, t!e
t!"oat t!ic'ness o, t!e (el$*
o" t!e t!ic'ness o, t!e
sti,,ene" i, smalle"-
:
G
Table (-4 &elded :oints with load carrying welds BontinuedC
Detail
category
Constructional details Description &e6uirement
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 100
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(.8 'ollow sections
Table (-8 'ollow sections
Detail
category
Constructional details Description &e6uirement
@1 1- 1-
Non-(el$e$ sections
1-
> S!a"& e$)es an$ s%",ace ,la(s to
be im&"o#e$ by )"in$in)
1 2- 2-
A%tomatic lon)it%$inal
seam (el$s D,o" all ot!e"
cases* see able A-0E-
2-
> No sto& +sta"t &ositions* an$ ,"ee
,"om $e,ects o%tsi$e t!e
tole"ances o, 2S-1401 :ab"ication
an$ estin) o, 2,,s!o"e St"%ct%"es-
11 0-
1i"c%m,e"ential b%tt
(el$ ma$e ,"om bot!
si$es $"esse$ ,l%s!-
0-* 4-* 5- an$ 6-
> !e a&&lie$ st"ess m%st incl%$e
t!e st"ess concent"ation ,acto" to
allo( ,o" any t!ic'ness c!an)e an$
,o" ,ab"ication tole"ances* "e,-
section A0-0-7B-
> !e "e?%i"ements to t!e
co""es&on$in) $etail cate)o"y in
able A-5 a&&ly-
D 4-
1i"c%m,e"ential b%tt
(el$ ma$e ,"om bot!
si$es-
6 5-
1i"c%m,e"ential b%tt
(el$ ma$e ,"om bot!
si$es ma$e at site-
:
6-
1i"c%m,e"ential b%tt
(el$ ma$e ,"om one si$e
on a bac'in) ba"-
:0 7- 7-
1i"c%m,e"ential b%tt
(el$ ma$e ,"om one si$e
(it!o%t a bac'in) ba"-
7-
> !e a&&lie$ st"ess s!o%l$ incl%$e
t!e st"ess concent"ation ,acto" to
allo( ,o" any t!ic'ness c!an)e an$
,o" ,ab"ication tole"ances* "e,-
section A0-0-7B-
> !e (el$ "oot &"o#e$ ,"ee ,"om
$e,ects la")e" t!an 1-2 mm-
11 9-
1i"c%m,e"ential b%tt
(el$s ma$e ,"om one
si$e t!at a"e mac!ine$
,l%s! to "emo#e $e,ects
an$ (el$ o#e",ill-
9-
A mac!inin) o, t!e s%",aces (ill "e$%ce
t!e t!ic'ness- S&ecially on t!e "oot
si$e mate"ial (ill !a#e to be "emo#e$-
A "e$%ce$ t!ic'ness s!o%l$ be %se$ ,o"
calc%lation o, st"ess- !e (el$ s!o%l$
be &"o#e$ ,"ee ,"om $e,ects by non-
$est"%cti#e e3amination- Gt is ass%me$
t!at t!is is ,%l,ille$ by cate)o"y G %sin)
No"so' $oc%ments* ot!e"(ise see
Section AD-5B- 1ate)o"y 1 may be
ac!ie#e$Q "e,- able A-5-
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 104
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11 9-* 8-* 10 an$ 11- 9-
1i"c%m,e"ential b%tt
(el$s bet(een t%b%la"
an$ conical sections*
(el$ ma$e ,"om bot!
si$es $"esse$ ,l%s!-
9-* 8-* 10-* an$ 11-
> !e a&&lie$ st"ess m%st also
incl%$e t!e st"ess concent"ation
,acto" $%e to t!e o#e"all ,o"m o,
t!e Coint* "e,- section A0-0-8B-
> !e "e?%i"ements to t!e
co""es&on$in) $etail cate)o"y in
able A-5 a&&ly-
D 8-
1i"c%m,e"ential b%tt
(el$s bet(een t%b%la"
an$ conical sections*
(el$ ma$e ,"om bot!
si$es-
6 10-
1i"c%m,e"ential b%tt
(el$s bet(een t%b%la"
an$ conical sections*
(el$ ma$e ,"om bot!
si$es ma$e at site-
: 11-
1i"c%m,e"ential b%tt
(el$s bet(een t%b%la"
an$ conical sections*
(el$ ma$e ,"om one si$e
on a bac'in) ba"-
:0 12- 12-
1i"c%m,e"ential b%tt
(el$s bet(een t%b%la"
an$ conical sections*
(el$ ma$e ,"om one si$e
(it!o%t a bac'in) ba"-
D!is classi,ication is ,o"
t!e "oot- :o" t!e o%tsi$e
(el$ toe see 9-11E-
12-
> !e a&&lie$ st"ess m%st also
incl%$e t!e st"ess concent"ation
,acto" $%e to t!e o#e"all ,o"m o,
t!e Coint
> !e (el$ "oot &"o#e$ ,"ee ,"om
$e,ects la")e" t!an 1-2 mm-
:0 10- 10-
@%tt (el$e$ en$ to en$
connection o,
"ectan)%la" !ollo(
sections-
10-
> Kit! t!e (el$ "oot &"o#e$ ,"ee
,"om $e,ects la")e" t!an 1-2 mm
: 14- 14-
1i"c%la" o" "ectan)%la"
!ollo( section* ,illet
(el$e$ to anot!e"
section-
14-
> Non loa$ ca""yin) (el$s-
> Section (i$t! &a"allel to
st"ess $i"ection 100 mm-
> All ot!e" cases* see able A-7
Table (-8 'ollow sections BontinuedC
Detail
category
Constructional details Description &e6uirement
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 105
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G 15- 15-
1i"c%la" !ollo( section
b%tt (el$e$ en$ to en$
(it! an inte"me$iate
&late-
15-
> Loa$ ca""yin) (el$s-
> Kel$s ins&ecte$ an$ ,o%n$ ,"ee
,"om $e,ects o%tsi$e t!e
tole"ances o, DNV-2S-1401
Fa!rication and testing of ;ffshore
'tructures- See also t!e
commenta"y section-
> Details (it! (all t!ic'ness )"eate"
t!an 9 mm may be classi,ie$
1ate)o"y :0-
K1 16- 16-
Rectan)%la" !ollo(
section b%tt (el$e$ en$
to en$ (it! an
inte"me$iate &late-
16-
> Loa$ ca""yin) (el$s-
> Kel$s ins&ecte$ an$ ,o%n$ ,"ee
,"om $e,ects o%tsi$e t!e
tole"ances o, DNV-2S-1401
Fa!rication and 3esting of ;ffshore
'tructures- See also t!e
commenta"y section-
> Details (it! (all t!ic'ness )"eate"
t!an 9 mm may be classi,ie$ as
1ate)o"y G-
Table (-8 'ollow sections BontinuedC
Detail
category
Constructional details Description &e6uirement
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 106
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(./" Details relating to tubular members
Table (-/" Details relating to tubular members
Detail
category
Constructional details Description &e6uirement
1-
Pa"ent mate"ial a$Cacent
to t!e toes o, ,%ll
&enet"ation (el$e$
t%b%la" Coints-
1-
> !e $esi)n s!o%l$ be base$
on t!e !ot s&ot st"ess-
:1 2- 2-
Kel$e$ "%n)s-
D 0- an$ 4- 0-
G%ssete$ connections
ma$e (it! ,%ll &enet"ation
(el$s-
0-
> !e $esi)n st"ess m%st
incl%$e t!e st"ess
concent"ation ,acto" $%e to
t!e o#e"all ,o"m o, t!e Coint-
: 4-
G%ssete$ connections
ma$e (it! ,illet (el$s-
4-
> !e $esi)n st"ess m%st
incl%$e t!e st"ess
concent"ation ,acto" $%e to
t!e o#e"all ,o"m o, t!e Coint-
5- 5-
Pa"ent mate"ial at t!e toe
o, a (el$ attac!in) a
$ia&!"a)m to a t%b%la"
membe"-
!e nominal $esi)n st"ess ,o" t!e
insi$e may be $ete"mine$ ,"om
section A0-0-9B-
6 t 25 mm
: t R 25 mm
6 to G*
see
able A-
7
6- 6-
Pa"ent mate"ial Do, t!e
st"esse$ membe"E
a$Cacent to t!e toes o, a
be#el b%tt o" ,illet (el$e$
attac!ments in "e)ion o,
st"ess concent"ation-
6-
> 1lass $e&en$s on attac!ment
len)t! Dsee able A-7E b%t
st"ess m%st incl%$e t!e st"ess
concent"ation ,acto" $%e to
t!e o#e"all s!a&e o, a$Coinin)
st"%ct%"e-
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DNV GL AS







1 7- 7-
Pa"ent mate"ial at t!e (el$
toe* o" (el$ metal in (el$s
a"o%n$ a &enet"ation
t!"o%)! a (all o, a
membe" Don a &lane
essentially &e"&en$ic%la"
to t!e $i"ection o, st"essE-
7-
!e "ele#ant st"ess m%st incl%$e
t!e st"ess concent"ation ,acto"
$%e to t!e o#e"all )eomet"y o, t!e
$etail-
Kit!o%t sta"t an$ sto& at !ot s&ot
"e)ion-
See also section A0-1-5B-
D 9- 9-
At ,illet (el$ toe in &a"ent
metal a"o%n$ a
&enet"ation in a &late-
9-
> !e st"ess in t!e &late s!o%l$
incl%$e t!e st"ess
concent"ation ,acto" $%e to
t!e o#e"all )eomet"y o, t!e
$etail-
See also section A0-1-5B-
K0 8-
Kel$ metal in &a"tial
&enet"ation o" ,illet (el$e$
Coints a"o%n$ a
&enet"ation t!"o%)! t!e
(all o, a membe" Don a
&lane essentially &a"allel
to t!e &lane o, st"essE-
8-
> !e st"ess in t!e (el$ s!o%l$
incl%$e an a&&"o&"iate st"ess
concent"ation ,acto" to allo(
,o" t!e o#e"all Coint
)eomet"y- Re,e"ence is also
ma$e to A&&-1-
See also section A0-1-5B-
Table (-/" Details relating to tubular members BontinuedC
Detail
category
Constructional details Description &e6uirement
C
C
C<C
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(PP%)D0H 9 +F>+ F$R T-9-?(R E$0)T+
9./ +tress concentration factors for simple tubular :oints and
overlap :oints
St"ess concent"ation ,acto"s ,o" t%b%la" Coints ,o" Coint ty&es +O a"e )i#en in able @-1* ,o" Coint ty&es L in
able @-2* ,o" Coint ty&es P in able @-0 an$ able @-4 an$ ,o" Coint ty&es P in able @-5- St"ess
concent"ation ,acto"s a"e base$ on ;De#elo&ment o, S1: :o"m%lae an$ Gene"alise$ Gn,l%ence :%nctions ,o"
%se in :ati)%e Analysis<* "e,- +2+-
Uoint classi,ication is t!e &"ocess (!e"eby t!e a3ial ,o"ce in a )i#en b"ace is s%b$i#i$e$ into P* L an$ O
com&onents o, actions co""es&on$in) to t!e t!"ee Coint ty&es ,o" (!ic! st"ess concent"ation e?%ations
e3ists- S%c! s%b$i#ision no"mally consi$e"s all o, t!e membe"s in one &lane at a Coint- :o" &%"&oses o, t!is
&"o#ision* b"ace &lanes (it!in 15X o, eac! ot!e" may be consi$e"e$ as bein) in a common &lane- 6ac!
b"ace in t!e &lane can !a#e a %ni?%e classi,ication t!at co%l$ #a"y (it! action con$ition- !e classi,ication
can be a mi3t%"e bet(een t!e abo#e t!"ee Coint ty&es-
:i)%"e @-1 &"o#i$es some sim&le e3am&les o, Coint classi,ication- :o" a b"ace to be consi$e"e$ as P-Coint
classi,ication* t!e a3ial ,o"ce in t!e b"ace s!o%l$ be balance$ to (it!in 105 by ,o"ces in ot!e" b"aces in t!e
same &lane an$ on t!e same si$e o, t!e Coint- :o" O-Coint classi,ication* t!e a3ial ,o"ce in t!e b"ace is "eacte$
as beam s!ea" in t!e c!o"$- :o" L-Coint classi,ication* t!e a3ial ,o"ce in t!e b"ace is ca""ie$ t!"o%)! t!e
c!o"$ to b"aces on t!e o&&osite si$e- :i)%"e @-1 cE* eE an$ !E s!o(s Coints (it! a combination o,
classi,ications- Gn cE 505 o, t!e $ia)onal ,o"ce is balance$ (it! a ,o"ce in t!e !o"iNontal in a P-Coint an$
505 o, t!e $ia)onal ,o"ce is balance$ (it! a beam s!ea" ,o"ce in t!e c!o"$ in a O-Coint- Gn eE 005 o, t!e
incomin) $ia)onal ,o"ce is balance$ (it! a ,o"ce in t!e !o"iNontal in a P-Coint (it! )a& 1 an$ 675 o, t!e
incomin) $ia)onal ,o"ce is balance$ (it! a ,o"ce in t!e ot!e" $ia)onal in a P-Coint (it! )a& 2- Gn !E 505 o,
t!e $ia)onal ,o"ce is balance$ (it! a ,o"ce in t!e !o"iNontal on t!e same si$e o, t!e c!o"$ in a P-Coint an$
505 o, t!e $ia)onal ,o"ce is balance$ (it! a ,o"ce in t!e !o"iNontal on t!e o&&osite si$e o, t!e c!o"$ in a
L-Coint-
De,initions o, )eomet"ical &a"amete"s can be ,o%n$ in :i)%"e @-2-
A classi,ication o, Coints can be base$ on a $ete"ministic analysis %sin) a (a#e !ei)!t co""es&on$in) to t!at
(it! t!e la")est cont"ib%tion to ,ati)%e $ama)e- A conse"#ati#e classi,ication may be %se$ 'ee&in) in min$
t!at:
S1:L R S1:O R S1:P-
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Figure 9-/ lassification of simple :oints
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DNV GL AS







Figure 9-! Definition of geometrical parameters.
sa..l!
=
T
cown cown
0
t
.

T
t
.
=

=
.
B =
=
20
? =
2T
=
O =
T
t
=
T
6R5CD 5
=
g
.
6R5CD 6
5
t
5
6
t
.
6
5

6
=
.
B
5
5
=
=
.
B
6
6
=
T
t

5
5
=
T
t

6
6
=
2T
=
O =
=
g
=
56
T
t
.
6
5
t
6C
=
6
t
C
.
.
6
6
C
C
5
5
5
C


g g
=
.
B
5
5
=
=
.
B
6
6
=
=
.
B
C
C
=
T
t

5
5
=
T
t

6
6
=
T
t

C
C
=
2T
=
O =
=
g
P
56
56
=
=
g
P
6C
6C
=
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!e #ali$ity "an)e ,o" t!e e?%ations in able @-1 to able @-5 is as ,ollo(s:
Re,e"ence is ma$e to Section A4-2B i, act%al )eomet"y is o%tsi$e #ali$ity "an)e-
0-2 1-0
0-2 1-0
9 02
4 40
20 80
1-0
Table 9-/ +tress concentration factors for simple tubular T/A :oints
Load type and fi(ity
conditions
'CF e6uations
E6n.
"o.
'hort
chord
correction
A3ial loa$-
1!o"$ en$s ,i3e$
1!o"$ sa$$le:
D1E :1
1!o"$ c"o(n:
D2E None
@"ace sa$$le:
D0E :1
@"ace c"o(n:
D4E None
A3ial loa$-
Gene"al ,i3ity con$itions
1!o"$ sa$$le:
D5E :2
1!o"$ c"o(n:
D6aE None
Alte"nati#ely
(!e"e

Bending Chord
F nominal ben$in) st"ess in t!e c!o"$

Axial brace
F nominal a3ial st"ess in t!e b"ace-
SCF
att
F st"ess concent"ation ,acto" ,o" an attac!ment F 1-27
D6bE
@"ace sa$$le:
D6?n- D0EE
:2
@"ace c"o(n:
D7aE None
Alte"nati#ely
D7bE
sinQ
B 0.6
( ) ( ) ( )
1.6 2 1.1
Q sin 0.)2 B 3 1.11 O
( ) ( ) ( ) Q sin 3 ? 0.2) B 0.6) B ) 2.6) O
2 0.2
+ +
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) 0.01? < 2.7 1.1 0.1 0.)2
Q sin 0.96 B 1.2)B 0.1-7 ? O 1.3 +
( ) ( ) ( ) 1.2 ? 0.1 B 0.0') 0.011B 'B 0.12!/p O 3
2 1.2
+ + +
( ) ( ) ( )
2
0.)
2 2
1
sin2Q B 1 B 6 ? 0.- C (DHn.(1%% +
( ) ( ) ( ) sinQ 3 ? C B 0.6) B ) 2.6) O
2
2 0.2
+ +
att
-race 51ial
Chord 3ending
Cc
SCF SCF

+ + = sin 3 % % 6) . 0 ( ) 6) . 2 (
2 2 . 0
( ) ( ) ( ) 1.2 ? C B 0.0') 0.011B B ' !/p 0.12 O 3
3
2 1.2
+ + +
att
-race 51ial
Chord 3ending
3c
SCF SCF


' . 0
2 . 1 % 0') . 0 011 . 0 % ' !/p( 12 . 0 ( 3
2 2 . 1
+ + + =
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Gt s!o%l$ be note$ t!at e?%ations D6bE an$ D7bE (ill ,o" )ene"al loa$ con$itions an$ moments in t!e c!o"$
membe" &"o#i$e co""ect !ot s&ot st"esses at t!e c"o(n &oints (!ile e?%ations D6aE an$ D7aE only &"o#i$es
co""ect !ot s&ot st"ess $%e to a sin)le action loa$ in t!e consi$e"e$ b"ace- 6?%ations D6bE an$ D7bE a"e also
mo"e )ene"al in t!at a c!o"$-,i3ation &a"amete" nee$ not be $e,ine$- Gn &"inci&le it can acco%nt ,o" Coint
,le3ibility at t!e Coints (!en t!ese a"e incl%$e$ in t!e st"%ct%"al analysis- Also t!e %&&e" limit ,o" t!e -
&a"amete" is "emo#e$ (it! "es&ect to #ali$ity o, t!e S1: e?%ations- !%s* t!ese e?%ations a"e in )ene"al
"ecommen$e$ %se$-
6?%ation D6aE an$ D6bE (ill &"o#i$e t!e same "es%lt only ,o" t!e s&ecial case (it! a sin)le action loa$ in t!e
consi$e"e$ b"ace an$ S1:
att
F 1-0- :o" lon) c!o"$s t!e b"ace can be consi$e"e$ as an attac!ment to t!e
c!o"$ (it! "es&ect to a3ial st"ess at t!e c"o(n &oints- !is (o%l$ )i#e $etail cate)o"y : ,"om able A-7 D,o"
t!ic' b"aces an$ 6-c%"#e ,o" t!inne"E (!ic! co""es&on$s to S1:
att
F 1-27 ,"om able 2-1-
Gn-&lane ben$in) 1!o"$ c"o(n:
D9E None
@"ace c"o(n:
D8E None
2%t-o,-&lane ben$in) 1!o"$ sa$$le:
D10E :0
@"ace sa$$le:
D11E :0
S!o"t c!o"$ co""ection ,acto"s D Z 12E
(!e"e e3&D3E F e
3

1!o"$-en$ ,i3ity &a"amete"
11 F 2D1-0-5E
12 F 1+2
10 F 1+5
1 F c!o"$ en$ ,i3ity &a"amete"
0-5 1 1-0* y&ically 1 F 0-7
Table 9-/ +tress concentration factors for simple tubular T/A :oints BontinuedC
( )
( )
0.7 0.6-B 1 0.-)
Q sin O 1.')B

( )
( )
( ) 1.16 < 0.06O 0.77B 1.09 0.'
Q sin O 0.6)B 1

+
( ) ( )
1.6 3
Q sin 1.0)B 1.7 B O
( ) %% 10 DHn. ( B 0.0- B 0.'7 0.99 O
' 0.0) 0.)'
+

( ) ( )
2.) <1.16 0.23 2
? O 0.21 < !/p O 0.02 B 0.)6 < B 0.-3 < 1 F1 =
( ) ( )
2.) <1.3- 0.0' 2
? O 0.71 < !/p O 0.03 B 0.97 < B 1.'3 < 1 F2 =
( )
1.- <0.-9 0.16 1.-
? O 0.'9 < !/p O 0.)) B < 1 F3 =
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Table 9-! +tress concentration factors for simple H tubular :oints
Load type and fi(ity
conditions
'CF e6uation E6n. no.
A3ial loa$ Dbalance$E 1!o"$ sa$$le:
D12E
1!o"$ c"o(n:
D10E
@"ace sa$$le:
D14E
@"ace c"o(n:
D15E
Gn Coints (it! s!o"t co"$s D Z 12E t!e sa$$le S1: can be "e$%ce$
by t!e ,acto" :1 D,i3e$ c!o"$ en$sE o" :2 D&inne$ c!o"$ en$sE
(!e"e
Gn &lane ben$in) 1!o"$ c"o(n:
D6?n- D9EE
@"ace c"o(n:
D6?n- D8EE
2%t o, &lane ben$in)
Dbalance$E
1!o"$ sa$$le:
D16E
@"ace sa$$le:
D17E
Gn Coints (it! s!o"t c!o"$s D Z 12E e?ns- D16E an$ D17E can be
"e$%ce$ by t!e ,acto" :0 (!e"e:
P
P
( ) ( )
1.7 1.-
Q sin B 1.10 B O 3.-7
( ) ( ) Q sin B 3 0.6) B ) 2.6) O
2 0.2
+
( ) ( )
2.) 1.7 0.9 0.)
Q sin B 1.09 B O 1.9 1 +
( ) ( ) 0.0') 0.011B 'B 0.12!/p O 3
2 1.2
+ +
( ) ( )
2.) <1.16 0.23 2
? O 0.21 < !/p O 0.02 B 0.)6 < B 0.-3 < 1 F1 =
( ) ( )
2.) <1.3- 0.0' 2
? O 0.71 < !/p O 0.03 B 0.97 < B 1.'3 < 1 F2 =
M
M
( )( )
1.6 '
Q sin 1.3'B 1.)6 B O
( ) (DHn.(16%% B 0.0- B 0.'7 0.99 O
' 0.0) 0.)'
+

