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Heavy Mechanical Complex

Taxila















Internship Report 2013
Following are group member who worked on this report:





Group Members

Osama Yonus

Ahmad Bilal

Ahver Chaudary

Hamza Tariq

Hafiz Muhammad Hamid Sheikh

Umar Ashraf

Haris Khan

Muhammad Asfand Yar





University Registration No.

2011-ME-125

2011-ME-132

2011-ME-141

2011-ME-155

2011-ME-157

2011-ME-178

2011-ME-180

2010-ME-106
Heavy Mechanical Complex, Taxila
2013


Table of Contents
Sr.No Title Pg.No
1. Heavy Mechanical Complex ....2
2. Pattern Shop...3 3.
Forge & Hydraulic Press...9 4.
Material Testing Laboratory......15 5.
Non-Destructive Laboratory ..............19 6.
Fabrication Shop.....23 7.
Machine Shop......31 8.
Assembly Shop........41 9. Heat
Treatment Shop.....45 10.
Metrological Laboratory......49






















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Heavy Mechanical Complex, Taxila
2013


1. Heavy Mechanical Complex
Heavy Mechanical Complex Taxila, situated at 35 KM from capital Islamabad, is a
leading engineering enterprise in the country, under the ministry of Industries &
Production, Government of Pakistan
This engineering and manufacturing company comprises of two main production units:

1. Mechanical Works
2. Foundry & Forge Works

Mechanical works started commercial production in 1971 and Forge Works started
commercial production in 1977.
The major facilities of this integrated company include Design and Engineering, Fabrication,
Machine shops, Steel Foundry, Forging, Heat treatment, Pattern Shop, Galvanizing Shop,
Assembly & Tool Room and a compressive Quality Assurance is set-up in addition to other
infrastructure facilities .

The Company, being the biggest of its kind, is manufacturing
Cement Plants
Sugar Plants
Chemical, Petro-Chemical Plants
Oil & gas processing Plants
Industrial steam Boilers
Thermal and Hydel Power Plants
Road construction Machinery
Railway Equipment
Overhead travelling Cranes
Chassis for trucks/Buses
General steel Structure and highly sophisticated castings and forgings for the
manufacture of plants and spares like sugar, cement, metallurgical plants and other
engineering industries

It is also catering for the need of spares for metallurgical industry, Re-rolling Mills as well as
Tractors/Automobile companies and spares for steel mills.





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Heavy Mechanical Complex, Taxila




2. Pattern Shop



In this shop, the very first step for the casting is done. Patterns are made for moulds to be for
casting purposes. All this work is performed under the supervision of Shop in charge, Mr.
Manzoor. The process is performed following various steps which explained with terms as
below:

1. Drawing study of the job.
2. Add appropriate allowances to the casting material on paper work.
3. Making layout of the pattern according to the drawing on the layout board. 4.
Margining the material to be used in the pattern.
5. Cutting and carving the margined parts using machines and tools. 6.
Prepare core boxes for the core prints.
7. Paint according to casting parts required.
8. Assembling the pattern parts using glues, nails and tools. 9.
Weighing them and noting all the dimensions.
10. Check and clearance by quality control authority in the shop.
11. Load and sending it to the desired foundry for casting processes. 12.
Prepare for the next job.


Explanation of above mentioned points.

Drawing Study:

Drawing study means the study of the paper work in the shop before making the pattern in shop.
This step is basic step of this shop as the job depends upon it all the time. Drawing shows us the
pattern to be made and what its dimensions are.
Drawing is actually the paper work of any job either for pattern or casted product. It can be in
two angle projections as
a) 1
st
angle projection b) 3
rd

angle projection
Both angle of projection can be implemented in this shop but mostly 3
rd
angle of projection is
being implemented here as we follow the metric system in Pakistan mostly.

Difference between first and third is as below:
For the study of drawing one must know which angle of projection is being used in the drawing.


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i) In first angle the object is in between the eye and drawing plane whereas in third
angle of projection, drawing plane is in between the eye the object.
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ii)



iii)
Heavy Mechanical Complex, Taxila




On drawing sheet, in first angle of projection, the front view is on the top left corner
of sheet and top view is on the bottom left corner of the sheet whereas for third angle
projection these views are inverted.
British units indicates the drawing to be 1
st
whereas metric system indicated of 3
rd
angle of projection.


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Allowance approximations:

Adding appropriate allowances which are given on the drawing and usually there are three types
of allowances in the sheet as:
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)

Layout:
Working allowance
Shrinkage allowance
Molding allowance Casting
allowance
Fabrication allowance
After doing the paper work, layout of the required mold is made. This layout is made on
the layout board which is painted with white limestone solution. This drawing is made on
original scale and these dimensions are true dimensions of the required pattern. Face blade plates
are also available for the purpose of marking and checking the angle of the object to be 90
degree.
So there were two types of boards for the layout purposes
i) Layout drawing board
ii) Flate plate board

Margining on Scale:
When this drawing is made on the layout table, appropriate wood is used to make its
rectangular or square blocks and the curves and angles in the pattern are given to the wood using
the wooden templates for the respective parts. Usually two types of woods are used here in this
shop for wood patterns as
i) Deodar
ii) Partal

Division of Job:
These parts are made using machines in the workshop. There many machines ranging for
heavy and light weight types. On these basis the workshop can also be divided in two types that
are
i) Light ii)
Heavy
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For respective sections we have two electric supplied cranes in the workshop which can lift
weights as
i) Light section crane 3 ton ii)
Heavy section crane 5 ton

Sections of Shop:
Workshop can also be divided in two major categories which are as
a) Wooden section b)
Metallic section
These entire patterns which are to be used for the dies making are made of metal and mostly the
metal is aluminum or copper.

