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THE CONSTITUTION OF THE

UNITED STATES OF
AMERICA
PREAMBLE
We the People off the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice,
insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare,
and secure the Blessings of iberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish
this !onstitution for the United States of "merica
P#O$%S%O&S
' "rticle () egislative *epartment
' "rticle +) ,-ecutive *epartment
' "rticle .) Judicial *epartment
' "rticle /) #elation among States
' "rticle 0) Provisions for "mendments
' "rticle 1) &ational *ebts, Supremacy of &ational a2, Oath3
' "rticle 4) #atification of !onstitution
Article 1: LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT SECTION

Section 1: Legil!ti"e Po#er$ T%e Congre
"ll legislative po2ers herein granted shall be vested in the !ongress of the United
States, 2hich shall consist of a Senate and 5ouse of #epresentatives3
Section &: Ho'e o( Re)reent!tion
(3 The 5ouse of #epresentative shall be composed of members chosen every second
year by the people of the several states, and the electors in each state shall have the
qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the state
legislature3
+3 &o person shall be representative 2ho shall not have attained to the age of t2enty6
five years, and been seven years a citi7en of United states and 2ho shall not, 2hen
elected, be an inhabitant of the State in 2hich he shall be chosen3
.3 #epresentatives and direct ta-es shall be apportioned among the several states
2hich may be included 2ithin this union, according to their respective numbers, 2hich
shall be determined by adding to the 2hole number of free persons, including those
bound to service for a term of years and e-cluding %ndians not ta-ed, three fifths of all
other persons3 The actual enumeration shall be made 2ithin three years after the first
meeting of the !ongress of the United States, and 2ithin every subsequent term of ten
years, in such manner as they shall by la2 direct3 The number of representatives shall
not e-ceed one for every thirty thousand, but each State shall have at least on
#epresentative8 and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of &e2
5ampshire shall be entitled to choose three, 9assachusetts eight, #hode %sland and
Providence Plantations one, !onnecticut five, &e2 :or; si-, &e2 Jersey four,
Pennsylvania eight, *ela2are one, 9aryland si-, $irginia ten, &orth !arolina five,
South !arolina five, and <eorgia three3
/3 When vacancies happen in the representation from any state, the e-ecutive
authority thereof shall issue 2rits of election to fill such vacancies3
03 The 5ouse of #epresentatives shall choose their Spea;er and other officers8 and
shall have the sole po2er of impeachment3
Section *: Sen!te
(3The Senate of the United States shall be composed of t2o Senators from each State,
chosen by the egislature thereof,. for si- :ears8 and each Senator shall have one $ote3
+3 %mmediately after they shall be assembled in !onsequence of the first ,lection, they shall
be divided as equally as may be into three !lasses3 The Seats of the Senators of the first
!lass shall be vacated at the ,-piration of the second :ear, of the second !lass at the
,-piration of the fourth :ear, and of the third !lass at the ,-piration of the si-th :ear, so that
one third may be chosen every second :ear8 and if $acancies happen by #esignation, or
other2ise, during the #ecess of the egislature of any State, the ,-ecutive thereof may ma;e
temporary "ppointments until the ne-t 9eeting of the egislature, 2hich shall then fill such
$acancies3
.3 &o Person shall be a Senator 2ho shall not have attained to the "ge of thirty :ears, and
been nine :ears a !iti7en of the United States, and 2ho shall not, 2hen elected, be an
%nhabitant of that State for 2hich he shall be chosen3
/3 The $ice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no
$ote, unless they be equally divided3
03 The Senate shall choose their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the
"bsence of the $ice President, or 2hen he shall e-ercise the Office of President of the United
States3
13 The Senate shall have the sole Po2er to try all %mpeachments3 When sitting for that
Purpose, they shall be on Oath or "ffirmation3 When the President of the United States is
tried, the !hief Justice shall preside) "nd no Person shall be convicted 2ithout the
!oncurrence of t2o thirds of the 9embers present
43 Judgment in !ases of impeachment shall not e-tend further than to removal from Office,
and disqualification to hold and en=oy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United
States) but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and sub=ect to %ndictment, Trial,