( )
1.- <0.-9 0.16 1.-
? O 0.'9 < !/p O B 0.)) < 1 F3 =
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A3ial loa$ in one b"ace only 1!o"$ sa$$le:
D19E
1!o"$ c"o(n:
D6?n-6EE
@"ace sa$$le:
D18E
@"ace c"o(n:
D6?n- D7EE
Gn Coints (it! s!o"t c!o"$s D Z 12E t!e sa$$le S1:s can be "e$%ce$ by
t!e ,acto" :1 D,i3e$ c!o"$ en$sE o" :2 D&inne$ c!o"$ en$sE (!e"e:
2%t-o,-&lane ben$in) on one
b"ace only:
1!o"$ sa$$le:
D6?n- D10EE
@"ace sa$$le:
D6?n- D11EE
Gn Coints (it! s!o"t c!o"$s D Z 12E e?ns- D10Ean$ D11E can be "e$%ce$
by t!e ,acto" :0 (!e"e:
Table 9-! +tress concentration factors for simple H tubular :oints BontinuedC
( ) ()%% (DHn. B 0.26 1
3

( ) (3%% (DHn. B 0.26 1
3

( ) ( )
2.) <1.16 0.23 2
? O 0.21 < !/p O 0.02 B 0.)6 < B 0.-3 < 1 F1 =
( ) ( )
2.) <1.3- 0.0' 2
? O 0.71 < !/p O 0.03 B 0.97 < B 1.'3 < 1 F2 =
( )
1.- <0.-9 0.16 1.-
? O 0.'9 < !/p O B 0.)) < 1 F3 =
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Table 9-# +tress concentration factors for simple tubular I :oints and overlap I :oints
Load type and fi(ity conditions 'CF e6uation E6n.
no.
'hort chord
correction
@alance$ a3ial loa$ 1!o"$:
D20E None
@"ace:
D21E None
K!e"e:
1 F 0 ,o" )a& Coints
1 F 1 ,o" t!e t!"o%)! b"ace
1 F 0-5 ,o" t!e o#e"la&&in) b"ace
Note t!at * * an$ t!e nominal st"ess "elate to t!e b"ace %n$e"
consi$e"ation
AAN is a"ctan)ent e#al%ate$ in "a$ians
Hnbalance$ in &lane ben$in) 1!o"$ c"o(n:
D6?n- D9EE
D,o" o#e"la&s e3cee$in) 005 o, contact len)t! %se 1-2 T D6?n- D9EEE
Ga& Coint b"ace c"o(n:
D6?n- D8EE
2#e"la& Coint b"ace c"o(n:
D6?n- D8EE T D0-8 W 0-4E
D22E
Hnbalance$ o%t-o,-&lane
ben$in)
1!o"$ sa$$le S1: a$Cacent to b"ace A:
(!e"e
D20E :4
@"ace A sa$$le S1:
D24E :4
D6?n- D10EE
A
is t!e c!o"$ S1: a$Cacent to b"ace A as estimate$ ,"om 6?n- D10E-
Note t!at t!e $esi)nation o, b"aces A an$ @ is not )eomet"y $e&en$ent- Gt is nominate$ by t!e %se"-
( )
( ) ( ) P - 5T5" B 0.29 1.6'
B
B
sinQ
sinQ
sinQ B 1.16 B 0.67 O
0.3-
0.30
min
ma/
0.30
min
ma/ 2 0.) 0.9

+
|
|

\
|

|
|

\
|
+
( ) ( ) + +

(20%% (DHn. Q sin B 1.)7 1.97 1
0.7 0.1' 0.2)
( ) ( ) ( )
1.22 0.) 1.)
min ma/
1.-
O B C
B '.2 P 1' 5T5" 0.0-' 0.131 Q Q sin

+ +
( ) ( ) ( ) (10%%6 (DHn. / 0.- < !/p O B 0.0- 1 (10%%5 (DHn.
0.)
6
+
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) / 1.3 < !/p B 2.0) / 0.- < !/p O B 0.0- 1
0.)
ma/
0.)
5

5
5
B
sinQ P
1 / + =
( ) (23%% (DHn. B 0.0- B 0.'7 0.99 O
' 0.0) 0.)'
+

( )
2.' <1.06 1.--
? O 0.16 < !/p B 1.07 < 1 F' =
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Table 9-3 +tress concentration factors for simple tubular I :oints and overlap I :oints
Load type and fi(ity conditions 'CF e6uations
E6n.
"o.
'hort
chord
correction
A3ial loa$ on one b"ace only 1!o"$ sa$$le:
D6?n- D5EE
:1
1!o"$ c"o(n:
D6?n- D6EE
-
@"ace sa$$le:
D6?n-D0EE
:1
@"ace c"o(n:
D6?n- D7EE
-
Note t!at all )eomet"ic &a"amete"s an$ t!e "es%ltin) S1:s "elate
to t!e loa$e$ b"ace-
Gn-&lane-ben$in) on one
b"ace only
1!o"$ c"o(n:
D6?n- D9EE
@"ace c"o(n:
D6?n- D8EE
Note t!at all )eomet"ic &a"amete"s an$ t!e "es%ltin) S1:s "elate
to t!e loa$e$ b"ace-
2%t-o,-&lane ben$in) on one
b"ace only
1!o"$ sa$$le:
(!e"e
D25E :0
@"ace sa$$le:
D26E :0
S!o"t c!o"$ co""ection ,acto"s:
( ) ( ) ( ) / 0.- < !/p O B 0.0- 1 (10%%5 (DHn.
0.)
6

5
5
B
sinQ P
1 / + =
( ) (2)%% (DHn. B 0.0- B 0.'7 0.99 O
' 0.0) 0.)'
+

( ) ( )
2.) <1.16 0.23 2
? O 0.21 < !/p O 0.02 B 0.)6 < B 0.-3 < 1 F1 =
( )
1.- <0.-9 0.16 1.-
? O 0.'9 < !/p O B 0.)) < 1 F3 =
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Table 9-5 +tress concentration factors for simple IT tubular :oints and overlap IT :oints
Load type 'CF e6uation E6n. no.
@alance$ a3ial loa$ 1!o"$:
D6?n- D20EE
@"ace:
D6?n- D21EE
:o" t!e $ia)onal b"aces A ^ 1 %se F
A@
W
@1
W
@
:o" t!e cent"al b"ace* @* %se F ma3im%m o,
A@
*
@1
Gn-&lane ben$in) 1!o"$ c"o(n:
D6?n- D9EE
@"ace c"o(n:
D6?n- D8EE
Hnbalance$ o%t-o,-&lane
ben$in)
1!o"$ sa$$le S1: a$Cacent to $ia)onal b"ace A:
(!e"e
D27E
1!o"$ sa$$le S1: a$Cacent to cent"al b"ace @:
(!e"e


D29E
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )+
5C
0.)
C 56
0.)
6 5
/ 0.- < !/p O B 0.0- 1 / 0.- < !/p O B 0.0- 1 (10%% (DHn.
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )+
56
0.)
ma/ 56
0.)
5 6
1.3/ < !/p B 2.0) 0.-/ < !/p O B 0.0- 1 (DHn(10%%
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
5C
0.)
ma/ 5C
0.)
5 C
1.3/ < !/p B 2.0) 0.-/ < !/p O B 0.0- 1 (DHn(10%%
5
5 56
56
B
Q sin P
1 / + =
( )
5
5 6 6C 56
5C
B
Q sin B P P
1 /
+ +
+ =
( ) ( ) ( )
1
:
56
0.)
5 6
/ 0.- < !/p O B 0.0- 1 (10%% (DHn.
( ) ( ) ( ) +
2
:
6C
0.)
C
/ 0.- < !/p O B 0.0- 1
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )+
56
0.)
ma/ 56
0.)
6 5
/ 1.3 < !/p B 2.0) / 0.- < !/p O B 0.0- 1 (10%% (DHn.
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
6C
0.)
ma/ 6C
0.)
6 C
/ 1.3 < !/p B 2.0) / 0.- < !/p O B 0.0- 1 (10%% (DHn.
6
6 56
56
B
Q sin P
1 / + =
6
6 6C
6C
B
Q sin P
1 / + =
2
6
5
1
B
B
:
|
|

\
|
=
2
6
C
2
B
B
:
|
|

\
|
=
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 119
DNV GL AS







2%t-o,-&lane ben$in)
b"ace S1:s
2%t-o,-&lane ben$in) b"ace S1:s a"e obtaine$ $i"ectly ,"om t!e a$Cacent c!o"$
S1:s %sin):
(!e"e S1:c!o"$ F D6?n- 27EE o" D6?n- D29EE
D28E
A3ial loa$ on one b"ace
only
1!o"$ sa$$le:
D6?n- D5EE
1!o"$ c"o(n:
D6?n- D6EE
@"ace sa$$le:
D6?n- D0EE
@"ace c"o(n:
D6?n- D7EE
2%t-o,-&lane ben$in) on
one b"ace only
1!o"$ S1: a$Cacent to $ia)onal b"ace A:
(!e"e
D00E
1!o"$ S1: a$Cacent to cent"al b"ace @:
(!e"e
D01E
2%t-o,-&lane b"ace S1:s 2%t-o,-&lane b"ace S1:s a"e obtaine$ $i"ectly ,"om t!e a$Cacent c!o"$ S1:s %sin):
D02E
Table 9-5 +tress concentration factors for simple IT tubular :oints and overlap IT :oints BontinuedC
( )
cho.
' 0.0) 0.)'
SCF B 0.0- B 0.'7 0.99 O +

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
5C
0.)
C 56
0.)
6 5
/ 0.- < !/p O B 0.0- 1 / 0.- < !/p O B 0.0- 1 (10%% (DHn.
5
5 56
56
B
Q sin P
1 / + =
( )
5
5 6 6C 56
5C
B
Q sin B P P
1 /
+ +
+ =
( ) ( ) ( )
1
:
56
0.)
5 6
/ 0.- < !/p O B 0.0- 1 (10%% (DHn.
( ) ( ) ( )
2
:
6C
0.)
C
/ 0.- < !/p O B 0.0- 1
6
6 56
56
B
Q sin P
1 / + =
6
6 6C
6C
B
Q sin P
1 / + =
2
6
5
1
B
B
:
|
|

\
|
=
2
6
C
2
B
B
:
|
|

\
|
=
( )
cho.
' 0.0) 0.)'
SCF B 0.0- B 0.'7 0.99 O +

Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 118
DNV GL AS







(PP%)D0H +F>+ F$R P%)%TR(T0$)+ &0T' R%0)F$R%.%)T+
./ +F>s for small circular penetrations with reinforcement
1-1-1 Gene"al
St"ess concent"ation ,acto"s at !oles in &lates (it! inse"te$ t%b%la"s a"e )i#en in :i)%"e 1-1 to :i)%"e 1-15-
St"ess concent"ation ,acto"s at !oles in &lates (it! "in) "ein,o"cement a"e )i#en in :i)%"e 1-16 to :i)%"e 1-20-
St"ess concent"ation ,acto"s at !oles in &lates (it! $o%ble "in) "ein,o"cement )i#en in :i)%"e 1-21 to :i)%"e
1-24-
!e S1:s in t!ese ,i)%"es may also be %se$ ,o" ,ati)%e assessments o, t!e (el$s- St"esses in t!e &late
no"mal to t!e (el$*
n
Q an$ st"esses &a"allel to t!e (el$*
++
* in e?%ation 0-1-4 may be $e"i#e$ ,"om t!e
st"esses in t!e &late- !e total st"ess "an)e*
(
* ,"om e?%ation 0-1-4 Do" ,"om e?%ation 2-0-4E is t!en %se$
to)et!e" (it! t!e K0 c%"#e to e#al%ate n%mbe" o, cycles %ntil ,ail%"e-
1-1-2 63am&le o, ,ati)%e analysis o, a (el$e$ &enet"ation in &late
A t%b%la" 900 15 is %se$ as a slee#e t!"o%)! a $ec' &late o, t!ic'ness 20 mm- !e t%b%la" (ill be (el$e$
to t!e $ec' &late by a $o%ble si$e$ ,illet (el$-
Ass%me Keib%ll &a"amete" ! F 0-80 an$ t!at t!e $ec' !as been $esi)ne$ s%c! t!at S-N class :0 $etails can
be (el$e$ to t!e $ec' &late an$ still ac!ie#es a ,ati)%e li,e o, 20 yea"s- :"om able 5-2 a ma3im%m st"ess
"an)e o, 188-6 IPa $%"in) 10
9
cycles is $e"i#e$ ,o" t!e :0 $etail-
J%estions as'e$:
1E Gs t!e ,ati)%e li,e o, t!e &enet"ation acce&table (it! "es&ect to ,ati)%e c"ac'in) ,"om t!e (el$ toee
2E 4o( la")e ,illet (el$ is "e?%i"e$ to a#oi$ ,ati)%e c"ac'in) ,"om t!e (el$ "oote
!e ,ollo(in) assessment is ma$e: "+t
&
F 20* t
"
+t
&
F 0-75- Gt is ass%me$ t!at 4+t
"
F 5- !en ,"om:
:i)%"e 1-4 S1: F 2-17 a&&lies to &osition :i)%"e 0-4 a-
:i)%"e 1-7 S1: F 0-15 a&&lies to &osition :i)%"e 0-4 c an$ (el$ "oot-
:i)%"e 1-10 S1: F 1-07 a&&lies to &osition :i)%"e 0-4 b an$ (el$ toe-
:i)%"e 1-12 S1: F 0-46 a&&lies to &osition :i)%"e 0-4 b an$ (el$ "oot-
:i)%"e 1-14 S1: F -0-75 a&&lies to &osition :i)%"e 0-4 b an$ (el$ toe-
A ne)ati#e S1: #al%e in some o, t!e ,i)%"es means t!at t!e "es%ltin) st"ess is ne)ati#e at t!e !ot s&ot ,o"
a &ositi#e st"ess in t!e &late- !%s ,o" ,ati)%e assessment t!e absol%te #al%e s!o%l$ be %se$-
!e 1-c%"#e a&&lies to &osition :i)%"e 0-4 a-
!e D-c%"#e a&&lies to (el$ toes o, :i)%"e 0-4 b-
!e K0-c%"#e a&&lies to (el$ "oot o, :i)%"e 0-4 c-
1!ec' o, ,ati)%e c"ac'in) at t!e :i)%"e 0-4 a &osition:
F
0
S1: F 188-6 2-17 F 400-10 IPa (!ic! is C%st (it!in t!e acce&table #al%e o, 445-5 IPa ,o" a
1 $etail* "e,- able 5-2-
1!ec' o, ,ati)%e c"ac'in) at t!e :i)%"e 0-4 a b &osition:
F
0
S1: F 188-6 1-07 F 210-57 IPa (!ic! is (ell (it!in t!e acce&table #al%e o, 020-9 IPa ,o" a
D $etail* "e,- able 5-2-
!%s t!e ,ati)%e li,e o, (el$ toe is acce&table-
!e "e?%i"e$ t!"oat t!ic'ness is calc%late$ as ,ollo(s- :"om able 5-2 a ma3im%m st"ess "an)e o, 129-2
IPa ,o" a K0 $etail DKeib%ll s!a&e &a"amete" F 0-80E-
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 120
DNV GL AS







!en ,"om consi$e"ations o, e?%ilib"i%m in $i"ection no"mal to t!e (el$ toe:
:"om consi$e"ations o, e?%ilib"i%m in $i"ection &a"allel (it! t!e (el$ toe:
!en ,"om e?%ation D0-1-4E:
:"om t!is e?%ation a "e?%i"e$ t!"oat t!ic'ness is a F 4-0 mm ,o" bot! si$es o, t!e &late- !is is a "e?%i"e$
(el$ siNe t!at is (ell belo( t!e minim%m "e?%i"e$ (el$ siNe s&eci,ie$ in s!i& classi,ication "%les-
9' . 29 1) . 0 6 . 199
min
= = = SCF
al no n

-2 . 91 '6 . 0 6 . 199
min //
= = = SCF
al no p

( ) ( )
2 2
-2 . 91 2 . 0 9' . 29
2
20
2 . 2- 1 + =
a
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 121
DNV GL AS







1-1-0 S1:Ms ,o" small ci"c%la" &enet"ations (it! "ein,o"cements
Figure -/ +F at hole with inserted tubular. +tress at outer surface of tubular= parallel with weld. '/t
r
D !
4
t
p
+ +
t
r
+ +
r
t
r
0.5
1.0
1.5
,.0
,.5
-.0
-.5
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 ,.0
t
r
"t
#
S
C
F
100
,0
10
r"t
#
50
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 122
DNV GL AS







Figure -! +F at hole with inserted tubular. +tress at outer surface of tubular= parallel with weld. '/t
r
D 5
4
t
p
+ +
t
r
+ +
r
t
r
0.5
1.0
1.5
,.0
,.5
-.0
-.5
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 ,.0
t
r
"t
#
S
C
F
r"t
#
100
50
10
,0
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 120
DNV GL AS







Figure -# +F at hole with inserted tubular. +tress in plate= parallel with weld. '/t
r
D !
4
t
p
+ +
t
r
+ +
r
t
r
1.0
1.5
,.0
,.5
-.0
-.5
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 ,.0
t
r
"t
#
S
C
F
r"t
#
100
50
,0
10
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 124
DNV GL AS







Figure -3 +F at hole with inserted tubular. +tress in plate= parallel with weld. '/t
r
D 5
4
t
p
+ +
t
r
+ +
r
t
r
1.0
1.5
,.0
,.5
-.0
-.5
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 ,.0
t
r
"t
#
S
C
F
100
50
,0
10
r"t
#
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 125
DNV GL AS







Figure -5 +F at hole with inserted tubular. +tress in plate normal to the weld. '/t
r
D 5
0.0
0.1
0.,
0.-
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.!
0.0 0., 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1., 1.4 1.6 1.8 ,.0
tr1tp
S
7
F
10
,0
50
100
r1t
p
t
r
1t
p
0.0
0.1
0.,
0.-
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.!
0.0 0., 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1., 1.4 1.6 1.8 ,.0
tr1tp
S
7
F
10
,0
50
100
r1t
p
t
r
1t
p
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 126
DNV GL AS







Figure -6 +F at hole with inserted tubular. +tress in plate= normal to weld. '/t
r
D !
4
t
p
+ +
t
r
+ +
r
t
r
0.0
0.1
0.,
0.-
0.4
0.5
0.0 0., 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1., 1.4 1.6 1.8 ,.0
t
r
"t
#
S
C
F
r"t
#
100
50
,0
10
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 127
DNV GL AS







Figure -1 +F at hole with inserted tubular. +tress in plate= normal to weld. '/t
r
D 5
4
t
p
+ +
t
r
+ +
r
t
r
0.0
0.1
0.,
0.-
0.4
0.5
0.0 0., 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1., 1.4 1.6 1.8 ,.0
t
r
"t
#
S
C
F
r"t
#
100
50
,0
10
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 129
DNV GL AS







Figure -4 +F at hole with inserted tubular. +tress in plate parallel with the weld. '/t
r
D 5
0.0
0.,
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.,
0.0 0., 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1., 1.4 1.6 1.8 ,.0
tr1tp
S
7
F
10
,0
50
100
r1t
p
t
r
1t
p
0.0
0.,
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.,
0.0 0., 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1., 1.4 1.6 1.8 ,.0
tr1tp
S
7
F
10
,0
50
100
r1t
p
t
r
1t
p
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 128
DNV GL AS







Figure -8 +F at hole with inserted tubular. Principal stress in plate. '/t
r
D !
Table -/ D angle to principal stress. '/t
r
D !
t
r
/t
p
r/t
p
D /" r/t
p
D !" r/t
p
D 5" r/t
p
D /""
"." 80 80 80 80
".5 72 90 96 99
/." 56 60 75 92
/.5 50 54 64 70
!." 46 50 57 66
4
t
p
+ +
t
r
+ +
r
tr

1
Fo s!! Ta3l! 1
0.!
1.0
1.1
1.,
1.-
1.4
0.0 0., 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1., 1.4 1.6 1.8 ,.0
t
r
"t
#
S
C
F
r"t
#
100
50
,0
10
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 100
DNV GL AS







Figure -/" +F at hole with inserted tubular. Principal stress in plate. '/t
r
D 5
Table -! D angle to principal stress. '/t
r
D 5
t
r
It
p
rIt
p
/ *+ rIt
p
/ .+ rIt
p
/ 0+ rIt
p
/ *++
0-0 80 80 80 80
0-5 66 72 90 95
1-0 54 59 65 72
1-5 48 52 56 62
2-0 46 49 52 56
4
t
p
+ +
t
r
+ +
r
tr

1
Fo s!! Ta3l! 2
0.!
1.0
1.1
1.,
1.-
1.4
0.0 0., 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1., 1.4 1.6 1.8 ,.0
t
r
"t
#
S
C
F
r"t
#
100
50
,0
10
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 101
DNV GL AS







Figure -// +F at hole with inserted tubular. +hear stress in plate. '/t
r
D !
4
t
p
+ +
t
r
+ +
r
t
r
0.0
0.1
0.,
0.-
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.!
1.0
0.0 0., 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1., 1.4 1.6 1.8 ,.0
t
r
"t
#
S
C
F
r"t
#
100
50
,0
10
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 102
DNV GL AS







Figure -/! +F at hole with inserted tubular. +hear stress in plate. '/t
r
D 5
4
t
p
+ +
t
r
+ +
r
t
r
0.0
0.1
0.,
0.-
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.!
1.0
0.0 0., 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1., 1.4 1.6 1.8 ,.0
t
r
"t
#
S
C
F
r"t
#
100
50
,0
10
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 100
DNV GL AS







Figure -/# +F at hole with inserted tubular. +tress in plate= normal to weld. '/t
r
D !
4
t
p
+ +
t
r
+ +
r
t
r
80.10
80.05
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 ,.0
t
r
"t
#
S
C
F
10
50
100
,0
r"t
#
r"t
#
10
,0
100
50
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 104
DNV GL AS







Figure -/3 +F at hole with inserted tubular. +tress in plate= normal to weld. '/t
r
D 5
4
t
p
+ +
t
r
+ +
r
t
r
80.10
80.05
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.,0
0.,5
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 ,.0
t
r
"t
#
S
C
F
10
100
50
,0
r"t
#
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 105
DNV GL AS







Figure -/5 +F at hole with inserted tubular. +tress in plate= normal to weld. '/t
r
D 5
81.,
81.0
80.8
80.6
80.4
80.,
0.0
0.,
0.0 0., 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1., 1.4 1.6 1.8 ,.0
S
7
F
10
,0
50
100
r1t
p
t
r
1t
p
81.,
81.0
80.8
80.6
80.4
80.,
0.0
0.,
0.0 0., 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1., 1.4 1.6 1.8 ,.0
S
7
F
10
,0
50
100
r1t
p
t
r
1t
p
10
,0
50
100
r1t
p
t
r
1t
p
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 106
DNV GL AS