Working of Core and core-prints:
Then the core pattern and core prints are made for patterns. Core print provides seat for
the core pattern. At the end this colored blue.

Types of Prints:
There are many types of patterns which are being used here. Some of them are as below
Single pattern
Split pattern with cope and drag.
Match plate pattern (Stoke pattern).
Sweep pattern.

Purpose of Pattern:
These patterns are made in many ways to provide any of the following purpose.
To provide a gating system in the pattern
Easy removal of sand and material after casting

Indication Colors:
After completing the separate parts for the pattern, parts are colored in a definite way which
is understandable for next shops e.g.
Red indicates for cast iron foundry
Black for core print
Green for steel foundry
Yellow for manganese




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Heavy Mechanical Complex, Taxila
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Assembly of parts:
After coloring, these parts are assembled using nails and glues. Some of final steps
include the weighing and noting its task accomplishing time, marking it serial number for future
use. It is sent to quality control assurance member in the workshop.

Quality assurance:
Quality assurance is made under supervision of Tariq Sahib in the workshop.




Machines & Equipments in the Pattern Workshop

There are 18 to 20(including working and non-working) machines in the wooden section
whereas there are 6 to 8 machines in the metallic section of the workshop. Whereas a large
variety tools for hand working are also the part of the workshop. Here we have a total number of
8 flat plates and 10 layout boards in the workshop.10 W-benches with vises are also present in
workshop. Machines with their working ranges are as below.

Wooden Section
There 18 to 20 machines where some of them are under maintenance in the workshop.
There are as below.

Bend Saw
This machine is uses a saw blade running in vertical position to cut the wood block for
use in the shop

Wood cutter
This used to cut apart the big log into small blocks

Cross cut saw
This machine is also used to cut the wooden logs

Saw bend rolling machines
This machine is used to cut the parts at any angle

Surface planar
This is used to make the surface finish on the wood

Thickness planar
This machine is used to decrease the thickness of the wooden block when to used for the job
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Wood working joint planar
This machine planes the joint on the wood

Bend saw
As explained as.
(All above mentioned machines are under maintenance)

Disc and spindle sander with variable angle for cutting and tapering
This type of machine a big disc mounted on the motor. This disc has an abrasive material
on its surface which is used to smoothen the wooden blocks when finalized. The working bed of
the machine is capable of turning at any angle to cut or taper the surface.

Joint planar for max width of 200mm
This joint planar has quality of handling parts of smaller width

Joint planar for with max width 680mm
Same as above but with maximum thickness of 680mm

Single surface thickness planar
This is capable of decreasing thickness of wooden parts

Cross cutting machine
This machine is capable of cutting at any angle

Milling machine with 3000mm diameter
This machine can handle parts for doing different operation like facing, turning etc. this
type of machine can either work in vertical or horizontal positions.

Universal milling machine
This milling machine is capable of doing the jobs for vertical and horizontal as well as
vertical position

Wooden lathe machine
Lathe is most important machine of all. This perform every job so called mother of all
Machines





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Heavy Mechanical Complex, Taxila





Metallic Section


Machine names with their properties are below

Shaping machine
This type of machine is used for shaping the metallic tools in the workshop

Universal knife grinding machine for a length of 1 meter
This machine is capable of sharpening the tools up to a length of 1m

Wooden drilling machine
This is used to drill when required

Shaping machine with length of 636 mm
This has the same operation but is capable for smaller lengths

Universal milling machine for tools
This is universal milling machine for the tools with table width of 320mm and length of
1400mm

Wooden lathe
This lathe is used to do operations on wooden material.




Recommendations

condition,

for sake increasing the life of patterns stored in the shop

This would save work`s time and nations money
erns to store, so there must
a short listing of patterns to increase space for patterns.

must imported for the sake decreasing job time.
CNC`s can be good new addition to the shop


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3. Foundry & Forge Works

Definition:

"Forging is a deformation process in which the work is compressed between two dies using
either impact or gradual pressure to form the part."

Historical Background:

It is the oldest of metal forming operations dating back to about 5000 B.C

Importance:

In the modern era, forging is an important industrial process used to make a variety of high
strength components for automotive, aerospace, defense and other applications. These
components include engine crankshafts and connecting rods, gears, aircraft structural
components, jet engine turbine parts etc. In addition, steel and other basic metal industries use
the forging process to establish the basic form of large components that are subsequently
machined to final shape and dimensions.

Forging in HMC:

The total area of Forge Shop is 10369 Sq. M. which houses a wide range of hammers both for
production of free forgings & die forgings. The shop has acquired wide experience in the field of
producing die-forged parts and has manufactured variety of components for the Automotive,
Tractor and Defense Sectors successfully. Forging is HMC is done on a large scale. HMC has
this honor to work for the various big sugar, cement industries and defense organizations as well.
Forging unit in HMC has been classified it three parts which includes Forging Shop I, Forging
Shop II and Hydraulic Press Shop.