Judgment and Punishment, according to a23
Section +, Election !n- Meeting
(3 The Times, Places and 9anner of holding ,lections for Senators and
#epresentatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the egislature thereof8 but
the !ongress may at any time by a2 ma;e or alter such #egulations, e-cept as to
the Places of choosing Senators3
+3 The !ongress shall assemble at least once in every :ear, and such 9eeting shall
be on the first 9onday in *ecember, unless they shall by a2 appoint a different *ay3
Section ., Legil!ti"e Procee-ing
(3 ,ach 5ouse shall be the Judge of the ,lections, #eturns and >ualifications of its
o2n 9embers, and a 9a=ority of each shall constitute a >uorum to do Business8 but
a smaller &umber may ad=ourn from day to day, and may be authori7ed to compel
the "ttendance of absent 9embers, in such 9anner, and under such Penalties as
each 5ouse may provide3
+3 ,ach 5ouse may determine the #ules of its Proceedings, punish its 9embers for
disorderly Behavior, and, 2ith the !oncurrence of t2o thirds, e-pel a 9ember3
.3 ,ach 5ouse shall ;eep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish
the same, e-cepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy8 and the
:eas and &ays of the 9embers of either 5ouse on any question shall, at the *esire
of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal3
/3 &either 5ouse, during the Session of !ongress, shall, 2ithout the !onsent of the
other, ad=ourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in 2hich the
t2o 5ouses shall be sitting3
Section /, Co0)en!tion1 I00'nitie !n- Di!2ilitie o( Me02er
(3 The Senators and #epresentatives shall receive a !ompensation for their Services,
to be ascertained by a2, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States3 They
shall in all !ases, e-cept Treason, ?elony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged
from "rrest during their "ttendance at the Session of their respective 5ouses, and
in going to and returning from the same8 and for any Speech or *ebate in either
5ouse, they shall not be questioned in any other Place3
+3 &o Senator or #epresentative shall, during the Time for 2hich he 2as elected, be
appointed to any civil Office under the "uthority of the United States, 2hich shall
have been created, or the ,moluments 2hereof shall have been increased during
such time8 and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a
9ember of either 5ouse during his !ontinuance in Office3
Section 3, Re"en'e Bill1 Prei-ent Veto
(3 "ll Bills for raising #evenue shall originate in the 5ouse of #epresentatives8 but the
Senate may propose or concur 2ith "mendments as on other Bills3
+3 ,very Bill 2hich shall have passed the 5ouse of #epresentatives and the Senate,
shall, before it become a a2, be presented to the President of the United States8 %f he
approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, 2ith his Ob=ections to that 5ouse
in 2hich it shall have originated, 2ho shall enter the Ob=ections at large on their
Journal, and proceed to reconsider it3 %f after such #econsideration t2o thirds of that
5ouse shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together 2ith the Ob=ections, to the
other 5ouse, by 2hich it shall li;e2ise be reconsidered, and if approved by t2o thirds
of that 5ouse, it shall become a a23 But in all such !ases the $otes of both 5ouses
shall be determined by yeas and &ays, and the &ames of the Persons voting for and
against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each 5ouse respectively3 %f any
Bill shall not be returned by the President 2ithin ten *ays @Sundays e-cepted
after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a a2, in li;e 9anner as
if he had signed it, unless the !ongress by their "d=ournment prevent its #eturn, in
2hich !ase it shall not be a a23
.3 ,very Order, #esolution, or $ote to 2hich the !oncurrence of the Senate and
5ouse of #epresentatives may be necessary @e-cept on a question of "d=ournmentA
shall be presented to the President of the United States8 and before the Same shall
ta;e ,ffect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed
by t2o thirds of the Senate and 5ouse of #epresentatives, according to the #ules and
imitations prescribed in the !ase of a Bill3
Section 4, Po#er o( Congre
The !ongress shall have po2er
(3 To lay and collect ta-es, duties, imposts and e-cises, to pay debts, and provide for
the common defense and general 2elfare of the United States8 but all duties,
imposts and e-cises, shall be uniform throughout the United States8
+3 To borro2 money on the credit of US8
.3 To regulate commerce 2ith foreign nations and among several states, and 2ith the
%ndian Tribes8
/3 To establish an uniform rule of naturali7ation, and uniform la2s on the sub=ect of