Figure -/6 +F at hole with ring reinforcement. .a; stress concentration
R
6
+ +
t
@
tp
+ +
A
g
-.0
-.1
-.,
-.-
-.4
-.5
0.0 0.1 0., 0.- 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
B"+
,
g
t
+
"t
#
0.5
1.5
1.0
T$e )ollo"ing relation applies
9a . t$roat8t$ickness;?
t
@
1t
p
a1t
@
0.5 0.71
1.0 0.40
1.5 0.--
S
7
F
-.0
-.1
-.,
-.-
-.4
-.5
0.0 0.1 0., 0.- 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
B"+
,
g
t
+
"t
#
0.5
1.5
1.0
T$e )ollo"ing relation applies
9a . t$roat8t$ickness;?
t
@
1t
p
a1t
@
0.5 0.71
1.0 0.40
1.5 0.--
S
7
F
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 107
DNV GL AS







Figure -/1 +F at hole with ring reinforcement. +tress at inner edge of ring
R
6
+ +
t
@
tp
+ +
A
g
1.5
,.0
,.5
-.0
0.0 0.1 0., 0.- 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
B"+
S
C
F
t
+
"t
#
0.5
1.5
1.0
T$e )ollo"ing relation applies?
t
@
1t
p
t$roat8t$ickness
0.5 -.5
1.0 4.0
1.5 5.0
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 109
DNV GL AS







Figure -/4 +F at hole with ring reinforcement. +tress in plate= parallel with weld
t
@
t
p
+ +
R
6
+ +
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
,.0
,.5
-.0
0.0 0., 0.4 0.6 0.8
B"+
S
C
F
t
+
"t
#
0.5
1.5
1.0
T$e )ollo"ing relation applies?
t
@
1t
p
t$roat8t$ickness
0.5 -.5
1.0 4.0
1.5 5.0
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 108
DNV GL AS







Figure -/8 +F at hole with ring reinforcement. +hear stress in plate at weld toe
t
@
t
p
+ +
R
6
+ +
0.0
0.1
0.,
0.-
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.!
1.0
0.0 0.1 0., 0.- 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
B"+
S
C
F
t
+
"t
#
0.5
1.5
1.0
T$e )ollo"ing relation applies?
t
@
1t
p
t$roat8t$ickness
0.5 -.5
1.0 4.0
1.5 5.0
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 140
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Figure -!" +F at hole with ring reinforcement. +tress in plate= normal to weld
t
@
t
p
+ +
R
6
+ +
0.0
0.1
0.,
0.-
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.!
1.0
1.1
1.,
1.-
0.0 0., 0.4 0.6 0.8
B"+
S
C
F
0.5
1.5
1.0
t
+
"t
#
T$e )ollo"ing relation applies?
t
@
1t
p
t$roat8t$ickness
0.5 -.5
1.0 4.0
1.5 5.0
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 141
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Figure -!/ +F at hole with double ring reinforcement. +tress at inner edge of ring
t
@
t
p
+ +
R
6
+ +
1.5
,.0
,.5
-.0
0.0 0.1 0., 0.- 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
B"+
S
C
F
t
+
"t
#
0.5
1.5
1.0
T$e )ollo"ing relation applies?
t
@
1t
p
t$roat8t$ickness
0.5 -.5
1.0 4.0
1.5 5.0
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 142
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Figure -!! +F at hole with double ring reinforcement. +tress in plate= parallel with weld
t
@
t
p
+ +
R
6
+ +
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
,.0
,.5
-.0
0.0 0.1 0., 0.- 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
B"+
S
C
F
t
+
"t
#
0.5
1.5
1.0
T$e )ollo"ing relation applies?
t
@
1t
p
t$roat8t$ickness
0.5 -.5
1.0 4.0
1.5 5.0
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 140
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Figure -!# +F at hole with double ring reinforcement. +hear stress in plate at weld toe
t
@
t
p
+ +
R
6
+ +
0.0
0.,
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.,
0.0 0.1 0., 0.- 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
B"+
S
C
F
t
+
"t
#
0.5
1.5
1.0
T$e )ollo"ing relation applies?
t
@
1t
p
t$roat8t$ickness
0.5 -.5
1.0 4.0
1.5 5.0
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 144
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Figure -!3 +F at hole with double ring reinforcement. +tress in plate= normal to weld
t
@
t
p
+ +
R
6
+ +
0.0
0.1
0.,
0.-
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.!
1.0
0.0 0.1 0., 0.- 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
B"+
S
C
F
0.5
1.5
1.0
t
+
"t
#
T$e )ollo"ing relation applies?
t
@
1t
p
t$roat8t$ickness
0.5 -.5
1.0 4.0
1.5 5.0
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 145
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.! +F>s at man-hole penetrations
1-2-1 Geomet"y
!e ,ollo(in) !ole )eomet"ies a"e consi$e"e$ see also :i)%"e 1-25:
1E 1i"c%la" c%t-o%t (it! $iamete" F 600 mm
2E Rectan)%la" c%t-o%t 600 900 mm (it! "o%n$e$ co"ne" R F 000 mm
0E Rectan)%la" c%t-o%t 600 1200 mm (it! "o%n$e$ co"ne" R F 000 mm
Figure -!5 ut-out geometry
:o" t!e t!"ee c%t-o%t )eomet"y si3 $i,,e"ent e$)e "ein,o"cements a"e a&&lie$* see :i)%"e 1-26- !e
"ein,o"cement $etails a"e $esc"ibe$ belo(* see also :i)%"e 1-26:
(A) 1%t-o%t alone Dno "ein,o"cementE D:i)%"e 1-26 DAEE
(B) 1%t-o%t (it! inse"te$ &late D15 mm t!ic'* 000 mm (i$eE a"o%n$ t!e e$)e D:i)%"e 1-26 D@EE
(C) 1%t-o%t (it! $o%ble si$e "ein,o"cement 50 mm a(ay ,"om t!e e$)e D:i)%"e 1-26 D1EE
(D) 1%t-o%t (it! sin)le si$e "ein,o"cement 50 mm a(ay ,"om t!e e$)e D:i)%"e 1-26 DDEE
(E) 1%t-o%t (it! $o%ble si$e "ein,o"cement 100 mm a(ay ,"om t!e e$)e D:i)%"e 1-26 D6EE
(F) 1%t-o%t (it! sin)le si$e "ein,o"cement 100 mm a(ay ,"om t!e e$)e D:i)%"e 1-26 D:EE
St"ess concent"ations ,acto"s a"e &"esente$ ,o" t!e !ot-s&ots ma"'e$ in :i)%"e 1-26-
Figure -!6 ut-out= reinforcement and hot-spot positions
1% C1t<o1t R600 2% C1t<o1t R600/-00 3% C1t<o1t R600/1200
(5% (C% (D%
(6% (=% (F%
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 146
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:o" )eomet"y DDE an$ D:E* t!e ma3im%m st"esses o, t!e bottom o" t!e to& s%",ace in t!e 20 mm &late at
t!e c%t-o%t e$)e a"e )i#en in t!e &lots- :o" t!e ot!e" )eomet"y t!e st"esses a"e symmet"ical abo%t t!e mi$-
&lane o, t!e &late-
1-2-2 A&&lie$ st"esses
!e ,ollo(in) st"esses !as been consi$e"e$:
> lon)it%$inal st"ess*
3
> t"ans#e"se st"ess*
y
> s!ea" st"ess*
!e st"esses in t!e lon)it%$inal an$ t!e t"ans#e"se $i"ections a"e a&&lie$ se&a"ately b%t a"e combine$ (it!
s!ea" st"ess- !e s!ea" st"ess is #a"ie$ bet(een Ne"o an$ %& to t!e #al%e o, t!e no"mal st"ess-
1-2-0 St"ess concent"ation ,acto" $e,inition
!e $e,inition o, t!e st"ess concent"ation ,acto"s &"esente$ ,o" c%t-o%ts a"e t!e ma3im%m &"inci&al st"ess
$i#i$e$ by t!e nominal no"mal st"ess*
3
o"
y
* Dnot t!e nominal &"inci&al st"essE-
!e ma3im%m &"inci&al st"ess in t!e !ot-s&ot is selecte$ as t!e ma3im%m o, f
1
f an$ f
2
f-
!e st"ess concent"ation ,acto" DJ
g
E is t!en:
.# Results
Gn )ene"al* st"ess concent"ation ,acto"s a"e )i#en at 5 &oints Dsee :i)%"e 1-26E e3ce&t ,o" t!e cases s!o(n
in :i)%"e 1-26 DAE an$ D@E-
!e ,ollo(in) s!o%l$ be note$:
> Ia3im%m &"inci&al st"esses a"e &a"allel to t!e (el$ toe D!ot-s&ots 2 to 5E (it! only one e3ce&tion:
,o" $o%ble "ein,o"cement an$ &oint 2 Dsee :i)%"e 1-26*D1E an$ D6EE* t!e ma3im%m &"inci&al st"ess is
no"mal to t!e (el$ toe-
( )
% (
2 1
% ( &
S ma/
y 1
y 1 g
6


=
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 147
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1-0-1 S1:s ,o" &oint 1* "e,- :i)%"e 1-26
Figure -!1 ircular ut-out J D 6"" mm=
;
and
Figure -!4 Rectangular ut-out with Rounded orners: 6"" 4"" mm=
;
and
,.00
,.50
-.00
-.50
4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
6.00
6.50
0 0.1 0., 0.- 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.! 1 1.1
/ x
,
g
-

1
m
a
)
"

)
+1
31
71
61
E1
F1
,.00
,.50
-.00
-.50
4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
6.00
6.50
7.00
0 0.1 0., 0.- 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.! 1 1.1
/ x
,
g
-

1
m
a
)
"

)
+1
31
71
61
E1
F1
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Figure -!8 Rectangular ut-out with Rounded orners: 6"" /!"" mm=
;
and
Figure -#" Rectangular ut-out with Rounded orners: 6"" 4"" mm=
y
and
,.50
-.00
-.50
4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50
0 0.1 0., 0.- 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.! 1 1.1
/ )
,
g
-

1
m
a
)
"

)
+1
31
71
61
E1
F1
1.50
,.50
-.50
4.50
5.50
6.50
7.50
0 0.1 0., 0.- 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.! 1 1.1
/ y
,
g
-

1
m
a
)
"

y
+1
31
71
61
E1
F1
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Figure -#/ Rectangular ut-out with Rounded orners: 6"" /!"" mm=
y
and
1-0-2 S1:s ,o" &oint 2* "e,- :i)%"e 1-26
Figure -#! ircular ut-out J D 6"" mm=
;
and stresses for and % are normal to the weld
1.50
,.00
,.50
-.00
-.50
4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
6.00
6.50
7.00
0 0.1 0., 0.- 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.! 1 1.1
/ y
,
g
-

1
m
a
)
"

y
+1
31
71
61
E1
F1
1.50
,.00
,.50
-.00
-.50
4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
0 0.1 0., 0.- 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.! 1 1.1
/ )
,
g
-

1
m
a
)
"

)
3,
7,
6,
E,
F,
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Figure -## Rectangular ut-out with Rounded orners: 6"" 4"" mm=
;
and
Figure -#3 Rectangular ut-out with Rounded orners: 6"" /!"" mm=
;
and
1.50
,.00
,.50
-.00
-.50
4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
6.00
0 0.1 0., 0.- 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.! 1 1.1
/ x
,
g
-

1
m
a
)
"

)
3,
7,
6,
E,
F,
1.50
,.00
,.50
-.00
-.50
4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
6.00
6.50
0 0.1 0., 0.- 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.! 1 1.1
/ )
,
g
-

1
m
a
)
"

)
3,
7,
6,
E,
F,
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Figure -#5 Rectangular ut-out with Rounded orners: 6"" 4"" mm=
;
and
Figure -#6 Rectangular ut-out with Rounded orners: 6"" /!"" mm=
;
and
1.50
,.00
,.50
-.00
-.50
4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
6.00
0 0.1 0., 0.- 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.! 1 1.1
/ y
,
g
-

1
m
a
)
"

y
3,
7,
6,
E,
F,
1.00
1.50
,.00
,.50
-.00
-.50
4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
6.00
6.50
7.00
0 0.1 0., 0.- 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.! 1 1.1
/ y
,
g
-

1
m
a
)
"

y
3,
7,
6,
E,
F,
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1-0-0 S1:s ,o" &oint 0* "e,- :i)%"e 1-26
Figure -#1 ircular ut-out J D 6"" mm=
;
and
Figure -#4 Rectangular ut-out with Rounded orners: 6"" 4"" mm=
;
and
1.50
,.00
,.50
-.00
-.50
4.00
4.50
5.00
0 0.1 0., 0.- 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.! 1 1.1
/ )
,
g
-

1
m
a
)
"

3-
7-
6-
E-
F-
1.50
,.00
,.50
-.00
-.50
4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
0 0.1 0., 0.- 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.! 1 1.1
/ x
,
g
-

1
m
a
)
"

3-
7-
6-
E-
F-
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Figure -#8 Rectangular ut-out with Rounded orners: 6"" /!"" mm=
;
and
Figure -3" Rectangular ut-out with Rounded orners: 6"" 4"" mm=
y
and
1.50
,.00
,.50
-.00
-.50
4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
6.00
6.50
0 0.1 0., 0.- 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.! 1 1.1
/ )
,
g
-

1
m
a
)
"

)
3-
7-
6-
E-
F-
1.50
,.00
,.50
-.00
-.50
4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
6.00
0 0.1 0., 0.- 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.! 1 1.1
/
,
g
-

1
m
a
)
"

y
3-
7-
6-
E-
F-
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Figure -3/ Rectangular ut-out with Rounded orners: 6"" /!"" mm=
y
and
1-0-4 S1:s ,o" &oint 4* "e,- :i)%"e 1-26
Figure -3! ircular ut-out J D 6"" mm=
;
and
1.00
1.50
,.00
,.50
-.00
-.50
4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50
0 0.1 0., 0.- 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.! 1 1.1
/ y
,
g
-

1
m
a
)
"

y
3-
7-
6-
E-
F-
1.00
1.,0
1.40
1.60
1.80
,.00
,.,0
,.40
,.60
,.80
-.00
-.,0
0 0.1 0., 0.- 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.! 1 1.1
/ )
,
g
-

1
m
a
)
"

)
74
64
E4
F4
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Figure -3# Rectangular ut-out with Rounded orners: 6"" 4"" mm=
;
and
Figure -33 Rectangular ut-out with Rounded orners: 6"" /!"" mm=
;
and
1.50
1.70
1.!0
,.10
,.-0
,.50
,.70
,.!0
-.10
-.-0
-.50
0 0.1 0., 0.- 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.! 1 1.1
/ x
,
g
-

1
m
a
)
"

)
74
64
E4
F4
1.50
,.00
,.50
-.00
-.50
4.00
0 0.1 0., 0.- 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.! 1 1.1
/ )
,
g
-

1
m
a
)
"

)
74
64
E4
F4
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Figure -35 Rectangular ut-out with Rounded orners: 6"" 4"" mm=
y
and
Figure -36 Rectangular ut-out with Rounded orners: 6"" /!"" mm=
y
and
1.00
1.50
,.00
,.50
-.00
-.50
0 0.1 0., 0.- 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.! 1 1.1
/ y
,
g
-

1
m
a
)
"

y
74
64
E4
F4
1.00
1.50
,.00
,.50
-.00
-.50
4.00
0 0.1 0., 0.- 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.! 1 1.1
/ y
,
g
-

1
m
a
)
"

y
74
64
E4
F4
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1-0-5 S1:s ,o" &oint 5* "e,- :i)%"e 1-26
Figure -31 ircular ut-out J D 6"" mm=
;
and
Figure -34 Rectangular ut-out with Rounded orners: 6"" 4"" mm=
;
and
1.40
1.60
1.80
,.00
,.,0
,.40
,.60
,.80
-.00
-.,0
-.40
0 0.1 0., 0.- 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.! 1 1.1
/ )
,
g
-

1
m
a
)
"

)
75
65
E5
F5
1.50
,.00
,.50
-.00
-.50
4.00
0 0.1 0., 0.- 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.! 1 1.1
/ x
,
g
-

1
m
a
)
"

)
75
65
E5
F5
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Figure -38 Rectangular ut-out with Rounded orners: 6"" /!"" mm=
;
and
Figure -5" Rectangular ut-out with Rounded orners: 6"" 4"" mm=
y
and
1.80
,.00
,.,0
,.40
,.60
,.80
-.00
-.,0
-.40
-.60
-.80
4.00
0 0.1 0., 0.- 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.! 1 1.1
/ )
,
g
-

1
m
a
)
"

)
75
65
E5
F5
1.40
1.60
1.80
,.00
,.,0
,.40
,.60
,.80
-.00
-.,0
-.40
-.60
0 0.1 0., 0.- 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.! 1 1.1
/ y
,
g
-

1
m
a
)
"

y
75
65
E5
F5
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Figure -5/ Rectangular ut-out with Rounded orners: 6"" /!"" mm=
y
and
1.00
1.50
,.00
,.50
-.00
-.50
4.00
0 0.1 0., 0.- 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.! 1 1.1
/ y
,
g
-

1
m
a
)
"

y
75
65
E5
F5
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(PP%)D0H D $..%)T(RA
D./ omm. /.!.# ?ow cycle and high cycle fatigue
@y ,ati)%e st"en)t! assessment o, o,,s!o"e st"%ct%"es is no"mally %n$e"stoo$ ca&acity $%e to !i)! cycle
,ati)%e loa$in)-
@y !i)! cycle loa$in) is no"mally %n$e"stoo$ cycles mo"e t!an 10 000- :o" e3am&le st"ess "es&onse ,"om
(a#e action s!o(s ty&ically 5 mill cycles a yea"- A ,ati)%e assessment o, "es&onse t!at is associate$ (it!
n%mbe" o, cycles less t!an 10 000 is $enote$ lo( cycle ,ati)%e-
!is Recommen$e$ P"actice is mainly ma$e (it! t!e &%"&ose o, assessin) ,ati)%e $ama)e in t!e !i)! cycle
"e)ion- !e s&eci,ie$ S-N c%"#es a"e s!o(n in t!e )"a&!s abo#e 10
4
cycles- y&ical S-N test $ata a"e $e"i#e$
,o" n%mbe" o, cycles bet(een 10
4
an$ 5T10
6
cycles- 4o(e#e"* t!e S-N c%"#es may be linea"ly e3t"a&olate$
to ,e(e" cycles ,o" &"actical %se in a ,ati)%e assessment- !is is not necessa"ily conse"#ati#e an$ in case o,
a !i)! %tilisation t!e a&&"oac! $esc"ibe$ in No"so' N-006 may be %se$-
4i)! cycle ,ati)%e analysis is base$ on calc%lation o, elastic st"esses t!at a"e %se$ in t!e assessment-
Lo( cycle ,ati)%e is associate$ (it! loa$ "e#e"sals t!at im&ly si)ni,icant yiel$in) at t!e !ot s&ot also $%"in)
t!e loa$ "e#e"sal- !e"e,o"e calc%late$ st"ain is o,ten %se$ as a &a"amete" to acco%nt ,o" non-linea" mate"ial
be!a#io%" (!en lo( cycle ,ati)%e is consi$e"e$-
2,,s!o"e st"%ct%"es a"e no"mally $esi)ne$ ,o" ot!e" limit states s%c! as t!e Hltimate Limit State DHLSE- !en
a loa$ an$ mate"ial coe,,icient is %se$ in $esi)n to ac!ie#e s%,,icient sa,ety- 6#en i, st"esses $%e to local
notc!es a"e not acco%nte$ ,o" in an HLS $esi)n t!e assessment o, HLS im&lies t!at t!e act%al st"ain "an)es
$%"in) an HLS loa$in) is limite$ an$ t!at a ,%"t!e" assessment o, lo( cycle ,ati)%e is no"mally not "e?%i"e$-
!%s ,o" $esi)n o, o,,s!o"e st"%ct%"es in t!e No"t! Sea it !as in )ene"al not been &"actice to analyse t!e
st"%ct%"es s&eci,ically ,o" lo( cycle ,ati)%e-
K!en non-linea" met!o$s a"e %se$ ,o" $oc%mentation o, HLS e-)- ,o" a sto"m loa$in) on a &lat,o"m* it is
"ecommen$e$ to assess lo( cycle ,ati)%e $%"in) t!at consi$e"e$ sto"m- Re,e"ence is ma$e to No"so' N-006
,o" ,%"t!e" )%i$ance-
Lo( cycle ,ati)%e is also ,o%n$ to be o, conce"n in some local a"eas in s!i& st"%ct%"es $%e to loa$in) an$
%nloa$in)- !e "eason ,o" t!is is t!at s!i& st"%ct%"es in )ene"al s!o( a m%c! !i)!e" %tilisation in HLS t!an
o,,s!o"e st"%ct%"es-
:PS2s a"e "at!e" simila" st"%ct%"es (it! simila" loa$in) an$ %nloa$in) as tan'e"sQ t!e"e,o"e lo( cycle
,ati)%e may be an iss%e to consi$e" ,o" t!ese st"%ct%"es $e&en$in) on &"oce$%"e %se$ ,o" loa$in) an$
%nloa$in)-
:o" calc%lation o, ,ati)%e $ama)e at !i)!ly loa$e$ $etails it is "ecommen$e$ to calc%late a st"ess "an)e ,"om
t!e (a#e action co""es&on$in) to t!e la")est e3&ecte$ st"ess "an)e $%"in) t!e time inte"#al o, a loa$in)+
%nloa$in) cycle- !is st"ess "an)e s!o%l$ be a$$e$ to t!e lo( cycle st"ess "an)e be,o"e t!e ,ati)%e $ama)e
,"om t!e lo( cycle ,ati)%e is calc%late$- !is st"ess "an)e ,"om t!e (a#e action can be calc%late$ as
(!e"e

0
F la")est st"ess "an)e co""es&on$in) to n
0
cycles ,"om (a#e action
n
LCF
F n%mbe" o, loa$in)+%nloa$in) cycles $%"in) t!e li,etime
h F Keib%l s!a&e &a"amete" ,"om t!e (a#e action-
!en an e,,ecti#e st"ess "an)e to be %se$ ,o" calc%lation o, lo( cycle ,ati)%e can be obtaine$ as
DD-1-1E
DD-1-2E
h
LCF
w
n
n
/ 1
0
0
log
log
1
|
|