Major Production:
1) Railway Axles
2) Draw Hooks
3) Screw Couplings
4) Cement Industry Components
5) Sugar Industry Components
6) Boilers up to 110 ton/h
7) Road Rollers 8) Motor
Guns
9) Cranes
10) Drop Tank Equipments


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FORGE SHOP I

Forging is carried out here in many different ways. One way to classify is through its working
temperature. Most forging operations are performed hot or warm, owing to the significant
deformation as per described by the process and the need to reduce strength and increase
ductility of the work metal. However, cold forging is also an important work. Its advantage is
result of increased strength that results from strain hardening of the component. Technical
Functioning is being done in Forge Shop I.

Forgibility: The process through which the shape is formed without flowing and without
cracking is called as Forgibility.

Forging Equipments:
1) Hammers
2) Hydraulic Presses (800 ton)
3) Die-Forging Presses

A forging machine that applies an impact load is called a forging hammer where as the forging
machine that applies gradual pressure is called a forging press. On the other hand,
the machine in which the flow of the work metal is constrained by the dies is called die forging
press.

Hydraulic Press:

The Hydraulic Press which is now being used is of 800 ton having 300 Pa pressure. The
compressor used is of 300 kg. There's a storage tank besides this is a cooling tower for cooling.
In the vessel, there's a capacity of 2/3 of air and 1/3 of water. Two pumps are required for
working and other pump as a storage tank. Two pumps are of 800 ton while the third one is of
1000 ton. Red pipes indicate high pressure while Blue pipes show low pressure

Rolling:

Rolling is process to roll the work piece in view of the desired shape or structure as per the
requirements is given.

The rolling process is been classified as follows:
1) Hot Rolling 2) Cold
Rolling

Other Appliances:
1) Shot Blasting Machines
2) Quenching
3) Pedestal Grinder


2013
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Heavy Mechanical Complex, Taxila
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Crane:
Crane is a machine used for hoisting heavy materials. In forging shop, two types are present
which are

1) Stationary Slewing Crane (12 ton)
2) Quenching Over Head Crane


Shot Blasting Machine:

It is a machine which is used to overcome the rusting on a surface by shooting blasts on the
material through a cleansing action to clear its surface.

Shot blasts are done by steel, sand etc & the grinding medium size depends upon component like
Aluminum Oxide or Iron Oxide.

Ingot:

''The term ingot is usually associated with a primary metal industries ;it describes a large casting
that is simple in shape and intended for subsequent reshaping by processes such as rolling or
forging''

The hollow rod containing the ingot is called the craggy device. Ingot temperature is usually held
1250 Degree Celsius. Mandrel is used for creating hollowness. The refractory material is a
combination of Aluminum and Silica.

Upsetting is a process in which diameter is increased and length is shortened where as Drawing is
a process in which diameter is shorten and length is increased.




















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Heavy Mechanical Complex, Taxila




FORGE SHOP II:

Mechanical Functioning is being done in Forge Shop II. Forging is also known as the KING OF
TRADE because it makes its own tools. It is far better than casing because in casting, we
perform operations on already made part of soft metal with less core made where as Forging
increases the lifetime of a material by 10-100 times. The material is subjected to 1300 Degree
Celsius at which material melts and necessary elements which should be vanished, they
disappear. Press Forging is more safe and reliable as compare to the Hammer Forging.

Types of Furnaces:

1) Electric Furnace (thin material)
2) Furnace Oil (old times)
3) Gas Furnace (modern era)

In Hydraulic Press, push is being practiced to make large holes of 2-3 times larger machines after
getting them out of furnace. The following machines were present there


2013

1) Die Forging Hammer
2) Upsetting Machine
3) Blow Die Hammer (to and fro motion)
4) Blast Furnace

Diaphragm controls the gas pressure in boilers where as to avoid scaling and rusting in order to
soften the water, zeo-lite chemical is used. Bloom is used in ingot or billet to convert the
rectangular cross-section into circular section. Different commodities have forged here to
strengthen the different industries of Pakistan to work for the betterment and welfare of Pakistan.
As our dear homeland is at the verge of collapsing, a wave of chilled terror is happening to occur
through its body, so sincere and keen steps have to be adopted in order to avoid the premonitions
and vulnerability. In order to bring the felons to their apprehended place, drastic steps have to be
taken and in this case, Forging Industry is paying its contribution to prove as the basic building
block for Pakistan's prosperity and progress.



Hydraulic Press Shop:

It is one of the biggest shop in HMC. It plays an important role for pressing large ingots and
billets to convert them into their desired shape. It has the capacity to forge ingots up to a
maximum weight of 50 tons, produce finished forging weighing over 30 tons. There are
different types of furnaces which are required to form large huge parts. Many Defense industries'
work is in the running position here as to strengthen the country's defense and ultimately
resulting in an increased income of HMC. Missiles & tank barrels for defense industry and
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Heavy Mechanical Complex, Taxila




rollers & shells for sugar industry are initially pressed and shaped etc. There are several furnaces
to reach the desired temperature for the respective billet and ingot. The shop has special heat
treatment furnaces, both vertical and horizontal, and also large oil and water quenching tanks.

Main features of activities:
1) Free forgings (4000 tons/years) 2)
Max. Weight of ingot (50 tons)
3) Max. Weight of forging (30 tons)
4) Max. diameter of ring forging (1800 mm)



Hydraulic Press:

The biggest Hydraulic Press of HMC as well as of Pakistan is present in the Hydraulic Press
Shop. It is of 3150 tons and is spread over an area of 12372Sq. M. It is used for different
purposes like to make tank barrels etc.