ban;ruptcies, throughout the US8
03 To coin money, regulate the value thereof and of foreign coin, and fi- the standards
of 2eight and measures8
13 To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of the
US8
43 To establish post offices and post roads8
B3 To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times, to
authors and inventors, the e-clusive right to their respective 2ritings and discoveries3
C3 To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme !ourt8
(D3To define the punish piracies and felonies, committed on the high seas, and
offenses against the la2 of nations3
((3 To declare 2ar, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and ma;e rules concerning
captures on land and 2ater8
(+3 To raise and support armies8 but no appropriation of money to that shall be for a
longer term than t2o years8
(.3 To provide and maintain a navy8
(/3 To ma;e rules for the government and regulation for the land and naval forces8
(03 To provide for calling forth the militia to e-ecute the la2s of the Union, suppress
insurrections, and repel invasions8
(13 To provide for organi7ing, arming, and disciplining the 9ilitia, and for governing
such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States,
reserving to the States respectively, the "ppointment of the Officers, and the
"uthority of training the 9ilitia according to the discipline prescribed by !ongress8
(43 To e-ercise e-clusive egislation in all !ases 2hatsoever, over such *istrict @not
e-ceeding ten 9iles squareA as may, by !ession of particular States, and the
acceptance of !ongress, become the Seat of the <overnment of the United States,
and to e-ercise li;e "uthority over all Places purchased by the !onsent of the
egislature of the State in 2hich the Same shall be, for the ,rection of ?orts,
9aga7ines, "rsenals, doc;6:ards, and other needful Buildings8 "nd
(B3 To ma;e all a2s 2hich shall be necessary and proper for carrying into ,-ecution
the foregoing Po2ers, and all other Po2ers vested by this !onstitution in the
<overnment of the United States, or in any *epartment or Officer thereof3
Section 5, Po#er Denie- to Congre
(3 The 9igration or %mportation of such Persons as any of the States no2 e-isting shall
thin; proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the !ongress prior to the :ear one
thousand eight hundred and eight, but a ta- or duty may be imposed on such
%mportation, not e-ceeding ten dollars for each Person3
+3 The privilege of the Writ of 5abeas !orpus shall not be suspended, unless 2hen in
!ases of #ebellion or %nvasion the public Safety may require it3
.3 &o Bill of "ttainder or e- post facto a2 shall be passed3
/3 @&o capitation, or other direct, Ta- shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the !ensus
or ,numeration herein before directed to be ta;en3A @Section in parentheses clarified by
the (1th "mendment3A
03 &o Ta- or *uty shall be laid on "rticles e-ported from any State3
13 &o Preference shall be given by any #egulation of !ommerce or #evenue to the
Ports of one State over those of another) nor shall $essels bound to, or from, one
State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay *uties in another3
43 &o 9oney shall be dra2n from the Treasury, but in !onsequence of "ppropriations
made by a28 and a regular Statement and "ccount of the #eceipts and ,-penditures
of all public 9oney shall be published from time to time3
B3 &o Title of &obility shall be granted by the United States) "nd no Person holding any
Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, 2ithout the !onsent of the !ongress, accept
of any present, ,molument, Office, or Title, of any ;ind 2hatever, from any Eing, Prince
or foreign State3
Section 16, Po#er Denie- to t%e St!te
(3 &o State shall enter into any Treaty, "lliance, or !onfederation8 grant etters of
9arque and #eprisal8 coin 9oney8 emit Bills of !redit8 ma;e any Thing but gold and
silver !oin a Tender in Payment of *ebts8 pass any Bill of "ttainder, e- post facto
a2, or a2 impairing the Obligation of !ontracts, or grant any Title of &obility3
+3 &o State shall, 2ithout the !onsent of the !ongress, lay any %mposts or *uties on
%mports or ,-ports, e-cept 2hat may be absolutely necessary for e-ecuting
inspection a2s) and the net Produce of all *uties and %mposts, laid by any State on
%mports or ,-ports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States8 and
all such a2s shall be sub=ect to the #evision and !ontrol of the !ongress3
.3 &o State shall, 2ithout the !onsent of !ongress, lay any duty of Tonnage, ;eep
Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any "greement or !ompact 2ith
another State, or 2ith a foreign Po2er, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in
such imminent *anger as 2ill not admit of delay3