\
|
=
w LCF e
+ =
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!is e,,ecti#e st"ess "an)e is %se$ ,o" calc%lation o, ,ati)%e $ama)e ,"om lo( cycle ,ati)%e: D
L1:
- !en t!e
"es%ltin) ,ati)%e $ama)e can be calc%late$ as t!e s%m
(!e"e D
41:
is ,ati)%e $ama)e ,"om t!e (a#e action alone-
D%e to la")e st"ess cycles im&lyin) local yiel$in) at t!e !ot s&ot t!e calc%late$ st"ess "an)e ,"om a linea"
elastic analysis s!o%l$ be mo$i,ie$ by a &lasticity co""ection ,acto" be,o"e t!e S-N c%"#e is ente"e$ ,o"
calc%lation o, ,ati)%e $ama)e* "e,- e-) No"so' N-006-
D.! omm. /.# .ethods for fatigue analysis
0mportant part of action history
!e cont"ib%tion to ,ati)%e $ama)e ,o" $i,,e"ent "e)ions o, a Keib%ll $ist"ib%tion is s!o(n in :i)%"e D-1 ,o"
,ati)%e $ama)e e?%al 1-0 Dan$ 0-5E ,o" a 20-yea" &e"io$- !e calc%lation is base$ on a Keib%ll lon) te"m
st"ess "an)e $ist"ib%tion (it! s!a&e &a"amete" ! F 1-0 Din t!e "an)e t!at is ty&ical ,o" a semi-s%bme"sible
an$ an S-N c%"#e (it! slo&e m F 0-0 ,o" N Z 10
7
an$ m F 5-0 ,o" N R 10
7
cycles Dy&ical S-N c%"#e ,o" ai"
con$itionE-
Gt is note$ t!at t!e most im&o"tant &a"t o, t!e lon)-te"m st"ess "an)e is ,o" actions !a#in) a &"obability o,
e3cee$ance in t!e "an)e 10
-0
to 10
-1
- !is co""es&on$s to lo) n F 5-7 in :i)%"e D-1-
Figure D-/ Relative fatigue damage in &eibull distribution of stress ranges
DD-1-0E
7CF LCF
D D D + =
0
0.0,
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.1,
0.14
0.16
0 1 , - 4 5 6 7 8 !
log n
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

f
a
t
i
g
u
e

d
a
m
a
g
e
@elati:e da'age $ . 1.0 and 6 . 1.0
@elati:e da'age $ . 1.0 and 6 . 0.5
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D.# omm. !.! ombination of fatigue damages from two
dynamic processes
9ac<ground
Gn some $esi)n cases one ,ati)%e $ama)e is calc%late$ ,o" one $ynamic &"ocess- !en anot!e" ,ati)%e
$ama)e ,o" t!e same !ot s&ot is calc%late$ ,o" anot!e" $ynamic &"ocess- !en t!e ?%estion a"ises on !o(
to calc%late t!e "es%ltin) ,ati)%e $ama)e ,o" t!e consi$e"e$ !ot s&ot- Gt is non-conse"#ati#e to sim&ly a$$
t!e t(o ,ati)%e $ama)es to)et!e"-
An e3am&le o, s%c! a $esi)n sit%ation is s(ell "es&onse o, an :PS2 t!at also is s%bCecte$ to (a#e "es&onse-
Anot!e" e3am&le may be (a#e "es&onse o, a ,loatin) &lat,o"m t!at also may be s%bCecte$ to (in$ "es&onse
on a ,la"e to(e" t!at a"e )i#in) st"ess cyclin) at t!e same !ot s&ot in t!e st"%ct%"e- Gn many cases it is
&"actical to calc%late t!e ,ati)%e $ama)e ,o" eac! o, t!ese &"ocesses se&a"ately as t!e $esi)n may belon)
to $i,,e"ent en)inee"in) cont"acts-
K!en a $etaile$ stoc!astic analysis o, t!e com&lete st"%ct%"al system is &e",o"me$ ,o" eac! o, t!e $ynamic
&"ocesses* a mo"e acc%"ate combine$ st"ess "es&onse can be calc%late$ be,o"e t!e S-N c%"#e is ente"e$
an$ t!e ,ati)%e $ama)e is calc%late$- Re,- ,o" e3am&le DNV-2S-6001 Position Ioo"in)-
Gn t!e ,ollo(in) a sim&le met!o$ ,o" $e"i#ation o, "es%ltin) ,ati)%e $ama)e ,"om t(o &"ocesses is &"esente$-
!is met!o$olo)y is base$ on in,o"mation o, mean Ne"o %&-c"ossin) ,"e?%ency in a$$ition to t!e calc%late$
,ati)%e $ama)es ,o" eac! o, t!e &"ocesses-
ombined fatigue damage for one slope +-) curve
1ombine$ ,ati)%e $ama)e ,o" t!e "es&onses s!o(n in :i)%"e D-2 can be obtaine$ as
(!e"e
!e combine$ ,ati)%e $ama)e is base$ on t!e ass%m&tion t!at eac! o, t!e ,ati)%e $ama)es D
1
an$ D
2
a"e
$e"i#e$ base$ on a one slo&e S-N c%"#e- !e e?%ation is $e"i#e$ base$ on analo)y (it! Rain,lo( st"ess
"an)e co%ntin)-
Figure D-! +<etch showing high and low fre7uency response and combined response
DD-0-1E
D
1
F calc%late$ ,ati)%e $ama)e ,o" t!e !i)! ,"e?%ency "es&onse
D
2
F calc%late$ ,ati)%e $ama)e ,o" t!e lo( ,"e?%ency "es&onse

1
F mean Ne"o %&-c"ossin) ,"e?%ency ,o" t!e !i)! ,"e?%ency "es&onse

2
F mean Ne"o %&-c"ossin) ,"e?%ency ,o" t!e lo( ,"e?%ency "es&onse
m F in#e"se slo&e o, t!e S-N c%"#e F 0-0-
m
m m
D D
D D

|
|

\
|
+
|
|

\
|
+ =
/ 1
2
2
/ 1
1
1
2
1
2
1
% 1 (

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ombined fatigue damage for two-slope +-) curves
:o" t(o-slo&e$ S-N c%"#es it is ?%estione$ i, e?%ation DD-0-1E can be %se$ ,o" calc%lation o, "es%ltin) ,ati)%e
$ama)e-
!e S-N c%"#es in ai" !a#e a t"ansition in slo&e ,"om m F 0-0 to m F 5-0 at 10
7
cycles-
:o" a lon) te"m st"ess "an)e $ist"ib%tion (it! Keib%ll s!a&e &a"amete" ! F 1-0* 20 yea"s se"#ice li,e* an$
a ,ati)%e $ama)e e?%al 1-0 t!e maCo" cont"ib%tion to ,ati)%e $ama)e occ%"s a"o%n$ 10
7
cycles-
A&&"o3imately !al, t!e $ama)e occ%"s at n%mbe" o, cycles belo( 10
7
cycles an$ t!e ot!e" !al, abo#e 10
7

cycles- :o" lo(e" ,ati)%e $ama)e t!an 1-0* (!ic! is t!e case in o"$e" to !a#e acce&table "es%ltin) ,ati)%e
$ama)e (!en consi$e"in) t(o &"ocesses* t!e main cont"ib%tion to ,ati)%e $ama)e (ill be at t!e S-N line
(it! slo&e m F 5-0-
!%s* in o"$e" to !a#e a met!o$olo)y t!at is sa,e one s!o%l$ %se a slo&e m F 5-0 in e?%ation DD-0-1E i, t!e
,ati)%e $ama)es ,o" t!e t(o &"ocesses !a#e been calc%late$ base$ on t!is t(o-slo&e S-N c%"#e-
An alte"nati#e to t!is is to calc%late t!e ,ati)%e $ama)e ,o" &"ocess no 2 (it! a st"ai)!t S-N c%"#e (it! slo&e
m F 0-0- !en e?%ation DD-0-1E can be %se$ (it! D
1
calc%late$ ,"om a t(o-slo&e S-N c%"#e an$ (it! m F 0-0-
D.3 omm. !.#.! Plated structures using nominal stress +-)
curves
!e ,ati)%e ca&acities o, (el$e$ connections a"e $e&en$ent on t!e &"inci&al st"ess "an)e $i"ection "elati#e
to t!e (el$ toe- Re,e"ence is also ma$e to section A4-0-4B- !e ,ollo(in) )%i$ance is base$ on assessment
o, ,ati)%e test $ata-
:i)%"e D-0 aE an$ bE a"e inten$e$ %se$ ,o" nominal st"ess analyses-
!e selection o, 6 o" : c%"#e ,o" F 0X $e&en$s on t!ic'ness o, attac!ment as &"esente$ in able A-7 in
A&&en$i3 A- :o" ot!e" #al%es see able D-1-
:i)%"e D-0 cE can be %se$ to)et!e" (it! t!e !ot s&ot st"ess met!o$olo)y in )ene"al-
Gn )ene"al t!e st"ess "an)e in bot! t!e t(o &"inci&al $i"ections s!all be assesse$ (it! "es&ect to ,ati)%e-
aE Detail classi,ie$ as : ,o" st"ess $i"ection no"mal to t!e (el$ DSee able D-1 ,o" E
Table D-/ lassification of details and selection of +-) curve
>ngle in Figure D7 Detail classified as F for stress
direction normal to the %eld
Detail classified as E for stress
direction normal to the %eld
'" curve %hen using the hot
spot stress methodology
0 - 00 : 6 D
00 - 45 6 D 12
45 - 60 D 12 12
60 - 75 12 12 12S
75 - 80 12S 12S 12S
S A !i)!e" S-N c%"#e may be %se$ in s&ecial cases- See able A-0 ,o" ,%"t!e" in,o"mation-
7, 7,
F F
B
E
E
6
6
Principal stress
direction
Weld
toe
Section
7, 7,
F F
B
E
E
6
6
Principal stress
direction
Weld
toe
Section
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bE Detail classi,ie$ as 6 ,o" st"ess $i"ection no"mal to t!e (el$ DSee able D-1 ,o" E
cE S-N c%"#e (!en %sin) t!e !ot s&ot st"ess met!o$olo)y DSee able D-1 ,o" E
Figure D-# lassification of details and selection of +-) curve
D.5 omm. !.3.# +-) curves and :oint classification
No"mally t!e stan$a"$ $e#iation o, t!e lo) N is not "e?%i"e$ ,o" $esi)n &%"&ose as t!e $esi)n S-N c%"#es
a"e &"esente$ as mean-min%s-t(o-stan$a"$-$e#iations as $esc"ibe$ in section A2-4-1B- 4o(e#e"*
in,o"mation abo%t t!e stan$a"$ $e#iation in t!e S-N c%"#e is "e?%i"e$ ,o" &%"&ose o, &"obabilistic analysis-
Gt is mo"e com&le3 to $e"i#e $esi)n S-N c%"#es ,o" "eal st"%ct%"es t!an t!at e3&"esse$ by sim&le
mat!ematical "e)"ession o, test $ata ,o" $e"i#ation o, S-N c%"#es as e3&"esse$ in some lite"at%"e- A main
"eason ,o" t!is is lac' o, "ele#ant ,ati)%e test $ata ,o" st"%ct%"es- Iost o, t!e ,ati)%e test $ata a"e $e"i#e$
,"om testin) o, small scale test s&ecimens- !ese s&ecimens $o not incl%$e t!e same amo%nt o, "esi$%al
st"esses as a ,%ll scale st"%ct%"e- !e test $ata may also belon) to $i,,e"ent R-"atios- :%"t!e"* t!e small scale
test s&ecimens a"e most o,ten mo"e &e",ect consi$e"in) tole"ances an$ $e,ects t!an t!at o, "eal st"%ct%"es-
!%s* also en)inee"in) assessment is "e?%i"e$ ,o" $e"i#ation o, "ecommen$e$ $esi)n S-N c%"#es in a $esi)n
stan$a"$ t!at can be %se$ to ac!ie#e so%n$ st"%ct%"es (it! "es&ect to ,ati)%e ca&acity-
2ne s&eci,ic S-N c%"#e may be %se$ ,o" $i,,e"ent $etails- Gn &"inci&le $i,,e"ent $etails can s!o( $i,,e"ent
scatte" (!en t!ey a"e teste$- !e sim&le $etails s!o( less scatte" in test $ata t!an t!e mo"e com&le3
$etails-
:ati)%e testin) is no"mally &e",o"me$ %n$e" constant am&lit%$e loa$in) (!ile act%al st"%ct%"es a"e li'ely
s%bCecte$ to #a"iable am&lit%$e loa$in)- !is int"o$%ces a$$itional %nce"tainty as e3&laine$ in section
A2-4-14B-
All t!is ma'es it $i,,ic%lt to &"esent stan$a"$ $e#iations t!at a"e "e&"esentati#e ,o" eac! s&eci,ic S-N c%"#e-
4o(e#e"* (it!o%t !a#in) test $ata ma$e ,o" a s&eci,ic $esi)n an$ ,ab"ication a ty&ical stan$a"$ $e#iation
s
log"
F 0-200 can be %se$ ,o" all t!e S-N c%"#es in sections A2-4-4B to A2-4-8B an$ A2-4-11B- s
log"
F 0-162

C2 C2
E E

D D
Principal stress
direction
Weld
toe
Section
C2 C2
E E

D D
Principal stress
direction
Weld
toe
Section
7, 7,
6 6
B
Principal stress
direction
Weld
toe
Section
7, 7,
6 6
B
Principal stress
direction
Weld
toe
Section
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 165
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can be %se$ ,o" t!e !i)! st"en)t! S-N c%"#e in section 2-4-10- s
log"
F 0-225 can be %se$ ,o" t!e S-N c%"#e
,o" %mbilical &i&es in section A2-4-12B-
+iFe effect
!e siNe e,,ect may be e3&laine$ by a n%mbe" o, $i,,e"ent &a"amete"s:
> t!ic'ness o, &late / (!ic! is e3&laine$ by a mo"e se#e"e notc! (it! inc"easin) &late t!ic'ness at t!e
"e)ion (!e"e t!e ,ati)%e c"ac's a"e no"mally initiate$
> attac!ment len)t! / (!ic! is e3&laine$ by a mo"e se#e"e notc! st"ess $%e to mo"e ,lo( o, st"ess into a
lon) attac!ment t!an a s!o"t
> #ol%me e,,ect / (!ic! ,o" s%",ace $e,ects can be e3&laine$ by inc"ease$ (el$ len)t! an$ t!e"e,o"e
inc"ease$ &ossibility ,o" im&e",ections t!at can be initiate$ into ,ati)%e c"ac's-
Gt mi)!t be a$$e$ t!at some a%t!o"s )"o%& all t!ese 0 e,,ects into one )"o%& o, ;t!ic'ness e,,ect< o" siNe
e,,ect- Gn t!is Recommen$e$ P"actice* t!e t!ic'ness e3&onent is ass%me$ to co#e" t!e ,i"st item in t!e list
abo#e- !is is acco%nte$ ,o" by ma'in) t!e siNe e,,ect $e&en$in) on t!e attac!ment len)t! in section
A2-4-0B- An inc"ease$ attac!ment len)t! "e$%ces t!e S-N class as s!o(n in A&&-A o, t!is Recommen$e$
P"actice- 63am&les o, t!e t!i"$ e,,ect an$ !o( it can be acco%nte$ ,o" in an act%al $esi)n is e3&laine$ in
mo"e $etail in t!e ,ollo(in)- Re,e"ence may also be ma$e to +12+* +18+ an$ +19+ ,o" mo"e bac')"o%n$ an$
e3&lanation o, t!e t!ic'ness e,,ect-
est s&ecimens %se$ ,o" ,ati)%e testin) a"e no"mally smalle" t!an act%al st"%ct%"al com&onents %se$ in
st"%ct%"es- !e co""es&on$ence in S-N $ata $e&en$s on t!e st"ess $ist"ib%tion at t!e !ot s&ot "e)ion- :o"
t"a$itional t%b%la" Coints t!e"e is one local !ot s&ot "e)ion* (!ile at e- )- ci"c%m,e"ential (el$s o, LP tet!e"s
t!e"e is a len)t! si)ni,icantly lon)e" t!an in t!e test s&ecimens !a#in) t!e simila" o"$e" o, st"ess "an)e-
1"ac' )"o(t! is no"mally initiate$ ,"om small $e,ects at t!e t"ansition None ,"om (el$ to base mate"ial- !e
lon)e" t!e (el$* t!e la")e" is t!e &"obability o, a la")e" $e,ect- !%s* a s&ecimen !a#in) a lon) (el$ "e)ion
is e3&ecte$ to !a#e a s!o"te" ,ati)%e li,e t!an a s!o"t (el$- !is can be acco%nte$ ,o" in an act%al $esi)n
by &"obabilistic analysis o, a se"ies system* "e,- e- )- ;Iet!o$s o, St"%ct%"al Sa,ety< "e,- +21+- Re,e"ence is
also ma$e to "e,- +78+- Kel$ len)t! in a tet!e" system is one e3am&le (!e"e s%c! analysis s!o%l$ be
consi$e"e$ to ac!ie#e a "eliable ,ati)%e $esi)n- A moo"in) line consistin) o, c!ains is anot!e" e3am&le (!e"e
"eliability met!o$s may be %se$ to &"o&e"ly acco%nt ,o" t!e siNe e,,ect o" system e,,ect-
!e system e,,ect ,o" t!e S-N c%"#es in t!is RP !as been in#esti)ate$ %sin) "eliability met!o$s- !e "es%lts
a"e e3&"esse$ analytically belo(-
!e len)t! o, (el$ an$ n%mbe" o, simila" connections s%bCecte$ to t!e same st"ess "an)e s!o%l$ be
assesse$ base$ on en)inee"in) C%$)ement- G, a tet!e" system is s%bCecte$ to a $ynamic a3ial ,o"ce (it!o%t
si)ni,icant ben$in) t!e assessment becomes sim&le as all (el$s (ill be s%bCecte$ to t!e same st"ess "an)e-
As soon as t!e"e is some ben$in) o#e" t!e $iamete" o, t!e tet!e" t!e"e (ill li'ely be some !ot s&ots at some
connections t!at a"e s%bCecte$ to a la")e" st"ess "an)e t!an t!e ot!e" connections- !en only t!e "e)ions
(it! t!e most se#e"e st"ess "an)es nee$ to be incl%$e$ ,o" (el$ len)t! an$ n%mbe" o, connections-
:o" t!"ea$e$ bolts* t!e st"ess concent"ation at t!e "oot o, t!e t!"ea$s inc"eases (it! inc"easin) $iamete"-
@ase$ on ,ati)%e tests* it is "ecommen$e$ to %se ' F 0-25 (!ic! can be ass%me$ to incl%$e siNe e,,ects
bot! $%e to t!e notc! itsel,* an$ $%e to inc"ease$ len)t! o, notc! a"o%n$ ci"c%m,e"ence (it! inc"ease$
$iamete"- !e t!ic'ness e3&onent may be less ,o" "olle$ t!"ea$s- !%s ,o" &%"&ose ma$e bolts (it! la")e
$iamete"s* it may be "ecommen$able to &e",o"m testin) o, some bolts to #e"i,y t!e ,ati)%e ca&acity to be
%se$ ,o" $esi)n- Gt s!o%l$ be "emembe"e$ t!at t!e $esi)n S-N $ata is obtaine$ as mean min%s 2 stan$a"$
$e#iation in a lo) S-lo) N $ia)"am-
+-) curve with thic<ness effect
!e $esi)n S-N c%"#e (it! t!ic'ness e,,ect incl%$e$ is )i#en by:
1%"#e &a"t D1E* see :i)%"e D-4
DD-5-1E

|
|

\
|
= log log a log log
1 1 1
m
t
t
k m N
ref
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Pa"t D2E o, t!e c%"#e is establis!e$ ass%min) contin%ity at N
1
F10
6
o" 10
7
cycles $e&en$in) on t!e S-N c%"#e
is )i#en ,o" sea(ate" (it! cat!o$ic &"otection o" in ai" is )i#en by
(!e"e is ,o" S-N c%"#e (it!o%t t!ic'ness e,,ect incl%$e$- lo) is )i#en in able 2-1* able 2-2 an$
able 2-0-
Pa"t D2E o, t!e S-N c%"#e can also be ("itten on a stan$a"$ ,o"m
(!e"e
Re,e"ence is also ma$e to section A2-0-4B-
+-) curve with system effect and thic<ness effect
!e $esi)n S-N c%"#e (it! system e,,ect an$ t!ic'ness e,,ect incl%$e$ is )i#en by:
1%"#e &a"t D1E* see :i)%"e D-4
(!e"e
Pa"t D2E o, t!e c%"#e is establis!e$ ass%min) contin%ity at N
1
F10
6
o" 10
7
cycles $e&en$in) on (!et!e" t!e
S-N c%"#e is )i#en ,o" sea(ate" (it! cat!o$ic &"otection o" in ai"
(it!
(!e"e is ,o" S-N c%"#e (it!o%t t!ic'ness e,,ect incl%$e$- lo) is )i#en in able 2-1* able 2-2 an$
able 2-0-
DD-5-2E
DD-5-0E
DD-5-4E
DD-5-5E
l
(el$
F len)t! o, (el$ s%bCecte$ to t!e same st"ess "an)e
l
"e,
F "e,e"ence len)t! co""es&on$in) to ty&ical len)t! o, (el$ in teste$ s&ecimen %se$ ,o" $e"i#ation
o, S-N c%"#e- l
"e,
F 100 mm may be %se$-
n
s
F n%mbe" o, simila" connections s%bCecte$ to t!e same st"ess "an)e
s
log "
F stan$a"$ $e#iation in lo) N
DD-5-6E
DD-5-7E

|
|

\
|

|
|

\
|
+ = log log log 1 a log log
2 2 1
1
2
1
1
2
m
t
t
k m N
m
m
m
m
N
ref
1
a
1
a

|
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\
|
= log log a log log
2 2 2
m
t
t
k m N
ref
1
1
2
1
1
2
2
log 1 a log a log N
m
m
m
m
|
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\
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+ =

|
|

\
|

|
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\
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= log log log
2
a log log
1 1
log
1
m
t
t
k m n
l
l
s
N
ref
s
ref
weld N

|
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\
|
= log log a log log
2 2 2
m
t
t
k m N
ref
1
1
2
log
1
1
2
2
log 1 log
2
a log a log N
m
m
n
l
l
s
m
m
s
ref
weld N
|
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\
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+
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\
|
|
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\
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=
1
a
1
a
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 167
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Figure D-3 Typical +-) curve with thic<ness effect included
?in< to +-) curves in other design codes
!e "elations!i& bet(een S-N c%"#es in t!is $oc%ment an$ t!ose )i#en by GGK* "e,- +00+* 6%"oco$e 0* "e,-
+0+* ,o" ai" en#i"onment is )i#en in able D-1- Gt s!o%l$ be note$ t!at t!e co""es&on$ence bet(een S-N
c%"#es in t!is $oc%ment an$ GGK "elates only to n%mbe" o, cycles less t!an 5T10
6
in 6%"oco$e 0- D!e
"elations!i& is only a&&"o3imate ,o" t!e @1 an$ @2 c%"#esE-
+iFe of defects inherent +-) data and re7uirements to non-destructive e;amination
!is "ecommen$e$ &"actise is bein) %se$ in classi,ication by DNV an$ as a "e,e"ence $oc%ment in N2RS2P-
!is means t!at t!is RP is "elate$ to t(o $i,,e"ent "e,e"ence $oc%ments (it! "es&ect to e3tent o, ND an$
acce&tance c"ite"ia:
> DNV: DNV-2S-1101 Desi)n o, 2,,s!o"e Steel St"%ct%"es* Gene"al DLR:D Iet!o$E* DNV-2S-1401
:ab"ication an$ estin) o, 2,,s!o"e St"%ct%"es an$ GS2 5917 Kel$in) - :%sion-(el$e$ Coints in steel*
nic'el* titani%m an$ t!ei" alloys Dbeam (el$in) e3cl%$e$E J%ality le#els ,o" im&e",ections-
Table D-! D)2 notation in relation to %urocode #
D") notation BB= and Eurocode 7 notation
@1 160
@2 140
1 125
11 112
12 100
D 80
6 90
: 71
:1 60
:0 56
G 50
K1 45
K2 40
K0 06