Heat Treatment:

Heat Treatment is necessary for eliminating the errors and defects in order to get the desired
object with desired properties. This process is done for much time. It is kept in furnace for more
than 24 hours.

IR Camera:

IR Camera is used to measure the temperature of work piece at different stages. It is around 1200
Degree Celsius when it comes out of the furnace and around 800 Degree Celsius when treated
after 10 minutes in Hydraulic Press.

Quenching:

Quenching is a process in which the material is dipped in oil to make it one step closer to its
desired properties. In Quenching process


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1) Oil Viscosity increases
2) Thermal Conductivity of Water decreases
3) Latent Heat Of Water increases 4)
Heat Transfer Rate Of Water increases
Dimension for the tank are as 5m*5m*5m (Length *Width*Depth )



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Deodorant:

It is that stage where material possess inhomogeneous structure and grain boundaries have
segregation in them, therefore in order to make them homogeneous, rolling, forging, extrusion is
done.

Auto-Fritage:

It is a process in which material is checked at 1000 bar pressure.

Tempering:

It is done after quenching to avoid stress releasing due to bore bending and run out which
ultimately results in wall thickness. Therefore wall thickness should be avoided and in order to
avoid it tempering is done. That's why it should be same through out to obtain similar much
properties throughout.


































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Heavy Mechanical Complex, Taxila




4. MATERIAL TESTING

For all the materials from which the jobs are to be made are subjected to some sort of testing
methods before the actual processing and working on it from raw material to the final and
finished jobs. The basic purpose of testing the material is to ensure adequate and the proper
composition of elements in required percentages in the material under testing so that there will
be a minimum chance of failure of job during overloading or excessive use of the job.

There are two basic types of material testing methods:


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Destructive Testing
Non-Destructive Testing

In destructive testing methods the forces are applied to the material until it brakes. And by the
force, extension and respective values of stress and strain the qualities and properties are
determined .e.g. impact testing and surface hardness testing.

While on the contrary the non-destructive testing includes methods which do not involve the
breakage of materials. i.e. Radiography and x-ray analysis.

In HMC the following two testing laboratories are present and working efficiently for testing of
almost all type of the materials and jobs being made in HMC; they are:

Material Testing Laboratory
Non Destructive Testing Laboratory
MATERIAL TESTING LABORATORY

Material testing laboratory in HMC is working very efficiently and it is divided in four sections
according to the type and requirement of the testing methods and for the sake of easiness and
proper working separately without any inconvenience; the four sections of MTL (material testing
laboratory) are following:

Quick analysis
Metallography
Chemical analysis
Mechanical testing

The brief explanation of working of these sections is described below:

Quick analysis:

Quick analysis section is located in steel foundry and is further divided into two sections. One of
them is testing by emission spectrometer and other is determination of composition by chemical
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testing methods. In spectrometer section; firstly a sample of the molten steel is brought out in
form of a cube and solidified after which it is brought into quick analysis section in which its
surfaces are polished on grinders to make the surfaces shiny which is very necessary to make it
balanced on the spectrometer surface otherwise the high pressure argon gas will cause any
serious issues. At that time the intensity of blow holes and pores or other surface defects are also
inspected visually. After this the sample is forwarded to spectrometer room and placed below a
tungsten electrode (it is used because of its highly refractory properties) and burned while the
percentages of all the components or the elements of the material is obtained on a computer
screen processed by a prescribed computer program. According to this result the desired
percentages can be achieved by adding desired components into molten steel in case the results
are not satisfactory.

The same results can also be achieved by chemical testing which is to dissolve the specific mass
of the material in form of the chips and then it is dissolved in respective acids for respective
elements whose composition is to be determined either by titration or by formulae. But the draw
backs are that this method is long, time consuming and somehow costly in terms of acids and
chemical usage.

Metallography:

Metallography is the process which involves the testing of materials using the microscopes and
other optical devices and then their internal structure is compared with the desired material's
intermolecular structure.

The important uses of the metallographic study are following:


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Process control
Presence and identity of defects
Inclusion identification and determination of their density
Examination of cracks, fractures and other failure mechanisms
Evaluation of effects of corrosion and chemical attacks
Identification of microstructure
Grain or particle size Micro
hardness

In metallographic section we studied and observed the microstructure of grey cast iron sample
which includes the graphite flakes with the simple microscope at 40 magnifications whereas its
magnification is up to 450. Also we observed the structure of M.S sample by digital microscope
in which a digital camera is placed and the photograph of the structure is obtained and its
magnification is up to 5000.


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Chemical Analysis Laboratory:

It is also a material testing facility provided by HMC in which almost all types of the materials
are tested not only from the HMC but the materials of other industries are also tested here and its
reports are considered satisfactory and authentic. A good trend by this laboratory is that the
reports are forwarded to the respective section or shops and the tested sample is kept safely for 1
year in case of any complaint of query.

The equipment possessed by this lab is:

Furnace used to burn the samples for respective testing. Can also be called as incinerator.
Hot plate, which is electric fired
Stove, and it is also electric fired
Chemicals and acids

The basic process is the same as in quick analysis chemical section and in the lab the percentages of
the elements in the materials is determined either by residual mass (percentage) of the element
or by the process which includes the dissolution of chips of sample into chemicals followed by
heating on hot plate or stove and then the determination of composition by titrating this solution
against a standard solution.