Article II: E7ECUTIVE DEPARTMENT SECTION
Section 1, Prei-ent !n- t%e Vice Prei-ent Section
Section &, Prei-ent8 Po#er !n- D'tie 9Ci"ili!n Po#er o"er Milit!r:1 C!2inet1
P!r-on Po#er1 A))oint0ent;
Section *, Prei-ent8 Po#er !n- D'tie 9 St!te o( t%e Union1 Con"ening
Congre;
Section, +, I0)e!c%0ent
Article III: <UDICIAL DEPARTMENT SECTION
Section 1, Co'rt1 Ter0 o( O((ice 9<'-ici!l Po#er;Section
Section &, <'ri-iction1 Tri!l 2: <'r: Section
Section *, Tre!on
Article IV: RELATIONS AMONG STATES RELATION
Section 1, F'll F!it% !n- Cre-it %!ll 2e gi"en in e!c% St!te to t%e )'2lic Act1
Recor-1 !n- <'-ici!l Procee-ing o( e"er: ot%er St!te, "nd the !ongress may by
general a2s prescribe the 9anner in 2hich such "cts, #ecords and Proceedings shall
be proved, and the ,ffect thereof3 Section
Section &, St!te citi=en1 E>tr!-ition
(3 The !iti7ens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and %mmunities of
!iti7ens in the several States3
+3 " Person charged in any State 2ith Treason, ?elony, or other !rime, 2ho shall flee
from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on demand of the e-ecutive
"uthority of the State from 2hich he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State
having Jurisdiction of the !rime3
.3 (No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof,
escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be
discharged from such Service or Labour, ut shall be delivered up on Claim of the
Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due!" @This clause in parentheses is
superseded by the (.th "mendment3A
Section * ? Ne# St!te$ Territorie
(3&e2 States may be admitted by the !ongress into this Union8 but no ne2 States
shall be formed or erected 2ithin the Jurisdiction of any other State8 nor any State
be formed by the Junction of t2o or more States, or parts of States, 2ithout the
!onsent of the egislatures of the States concerned as 2ell as of the !ongress3
+3 The !ongress shall have Po2er to dispose of and ma;e all needful #ules and
#egulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States8
and nothing in this !onstitution shall be so construed as to Pre=udice any !laims of
the United States, or of any particular State3
Section + @ Protection !((or-e- to t!te 2: t%e n!tion,
The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a #epublican ?orm of
<overnment, and shall protect each of them against %nvasion8 and on "pplication of
the egislature, or of the ,-ecutive @2hen the egislature cannot be convenedA against
domestic $iolence3
Article V: PROVISIONS FOR AMENDMENT
The !ongress, 2henever t2o thirds of both 5ouses shall deem it necessary, shall
propose "mendments to this !onstitution, or, on the "pplication of the egislatures
of t2o thirds of the several States, shall call a !onvention for proposing
"mendments, 2hich, in either !ase, shall be valid to all %ntents and Purposes, as
part of this !onstitution, 2hen ratified by the egislatures of three fourths of the
several States, or by !onventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other
9ode of #atification may be proposed by the !ongress8 Provided that no "mendment
2hich may be made prior to the :ear One thousand eight hundred and eight shall
in any 9anner affect the first and fourth !lauses in the &inth Section of the first
"rticle8 and that no State, 2ithout its !onsent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in
the Senate3
Article VII: RATIFICATION OF CONSTITUTION
The #atification of the !onventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the
,stablishment of this !onstitution bet2een the States so ratifying the Same3
*one in !onvention by the Unanimous !onsent of the States present the Seventeenth
*ay of September in the :ear of our ord one thousand seven hundred and ,ighty
seven and of the %ndependence of the United States of "merica the T2elfth3 %n
Witness 2hereof We have hereunto subscribed our &ames3
Article VI: NATIONAL DEBTS1 SUPREMACA OF NATIONAL LAB1 OATH
Section 13"ll *ebts contracted and ,ngagements entered into, before the "doption of
this !onstitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this !onstitution, as
under the !onfederation3
Section &, This !onstitution, and the a2s of the United States 2hich shall be made in
Pursuance thereof8 and all Treaties made, or 2hich shall be made, under the "uthority
of the United States, shall be the supreme a2 of the and8 and the Judges in every
State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the !onstitution or a2s of any State to the
!ontrary not2ithstanding3
Section *, The Senators and #epresentatives before mentioned, and the 9embers of
the several State egislatures, and all e-ecutive and =udicial Officers, both of the