10
100
1000
1.00E+04 1.00E+05 1.00E+06 1.00E+07 1.00E+08
Number of cycles
S
t
r
e
s
s

r
a
n
g
e

(
M
P
a
)
2
1
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> N2RS2P: N-004 Desi)n o, steel st"%ct%"es an$ I-101 St"%ct%"al steel ,ab"ication-
Iost ,ati)%e c"ac's a"e initiate$ ,"om %n$e"c%ts at (el$ toes- !e"e can be $i,,e"ent "easons ,o" %n$e"c%ts-
Gt is "ecommen$e$ to &"e&a"e a )oo$ (el$in) &"oce$%"e to a#oi$ la")e %n$e"c%ts $%"in) &"o$%ction (el$in)-
No %n$e"c%t is incl%$e$ in S-N classes bette" t!an t!e D- c%"#e- Ia3im%m allo(able siNe o, %n$e"c%ts e?%al
to 0-5 mm in $e&t! may be consi$e"e$ in!e"ent t!e $i,,e"ent $esi)n S-N classes D* 6 an$ :- :o" t!e S-N
class :1 an$ lo(e" an %n$e"c%t e?%al to 1-0 mm may be acce&te$-
!e (el$ $etails a"e bein) s%bCecte$ to la")e" st"ess "an)es as one )oes to t!e !i)!e" S-N classes- A $o%ble
si$e$ b%tt (el$ belon)s to D o" 6 $e&en$in) on ,ab"ication- @%tt (el$s a"e mo"e c"itical (it! "es&ect to
inte"nal $e,ects t!an many ot!e" $etails- Plana" $e,ects li'e c"ac's an$ lac' o, ,%sion a"e not allo(e$- Gt
s!o%l$ be note$ t!at %se o, S-N classes abo#e t!at o, D im&ly s&ecial consi$e"ation (it! "es&ect to
"e?%i"ements to ND an$ acce&tance c"ite"ia- !%s* t!e "e?%i"ements in GS2 5917 a"e not st"ict eno%)! ,o"
$etails belon)in) to S-N class abo#e D- Re,e"ence is ma$e to N2RS2P I-101 an$ GS2 5917 "e)a"$in)
"e?%i"ements to #ol%met"ic $e,ects li'e &o"osity an$ sla) incl%sions-
An e3am&le o, c"ac' )"o(t! t!"o%)! a &late t!ic'ness e?%al 25 mm ,"om ma3im%m s%",ace $e,ects t!at
,%l,il some $i,,e"ent S-N c%"#es is s!o(n in :i)%"e D-5- A semi-elli&tic s%",ace $e,ect is ass%me$ (it! !al,
a3es a+c F 0-2- !is calc%lation is base$ on a Keib%ll lon) te"m st"ess "an)e $ist"ib%tion (it! 10
9
cycles
$%"in) li,e time o, 20 yea"s- !e s!a&e &a"amete" is ! F 1-0 an$ t!e scale &a"amete" is $ete"mine$ s%c!
t!at t!e acc%m%late$ Iine" $ama)e is e?%al 1-0 $%"in) t!e li,e time o, t!e st"%ct%"e- Gt is obse"#e$ t!at
la")e" s%",ace $e,ects can be acce&te$ ,o" an : $etail as com&a"e$ (it! t!at o, D an$ 1- Gn ,i)%"e D-5 a
initial

F 1-29 mm ,o" : class* 0-20 mm ,o" D an$ 0-07 mm ,o" 1- !e "eason ,o" t!e lo( #al%e ,o" t!e D class as
com&a"e$ (it! 1 is t!e notc! e,,ect at t!e (el$ toe (!ic! is not &"esent ,o" a mac!ine$ s%",ace D1 classE-
!e sit%ation becomes $i,,e"ent ,o" inte"nal $e,ects (!e"e #e"y small $e,ects a"e acce&table ,o" a 1 class
$%e to !i)! st"esses insi$e t!e (el$-
Figure D-5 rac< growth development from ma;imum surface defects in some different +-) classes
D.6 omm. !.3.8 +-) curves and efficiency of corrosion
protection
+-) curve for :oints in the splash Fone
Gn No"(ay it !as been t!e &"actice to %se sea(ate" S-N c%"#e (it! cat!o$ic &"otection ,o" Coints in t!e s&las!
None an$ a la")e" Desi)n :ati)%e :acto" DD::E in t!e s&las! None t!an in ot!e" a"eas in Cac'et st"%ct%"es-
Gt is ass%me$ t!at t!e Coints also !a#e a )oo$ coatin) in t!is a"ea-


0
5
10
15
20
25
0 4 8 12 16 20 24
C
r
a
c
k

d
e
p
t
h

(
m
m
)
Year in service
F-curve
D-curve
C-curve
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 168
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A !i)! D:: is %se$ beca%se it is consi$e"e$ to be $i,,ic%lt to &e",o"m ins&ection an$ "e&ai" in t!is a"ea-
Gnc"easin) t!e D:: im&lies t!at t!e &"obability o, a ,ati)%e c"ac'in) becomes "e$%ce$- :o" e3am&le a D::
F 10 im&lies t!at t!e &"obability o, a ,ati)%e c"ac' $%"in) t!e li,etime becomes #e"y small Dacc%m%late$
&"obability less t!an 10
-4
an$ ann%al less t!an 10
-5
t!e last yea" in se"#iceE-
J%ite a lot o, t!e ,ati)%e li,e is associate$ (it! initiation o, a ,ati)%e c"ac' an$ )"o(t! o, small c"ac's- !e
c"ac's !a#e to )"o( to some siNe be,o"e t!e coatin) is b"o'en- As lon) as t!e coatin) is not b"o'en t!e
con$ition co""es&on$s to t!at o, ai"-
!e &"obability o, !a#in) a ,ati)%e c"ac' t!at is so la")e t!at t!e coatin) is b"o'en is consi$e"e$ to be lo(
(it!in t!e maCo" &a"t o, t!e $esi)n li,e %sin) a D:: F 10-
@ase$ on t!is it is consi$e"e$ acce&table to calc%late ,ati)%e $ama)e (it! an S-N c%"#e t!at is some(!at
"e$%ce$ com&a"e$ (it! t!at o, ai"- !en t!e sea(ate" c%"#e (it! cat!o$ic &"otection can be %se$ in lac' o,
$oc%mente$ S-N c%"#es in sea(ate" in ,"ee co""osion ,o" coate$ Coints Din t!e !i)! cycle "e)ion abo#e 10
6

cyclesE-
!is "ecommen$ation is lin'e$ to %se o, a !i)! D:: an$ a )oo$ coatin)- !en t!e &"obability o, &"esence o,
an o&en ,ati)%e c"ac' s%bCecte$ to ,"ee co""osion becomes small in t!e maCo" &a"t o, t!e se"#ice li,e o, t!e
&lat,o"m li,e as e3&laine$ abo#e-
+-) curve for details in tan<s in FP+$s
an's in :PS2s a"e not $esi)ne$ (it! t!e same !i)! D:: as %se$ ,o" s&las! None Coints in Cac'ets- Also t!e
coatin) is not so $%"able- !e coatin) becomes mo"e b"ittle (it! time an$ it is most li'ely to c"ac' at !ot
s&ot "e)ions (it! la")e st"ain cycles- Gn tan's (it!o%t ano$es t!e e,,iciency o, t!e coatin) s!o%l$ be
s&ecially consi$e"e$-
Gn DNV 1lassi,ication Note No- 00-7 it is ass%me$ t!at t!e coatin) is e,,icient ,o" some yea"s an$ t!en t!e
con$ition is t!at o, ,"ee co""osion- A simila" &"oce$%"e may be %se$ ,o" $esi)n o, tan's in :PS2s- !e time
(it! e,,icient coatin) $e&en$s on ty&e an$ ?%ality o, t!e coatin) %se$- Re,e"ence is ma$e to DNV
1lassi,ication Note No- 00-7 ,o" mo"e $etails-
D.1 omm. !.3./3 @ualification of new +-) curves based on
fatigue test data
Effect of residual stresses
!e "esi$%al st"esses at (el$ toes o, small scale test s&ecimens a"e no"mally small as com&a"e$ (it! t!at
in act%al ,%ll siNe st"%ct%"es $%e to $i,,e"ent "est"aints $%"in) ,ab"ication- Also i, small scale test s&ecimens
a"e &"o$%ce$ ,"om c%ttin) ,"om la")e" st"%ct%"es a si)ni,icant &a"t o, t!e "esi$%al st"esses (ill li'ely be lost-
!is s!o%l$ be 'e&t in min$ (!en &lannin) t!e testin) an$ (!en assessin) t!e test "es%lts in te"ms o, an
S-N c%"#e-
A "e$%ce$ "esi$%al st"ess in t!e test s&ecimens may be com&ensate$ ,o" by &e",o"min) t!e testin) at a !i)!
R-"atio- D@y a !i)! R-"atio is %n$e"stoo$ R F
min
+
ma3
a"o%n$ 0-5 an$ lo( R /"atio in "e)ion 0 to 0-1E- As t!e
ma3im%m nominal st"ess is limite$ by t!e yiel$ o, t!e mate"ial it is easie" to ac!ie#e a !i)! R-"atio ,o" t!e
lon)e" ,ati)%e li#es (!e"e a lo( st"ess "an)e is e3&ecte$ t!an ,o" t!e s!o"t ,ati)%e li#es- !is may lea$ to
testin) at R-"atios t!at a"e not constant (it!in one test se"ies- !is may be $i,,e"ent ,"om ea"lie" &"acticeQ
!o(e#e"* t!is is consi$e"e$ to be ,%lly acce&table- Anot!e" a&&"oac! t!at !as been ,ollo(e$ to $e"i#e $esi)n
S-N c%"#es ,o" (el$e$ st"%ct%"es base$ on ,ati)%e test $ata ,"om small scale test s&ecimens !as been to ,o"ce
t!e c%"#es t!"o%)! t!e cent"e o, )"a#ity o, t!e test $ata (it! a &"e$e,ine$ slo&e t!at is "e&"esentati#e ,o"
c"ac' )"o(t! in la")e scale st"%ct%"es (it! la")e "esi$%al st"esses ,"om ,ab"ication- G, testin) is &e",o"me$ at
a lo( R-"atio* GGK DRe,- +00+E "ecommen$ "e$%cin) t!e ,ati)%e st"en)t! at 2 mill cycles by 205-
'tatistical assessment of fatigue test data
o &lan ,ati)%e testin) t!at (ill &"o#i$e a "eliable basis ,o" $e"i#ation o, $esi)n S-N c%"#es "e?%i"es
e3&e"ience ,"om ,ati)%e assessment o, st"%ct%"es an$ 'no(le$)e abo%t statistics- Some )%i$ance can be
,o%n$ in lite"at%"e s%c! as GS2 12107 ;Ietallic mate"ials / ,ati)%e testin) / Statistical &lannin) an$ analysis
o, test $ata<- 4o(e#e"* en)inee"in) C%$)ement is "e?%i"e$ in eac! case to s&eci,y ty&e o, test s&ecimen*
n%mbe" o, tests an$ loa$in) to be %se$ in t!e tests- 6n)inee"in) C%$)ement is also "e?%i"e$ ,o" assessment
o, "ecommen$e$ slo&e in S-N c%"#e to be %se$ ,o" ,ati)%e assessment o, "eal st"%ct%"es as com&a"e$ (it!
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 170
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t!at $e"i#e$ ,"om small scale test s&ecimens $%e to $i,,e"ence in "esi$%al st"esses at t!e !ot s&ots-
Re,e"ence is also ma$e to "e,s- +96+* +98+-
A $esi)n S-N c%"#e s!o%l$ &"o#i$e a 87-75 &"obability o, s%"#i#al- !e $esi)n c%"#es can be $e"i#e$ as
mean min%s t(o stan$a"$ $e#iations as obtaine$ ,"om a &lot o, e3&e"imental $ata ass%min) t!e $ata to
,ollo( a Ga%ssian $ist"ib%tion in a lo)a"it!mic ,o"mat-
!e statistical %nce"tainty in ,ati)%e test $ata s!all be acco%nte$ ,o" (!en a limite$ n%mbe" o, tests is
&e",o"me$ to establis! $esi)n S-N c%"#es- Gt is "e?%i"e$ t!at t!e mean c%"#e is estimate$ (it! at least 755
con,i$ence- K!en a total o, n obse"#ations o, t!e n%mbe" o, cycles to ,ail%"e N a"e a#ailable ,"om n ,ati)%e
tests ca""ie$ o%t at t!e same "e&"esentati#e st"ess "an)e S* t!en t!e c!a"acte"istic #al%e o, t!e $esi)n S-
N c%"#e can be $e"i#e$ as:
(!e"e
log a F inte"ce&t o, t!e mean #al%e o, t!e n test $ata (it! t!e lo) N a3is
S
log N
F t!e stan$a"$ $e#iation o, t!e n test $ata o, lo) N* an$ c is a ,acto" (!ose #al%e $e&en$s on n%mbe"
o, ,ati)%e test $ata an$ is s!o(n in able D-0 an$ :i)%"e D-6 ,o" t!e case (!e"e t!e stan$a"$
$e#iation is ;'no(n< an$ also (!en it is ;%n'no(n<-
A $e"i#ation o, a $esi)n S-N c%"#e may ,ollo( $i,,e"ent a&&"oac!es- Gt may be %se,%l to %n$e"stan$ t!e
$i,,e"ence bet(een t!e ,ollo(in) t(o a&&"oac!es:
> &%"e statistical a&&"oac!
> en)inee"in) a&&"oac!-
@y ,ollo(in) a &%"e statistical a&&"oac! a mean S-N c%"#e an$ a stan$a"$ $e#iation o, test $ata can be
$e"i#e$- !is co""es&on$s to stan$a"$ $e#iation bein) %n'no(n (!en $ete"minin) c #al%es in able D-0 an$
:i)%"e D-6 to be %se$ in e?%ation DD-7-1E- !is "e?%i"es a si)ni,icant n%mbe" o, test s&ecimens Das seen
,"om t!e ,i)%"eE- !is "ecommen$ation is sometimes %se$ in small scale testin) b%t can !a"$ly be a,,o"$e$
(!en &e",o"min) mo"e ,%ll scale ty&e testin)-
K!en $oin) a lot o, testin) t!at "es%lt in m%c! t!e same #al%es o, stan$a"$ $e#iations* one can ass%me t!e
stan$a"$ $e#iation as 'no(n- !%s t!e main c!allen)e is to $e"i#e mean #al%es- !is )i#es "e$%ce$
"e?%i"ements to c #al%es to be %se$ in e?%ation DD-7-1E- !is may also be seen as an en)inee"in) a&&"oac!
t!at one may consi$e" to %se in (ell $e,ine$ tests Dinst"%mente$ ,%ll scale test s&ecimens (it! st"ain
)a%)esE- :o" stan$a"$ $e#iation ,"om ,ati)%e test $ata see commenta"y section A2-4-0B- :o" com&le3
connections a la")e" stan$a"$ $e#iation can be e3&ecte$- Gt s!o%l$ be c!ec'e$ t!at t!e ,ati)%e test $ata
loo's !omo)eneo%s an$ t!at t!e scatte" is not la")e" t!an t!at no"mally obse"#e$ in ,ati)%e testin)-
Gt s!o%l$ be a$$e$ t!at a ,e( la")e scale tests can a$$ si)ni,icant con,i$ence to a $esi)n S-N c%"#e
$e&en$ent on ty&e o, st"%ct%"al $etail to be $esi)ne$- A &"ototy&e test s&ecimen t!at is ,ab"icate$ in a
simila" (ay as t!e act%al connection is consi$e"e$ to "e&"esent a &!ysical be!a#io%" in a "e&"esentati#e
manne" as it is simila" in )eomet"y* mate"ial c!a"acte"istics* "esi$%al st"ess* an$ ,ab"ication tole"ances- Gn
a$$ition it can li'ely be s%bCecte$ to a mo"e "ele#ant loa$in) as com&a"e$ (it! t!at o, small scale test
s&ecimens- !%s* e#en i, only one la")e scale test is &e",o"me$* it is "easonable to &%t as m%c! si)ni,icance
into t!at test "es%lt as can be s%bstantiate$ by a total en)inee"in) C%$)ement "at!e" t!an a statistical
assessment-
An en)inee"in) assessment may also ta'e 'no(le$)e ,"om &e",o"me$ analysis into acco%nt- !is
assessment may $e&en$ on !o( t!e analysis !as been &e",o"me$ an$ on t!e sa,ety in!e"ent in t!e
&"oce$%"e t!at is %se$* "e,- section A5-4B-
N
cs a a
log
log log = (=.7<1%
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 171
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Figure D-6 )umber of standard deviations to be subtracted from the mean to derive a design +-) curve with
81.1K probability of survival
Eustifying the use of a given design curve from a ne% data set
!is section &"esents a met!o$olo)y to #ali$ate t!e %se o, a &a"tic%la" $esi)n S-N class on t!e basis o, a
limite$ n%mbe" n o, ne( ,ati)%e tests- Gt is ass%me$ t!at t!e $esi)n S-N c%"#e is $esc"ibe$ on a ,o"m as
&"esente$ in section A2-4B an$ t!at t!e stan$a"$ $e#iation in t!e S-N c%"#e is 'no(n-
Gt is ass%me$ t!at t!e ,ati)%e testin) is &e",o"me$ %ntil a (ell $e,ine$ ,ail%"e is ac!ie#e$ s%c! as a ,ati)%e
c"ac' t!"o%)! t!e connection Dan$ not a "%n-o%t $%e to ot!e" ,ail%"es s%c! as lea'a)e o" loss o, &"etension
in connecto"sE-
D%e to a limite$ n%mbe" o, ne( test $ata it is ass%me$ t!at t!e slo&e o, a mean S-N c%"#e ,o" t!e ne( $ata
is t!e same as ,o" t!e consi$e"e$ $esi)n S-N c%"#e- @ase$ on t!is ass%m&tion o, a ,i3e$ m- #al%e ,o" t!e
test $ata a mean #al%e o, Lo) N an$ can be establis!e$- A mean S-N c%"#e base$ on t!e ne( test $ata
can be establis!e$ as
Table D-# )umber of standard deviations to be subtracted from the mean to derive a design +-) curve with
81.1K probability of survival
"um!er of
tests
'tandard deviation kno%n 'tandard deviation unkno%n
0 2-08 8-24
5 2-00 5-01
10 2-21 0-45
15 2-17 0-07
20 2-15 2-99
00 2-12 2-65
50 2-10 2-49
100 2-07 2-02
2-00 2-00
DD-7-2E
,.0
,.5
-.0
-.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
0 ,0 40 60 80 100
&u'(er o) ) atigue tests
&
u
'
(
e
r

o
)

s
t
a
n
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a
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d

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e
:
i
a
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i
o
n
s

c


Standard de:iation kno"n
Standard de:iation unkno"n
N
c
s
n
1
S4F m a N
log
% log( log log + =
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(!e"e
N F n%mbe" o, cycles Dmean #al%e o, ne( test $ata at st"ess "an)e E
Log a F Gnte"ce&t o, consi$e"e$ mean stan$a"$ S-N c%"#e in t!is RP (it! t!e lo) N a3is
F slo&e o, stan$a"$ S-N c%"#e
F st"ess "an)e
S!F F St"ess Io$i,ication :acto"
n F n%mbe" o, test sam&les
x
c
F con,i$ence (it! "es&ect to mean S-N $ata as $e"i#e$ ,"om a no"mal $ist"ib%tion
x
c
F 0-674 ,o" 755 con,i$ence le#el an$ 1-645 ,o" 855 con,i$ence le#el-
A 755 con,i$ence le#el is %se$ in t!e ,ollo(in) e?%ations-
S
log