Materials which can be tested???

As a matter of fact the chemical analysis lab is capable of testing every kind of sample given to it
but the usually it deals with the following materials mostly:

Refractory materials like sand bricks, fire bricks, coal, fire brick linings etc.
Babbling materials which includes copper, tin, lead and antimony i.e. nonferrous
materials
Copper wires
Aluminum ingots
The ferrous materials includes Ferro silicon and fire bricks and ferrous rocks

Mechanical Testing:

The section of mechanical testing involves the destructive testing of the materials by subjecting
them to various stationary and varying loads.

It includes following testing machines:

Universal testing machines of different capacities
Impact testing machine
Hardness tester machine
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The brief description is following:

Universal testing machines:

There are three testing machines in mechanical testing section and they are of different capacities
for respective samples. In the procedure the sample is placed in the jaws and load is applied in
the manner in which the respective quantity such as tensile strength is to be determined. And by
the calibrated gauge the respective extension is measured until the sample breaks. After that the
load-extension curve is drawn which is the characteristic of the mechanical properties of the
sample.

The reason of it being called the UNIVERSAL is that the following tests can be performed on
the same machine:

Tensile strength test
Bent test
Crushing test

Impact testing machine:

It is also a destructive test in which a sample is clamed at the bottom of the machine and a
hammer of a sufficient force let say 30 ton is impacted suddenly on the sample to break it and
respective readings are noted from the gauge on the machine.

It is usually used for the small samples and the one used in the HMC mechanical testing
laboratory is of 30/15 kg capacity.

Hardness Tester:

Hardness can be defined as the ability of a material to resist the penetration. And in the lab there
are two testers used for this testing and they are:

Rockwell Hardness Tester: used for hard materials
Brinnel Hardness Tester: used for soft materials

The operation of both machines is same in which the sample in form a sphere is placed on the
bed of the machine and clamped. After which the load is applied in form of a pointed rod like
needle which penetrates into the sample and it is resisted by the hardness of the sample anf its
value is noted by the gauge indicator.

tion of the material testing laboratory called as the pyrometer
section in which calibration of the gauges takes place by professional personal.


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Heavy Mechanical Complex, Taxila




5. Non-Destructive Testing Laboratory

The other facility of material testing provided by HMC is the non-destructive testing of the
material which means such methods of testing in which the breakage or damage of the material is
not involved. An example of this testing is the use of X-ray technology to locate the defects
internally. We can say that it undertakes X-ray, ultrasonic, die penetrant and magnetic particles
testing for surface cracks, voids, blow holes, porosity and cavity etc. in welds, castings and
forgings.

There are following tests which are being performed by the lab:


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Radiography, X-rays, Gamma rays (RT)
Ultrasonic Testing (UT)
Magnetic Particle Testing(MT)
Dye Penetrant Test (PT)
Eddy Current Test: for coating thickness
Spectroscopy

We can easily draw a flowchart diagram of the methodology of NDT lab and it is following:
NDT


INDICATION



INTERPRETATIO



FASLE














ACCEP




RELEV



EVALU














REJEC




NON-



The brief description of the processes and its methodology is following:
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Radiographic Testing:

The radiographic section involves the use of X-rays and Gamma rays for the detection of internal
defects and flaws in the job. It is the most used NDT method for determining gas porosity in
weldments. It is interesting to know that the X-ray image of an round porosity will appear oval
with smooth edges and vice versa. It is the type of testing which is applied to the completely
finished job not to the sample and it is then rejected or selected on the respective bases. In X-ray
radiography method there are two components called the X-ray generator and the control panel.
The main process is such that the films of X-rays are placed on all over the surface of the job
which is being tested and then the X-rays are passed through them while room is empty during
the process because of the hazardous nature of the X-rays. After the process the films are
retained, developed in the dark room and then analyzed to ensure weather there are any defects or
internal flaws in the job or not. In Gamma Ray radiography the procedure is the same while
the rays used are the Gamma rays which are at higher speed then X-rays and both of them travels
both longitude and in transvers directions. There are following mediums of wave energy which
can be used in radiographic testing:

X-ray Radiography
Gamma ray Radiography
XeroRadiography
Neutron Radiography
Proton Radiography
Fluoroscopy Radiography
Micro Radiography
Flash Radiography
Auto Radiography
Electron transmission Radiography

Ultrasonic Testing:

Ultrasonic testing is a type of testing in which the ultrasound waves are passed through the job
and by their deflection, distortion and reflection phenomenon the defects and internal flaws are
determined. For testing purposes the jobs from welding, forging and casting are brought here for
detection of internal defects. Its machine is 5mm to 10mm in size. Its working phenomenon is
basically pulse eco through transmission of resonance type. One important is that before the
process the job is coated with the film to make it rust proof. Its equipment is highly expensive
but is capable of determining the micro separations.