United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or "ffirmation, to
support this !onstitution8 but no religious Test shall ever be required as a
>ualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States3
AMENDMENTS
?irst (D "mendments is for the Bill of #ights
Proposed on !ongress) September +0, (4BC
#atified in !ongress) *ecember (0, (4C(
A0en-0ent 1 ? Free-o0 o( Religion1 Pre1 E>)reion, #atified (+F(0F(4C(3
!ongress shall ma;e no la2 respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the
free e-ercise thereof8 or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press8 or the right
of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the <overnment for a redress of
grievances3
A0en-0ent & ? Rig%t to Be!r Ar0, #atified (+F(0F(4C(3
" 2ell regulated 9ilitia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the
people to ;eep and bear "rms, shall not be infringed3
A0en-0ent * ? C'!rtering o( Sol-ier, #atified (+F(0F(4C(3
&o Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, 2ithout the consent of
the O2ner, nor in time of 2ar, but in a manner to be prescribed by la23
A0en-0ent + ? Se!rc% !n- Sei='re, #atiffied (+F(0F(4C(3
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects,
against unreasonable searches and sei7ures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants
shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and
particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be
sei7ed3
A0en-0ent . ? Tri!l !n- P'ni%0ent1 Co0)en!tion (or T!Ding, #atified (+F(0F(4C(3
&o person shall be held to ans2er for a capital, or other2ise infamous crime, unless on
a presentment or indictment of a <rand Jury, e-cept in cases arising in the land or
naval forces, or in the 9ilitia, 2hen in actual service in time of War or public danger8
nor shall any person be sub=ect for the same offense to be t2ice put in =eopardy of life
or limb8 nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a 2itness against himself,
nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, 2ithout due process of la28 nor shall private
property be ta;en for public use, 2ithout =ust compensation3
A0en-0ent / ? Rig%t to S)ee-: Tri!l1 Con(ront!tion o( Bitnee, #atified (+F(0F(4C(3
%n all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall en=oy the right to a speedy and public
trial, by an impartial =ury of the State and district 2herein the crime shall have been
committed, 2hich district shall have been previously ascertained by la2, and to be
informed of the nature and cause of the accusation8 to be confronted 2ith the
2itnesses against him8 to have compulsory process for obtaining 2itnesses in his
favor, and to have the "ssistance of !ounsel for his defense3
A0en-0ent 3 ? Tri!l 2: <'r: in Ci"il C!e, #atified (+F(0F(4C(3
%n Suits at common la2, 2here the value in controversy shall e-ceed t2enty dollars,
the right of trial by =ury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a =ury, shall be
other2ise re6 e-amined in any !ourt of the United States, than according to the rules
of the common la23
A0en-0ent 4 ? Cr'el !n- Un''!l P'ni%0ent, #atified (+F(0F(4C(3
,-cessive bail shall not be required, nor e-cessive fines imposed, nor cruel and
unusual punishments inflicted3
A0en-0ent 5 ? Contr'ction o( Contit'tion, #atified (+F(0F(4C(3
The enumeration in the !onstitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or
disparage others retained by the people3
A0en-0ent 16 ? Po#er o( t%e St!te !n- Peo)le, #atified (+F(0F(4C(3
The po2ers not delegated to the United States by the !onstitution, nor prohibited by it
to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people3
A0en-0ent 11 ? <'-ici!l Li0it, #atified +F4F(4C03
The Judicial po2er of the United States shall not be construed to e-tend to any suit in
la2 or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by !iti7ens
of another State, or by !iti7ens or Sub=ects of any ?oreign State3
A0en-0ent 1& ? C%ooing t%e Prei-ent1 Vice?Prei-ent, #atified 1F(0F(BD/3
The ,lectors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for President and
$ice6President, one of 2hom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state 2ith
themselves8 they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in
distinct ballots the person voted for as $ice6President, and they shall ma;e distinct lists
of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as $ice6President
and of the number of votes for each, 2hich lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit
sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of
the Senate8
The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and 5ouse of
#epresentatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted8
The person having the greatest &umber of votes for President, shall be the President,