N
F stan$a"$ $e#iation in t!e stan$a"$ S-N c%"#e
:"om t!e e?%ation abo#e t!e SI: can be $e"i#e$ as
an$ (it! n ,ati)%e test $ata to $e"i#e mean S-N c%"#e ,"om t!ese $ata
!en a "e#ise$ $esi)n S-N c%"#e can be $e"i#e$ as
%;ample of analysis case (:
Ass%me testin) o, connecto"s (it! test $ata as s!o(n in able D-4- Gt is ass%me$ t!at t!e test $ata ,ollo(
a s!a&e o, t!e S-N c%"#e simila" to t!e !i)! st"en)t! c%"#e in section A2-4-10B (it! m F 4-7- !e test $ata
a"e &"esente$ in :i)%"e D-7 to)et!e" (it! t!e mean c%"#e $e"i#e$ ,"om t!e 6 test "es%lts an$ $esi)n S-N
c%"#e $e"i#e$ ,"om t!e same test $ata- Gt is ass%me$ t!at t!e testin) is &e",o"me$ in t!e o"$e" as liste$ in
able D-4 ,"om S1 to S6- Gn &"inci&le one may ass%me t!e testin) to be sto&&e$ a,te" any n%mbe" o, t!e
tests an$ &e",o"m an assessment o, "es%ltin) SI:- !is is $one in t!is e3am&le in t!e ,ollo(in)-
St"ess mo$i,ication ,acto"s DSI:sE $e"i#e$ ,"om statistics %sin) a st%$ent t $ist"ib%tion an$ consi$e"in)
stan$a"$ $e#iation as %n'no(n is s!o(n in able D-4 an$ :i)%"e D-9- SI:s $e"i#e$ ,"om e?%ation DD-7-4E
by consi$e"in) t!e stan$a"$ $e#iation as 'no(n is also s!o(n in able D-4 an$ :i)%"e D-9- !e &"esent $ata
set D,"om all 6 testsE s!o(s a "es%ltin) stan$a"$ $e#iation e?%al 0-161 in lo) N- !e stan$a"$ $e#iation in
t!e !i)! st"en)t! S-N c%"#e as &"esente$ in section A2-4-10B is 0-162- !is stan$a"$ $e#iation is $e"i#e$
,"om testin) o, t!e base mate"ial only- !%s* i, one consi$e"s %nce"tainty in act%al ,ab"ication* ,ab"ication
tole"ances an$ ma'e-%& to"?%e* it is li'ely t!at a la")e" stan$a"$ $e#iation s!o%l$ be %se$- !is may be
assesse$ base$ on )ene"al ,ati)%e test $ata o, s%c! connections* i, a#ailable- DSee also 63am&le case @
belo(E-
@ase$ on t!is e3am&le it is seen t!at a ,e( tests may &"o#i$e #e"y %se,%l in,o"mation abo%t t!e ,ati)%e
$esi)n &"oce$%"e- 6#en only one test may &"o#i$e to )i#e #e"y %se,%l in,o"mation an$ estimate o, SI: to
be %se$ ,o" $esi)n- !e "ecommen$e$ n%mbe" o, tests (ill in &"inci&le be some(!at $e&en$ent on t!e test
"es%lts ,"om t!e ,i"st tests t!at a"e &e",o"me$- G, one &lot t!e test "es%lts in a )"a&! li'e t!at s!o(n in :i)%"e
D-7 one can C%$)e t!e con#e")ence in $e"i#e$ SI: ,acto" be,o"e one $eci$e on ,%"t!e" testin)- Gn t!is
e3am&le it is seen t!at a si)ni,icant con,i$ence in t!e estimate$ SI: is ac!ie#e$ a,te" t!e ,i"st 0 tests-
DD-7-0E
DD-7-4E
DD-7-5E
m s
n
m N a
N
S4F
/ %
67' . 0
log log (log
log
10
+
=

m s
n n
m
N
n
a
N
n
i
i
n
i
i
S4F
/ %
67' . 0
log log
1
(log
log
1 1
10
+

=
= =

% log( log 2 log log


log
= m S4F m s a N
N
% log( 2 log log
log
S4F m s a N
N
=
o
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Gt is obse"#e$ ,"om able D-4 t!at i, t!e testin) is sto&&e$ a,te" t!e t(o ,i"st tests DS1WS2E a SI: e?%al
5-22 is $e"i#e$- A,te" t!"ee tests DS1WS2WS0E t!e SI: is c!an)e$ to 5-10 (!ic! is not #e"y ,a" ,"om t!e
SI: $e"i#e$ a,te" 6 tests in t!is e3am&le-
G, one &lan to &e",o"m only 2 tests it is "ecommen$e$ to select st"ess "an)es s%c! t!at ,ail%"e o, t!e ,i"st
s&ecimen is aime$ at 100 000-500 000 cycles an$ t!e secon$ at 1-10 mill cycles-
ables ,o" st%$ent t $ist"ib%tions can be ,o%n$ in statistical !an$boo's* An) an$ an)* DNV-RP-1207 an$
also ,"om s&"ea$ s!eets-
Figure D-1 Test data used for derivation of +.F in e;ample B+t. dev 6 test data D "./6/C
Table D-3 %;ample of test data and derivation of stress modification factor B+t. dev 6 test data D "./6/C
'tress &ange
4M#a2
"um!er of test
cycles
'MF derived from
student t distri!ution
'MF derived from assumed kno%n and
constant standard deviation
4,0M confidence2
S1 90 480 000 4-80
S2 06 9 000 000 17-98 5-22
S0 54 2 700 000 6-18 5-10
S4 47 0 100 000 5-50 5-19
S5 60 800 000 5-41 5-24
S6 40 11 000 000 5-22 5-19
10
100
1000
1.E+04 1.E+05 1.E+06 1.E+07 1.E+08
&u'(er o) c*cles
S
t
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e
s
s

r
a
n
g
e

9
<
P
a
;
S1
S,
S-
S4
S5
S6
4S <ean
Test 'ean
Test design
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Figure D-4 +.F factor as function of number of test specimens B+t. dev 6 test data D "./6/C B9y one test is
understood test +/ in Table D-3= by ! tests is understood +/ and +!= etcC.
%;ample of analysis case 9:
!is e3am&le is ma$e to c!ec' t!e "ob%stness o, t!e &"o&ose$ analysis &"oce$%"e- !e test $ata ,"om able
D-4 is mo$i,ie$ in a ,ictitio%s manne" s%c! t!at t!e scatte" is si)ni,icantly inc"ease$ by a&&"o3imately
$o%blin) t!e stan$a"$ $e#iation to 0-019 ,o" t!e 6 test $ata- !e mean S-N c%"#e ,"om t!e test $ata is 'e&t
t!e same as in e3am&le case A- Gn a$$ition t!e o"$e"in) o, t!e test $ata is c!an)e$ into a (o"st sit%ation
(it! t!e ,i"st tests ,%"t!est a(ay ,"om t!e basis !i)! st"en)t! S-N c%"#eQ see also :i)%"e D-8 an$ :i)%"e D-
7-
!e SI: ,"om t!e st%$ent t $ist"ib%tion incl%$es t!e act%al calc%late$ stan$a"$ $e#iation a,te" 2* 0 tests
etc- est n%mbe" 6 ,alls si)ni,icantly o%tsi$e t!e mean S-N c%"#e (!ic! inc"eases t!e stan$a"$ $e#iation
si)ni,icantly- !is e3&lains t!e SI: base$ on st%$ent t a,te" 6 tests as com&a"e$ (it! 5 tests Dable D-5
an$ :i)%"e D-10E-
:i"st it is ass%me$ t!at t!e stan$a"$ $e#iation in t!e ne( test $ata ,ollo( t!at o, t!e !i)! st"en)t! steel
c%"#e D(it! stan$a"$ $e#iation e?%al 0-162 (!ile t!e calc%late$ stan$a"$ $e#iation ,o" t!e 6 test $ata is
0-019E- !e e,,ect o, ass%min) $i,,e"ent con,i$ence le#els ,o" t!is ass%m&tion is ill%st"ate$ in :i)%"e D-10-
!e $i,,e"ence in calc%late$ SI: is not t!at la")e ,o" $i,,e"ent con,i$ence le#els-
!e "es%ltin) SI:s a"e also s!o(n in able D-5 an$ :i)%"e D-10 (!en t!e stan$a"$ $e#iation in e?%ation
DD-7-4E is inc"ease$ to 0-019 D,o" 755 con,i$ence le#elE- Gt is obse"#e$ t!at t!is "es%lts in a !i)!e" SI:-
!is ill%st"ates t!at one s!o%l$ t"y to %se a "ele#ant #al%e o, an e3&ecte$ Do" conse"#ati#eE stan$a"$
$e#iation into e?%ation DD-7-4E-
:"om :i)%"e D-10 it is seen t!at t!e calc%late$ SI: "e$%ces (it! n%mbe" o, test $ata- !is e,,ect is li'ely
a%)mente$ $%e to t!e se?%ence o, t!e test $ata %se$ in t!is ,ictitio%s e3am&le (!ic! is less li'ely to be
simila" to t!is e3am&le at least ,o" mo"e test $ata t!an 0 to 4-
:"om t!e e3am&le in :i)%"e D-10 one mi)!t )et t!e im&"ession t!at it is conse"#ati#e (it! one test- 4o(e#e"*
t!e "es%ltin) $ec"ease o, SI: (it! n%mbe" o, tests is a "es%lt o, se?%ence o, t!e test $ata %se$- Anot!e"
case co%l$ be to &"esent t!e test $ata in a "e#e"se$ o"$e"- !is (o%l$ "es%lts in t!e lo(est calc%late$ SI:
,o" one test an$ a sli)!tly inc"easin) SI: (it! incl%$in) a$$itional n%mbe" o, tests as is s!o(n in :i)%"e D-
11-
0
,
4
6
8
10
1,
14
16
18
,0
0 1 , - 4 5 6 7
Number of tests
S
M
F
Student t distri(ution
S<F approac$
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Figure D-8 Test data used for derivation of +.F in e;ample B+t. dev 6 test data D ".#/4C
Figure D-/" +.F factor as function of confidence= standard deviation and number of test specimens for test
data shown in Figure D-8
Table D-5 %;ample of test data and derivation of stress modification factor B+t. dev 6 test data D ".#/4C
'tress
&ange
4M#a2
"um!er of test
cycles
'MF
'tudent t
distri!ution
,0M conf. and
s
log "
/ +.*8.
D0M conf. and
s
log "
/ +.*8.
,0M conf. and
s
log "
/ +.7*C
S1 05 8 000 000 6-00 6-51 7-08
S2 49 2 900 000 40-66 5-74 6-06 6-60
S0 49 0 200 000 7-80 5-59 5-94 6-29
S4 05 10 000 000 6-52 5-50 5-74 6-12
S5 60 1 600 000 5-80 5-04 5-50 5-95
S6 90 1 400 000 6-27 5-04 5-20 5-47
10
100
1000
1.0E+04 1.0E+05 1.0E+06 1.0E+07 1.0E+08
&u'(er o) c*cles
S
t
r
e
s
s

r
a
n
g
e

9
<
P
a
;
S1
S,
S-
S4
S5
S6
4S <ean
Test 'ean
Test design
0
,
4
6
8
10
1,
14
16
0 1 , - 4 5 6 7
Number of tests
S
M
F
Student t distri(ution
S<F con). !5C and st. de: . 0.16,
S<F con). 75C and st. de: . 0.16,
S<F con). 75C and st. de: . 0.-18
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Figure D-// +.F factor as function of confidence= standard deviation and number of test specimens with
test data in reversed order as compared with Figure D-/"
D.4 omm. !./".# +Fs for pipes with internal pressure
!e ,ollo(in) sections can be %se$ ,o" ,ati)%e assessment o, &i&elines o" cylin$e"s %se$ ,o" t"ans&o"tation
o, )as s%bCecte$ to !i)! &"ess%"e (!e"e lo( cycle ,ati)%e ,"om loa$in) an$ %nloa$in) a"e consi$e"e$-
3apered thickness transitions
:o" ta&e"e$ t!ic'ness t"ansitions in &i&es an$ cylin$e"s as s!o(n in :i)%"e D-12 t!e ben$in) st"ess o#e" t!e
(all t!ic'ness at t!e (el$ is mainly $%e to t!e a3ial st"ess in t!e &i&e (all- !is means t!at at t!ic'ness
t"ansitions t!e st"ess concent"ation ,acto"s &"esente$ in section A0-0-7B can be %se$ $i"ectly to)et!e" (it!
t!e nominal st"ess in t!e &i&e (all ,o" calc%lation o, !ot s&ot st"ess at t!e (el$- Nominal st"ess in t!e &i&e
(all $%e to )lobal ben$in) moment can be calc%late$ base$ on section mo$%l%s at t!e mi$ (all &i&e section-
Figure D-/! Tapered thic<ness transition in pipe or cylinder
3hickness transitions %ith step in thickness
A t"ansition (it! a ste& in t!ic'ness ,"om t
1
to t
2
in a &i&e o" cylin$e" as s!o(n in :i)%"e D-10 is consi$e"e$-
Gt is ass%me$ t!at t!e "a$i%s o, t!e &i&e o" cylin$e" " g t
1
- !e st"ess $%e to t!e en$ ca& &"ess%"e is
calc%late$ as:
DD-9-1E
0
,
4
6
8
10
1,
14
16
0 1 , - 4 5 6 7
Number of tests
S
M
F
Student t distri(ution
S<F con). !5C and st. de: . 0.16,
S<F con). 75C and st. de: . 0.16,
S<F con). 75C and st. de: . 0.-18
t
,
t
1
1
4
p
t
,
t
1
1
4
p
1
2t
r p
a
=
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!e total st"ess at t!e inne" si$e an$ t!e o%te" si$e is calc%late$ as:
!is e?%ation can also be ("itten as:
(!e"e t!e st"ess concent"ation ,acto" ,o" t!e inne" si$e is:
an$ t!e st"ess concent"ation ,acto" ,o" t!e o%te" si$e o, t!e &i&e is:
!e is $e,ine$ as:
Figure D-/# Thic<ness transition in pipe or cylinder
&ing stiffeners at supports in storage tanks and at flange connections in risers
A "in) sti,,ene" in a cylin$e" as s!o(n in :i)%"e D-14 is consi$e"e$- !is a&&lies also to a bolte$ ,lan)e
connection t!at is ,"e?%ently %se$ in "ise"s ,o" oil an$ )as &"o$%ction* "e,- :i)%"e D-15 (!e"e t!e most
c"itical !ot s&ot is ,o%n$ at &oint @-
!e st"ess concent"ation at a "in) sti,,ene" is obtaine$ as:
(!e"e t!e &l%s si)n a&&lies to t!e inne" si$e an$ min%s to t!e o%te" si$e- !is st"ess concent"ation incl%$es
e,,ect ,"om inte"nal &"ess%"e an$ en$ ca& &"ess%"e- Gt is to be %se$ to)et!e" (it! t!e nominal st"ess actin)
in t!e a3ial $i"ection o, t!e &i&e (all $%e to en$ ca& &"ess%"e-

t
F
a

b
DD-9-2E
DD-9-0E
DD-9-4E
DD-9-5E
DD-9-6E
DD-9-7E
SCF
a
a
-
a t

=
|
|

\
|
= 1
|
|

\
|

+ =
2
1
2
1
1
3 2
1
t
t
SCF

|
|

\
|

=
2
1
2
1
1
3 2
1
t
t
SCF

( )
1 1
2
2
2
1
) . 1
2
1
2
1
) . 0
2
) . 2
2
) . 2
2
) . 2
1

|
|

\
|
+
|
|

\
|
|
|

\
|
+

+
=
t
t
t
t
t t t
t t

t
,
t
1
p
t
,
t
1
p

1
1
% 2 ( 3
1
2

= SCF
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is $e,ine$ as:
Kit! F 0-0 ,o" steel t!e e3&"ession ,o" becomes:
an$ t!e st"ess concent"ation ,acto" ,o" t!e inne" si$e becomes:
an$ t!e st"ess concent"ation ,acto" ,o" t!e o%te" si$e becomes:
D%e to t!e notc! o, t!e (el$ itsel, t!e ,ati)%e st"en)t! o, t!e (el$ at t!e "in) sti,,ene" itsel, becomes less
t!an ,o" t!e ot!e" s!ell si$e- As t!e st"ess is lesse" on t!e o%tsi$e t!an at t!e insi$e it is t!%s "ecommen$e$
to &lace "in) sti,,ene"s on t!e o%tsi$e o, a s!ell st"%ct%"e s%bCecte$ to inte"nal &"ess%"e- !is is a $i,,e"ent
concl%sion ,"om t!at o, "in) sti,,ene"s in t%b%la" membe"s s%bCecte$ to &%"e e3te"nal a3ial ,o"ce* "e,- +25+-
Figure D-/3 Ring stiffener on cylinder with internal pressure
Figure D-/5 +ection through bolted flange connection
DD-9-9E
DD-9-8E
DD-9-10E
DD-9-11E
'
2
% 1 ( 3
2
1

+ =
r
5
t r t
r
5
t r t )6 . 1
1+ =

0-7 . 3
1+ = SCF

0-7 . 3
1 = SCF
p
B
p
B
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Longitudinal %elds %ith !ending stress over the pipe %all resulting from outofroundness of fa!ricated
pipes
!e o%t-o,-"o%n$ness o, ,ab"icate$ &i&e elements "es%lts in inc"ease$ st"ess $%e to a ben$in) moment o#e"
t!e (all t!ic'ness* see :i)%"e D-16- !e eccent"icity $%e to o%t-o,-"o%n$ness is a ,%nction o, tension in t!e
!oo& $i"ection o, t!e &i&e- !is eccent"icity is "e$%ce$ as t!e inte"nal &"ess%"e is inc"ease$ an$ t!e !oo&
tension is inc"ease$- !%s t!e ben$in) st"ess o#e" t!e (all t!ic'ness is a non-linea" ,%nction o, t!e inte"nal
&"ess%"e-
Gt is ass%me$ t!at t!e o%t-o,-"o%n$ness "es%lts in an eccent"icity
0
(it!o%t any !oo& tension ,o"ce ,"om
inte"nal &"ess%"e-
Gn te"ms o, o%t o, "o%n$ness t!e e?%ation ,o" st"ess concent"ation ,acto" can be $e"i#e$ as:
(!e"e t!e o%t o, "o%n$ness is $e,ine$ as
22R
F $
ma3
- $
min
* l F $+9 an$ (!ic! is a ,%nction o, t!e
memb"ane !oo& st"ess
m
is $e,ine$ as ,ollo(s:
ole"ance "e?%i"ements ,o" &i&elines a"e )i#en in DNV-2S-:101-
Figure D-/6 +ection through pipe showing out-of-roundness and analysis model
D.8 omm. #.# +tress concentration factors
Re,e"ence is ma$e to ;An Analytical st%$y o, St"ess 1oncent"ation 6,,ects in I%ltib"ace Uoints %n$e"
1ombine$ Loa$in)<* "e,- +8+* ,o" ,%"t!e" bac')"o%n$ on t!is &"oce$%"e o, calc%latin) a "es%ltin) !ot s&ot
st"ess ,"om s%&e"&osition o, st"ess com&onents-
!e ,o"m%la ,o" S1: at a t%b%la" b%tt (el$ can be o%tline$ base$ on t!eo"y ,o" t!in (alle$ st"%ct%"es* "e,- +
25+* +95+-
D./" omm. #.#.# Tubular :oints welded from one side
!e ,ati)%e $esi)n o, t!e "oot a"ea o, t%b%la" Coints (el$e$ ,"om one si$e may be consi$e"e$ as ,ollo(s:
> Lac' o, &enet"ation is !a"$ to cont"ol by non-$est"%cti#e e3amination an$ it is consi$e"e$ mo"e $i,,ic%lt
to $etect &ossible $e,ects at a "oot a"ea o, a t%b%la" Coint (el$e$ ,"om one si$e* t!an ,o" a b%tt (el$
(el$e$ ,"om one si$e-
> :o" b%tt (el$s (el$e$ ,"om one si$e t!e Coint may be classi,ie$ as :0- !e $e,ect siNe in!e"ent in t!is
c%"#e is less t!an 1-2 mm D!is $e,ect siNe may be e#al%ate$ by ,"act%"e mec!anics calc%lations an$
DD-9-12E
DD-9-10E
% ( tanh
) . 1
1 l
l t
SCF
OOR

+ =
2
12
t 0
m

=
2n$l!ction point
d
l 9 pd(*
8a/im1m 3!n.ing
mom!nt
2n$l!ction point
d
l 9 pd(*
8a/im1m 3!n.ing
mom!nt
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t!e calc%late$ #al%e (ill $e&en$ on &late t!ic'ness- A lon) $e,ect s!o%l$ be consi$e"e$ !e"e (it! t!e
$e,ect siNe meas%"e$ in t!e t!ic'ness $i"ection o, t!e t%b%la"E- De,ect siNes %& to 5 mm may be &"esent
(it!o%t bein) $etecte$ e#en (it! a $etaile$ e3amination o, t!e "oot o, a t%b%la" Coint- A ,acto" ,o"
"e$%ction o, ,ati)%e li,e $%e to a &ossible la")e "oot $e,ect in a t%b%la" Coint com&a"e$ to a b%tt (el$
may be e#al%ate$ base$ on ,"act%"e mec!anics analysis-
> !e st"ess ,iel$ at t!e "oot may be $e"i#e$ ,"om a ,inite element analysis- !e c"ac' )"o(t! may be
ass%me$ to be no"mal to t!e $i"ection o, t!e ma3im%m &"inci&al st"ess- !e ,ati)%e li,e is ,i"st calc%late$
,o" an initial $e,ect siNe co""es&on$in) to t!at o, t!e :0 c%"#e: :DLi,e a
i
F 1 mmE- !en t!e ,ati)%e li,e
is calc%late$ ,o" an initial $e,ect siNe co""es&on$in) to t!at o, a t%b%la" Coint (el$e$ ,"om one si$e: :DLi,e
a
i
F 5 mmE- !e ,ati)%e li,e "e$%ction ,acto"* R* is obtaine$ ,"om e?%ation DD-10-1E-
> A mo$i,ie$ S-N c%"#e belo( :0 is calc%late$ ,"om e?%ation DD-10-2E- An S-N c%"#e co""es&on$in) to t!is
lo) a #al%e Do" belo(E may no( be %se$ ,o" ,ati)%e li,e analysis base$ on nominal st"ess at t!e "oot as
calc%late$ by a $etaile$ ,inite element analysis-
> :ati)%e c"ac'in) ,"om t!e "oot is !a"$e" to $isco#e" by in se"#ice ins&ection t!an c"ac' )"o(t! ,"om t!e
toe- !e"e,o"e* an a$$itional ,acto" on ,ati)%e li,e s!o%l$ be consi$e"e$ ,o" c"ac' )"o(t! ,"om t!e "oot-
!e ,ollo(in) sim&li,ie$ a&&"oac! ,o" ,ati)%e li,e assessment o, t!e (el$ "oot may be &e",o"me$ as an
alte"nati#e &"oce$%"e:
> As note$ abo#e an a$$itional ,acto" on ,ati)%e li,e s!o%l$ be consi$e"e$ ,o" c"ac' )"o(t! ,"om t!e "oot-
> No"mally t!e st"ess on t!e o%tsi$e o, t!e b"ace at t!e !ot s&ot is la")e" t!an at t!e "oot a"ea- 4ence
t!e st"ess on t!e insi$e o, t!e b"ace o" c!o"$ at t!e "oot can be %se$ ,o" ,ati)%e assessment- !e
met!o$olo)y &"esente$ by Lee D1888E may be %se$ i, not $oc%mente$ ot!e"(ise by ,o" e3am&le
$etaile$ ,inite element analysis* see "e,e"ence list-
> !e st"ess at t!e "oot to be combine$ (it! an S-N c%"#e can be $ete"mine$ base$ on t!e la")est
calc%late$ st"ess concent"ation ,acto"s $e"i#e$ ,o" t!e o%tsi$e b"ace an$ c!o"$ si$e m%lti&lie$ by a
"e$%ction ,acto" R t!at is $e"i#e$ ,"om able D-6-
> !e ,ati)%e li,e ,o" t!e "oot may no( be calc%late$ %sin) t!e K0 c%"#e- Kit! t!is S-N c%"#e t!e same
Desi)n :ati)%e :acto" DD::E may be %se$ ,o" t!e insi$e as ,o" t!e o%tsi$e- G, a bette" S-N c%"#e is bein)
%se$ ,o" t!e insi$e* also a la")e" D:: ,o" t!e insi$e t!an ,o" t!e o%tsi$e s!o%l$ be consi$e"e$ %se$-
> !e %se o, t!e K0 c%"#e ,o" sin)le si$e$ (el$s in t%b%la" Coints acco%nts ,o" t!e &ossibility o, %sin) (el$
im&"o#ement ,o" t!e o%tsi$e Coint- G, t!e $esi)ne" an$ t!e o(ne" a)"ee t!at it is acce&table t!at t!e
&ossibility o, (el$ im&"o#ement is (ai#e$* t!en one may )o to a !i)!e" S-N c%"#e ,o" sin)le si$e$ (el$s
in t%b%la" Coints- !e :0 c%"#e is t!e !i)!est c%"#e t!at can be %se$ ,o" t!e insi$e- Kit! %se o, t!is c%"#e
on cannot bene,it ,"om (el$ im&"o#ement on t!e o%tsi$e !ot s&ot-
!is &"oce$%"e is a&&licable ,o" sim&le t%b%la" Coints only-
DD-10-1E
DD-10-2E
mm% 1 a F(0i$!
mm% ) a F(0i$!
R
i
i
=
=
=
(R% log 11.)'6 a log + =
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h is to be )i#en in "a$ians- See also $e,inition o, notations in A&&-@-
:o" Coints (it! i R 0-95 t!e st"ess on t!e insi$e can be inte"&olate$ bet(een t!e #al%e ,o" i F 0-95 an$
i F 1-0 (!e"e R F 0-95 can be ass%me$ ,o" i F 1-0-
Table D-6 Reduction factors for calculation of stress at root area of single sided welds in tubular :oints
3ype of
Aoint
Load &eduction factor )alidity range
P-Coint A3ial
DD-10-1E
0-2 j i j 0-8
10 j k j 00
0-2 j l j 1-0
0-042 j m j 0-175
00o j h j 60o
@alance$
in-&lane
ben$in)
DD-10-2E
@alance$
o%t-o,-&lane
ben$in)
DD-10-0E
- an$
O-Coint
A3ial
DD-10-4E
0-40 j i j 0-95
10 j k j 00
0-05 j l j 0-95
00o j h j 80
o
@alance$
in-&lane
ben$in)
DD-10-5E
@alance$
o%t-o,-&lane
ben$in)
DD-10-6E
L-Coint A3ial
DD-10-7E
0-40 j i j 0-95
10 j k j 00
0-05 j l j 0-95
@alance$
in-&lane
ben$in)
DD-10-9E
@alance$
o%t-o,-&lane
ben$in)
DD-10-8E
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
0012 . 0
2
2 2
2
2
029 . 1 0)3 . 1 -0- . 0
00) . 0 6' . 1 39 . 0
)2 . 0
1-7 . 0
000)' . 0 02' . 0 '7 . 0
30 . 1 66 . 1 203 . 0 60 . 2