Magnetic Particle Testing:

It is the type of testing in which the small particles of magnetic material is sprayed on the
required area whose testing is to be performed and then a magnetic field is applied on the
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Heavy Mechanical Complex, Taxila




prescribed area and by the arrangement of the magnetic field lines and their distortion the cracks,
pores, blow holes and some other defects like them are easily detected usually the surface
porosity is not detected. An important thing is to be noted that this method can be employed for
the surface defects only. It consists of yoke magnetism and electric conductor and the method is
simply explained as:


2013

Spray of magnetic particles
Place perpendicular to the crack surface
Check for defects

Dye Penetrant Test:

The process of dye penetrant testing is such that a dye or a fluorescent liquid is poured on the
inspecting surface for the determination of the cracks. And then an ultraviolet light is forced to
pass through the dye for the determination of cracks. Where there are solid surface the
fluorescent liquid will shine and in case of cracks or you can say that the defects the liquid will
not shine and remain dull from the defected area. An important thing to remember is that the
extreme caution must be exercised to prevent ant cleaning material; and liquid penetrant
materials from becoming entrapped and contaminating the re-welding operation.

Eddy Current Testing:

Eddy current testing method is employed for measuring surface coating thickness of the non-
destructive coatings or magnetic substances or the non-conductive coatings on the non-magnetic
substances or materials. It is basically direct current with the voltage of 9V. It is normally
confined to thin walled welded piped and tubes. Its range is following:
H: 0-100 UM
L: 50-100 UM
















Its operation is easy and simple i.e.
Internship Report June-July 13` Page 21
Heavy Mechanical Complex, Taxila
2013


Zero setting on the base metal without the coating
Gain adjustment with calibration film on the base metal
Direct measurement of the coating thickness of work piece
Integrated circuit offers stable and reliable working procedure
Light, compact and portable self-controlled battery provides 20 hourscontinuous
operation
Spring loaded single core provides constant measuring force for stable measurement
V-groove on the probe sleeve allows measurement of round sections
Special probe is available for the measurement in a small hole of ID 30mm and depth to
200mm
One drawback is that the penetration restricts the testing to a depth of more than one
quarter inch

Universal Crack Depth Meter X-RT-705:

The crack depth meter X-RT 705 is in a fringe area of ultrasonic application. It can detect the
position, depth and angle of inclination of cracks in the surfaces of metallic materials rapidly and
accurately. As it operates on DC that's why it is suitable for all the metals.

Spectroscopy:

Spectroscopy is the NDT method in which the composition in terms of percentages of the
elements which constitutes the material by the help of the spectrometer i.e. polishing, burning by
tungsten electrode and pressurized by argon gas and then determination of the results by the help of
computerized software. It is basically the quick analysis of the metallic material qualitatively and
semi quantitatively mostly of the steel alloys. But non-metallic materials are not applicable to this
type of testing.
Recommendations

The recommendations for the material testing facilities in HMC are:


needed to replace by the modern techniques and equipment.
of area for the labs is not sufficient enough according to their requirement

-ray radiations
h effect the workers after reflecting
back from the ceiling

that it can't be taken to the radiation hall then the radiographic testing is performed in the
shop which is a hazard.
Internship Report June-July 13` Page 22
Heavy Mechanical Complex, Taxila
2013


6. Fabrication
Introduction

Fabrication is the building of metal structures by cutting, bending and assembly processes. They
generally concentrate on metal preparation. They are more concerned with the machining of
parts on machine tools. The products produced by welders, boilers made by boiler makers, major
parts of sugar, steel, cement industries, beams, rail tracks, structural frames, hand railings, dam
works and many more all make up the products of a fabrication shop in general.

It is a value added process that involves the construction of machines and structures from various
raw materials. The shop will rely on engineering drawings and if awarded the contract will build
the product. Large shops like the one currently in Heavy Mechanical Complex (HMC), Taxila
adds a multiple of processes in the same plant or shop. They have hired different vendors for
various purposes.


Raw Materials

Plate metal Tube
stock
Square stock
Sectional Metals ( I-beams, H-beams, etc)
Welding wire/Welding rod
Hardware
Castings
Fittings
Fabrication Shop

Incharge : Mr. Qaiser Naeem

The fabrication shop in HMC, Taxilla has been divided in to 5 bays w.r.t the load capacities they
can lift via the cranes in each of them.
i) Heavy Bay : 25-50 tones ii)
Medium Bay : 25 tones
iii) Low Bay : 12.5 tones
iv) Small Bay : 5 tones
v) Small bay: less than 5 tones
vi) Outside Shop

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Heavy Mechanical Complex, Taxila
2013



I) HEAVY BAY

Gas Furnace

It can achieve a temperature up to as high as 1200 Degree Celsius. The furnace is used to heat
the workpieces for the hydraulic press.

Hydraulic Press

A 1000 tone press that is used for the following purposes:

Straighten Beams
Bending
Pre Bending
Forming

Rolling Machine-1

It consists of 3 rollers each 3.5 metre in length and 580 mm diameter . It can operate on sheets
which have a thickness between 10-36 mm.

Radial Drilling Machine

It is a small drilling machine and capable on working on small parts.

SMAW

Initial parts are made by Shield Metal Arc Welding or Manual Welding which is the most
common type of welding normally being used worldwide. Each worker used electrode rods that
are consumed within 2 to 3 minutes of continuous use. Although it is cheap it does not perform
regular fine welding.

Heating Torch

Being used by workers to bring the metal back to it's original position because when once cooled
the metal pieces that are joined together due to tension solidify to cause a an unwanted
deformation.