if such number be a ma=ority of the 2hole number of ,lectors appointed8 and if no
person have such ma=ority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not
e-ceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the 5ouse of
#epresentatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President3 But in choosing the
President, the votes shall be ta;en by states, the representation from each state
having one vote8 a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members
from t2o6thirds of the states, and a ma=ority of all the states shall be necessary to a
choice3 "nd if the 5ouse of #epresentatives shall not choose a President 2henever
the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of 9arch ne-t
follo2ing, then the $ice6President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or
other constitutional disability of the President3
The person having the greatest number of votes as $ice6President, shall be the $ice6
President, if such number be a ma=ority of the 2hole number of ,lectors appointed, and
if no person have a ma=ority, then from the t2o highest numbers on the list, the Senate
shall choose the $ice6President8 a quorum for the purpose shall consist of t2o6thirds of
the 2hole number of Senators, and a ma=ority of the 2hole number shall be necessary
to a choice3 But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be
eligible to that of $ice6President of the United States3
A0en-0ent 1* ? Sl!"er: A2oli%e-, #atified (+F1F(B103
(3 &either slavery nor involuntary servitude, e-cept as a punishment for crime 2hereof
the party shall have been duly convicted, shall e-ist 2ithin the United States, or any
place sub=ect to their =urisdiction3
+3 !ongress shall have po2er to enforce this article by appropriate legislation3
A0en-0ent 1+ ? Citi=en%i) Rig%t, #atified 4FCF(B1B3
(3 "ll persons born or naturali7ed in the United States, and sub=ect to the =urisdiction
thereof, are citi7ens of the United States and of the State 2herein they reside3 &o
State shall ma;e or enforce any la2 2hich shall abridge the privileges or immunities of
citi7ens of the United States8 nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or
property, 2ithout due process of la28 nor deny to any person 2ithin its =urisdiction the
equal protection of the la2s3
+3 #epresentatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their
respective numbers, counting the 2hole number of persons in each State, e-cluding
%ndians not ta-ed3 But 2hen the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors
for President and $ice6President of the United States, #epresentatives in !ongress,
the ,-ecutive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the egislature
thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being t2enty6one years
of age, and citi7ens of the United States, or in any 2ay abridged, e-cept for
participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be
reduced in the proportion 2hich the number of such male citi7ens shall bear to the
2hole number of male citi7ens t2enty6one years of age in such State3
.3 &o person shall be a Senator or #epresentative in !ongress, or elector of President
and $ice6President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or
under any State, 2ho, having previously ta;en an oath, as a member of !ongress, or
as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an
e-ecutive or =udicial officer of any State, to support the !onstitution of the United
States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or
comfort to the enemies thereof3 But !ongress may by a vote of t2o6thirds of each
5ouse, remove such disability3
/3 The validity of the public debt of the United States, authori7ed by la2, including
debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing
insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned3 But neither the United States nor any
State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or
rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any
slave8 but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void3
03 The !ongress shall have po2er to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions
of this article3
A0en-0ent 1. ? R!ce No B!r to Vote, #atified +F.F(B4D3
(3 The right of citi7ens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by
the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of
servitude3
+3 The !ongress shall have po2er to enforce this article by appropriate legislation3
A0en-0ent 1/ ? St!t' o( Inco0e T!> Cl!ri(ie-, #atified +F.F(C(.3
The !ongress shall have po2er to lay and collect ta-es on incomes, from 2hatever
source derived, 2ithout apportionment among the several States, and 2ithout regard
to any census or enumeration3
A0en-0ent 13 ? Sen!tor Electe- 2: Po)'l!r Vote, #atified /FBF(C(.3