+
|
|

\
|

|
|

\
|
+
+
+
+ = R
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
13 . 0
2
2 2
2
2 2
03' . ) 60 . 10 22 . 6
97 . 1 13 . 0
67 . 0
'' . 0
37 . 0
77 . 0
31 . 0
0' . 3

|
|

\
|
+
+
|
|

\
|
+
+
=

R
( )
( )
( )( )


663 . 0 )6 . 1 ') . 0 17 . 0
)7 . 0
2- . 0
70 . 0 17 . 1 0' . 1 -2 . '
017 . 0
2
2 2
17) . 0 2

|
|

\
|
+
+
+ =

R
( )( )
( )( ) )'0 . 0 679 . 0 2'6 . 0 )0 . 0 007 . 0
-)0 . 0 ))6 . 0 31- . 0 ))7 . 1 -02 . 1 3) . 2
2
2
+ + +
+ + + =

R
( )( )
( )( ) 9-) . 3 )36 . ) 31' . 2 )7- . 0 002 . 0 0002 . 0
611 . 0 2)2 . 0 6'- . 0 '19 . 0 33' . 0 )) . 2
2 2
2
+ +
+ + + =

R
( )( )
( )( ) '26 . 1 ')' . 0 117 . 0 ')6 . 0 01' . 0 0002 . 0
-)6 . 0 6 . 0 '69 . 0 -)6 . 0 0)1 . 1 ' . 2
2 2
2
+ + +
+ + + =

R
( )
( )
( ) )3 . 0 006) . 0
297 . 0 '96 . 2 117 . ) 6-7 . 2
326 . 0 )6) . 1 73' . 1 2) . 2
2 3
2
+
+ +
+ + =


R
( )( )
( ) '72 . 0 00- . 0
0730 . 0 136 . ' '7- . 7 772 . 3 )'- . 0 2) . 0 ) . 2
2 3
+
+ + =

R
( )( )
( ) '60 . 0 01' . 0 0002 . 0
19' . 0 101 . 3 330 . 6 '1' . 3 ')3 . 0 9-1 . 0 1-- . 1 ' . 2
2
2 3 2
+ +
+ + + + =

R
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D.// omm. 3./ The application of the effective notch stress
method for fatigue assessment of structural details
*eneral
6,,ecti#e notc! st"ess is t!e total st"ess at t!e "oot o, a notc!* obtaine$ ass%min) linea"-elastic mate"ial
be!a#io%"- o ta'e acco%nt o, statistical nat%"e an$ scatte" o, (el$ s!a&e &a"amete"s* as (ell as o, non-
linea" mate"ial be!a#io%" at t!e notc! "oot* t!e "eal (el$ is "e&lace$ by an e,,ecti#e one* "e,- :i)%"e D-17-
:o" st"%ct%"al steels an e,,ecti#e notc! "oot "a$i%s o, " F 1-0 mm !as been #e"i,ie$ to )i#e consistent "es%lts-
:o" ,ati)%e assessment* t!e e,,ecti#e notc! st"ess is com&a"e$ (it! a common ,ati)%e "esistance c%"#e-
!e met!o$ is "est"icte$ to (el$e$ Coints (!ic! a"e e3&ecte$ to ,ail ,"om t!e (el$ toe o" (el$ "oot- 2t!e"
ca%ses o, ,ati)%e ,ail%"e* e-)- ,"om s%",ace "o%)!ness o" embe$$e$ $e,ects* a"e not co#e"e$- Also it is not
a&&licable (!e"e consi$e"able st"ess com&onents &a"allel to t!e (el$ o" &a"allel to t!e "oot )a& e3ist-
!e met!o$ is (ell s%ite$ ,o" S-N classi,ication o, alte"nati#e )eomet"ies- Hnless ot!e"(ise s&eci,ie$* ,lan'
an)les o, 00
o
,o" b%tt (el$s an$ 45 ,o" ,illet (el$s a"e s%))este$-
!e met!o$ is limite$ to t!ic'nesses t 5 mm- :o" smalle" (all t!ic'nesses* t!e met!o$ !as not been
#e"i,ie$ Do" a smalle" "a$i%s an$ anot!e" S-N c%"#e is "ecommen$e$ %se$Q "e,- lite"at%"eE-
Gn cases (!e"e a mean )eomet"ical notc! "oot "a$i%s can be $e,ine$* e-)- a,te" ce"tain &ost (el$
im&"o#ement &"oce$%"es s%c! as )"in$in)* t!e act%al )eomet"ical "a$i%s may be %se$ in t!e e,,ecti#e notc!
st"ess analysis- !en t!e calc%late$ notc! st"ess s!o%l$ be ente"e$ into a "ele#ant S-N c%"#e- Re,e"ence is
ma$e to able A-5 in A&&-A ,o" &otential ,ati)%e c"ac' )"o(t! ,"om )"o%n$ a"eas at (el$e$ "e)ions-
Figure D-/1 (nalysis of effective notch stress
alculation of %ffective )otch +tress
6,,ecti#e notc! st"esses o" notc! st"ess concent"ation ,acto"s can be calc%late$ by &a"amet"ic ,o"m%lae*
ta'en ,"om $ia)"ams o" calc%late$ ,"om ,inite element analysis- !e e,,ecti#e notc! "a$i%s is int"o$%ce$ s%c!
t!at t!e ti& o, t!e "a$i%s to%c!es t!e "oot o, t!e "eal notc!* e-)- t!e en$ o, an %n-(el$e$ "oot )a&-
1alc%lation o, e,,ecti#e notc! st"ess by t!e ,inite element met!o$ "e?%i"es t!at a ,ine element mes! is %se$
a"o%n$ t!e notc! "e)ion- !e e,,ecti#e notc! st"ess to be %se$ to)et!e" (it! t!e "ecommen$e$ S-N c%"#e
is t!e ma3im%m calc%late$ s%",ace st"ess in t!e notc!- !is ma3im%m s%",ace st"ess may be obtaine$
$i"ectly ,"om t!e no$al st"ess calc%late$ at t!e s%",ace o" ,"om e3t"a&olation o, element st"esses to t!e
s%",ace- Gn some ,inite element &"o)"ams it may also be e,,icient to a$$ ba" elements (it! a small a"ea
Dne)li)ible a"eaE alon) t!e notc! s%",ace- !en t!e s%",ace st"ess is ,inally $e"i#e$ as ,o"ce in t!e ba" $i#i$e$
by a"ea-
!e "e?%i"ement to mes! siNe is $e&en$in) on elements %se$- G, elements (it! ?%a$"atic $is&lacement
,%nctions a"e %se$* a minim%m o, 4 elements s!o%l$ be %se$ alon) a ?%a"te" o, t!e ci"cle ci"c%m,e"ence- G,
sim&le" elements a"e %se$* t!e mes! "e,inement s!o%l$ be im&"o#e$ co""es&on$in)ly- !e mes! s!o%l$ be
ma$e (it! "e)%la" elements (it!o%t t"ansition to "e$%ce$ "e,inement (it!in t!e ,i"st t!"ee element laye"s
,"om t!e notc! s%",ace- An element s!a&e t!at is close to ;?%a$"atic< is &"e,e""e$-
Gn case o, %nce"tainty abo%t elements ability to &"o#i$e "eliable s%",ace st"ess it is "ecommen$e$ to &e",o"m
a #ali$ation o, t!e met!o$olo)y a)ainst a (ell 'no(n case-
Ra.i1sT1mm
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)otch +tress +-) urves
!e calc%late$ notc! st"ess s!o%l$ be lin'e$ to a notc! st"ess S-N c%"#e ,o" ,ati)%e $esi)n as $esc"ibe$ in
able D-7- !e S-N c%"#es a"e &"esente$ as mean min%s t(o stan$a"$ $e#iations in lo)a"it!mic S-N ,o"mat-
!e t!ic'ness e,,ect is ass%me$ acco%nte$ ,o" in t!e calc%late$ notc! st"ess- !%s a ,%"t!e" "e$%ction o,
,ati)%e ca&acity ,o" la")e" t!ic'nesses is not "e?%i"e$-
!e S-N c%"#e is &"esente$ on t!e stan$a"$ ,o"m
(!e"e
2alidation of (nalysis .ethodology
!e notc! st"ess conce&t %sin) ,inite element analysis can be #ali$ate$ a)ainst a (ell teste$ $etail t!at also
can be assesse$ base$ on nominal st"ess a&&"oac!-
A c"%ci,o"m Coint may be selecte$ ,o" analysis as s!o(n in :i)%"e D-19 an$ :i)%"e D-18-
!e : c%"#e may be %se$ ,o" ,ati)%e assessment o, t!e (el$ toe %sin) t!e nominal st"ess a&&"oac!-
!en a ta")et notc! st"ess at t!e (el$ "oot is obtaine$ as 0-17 times t!e nominal st"ess in t!e &late-
A ,illet (el$e$ c"%ci,o"m Coint may be selecte$ ,o" analysis as s!o(n in :i)%"e D-20 an$ :i)%"e D-21- !en
t!e K0 c%"#e may be %se$ ,o" ,ati)%e assessment o, t!e (el$ "oot %sin) t!e nominal st"ess a&&"oac!- !e
nominal st"ess in t!e (el$ is $e"i#e$ as:
(!e"e
!en a ta")et notc! st"ess in t!e (el$ "oot is obtaine$ as 6-25 times t!e nominal st"ess in t!e ,illet (el$-
G, t!e calc%late$ st"ess ,"om #ali$ation analyses is ,a" ,"om t!e ta")et #al%es* it is "ecommen$e$ to consi$e"
t!e acc%"acy o, t!e met!o$olo)y %se$ s%c! as ty&e o, element in "elation to mes! "e,inement an$ "ea$ o%t
o, notc! s%",ace st"ess-
!e toe o, t!e same $etail (o%l$ be classi,ie$ as :0- !is "es%lt in a ta")et notc! st"esses 0-57 times t!e
nominal st"ess-
DD-11-1E
F inte"ce&t o, t!e $esi)n S-N c%"#e (it! t!e lo) N a3is
m F ne)ati#e in#e"se slo&e o, t!e S-N c%"#e
Table D-1 )otch stress +-) curves
Environment Log
Ai" N 10
7
cycles
m
1
F 0-0
N R 10
7
cycles
m
2
F 5-0
10-059 17-586
Sea(ate" (it! cat!o$ic &"otection N 10
6
cycles
m
1
F 0-0
N R 10
6
cycles
m
2
F 5-0
12-859 17-586
Sea(ate" (it! ,"ee co""osion :o" all N lo) F 12-990 an$ m
1
F 0-0
DD-11-2E
t F t!ic'ness o, membe"
a F t!"oat t!ic'ness
mLogS a Log LogN =
a
a
a
a t
w
2 /
"ominal
=
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Figure D-/4 *eometry for validation of analysis procedure for the weld toe
Figure D-/8 *eometry of the transition from weld to base material to be used in the analysis
Figure D-!" Detail selected for validation of procedure for root of fillet welds
t
t
"ominal

'
)
4
t/2
t
t
"ominal

'
)
4
t/2


T
1
m
m
t
a
t

"ominal
t T 16 mm
a T - mm
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Figure D-!/ )otch to be included in F% model for the weld root
D./! omm. 3.#.1 2erification of analysis methodology for F% hot
spot stress analysis
S&ecimens ,o" #e"i,ication o, analysis met!o$olo)y a"e s!o(n in :i)%"e D-22 to :i)%"e D-27-
!e !ot s&ot st"ess analysis met!o$olo)y may be #e"i,ie$ base$ on analysis o, t!ese $etails (it! $e"i#e$
ta")et !ot s&ot st"ess-
Loa$in) on t!e s&ecimens ,o" calc%lation o, !ot s&ot st"ess is s!o(n in able D-9-
!e ta")et !ot s&ot st"esses ,o" t!e s&eci,ie$ loa$ cases a"e liste$ in able D-8-
A co""ection ,acto" to be a&&lie$ to t!e analyses may be establis!e$ i, t!e calc%late$ !ot s&ot st"ess in
)ene"al is $i,,e"ent ,"om t!e ta")et !ot s&ot st"ess- !is co""ection ,acto" is obtaine$ as
DD-12-1E
Table D-4 ?oading on the specimens
'pecimen #osition of loading "ominal stress
1 St"ess in t!e a3ial $i"ection o#e" en$ a"ea e?%al 0-667 IPa
DF 800 mm
2
E
1-00 IPa
2 St"ess in t!e a3ial $i"ection o#e" en$ a"ea e?%al 0-667 IPa
DF 800 mm
2
E
1-00 IPa
0 St"ess in t!e a3ial $i"ection o#e" en$ a"ea e?%al 0-700 IPa
DF 1000 mm
2
E
1-00 IPa
4 Point loa$ 218 N abo#e b"ac'et in cantile#e" at a $istance
625 mm ,"om t!e s%&&o"t &late in test "i)
Nominal st"ess at (el$ toe to be calc%late$ as
ben$in) moment calc%late$ in t!is section
$i#i$e$ by t!e elastic section mo$%l%s in t!is
section- !e s&eci,ie$ &oint loa$ is ma$e to
&"o#i$e a nominal st"ess at t!is &osition e?%al
1-00 IPa-
5 Point loa$ 120 N abo#e b"ac'et in cantile#e" at a $istance
405 mm ,"om t!e s%&&o"t &late in test "i)
6 St"ess in t!e a3ial $i"ection o, &late e?%al 1-00 IPa 1-0 Pa
Calc1lat!. spot ,ot
Tag!t spot ,ot

= f
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Figure D-!! +pecimen /
Figure D-!# +pecimen !
Table D-8 Target hot spot stress values/stress concentrations lin<ed to the D curve
'pecimen Hot spot target values
1 1-02
2 1-96 - 1-86
0 1-00
4 1-64 - 1-94
5 1-68
6 0-10
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Figure D-!3 +pecimen #
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aC
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bE
Figure D-!5
+pecimen 3
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Figure D-!6 +pecimen 5
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Figure D-!1 +pecimen 6 Thic<ness all plates t D 5" mm.
Plate thic<ness to be used in analysis procedure
!e main calib"ation o, t!e &"oce$%"e in section A4-0-9B (as &e",o"me$ on ,ati)%e teste$ s&ecimens (it!
t
1
F t
2
F 10 mm- !e "ea$o%t &osition !as been ma$e $e&en$ent on t!e &late t!ic'ness t
1
-
Gt !as been ?%estione$ i, t!e "ea$ o%t &oint s!o%l$ "at!e" !a#e been ma$e as a ,%nction o, &late t!ic'ness
t
2
-
!e ,ollo(in) consi$e"ations !a#e been ma$e (it! "es&ect to t!is ?%estion:
> Gt is assesse$ t!at it is t!e st"ess in &late 1 t!at is )o#e"nin) ,o" t!e ,ati)%e ca&acity at t!e (el$ toe on
&late 1 si$e o, :i)%"e 4-10 at !ot s&ot 1- An$ it is t!e st"ess in t!e #e"tical &late 2 t!at is )o#e"nin) ,o"
t!e ,ati)%e ca&acity o, t!e (el$ toe on t!e t"ansition ,"om t!e (el$ to t!e &late 2 at !ot s&ot 2- !%s
,o" ,inite element mo$elin) o, t!e !ot s&ot "e)ions an$ "ea$ o%t o, !ot s&ot st"ess it (o%l$ be t!e
t!ic'ness t
1
t!at is )o#e"nin) ,o" t!e st"ess at (el$ toe to &late 1 an$ it (o%l$ be t!e t!ic'ness t
2
t!at
is )o#e"nin) ,o" t!e st"ess at (el$ toe to &late 2-
> !e st"ess $ist"ib%tion at a 45X !o&&e" connection in :i)%"e D-29 is s!o(n in :i)%"e D-28 (it!o%t
a$$itional (el$ an$ in :i)%"e D-00 (it! a$$itional (el$- !e local ben$in) st"ess in t!e &late 1 is t!e
maCo" cont"ib%tion to inc"ease in !ot s&ot st"ess as com&a"e$ (it! nominal memb"ane st"ess- !e
memb"ane st"esses an$ t!e ben$in) st"esses a"e e3t"a&olate$ bac' to t!e (el$ toe ,o" ill%st"ation
De3t"a&olation ,"om st"esses at t
1
+2 an$ 0t
1
+2 to t!e (el$ toe is s!o(nE-
> !e st"ess $ist"ib%tion at t!e !ot s&ot 1 is not e3&ecte$ to c!an)e si)ni,icantly e#en i, t!e t!ic'ness t
2

is inc"ease$ to a la")e #al%e- 4o(e#e"* one (o%l$ s!i,t t!e "ea$ o%t &oint to t!e "i)!t in t!e s'etc! o,
:i)%"e 4-11 "es%ltin) in a co""es&on$in) "e$%ce$ "ea$ o%t st"ess ,"om t!e s!ell analysis mo$el- !%s*
t!is (o%l$ &"o#i$e a non-conse"#ati#e !ot s&ot st"ess- @ase$ on t!is t!e t!ic'ness t
2
is not consi$e"e$
to be a "ele#ant &a"amete" )o#e"nin) t!e $istance ,"om t!e inte"section line to t!e "ea$ o%t &oint o,
st"ess in t!e s!ell element analysis-
500
1500
500
50
To (e "elded to
test 'ac$ine
Plate 50027,5
Full penetration "eld
Partial penetration
Plate 5002500
500
1500
500
50
To (e "elded to
test 'ac$ine
Plate 50027,5
Full penetration "eld
Partial penetration
Plate 5002500
500
1500
500
50
To (e "elded to
test 'ac$ine
Plate 50027,5
Full penetration "eld
Partial penetration
Plate 5002500

wt shift
1
t
1 + =
2
1
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 182
DNV GL AS







Figure D-!4 +olid element model of tested specimen
Figure D-!8 +tress distribution in plate / without additional weld


0.00
0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
0 10 20 30 40 50
Distance from weld toe (mm)
S
t
r
e
s
s

(
M
P
a
)
Upper surface
Lower surface
Membran stress
Bending stress
Effective stress
0.00
0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
0 10 20 30 40 50
Distance from weld toe (mm)
S
t
r
e
s
s

(
M
P
a
)
Upper surface
Lower surface
Membran stress
Bending stress
Effective stress
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 180
DNV GL AS







Figure D-#" +tress distribution in plate / with additional weld leg /" mm
D./# omm. 5 +implified fatigue analysis
Keib%ll $ist"ib%te$ st"ess "an)e an$ bi-linea" S-N c%"#es
K!en a bi-linea" o" t(o-slo&e S-N c%"#e is %se$* t!e ,ati)%e $ama)e e3&"ession is )i#en by
(!e"e
:o" $e,initions an$ symbols see also sections A1-4B* A1-5B an$ A5-1B-
Alte"nati#ely t!e $ama)e may be calc%late$ by a $i"ect inte)"ation o, $ama)e belo( eac! &a"t o, t!e bilinea"
S-N c%"#es:
(!e"e t!e $ensity Keib%ll ,%nction is )i#en by
DD-10-1E
S
1
F St"ess "an)e ,o" (!ic! c!an)e o, slo&e o, S-N c%"#e occ%"
F S-N ,ati)%e &a"amete"s ,o" N Z 10
7
cycles Dai" con$itionE
F S-N ,ati)%e &a"amete"s ,o" N R 10
7
cycles Dai" con$itionE
D E F Gncom&lete Gamma ,%nction* to be ,o%n$ in stan$a"$ tables
D E F 1om&lementa"y Gncom&lete Gamma ,%nction* to be ,o%n$ in stan$a"$ tables
DD-10-2E
DD-10-0E

0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
1.20
1.40
1.60
1.80
2.00
0 10 20 30 40 50
Distance from weld toe (weld toe at 10 mm)
S
t
r
e
s
s

(
M
P
a
)
Upper surface
Lower surface
Membran stress
Bending stress
Effective stress
0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
1.20
1.40
1.60
1.80
2.00
0 10 20 30 40 50
Distance from weld toe (weld toe at 10 mm)
S
t
r
e
s
s

(
M
P
a
)
Upper surface
Lower surface
Membran stress
Bending stress
Effective stress
J
H
S
S
h
m
1 O
a
H
H
S
S
h
m
1 K
a
H
T @ =
h
1 2
2
m
h
1 1
1
m
. 0
2 1