SAW-1

Submerged Arc Welding it uses a Copper coating on the fillet wires for welding along with fine
grains being poured that acts as a flux to protect the welding from fumes and gases produced.
Copper is used because it prevents rusting and is a good conductor of electricity. It is used to
make the final parts and generates a finishing that is symmetrical and regular. It is better in
quality but expensive.
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Heavy Mechanical Complex, Taxila
2013


II) MEDIUM BAY

Hydraulic Press ( 3000 tone)

One of the largest presses of it's family and generation which is unfortunately not in working
condition. Truck chassis were made on it among other items. It can perform:



Rolling Machine-2

Consists of 3 rollers each 2 metre in length and diameter of 280 mm . It is mechanically operated
and can work on sheets of thickness varying from 4-16 mm

Rolling Machine-3

It also has 3 rollers but of 3.1 metre long with a diameter of 420 mm and is hydraulically
operated and has the ability to roll sheets from 1-30 mm in thickness

SAW-2 ( not in working condition)

SMAW Zone ( beams and boilers)

Circular Saw

Also known as the Transjaeger Machine used to cut long bars, beams and rods straight or any
required angle. It has a limit of performing on workpieces that are 1 m in width and 450 mm in
height.
I- section, H-section, Round bar, T-section, Square bar, Rectangular bar, L-section, C -section can
be performed on this machine.

III) LOW BAY

CNC Flame Cutting Machine

Plate steels are loaded on a table and parts are cut out as programmed. Some programs are
installed in it before the operations and some are modified and later added to it. Not in working
condition needs foreign expertise

Parallel Flame Cutting Machine

Two parallel torches cut thin metal sheets in a very symmetrical fashion and hence prevent any
bending or variance on any side.

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Heavy Mechanical Complex, Taxila
2013


Photocell Cutting Machine

It read the sketches of the diagrams with the help of a camera which reads the black ink of the
image provided and cuts the portion from the sheet provided.

De-coiling & De-Roiling Machine

It works on sheets ranging from 1-8 mm thickness and 2.5 metre long. Straightens sheets and
hence de-coils them.

Semi-automatic Cutting area

Here the workers use semi-automatic welding machines that use a pattern to follow on the
wheels and cut similarly e.g if a circle is to be cut it can act like a compass from the centre or if a
line at an angle needs to be formed the wheels of the small machine can be placed on a trace line at
the required angle.

Shearing Machine-1

Three segmented blades above and below with clamps to grip the metal part is used to cut parts
that have a thickness of 12 mm or less and 2.7 metre length.

250 Tone Press
Less than 25mm plates are brought here otherwise they are performed on the 1000 tone press. It
is currently out of order.

Edge Planer

It is a 12 metre long machine on which facing and beveling are performed. It's limit of work
parts is 80 mm thick.

Small Machine Shop Area

It has a few lathe machine, radial and universal drilling machines and shaper machines. Currently
on the drilling machines holes are being made on pre-heater large plates for boilers.

Welding Area (For boilers and beams working area)

IV) SMALL BAY (5 tones)

Plasma Cutting Machine

It can cut plates 25-30 mm thick and can reach a temperature above 2000 Degree Celsius. Only
applicable on non-ferrous materials like stainless steel in which Carbon content is less.
Compressed air of 6 bars is used for cutting.
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Heavy Mechanical Complex, Taxila
2013


Panel Welding Machine

Multiple tubes of boilers and other tubes are joined together with straps. Each strap has 9 tubes in it.
Electric welding by a 1.6 mm thick electrode is used.

Shearing Machine-2

Same purpose as the first machine only it's limit is a bit less ranging from 0.5-6 mm thick plates.

Circular Saw

It is used to cut tubes, pipes with width of 200 mm and 250 mm thick.

Die Press

It is a 100 tone press that is used to punch dies and holes inside small metal sheets after being
brought from a small furnace just besides it after the work pieces are heated to suitable
temperatures.

Nibbling Machine

Was used to sew small holes less than 1 mm diameter but is out of order.

Brake Press

160 tone brake press is capable of working on 4 m long and 1-6 mm thick parts.

100 Tone Press

After contraction/expansion of beams they lose their original shape and to be bent and
straightened back this machine used.

Straightening Machine

Strips and curved sheets are straightened in it after passing through the small rollers and in-built
presses but both units are out of order.

SAW-3 (same purpose as explained before )

Unit Cyclone Welding Area for boilers and vessels


TIG/MIG Straight Tube Belt Welding Machine ( not working )

Pipe Bending Machine

Produced by the Shanghai Boiler Works is bends pipes by passing them at angle through wheels.

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Heavy Mechanical Complex, Taxila
2013


V) SMALL BAY ( less than 5 Tones )

Hot Pressing Machine

It straightens beams by applying heat.

Chinese Pipe Bending

Bends pipes by passing them at angle through wheels.

Pipe Squeezing Machine

Boiler headers and heat exchangers are formed here and the bending limit is 1.5 diameter with a 1
& oral shape accepted and over 8% oval shapes rejected.

Hard Forming Area
Furnaces and ovens are present to pre heat the parts more than 8 mm diameter.


Pipe Cutting & Beveling Machine

62 Tonne Press


Conveyer Welding Area ( Tig & Mig welding)
Processes

a) Cutting

There are three types of cutting currently being done. Mechanical, flame and plasma cutting. The
most common way to cut metal is by shearing. Special band saws designed for cutting metal
have hardened blades and feed mechanism for even cutting. Cutting torches can cut large
sections in a very short period of time. Burn tables are CNC cutting torches usually natural gas
powered and use laser, plasma or high gas flames for cutting purposes.