The Senate of the United States shall be composed of t2o Senators from each State,
elected by the people thereof, for si- years8 and each Senator shall have one vote3
The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the
most numerous branch of the State legislatures3 When vacancies happen in the
representation of any State in the Senate, the e-ecutive authority of such State shall
issue 2rits of election to fill such vacancies) Provided, That the legislature of any State
may empo2er the e-ecutive thereof to ma;e temporary appointments until the people
fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct3
This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any
Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the !onstitution3
A0en-0ent 14 ? LiE'or A2oli%e-, #atified (F(1F(C(C3
#epealed by "mendment +(, (+F0F(C..3
(3 "fter one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or
transportation of into-icating liquors 2ithin, the importation thereof into, or the
e-portation thereof from the United States and all territory sub=ect to the =urisdiction
thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited3
+3 The !ongress and the several States shall have concurrent po2er to enforce this
article by appropriate legislation3
.3 This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment
to the !onstitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the
!onstitution, 2ithin seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States
by the !ongress3
A0en-0ent 15 ? Bo0enF S'((r!ge, #atified BF(BF(C+D3
The right of citi7ens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the
United States or by any State on account of se-3 !ongress shall have po2er to enforce
this article by appropriate legislation3
A0en-0ent &6 ? Prei-enti!l1 Congreion!l Ter0, #atified (F+.F(C..3
(3 The terms of the President and $ice President shall end at noon on the +Dth day of
January, and the terms of Senators and #epresentatives at noon on the .d day of
January, of the years in 2hich such terms 2ould have ended if this article had not
been ratified8 and the terms of their successors shall then begin3
+3 The !ongress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall
begin at noon on the .d day of January, unless they shall by la2 appoint a different
day3
.3 %f, at the time fi-ed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect
shall have died, the $ice President elect shall become President3 %f a President shall
not have been chosen before the time fi-ed for the beginning of his term, or if the
President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the $ice President elect shall act as
President until a President shall have qualified8 and the !ongress may by la2 provide
for the case 2herein neither a President elect nor a $ice President elect shall have
qualified, declaring 2ho shall then act as President, or the manner in 2hich one 2ho is
to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or $ice
President shall have qualified3
/3 The !ongress may by la2 provide for the case of the death of any of the persons
from 2hom the 5ouse of #epresentatives may choose a President 2henever the right
of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the
persons from 2hom the Senate may choose a $ice President 2henever the right of
choice shall have devolved upon them3
03 Sections ( and + shall ta;e effect on the (0th day of October follo2ing the ratification
of this article3
13 This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment
to the !onstitution by the legislatures of three6fourths of the several States 2ithin
seven years from the date of its submission3
A0en-0ent &1 ? A0en-0ent 14 Re)e!le-, #atified (+F0F(C..3
(3 The eighteenth article of amendment to the !onstitution of the United States is
hereby repealed3
+3 The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or possession of the
United States for delivery or use therein of into-icating liquors, in violation of the la2s
thereof, is hereby prohibited3
.3 The article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment
to the !onstitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the
!onstitution, 2ithin seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States
by the !ongress3
A0en-0ent && ? Prei-enti!l Ter0 Li0it, #atified +F+4F(C0(3
(3 &o person shall be elected to the office of the President more than t2ice, and no
person 2ho has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than t2o
years of a term to 2hich some other person 2as elected President shall be elected to
the office of the President more than once3 But this "rticle shall not apply to any
person holding the office of President, 2hen this "rticle 2as proposed by the