(
(

|
|

\
|
|
|

\
|
+ +
|
|

\
|
|
|

\
|
+ =
1 1
m & a
2 2
m & a
.S
(S% "
h% & (S& $ T F
.S
(S% "
h% & (S& $ T F
=
0
1
1

S
1
0 . 0
S
0
2
0 . 0

+ =
|
|

\
|
|
|

\
|
=

h
0
h
0
1 h
0
h% & H(
S
!/p
h% & H(
S
h h% & $(S&

Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 184
DNV GL AS







S-N c%"#es ,o" ai" con$ition a"e ass%me$ !e"e s%c! t!at t!e c"ossin) &oint o, S-N c%"#es is !e"e at 10
7

cycles- 4o(e#e"* t!is can easily be c!an)e$ to t!at o, sea(ate" (it! cat!o$ic &"otection (!e"e t!e c"ossin)
&oint is at 10
6
cyclesQ "e,- section A2-4-5B- !e st"ess "an)e co""es&on$in) to t!is n%mbe" o, cycles is
!e le,t &a"t o, S-N c%"#e is $esc"ibe$ by notation 1* (!ile t!e "i)!t &a"t is $esc"ibe$ by notation 2-
+hort term Rayleigh distribution and linear +-) curve
K!en t!e lon) te"m st"ess "an)e $ist"ib%tion is $e,ine$ t!"o%)! a s!o"t te"m Raylei)! $ist"ib%tion (it!in
eac! s!o"t te"m &e"io$ ,o" t!e $i,,e"ent loa$in) con$itions* an$ a one-slo&e S-N c%"#e is %se$* t!e ,ati)%e
c"ite"ion "ea$s*
(!e"e
!e Gamma ,%nction* is e?%al to 1-00 ,o" m F 0-0-
+hort term Rayleigh distribution and bi linear +-) curve
K!en a bi-linea" o" t(o-slo&e S-N c%"#e is a&&lie$* t!e ,ati)%e $ama)e e3&"ession is )i#en as*
%;ample Fatigue analysis of a drum
A $"%m %se$ ,o" t"ans&o"tation o, e?%i&ment is assesse$ (it! "es&ect to ,ati)%e- Re,e"ence is ma$e to :i)%"e
D-01- !e ma3im%m allo(able tension ,o"ce in t!e (i"e on t!e $"%m is to be $ete"mine$- !e"e a"e t!"ee
$i,,e"ent s&aces ,o" (i"e on t!e $"%m* se&a"ate$ by e3te"nal "in) sti,,ene"s 200 n 20 mm- !e "in) sti,,ene"s
a"e (el$e$ to t!e $"%m by $o%ble si$e$ ,illet (el$s- !e !i)!est ben$in) st"ess in t!e $"%m occ%"s (!en t!e
(i"e is at t!e cent"e o, t!e $"%m- !en t!e "eaction ,o"ce at eac! s%&&o"t becomes e?%al P+2 an$ t!e
ma3im%m ben$in) moment at t!e !i)!est st"esse$ "in) sti,,ene" is Pa+2- K!en t!e $"%m is "otate$ 190
$e)"ees t!e ben$in) moment at t!e same &osition is "e#e"se$ an$ t!e "an)e in ben$in) moment is $e"i#e$ as
!e section mo$%l%s ,o" t!e $"%m is calc%late$ as
(!e"e D F $iamete" F 600 mm an$ t F t!ic'ness F 20 mm- !en K F 5114T10
0
mm
0
-
DD-10-4E
DD-10-5E
DD-10-6E
"
iC
F t!e "elati#e n%mbe" o, st"ess cycles in s!o"t-te"m con$ition i5 A

o
F lon)-te"m a#e"a)e Ne"o-%&-c"ossin)-,"e?%ency D4NE
m
oiC
F Ne"o s&ect"al moment o, st"ess "es&onse &"ocess
DD-10-7E
DD-10-9E
DD-10-8E
1/h
0
0
0
%% (ln(n
h% & H(


=
1
m
1
7
1
1
10
a
S |

\
|
=
J % 2m (2 %
2
m
K(1
a
T @
=
h!a.ings all
s!astat!s all
1 A 1& i
m
0iA iA
. 0
+ =
= =
%
2
m
K(1+

(
(
(

|
|
|

\
|
|
|

\
|
+ +
|
|
|

\
|
|
|

\
|
+ =

= =
2
0iA
1 2
2
m
0iA
2
0iA
1 1
1
m
0iA
h!a.ings all
s!astat!s all
1 A 1& i
iA . 0
2m 2
S
S
2
m
1 O
a
% 2m (2
2m 2
S
S
2
m
1 K
a
% 2m (2
T @ =
2 1
:a 4 =

( )
D
t D D ;
1
% 2 (
32
' '
=

Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 185
DNV GL AS







:o" t!e o%tsi$e o, t!e $"%m a st"ess concent"ation ,acto" is calc%late$ ,"om section A0-0-9B
!e nominal st"ess at t!e o%tsi$e o, t!e $"%m at t!e consi$e"e$ "in) sti,,ene" is obtaine$ as:
!e $istance ,"om t!e $"%m s%&&o"t to t!e consi$e"e$ "in) sti,,ene" a F 1200 mm-
A Desi)n :ati)%e :acto" o, 2 is s&eci,ie$: D:: F 2-
!e n%mbe" o, "otations o, t!e $"%m is not s&eci,ie$ an$ is consi$e"e$ to be %nce"tain- !e"e,o"e a st"ess
"an)e belo( t!e constant am&lit%$e ,ati)%e limit is aime$ ,o"- !e $etail classi,ication is ,o%n$ ,"om able
D-7 $etail 9: !e classi,ication is 6-
!en t!e allo(able st"ess "an)e is obtaine$ ,"om able 2-1 ,o" an 6 -$etail an$ ,"om section A2-11B as
!en t!e ma3im%m tension ,o"ce is $e"i#e$ as
Figure D-#/ Drum for transportation
omm. 1 0mprovement of fatigue life by fabrication
Re,e"ence is ma$e to ;Recommen$ations on Post (el$ Gm&"o#ement o, Steel An$ Al%mini%m St"%ct%"es<*
"e,- +16+* ,o" e,,ect o, (el$ im&"o#ements on ,ati)%e li,e- Re,e"ence is also ma$e to ;APG P"o#isions ,o" S1:*
S-N* an$ SiNe-P"o,ile 6,,ects<* "e,- +22+* ,o" e,,ect o, (el$ &"o,ilin) on t!ic'ness e,,ect- Re,e"ence is ma$e
to ;:ati)%e o, Kel$e$ Uoints Peene$ Hn$e"(ate"<* "e,- +10+* ,o" ,ati)%e o, (el$e$ Coints &eene$ %n$e"(ate"-
DD-10-10E
DD-10-11E

DD-10-12E
DD-10-10E
DD-10-14E
60 . 1
20 200
20 300 20 )6 . 1
1
)6 . 1
1 =


+ = + =
r
5
rt t

3' . 1
60 . 1
)' . 0
1
)' . 0
1 = + = + =

SCF
SCF
;
a :
SCF
;
4

=
4:a
DFF
cycles at
mm t allowa-le
13 . 37
2
7- . '6 10
0 . 3 / 1 0 . 3 / 1
7
2)
= =

=
=

kN
SCF a
;
:
allowa-le
1 . 11-
3' . 1 1200
10 )11' 13 . 37
3
=

=

+
+
+ 8 +
D
t
P
a
+
+
+ 8 +
D
t
M = Pa/2
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D./3 omm. !./"./ +tresses at girth welds in pipes and +-) data
K!en &i&es a"e s%bCecte$ to a )lobal ben$in) moment only* t!e st"ess on t!e insi$e is lo(e" t!an t!at o,
t!e st"ess on t!e o%tsi$e as s!o(n in :i)%"e D-02- :o" a &i&e (it! $iamete" 772 mm an$ t!ic'ness 06 mm
t!e "atio bet(een t!e st"ess on t!e insi$e an$ t!e o%tsi$e is 0-81-
Gt s!o%l$ be note$ t!at t!e local ben$in) st"ess $%e to t!ic'ness t"ansition an$ ,ab"ication tole"ances is $%e
to t!e memb"ane st"ess o#e" t!e t!ic'ness- !is st"ess is $enote$
)m
in :i)%"e D-02 an$ t!is st"ess is to
be %se$ to)et!e" (it! e?%ation D2-10-1E ,o" $e"i#ation o, local ben$in) st"ess-
!e "es%ltin) st"ess at (el$e$ connections can be calc%late$ as a s%m o, t!e st"ess ,"om )lobal ben$in) an$
t!at ,"om local ben$in) on insi$e an$ o%tsi$e as "ele#ant-
!e local ben$in) moment at a $istance 3 ,"om a (el$ (it! an eccent"icity can be calc%late$ base$ on s!ell
t!eo"y as
(!e"e t!e eccent"icity moment I
0
is $e"i#e$ ,"om as
(!e"e

F s!i,t in ne%t"al a3is $%e to c!an)e in t!ic'ness an$ ,ab"ication tole"ance*

a
F memb"ane a3ial st"ess in t!e t%b%la"*
t F t!ic'ness o, &i&e-
A "e$%ce$ co-o"$inate is $e,ine$ as
(!e"e t!e elastic len)t! is calc%late$ as
(!e"e
r F "a$i%s to mi$ s%",ace o, t!e &i&e*
t F t!ic'ness o, t!e &i&e*
F PoissonMs "atio-
!e "es%lts ,"om t!is analytical a&&"oac! !a#e been com&a"e$ (it! "es%lts ,"om a3isymmet"ic ,inite element
analysis in :i)%"e D-00-
!e &"esente$ e?%ations can be %se$ to $esi)n connections (it! b%ilt in eccent"icity to $ec"ease t!e st"ess
at t!e "oot t!at !as a lo(e" S-N c%"#e t!an at t!e (el$ ca& DtoeE- !is (ill* !o(e#e"* inc"eases t!e st"ess
at t!e (el$ toe an$ t!is may "e?%i"e (el$ im&"o#ement at t!e (el$ toe- !e &"inci&al o, &%"&ose ma$e
eccent"icity can be %se$ in s&ecial sit%ations (!e"e a lon) ,ati)%e li,e is "e?%i"e$ s%c! as at lon) ,"ee
s&annin) &i&elines* "e,- also 2IA62010-20648-

D-14-1

D-14-2

D-14-0

D-14-4

cos % (
0

= e 4 1 4
t 4
a
m

2
0
=
e
l
1
=
'
2
% 1 ( 3
=
t r
l
e
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 187
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Figure D-#! +tress in pipe due to global bending moment
Figure D-## +tress concentration as function of distance from weld
Kit! "e,e"ence to :i)%"e D-02 t!e st"ess on t!e o%tsi$e can be calc%late$ as
(!e"e S1:
insi$e
is st"ess concent"ation ,acto" ,o" calc%lation o, st"ess on t!e insi$e an$ t!e ot!e" &a"amete"s
a"e $e,ine$ in :i)%"e D-02-
!e $esi)n &"oce$%"e in section A2-10-1B is base$ on a consi$e"ation t!at it is $i,,ic%lt to se&a"ate t!e e,,ect
o, t!e st"ess concent"ation ,o" local ben$in) o#e" t!e t!ic'ness an$ t!e notc! e,,ect ,o" S-N classi,ication o,
t!e "oot- !e "eason ,o" t!is is also t!at t!e st"ess $%e to local ben$in) is less ,o" t!e "oot t!an ,o" t!e (el$
toe as in$icate$ in :i)%"e D-04- At t!e (el$ toe t!e local ben$in) st"ess $%e to a misali)nment
m
an$
memb"ane st"ess
m
can be e3&"esse$ as
!e (i$t! o, t!e (el$ at t!e "oot can base$ on :i)%"e D-04 be $e"i#e$ as
G, ne( test $ata an$ bette" 'no(le$)e abo%t (el$ s!a&es a"e $e"i#e$* one may also consi$e" se&a"atin)
t!e e,,ect o, misali)nment an$ S-N $ata ,o" t!e (el$ t!"o%)! t!e ,ollo(in) st"ess concent"ation ,acto"
DD14-6E
DD14-7E
DD14-9E
DD14-8E
go

gi
gm

D
p
t
go

gi
gm

D
p
t
0.!0
0.!5
1.00
1.05
1.10
1.15
1.,0
0 100 ,00 -00 400 500
D!stance from t$e (el* ) (mm)
S
t
r
e
s
s

c
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

)
a
c
t
o
r
+2is*''etric FE anal*si s
7lassical s$el l t$eor*
( )
go gm outside outside
SCF + = 1

m
m
-t
e
t


=
3

m
t
r m
-r
e
L t
L


=
3


+ = e
L t
L
SCF
t
r m
3
1
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 189
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Figure D-#3 +tress distribution due to misalignment at single sided welds in tubulars
D./5 omm. 1. 0mprovement of fatigue life by fabrication
An alte"nati#e to t!e im&"o#ement ,acto"s in able 7-1 is to %se S-N c%"#es (it! a mo"e co""ect slo&e t!at
"e&"esents t!e im&"o#e$ $etails- An e3am&le o, s%c! S-N c%"#es is s!o(n in :i)%"e D-05-
1!a"acte"istic S-N c%"#es ,o" im&"o#e$ $etails can be ,o%n$ in able D-10- S-N c%"#e to be selecte$ is lin'e$
to t!e S-N classi,ication o, $etails s!o(n in A&&-A- !ese S-N c%"#es can be %se$ in ai" an$ in sea(ate" (it!
cat!o$ic &"otection-
!e S-N c%"#es ,o" im&"o#ement a"e in line (it! t!e "ecommen$ations ,"om GGK ,o" inc"ease$ st"ess "an)es
at 2T10
6
cycles Dinc"ease in st"ess "an)e by a ,acto" 1-0 ,o" )"in$in) an$ a ,acto" 1-5 ,o" !amme" &eenin)E-
!e "es%ltin) im&"o#ement may li'ely be ,o%n$ to be la")e" (!en %sin) t!ese S-N c%"#es t!an %sin) ,acto"s
,"om able 7-1 as t!e main cont"ib%tion to ,ati)%e $ama)e is acc%m%late$ to t!e "i)!t o, 2T10
6
cycles in
t!e !i)! cycle "an)e o, t!e S-N c%"#e-
Gt s!o%l$ be note$ t!at S-N c%"#es abo#e t!at o, D s!o%l$ be %se$ (it! ca%tion ,o" (el$e$ connections
(!e"e ,ati)%e c"ac's can initiate ,"om inte"nal $e,ects- Gn )ene"al t!e selection o, a&&"o&"iate S-N c%"#e
$e&en$s on ND met!o$ %se$ an$ acce&tance c"ite"ia- !is nee$s to be assesse$ (!en im&"o#ement
met!o$s a"e %se$ an$ co""es&on$in) S-N c%"#es a"e selecte$-
Figure D-#5 %;ample of +-) curves BD-curveC for a butt weld in as welded condition and improved by
grinding or hammer peening

d
'
L
t
T
Dero (ending stress
L
@
s
(r
3ending 'o'ent o:er
t$ickness at "eld region
s
(t

7 7
10
100
1000
100000 1000000 10000000 100000000
S
t
r
e
s
s

r
a
n
g
e

(
M
P
a
)
Number of cycles
Detail category D Grinded
Detail category D Peened
Detail category D As welded
Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 188
DNV GL AS







D./6 omm. #.#./!
An e3am&le "elate$ to )%sset Coints an$ c"%ci,o"m Coints is consi$e"e$ in :i)%"e D-06- !is e3am&le is
incl%$e$ in o"$e" to ill%st"ate t!e com&le3ity o, ,ati)%e $esi)n at s%c! connections-
Figure D-#6 *usset and cruciform :oint
A )%sset connection to a st"%ct%"al $ec' in (!ic! (e may !a#e cyclic #a"yin) st"esses in t!e 0 $i"ections
DG* GG* GGGE as s!o(n in :i)%"e D- is consi$e"e$- :%ll &enet"ation (el$s bet(een t!e )%sset an$ t!e $ec' a"e
ass%me$* in t!e local %n$e"-$ec' connection* an$ in t!e t%be (!ic! is slotte$ o#e" t!e )%sset (!ic! !as
been &"o,ile$ ,o" .,a#o%"able. )eomet"y- 2ne may e3&ect to ,in$ st"ess &ea's at t!e &oints in$icate$ as *
* an$ - No( it is ass%me$ in t!is e3am&le t!at ,ab"ication misali)nments bet(een t!e )%sset an$
t!e %n$e"lyin) b%l'!ea$ !a#e not been mo$elle$* b%t !a#e been $e,ine$ by (ay o, a tole"ance* say 155
o, t!e )%sset &late t!ic'ness- :%"t!e"mo"e it is ass%me$ t!at st"esses a"e e3t"acte$ ,"om &late+s!ell
elements by Iet!o$ @-
Table D-/" +-) curves for improved details by grinding or hammer peening
'" curve
Bmprovement !y grinding
Bmprovement !y
hammer peening
" *+
,
cycles
m
*
/ 7.0
" - *+
,
cycles
m
.
/ 0.+
For all "
m / 0.+
D 10-540 16-040 16-850
6 10-060 16-096 16-686
: 10-178 15-929 16-409
:1 12-887 15-569 16-179
:0 12-918 15-010 15-820
G 12-646 15-066 15-676
K1 12-496 14-909 15-449
K2 12-007 14-591 15-181
K0 12-147 14-050 14-860
1
loga
2
a log a log



Recommen$e$ &"actice / DNVGL-RP-0005:2014-06 Pa)e 200
DNV GL AS







1onsi$e"in) st"esses in t!e $ec' &late ,o" $i"ection G* section A4-0-5B (it! able A-7D9E lea$s to t!e %se o,
t!e 6-c%"#e De#en i, (e %se a ,illet (el$ ,o" t!e )%ssetE- !is (o%l$ a&&ly all alon) t!e )%sset an$ a&&lies
to st"esses at t!e to& an$ bottom s%",ace o, t!e elements in t!e $ec' &late a$Cacent to t!e (el$- St"esses
a"e not ,acto"e$ by 1-12-
1onsi$e"in) st"esses in t!e $ec' &late ,o" $i"ection GG* section A4-0-5B lea$s to t!e %se o, t!e D-c%"#e (!en
e3t"a&olation o, st"esses to t!e &lane o, t!e )%sset &late is &e",o"me$ an$ ,%"t!e" e3t"a&olation o, st"esses
to t!e !ot s&ot a"e ma$e as s!o(n in :i)%"e 4-0- !is &"inci&ally a&&lies at &oint - 4o(e#e"* ty&ically
(it! Iet!o$ @ one (ill e3t"act st"esses at t!e cent"e o, t!e elements locate$ on eit!e" si$e o, t!e a3is o,
t!e )%sset toe- !en e3t"a&olation o, st"esses to t!e )%sset &lane s!o%l$ be &e",o"me$ at 0-5t be,o"e t!is
st"ess is m%lti&lie$ by 1-12 ,o" calc%lation o, !ot s&ot st"ess-
1onsi$e"in) st"esses in t!e )%sset Dan$ in t!e b%l'!ea$ belo(E one may ,in$ a &ea' st"ess at &oint
beca%se o, t!e &"esence o, t!e sti,,ene"- :o" st"ess $i"ection GGG* section A4-0-5B (it! able A-9D1E lea$s to
t!e %se o, t!e :-c%"#e D(it!o%t t!e 1-12 ,acto"E- !is a&&"oac! s!o%l$ be %se$ ,o" all )%sset s%",ace st"esses
e3t"acte$ ,"om t!e bottom "o( o, )%sset &late elements-
G, t!e ,ab"ication eccent"icity !as not mo$elle$* it is not necessa"y to a&&ly an a$$itional co""ection ,acto"
to eit!e" t!e $ec' o" t!e )%sset+b%l'!ea$ st"esses &"o#i$e$ o%" $e,ine$ tole"ance is less t!an
+
* 0-15 t
i

,"om section A0-1-0B-
1onsi$e"in) st"esses e3t"acte$ ,"om t!e t%b%la" col%mn one may e3&ect a concent"ation at &oint - :"om
t!e "oot o, t!e sin)le-si$e$ (el$ one can %se t!e st"esses e3t"acte$ ,"om t!e inne" s%",ace o, t%be elements
a$Cacent to t!e )%sset an$ one m%st %se t!e :0 c%"#e D(it!o%t t!e 1-12 ,acto"E- :o" st"esses e3t"acte$ ,"om
t!e e3te"nal s%",ace o, t!e t%be elements one m%st %se t!e D-c%"#e-
2ne may also ,in$ a concent"ation o, st"ess in t!e )%sset at &oint * (!e"e t!e (el$in) is %s%ally ?%ite
com&le3 $%e to t!e &"esence o, a co#e" &late- Gnte"&"etin) section A0-0-12B* one m%st also %se t!e :0 c%"#e
a&&lie$ to t!e )%sset &late s%",ace st"esses in t!is a"ea D(it!o%t t!e 1-12 ,acto"E* an$ one s!o%l$ %se K0
to assess c"ac's t!"o%)! t!e (el$ ,"om t!e "oot-
An e3am&le o, st"ess concent"ation ,acto"s ,o" )%sset &late Coints analyse$ in a &"oCect is s!o(n in able D-
11-
Table D-// +tress concentration factors for :oints with gusset plate
Geometry 'CF
R4S 250 316 (it! ,a#o%"able )eomet"y o, )%sset &late 2-8
R4S 250 316 (it! sim&le s!a&e o, )%sset &late 0-9
_250 316 (it! ,a#o%"able )eomet"y o, )%sset &late 2-0
_250 316 (it! sim&le s!a&e o, )%sset &late 0-0




D)2 *?
D"i#en by o%" &%"&ose o, sa,e)%a"$in) li,e* &"o&e"ty an$ t!e en#i"onment* DNV GL enables
o")aniNations to a$#ance t!e sa,ety an$ s%stainability o, t!ei" b%siness- Ke &"o#i$e classi,ication
an$ tec!nical ass%"ance alon) (it! so,t(a"e an$ in$e&en$ent e3&e"t a$#iso"y se"#ices to t!e
ma"itime* oil an$ )as* an$ ene")y in$%st"ies- Ke also &"o#i$e ce"ti,ication se"#ices to c%stome"s
ac"oss a (i$e "an)e o, in$%st"ies- 2&e"atin) in mo"e t!an 100 co%nt"ies* o%" 16 000 &"o,essionals
a"e $e$icate$ to !el&in) o%" c%stome"s ma'e t!e (o"l$ sa,e"* sma"te" an$ )"eene"-
SA:6R* SIAR6R* GR66N6R