!ongress, and shall not prevent any person 2ho may be holding the office of
President, or acting as President, during the term 2ithin 2hich this "rticle becomes
operative from holding the office of President or acting as President during the
remainder of such term3
+3 This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment
to the !onstitution by the legislatures of three6fourths of the several States 2ithin
seven years from the date of its submission to the States by the !ongress3
A0en-0ent &* ? Prei-enti!l Vote (or Ditrict o( Col'02i!, #atified .F+CF(C1(3
(3 The *istrict constituting the seat of <overnment of the United States shall appoint in
such manner as the !ongress may direct) " number of electors of President and $ice
President equal to the 2hole number of Senators and #epresentatives in !ongress to
2hich the *istrict 2ould be entitled if it 2ere a State, but in no event more than the
least populous State8 they shall be in addition to those appointed by the States, but
they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election of President and $ice
President, to be electors appointed by a State8 and they shall meet in the *istrict and
perform such duties as provided by the t2elfth article of amendment3
+3 The !ongress shall have po2er to enforce this article by appropriate legislation3
A0en-0ent &+ ? Poll T!> B!rre-, #atified (F+.F(C1/3
(3 The right of citi7ens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for
President or $ice President, for electors for President or $ice President, or for Senator
or #epresentative in !ongress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or
any State by reason of failure to pay any poll ta- or other ta-3
+3 The !ongress shall have po2er to enforce this article by appropriate legislation3
A0en-0ent &. ? Prei-enti!l Di!2ilit: !n- S'cceion, #atified +F(DF(C143
(3 %n case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the
$ice President shall become President3
+3 Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the $ice President, the President shall
nominate a $ice President 2ho shall ta;e office upon confirmation by a ma=ority vote of
both 5ouses of !ongress3
.3 Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and
the Spea;er of the 5ouse of #epresentatives his 2ritten declaration that he is unable
to discharge the po2ers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a
2ritten declaration to the contrary, such po2ers and duties shall be discharged by the
$ice President as "cting President3
/3 Whenever the $ice President and a ma=ority of either the principal officers of the
e-ecutive departments or of such other body as !ongress may by la2 provide,
transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Spea;er of the 5ouse of
#epresentatives their 2ritten declaration that the President is unable to discharge the
po2ers and duties of his office, the $ice President shall immediately assume the
po2ers and duties of the office as "cting President3
Thereafter, 2hen the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate
and the Spea;er of the 5ouse of #epresentatives his 2ritten declaration that no
inability e-ists, he shall resume the po2ers and duties of his office unless the $ice
President and a ma=ority of either the principal officers of the e-ecutive department or
of such other body as !ongress may by la2 provide, transmit 2ithin four days to the
President pro tempore of the Senate and the Spea;er of the 5ouse of #epresentatives
their 2ritten declaration that the President is unable to discharge the po2ers and duties
of his office3 Thereupon !ongress shall decide the issue, assembling 2ithin forty eight
hours for that purpose if not in session3 %f the !ongress, 2ithin t2enty one days after
receipt of the latter 2ritten declaration, or, if !ongress is not in session, 2ithin t2enty
one days after !ongress is required to assemble, determines by t2o thirds vote of both
5ouses that the President is unable to discharge the po2ers and duties of his office,
the $ice President shall continue to discharge the same as "cting President8
other2ise, the President shall resume the po2ers and duties of his office3
A0en-0ent &/ ? Voting Age Set to 14 Ae!r, #atified 4F(F(C4(3
(3 The right of citi7ens of the United States, 2ho are eighteen years of age or older, to
vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account
of age3
+3 The !ongress shall have po2er to enforce this article by appropriate legislation3
A0en-0ent &3 ? Li0iting Congreion!l P!: Incre!e, #atified 0F4F(CC+3
&o la2, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and
#epresentatives, shall ta;e effect, until an election of #epresentatives shall have
intervened3
GROUP MEMBERS:
B"#U!, %!,#%O JO5&
!"TUB%<, B"B:
9"&":O&, #OS,
TO9"#O&<, J,SS,