Examples of mechanical cutting are Sawing, Shearing cutting machines.
Examples of flame cutting are CNC , photocell machine and parallel cutting machine.
Example of plasma cutting is the plasma arc cutting machine.


b) Bending

Bending is done by hammering (manual or powered) or press brakes and similar tools. On most
presses bending is done by the roller machines that mark the edges to be bent and in such a way
and are sent through the machines by the workers to and fro which produces in the required ends
of the metal sheets.
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Heavy Mechanical Complex, Taxila
2013



c) Rolling
Rolling is a deformation process in which the thickness of the work is reduced by compressive
forces exerted by two or more opposing rollers.

d) Drilling
It is a machining operation used to create round holes in a workpart. It is usually performed with a
drill or drill bit.

e) Expansion
When the material tries to flow in high temperature conditions the perfect sealing's prevent
leakage. If leakage does not occur overexpansion may cause the pipes to burst due to high
pressure. Appropriate expansion is desirable.

f) Straightening
When there is deformation in beams or pipes hydraulic presses are used to straighten the beams by
pressing that portion from the opposite side by the experience of the operators.

g) Squeezing
If we have a U-pipe it can be decreased or else termed as squeezing inside a furnace. It does not
affect the roundness of the pipe.

h) Material identification
The manufacture will need to give a mill test certificate for the same chemical and mechanical
properties. Numbers are engraved through hard punch on workpiece.

i) Marking
After cutting, beveling or other processes the Quality control is again asked to verify the work
piece. If number of pieces are more then to save time and check error in all plates we use
efficient procedures.

j) Welding
Welding is the main focus of steel fabrication. The formed and machined parts will be assembled
and welded into place. A fixture may be used to locate parts for welding if multiple adjoins are to
be made. The welder then completes welding per engineering drawings.

Special precautions may be used to prevent warping of the weldments due to heat. For instance
to reduce immediate cooling the weldments may be covered by sand to attain desired straight and
regular products.


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Heavy Mechanical Complex, Taxila




The main flame used in HMC Shop here is oxy-acetylene flame. Heat is selectively applied by
the worker in a linear and sweep way. The steel will have a net contraction upon cooling in the
direction of the sweep. A highly skilled welder can stop this from occurring by his expertise.

There are four types of welding being done in fabrication shop:
1) Submerged arc welding (SAW) also known as Auto welding
2) Shield metal arc welding (SMAW ) also known as Manual welding
3) Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) or TIN
4 ) Metallic argon gas welding or MIG

vi)Outside Shop

Channel High Beam Rolling
It increase the toughness and reduces hardness of the material being subjected to it.

Angle Iron Cutting Machine

Shot Blasting & Sand Blasting
Shot and Sand Blasting are performed for Surface Cleaning especially removing the rust and
corrosion that is generated on the finished goods before sending them to the next shop .



Recommendations


near the welding areas to suck out the welding gases produced.
There is no proper ventilation as most of the windows are closed/jammed.

gloves, goggles, helmets etc with strict and proper checking of the defaulters.
nced machines like CNC laser cutting and water jet cutter should be installed
and replace manual machines to save time and increase production and efficiency.
Bending CNC machines are more accurate and efficient.
Finished products placed outside the fabrication shop should have a proper storage team
as they are affected by corrosion, moisture and rain resulting in damage of the goods to
be sent to the consumers. Such materials should be used that are corrosion resistant.

without any delay no matter what the cost is.

ain priority and supervisors should check where the workers
are doing wrong to save time in case the goods are rejected.

fine and regular finishing.


2013
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Heavy Mechanical Complex, Taxila
2013


7. MACHINE SHOP
Introduction

Machine shop is considered as one of the most important shops of Heavy Mechanical Complex as
it contributes a major part in the income of the industry. In this shop different type of actions
and works can be performed with the help of different machines each perform unique work
which is performed under the supervision of experienced workers having experience of decades
which definitely cannot be compared with the theoretical work of anyone else.

Machine shop engineers always try to complete job with minimum cost but at the same time
quality would also not be sacrificed so lots of factors are included in a shop which makes it
unique and compatible. A theory named as FIVE Ms is adopted by different industries in order
to survive in this competitive market which is as following

Five M's
Here following five M`s are followed for the purpose of good management

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Man power
Equipment/machines
Methods Materials
Money

Division Of Shop
Due to the load of job the machine shop is divided into two main sections
1. Machine shop 1 2.
Machine shop 2

Sequence of Operation

"It is defined as the plan through which workers and engineers have to complete the
required job according to availability of machines"

Explanation

The whole procedure of job making in machine shop may be summarize in an easy way
that at first the request of job is received by PPS department in machine shop they analyze it
carefully and make drawings that helps workers to understand their job along with the plan
which makes easy for them to accomplish goal within the time limit according to the availability
of machines in machine shop or other shops machines may also be used to fulfill the job. This
job then forwarded to incharge of section according to the size of the job so it's the duty of
incharge and engineers available there to assign the job to any experienced worker which can
effectively perform the job with minimum usage of material it does not only save material but
also so many other things like cost, time, electricity and man power required for that job.
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Heavy Mechanical Complex, Taxila
2013



Raw Materials Used In Machine Shop

The selection of best material is an important task performed by specially experienced persons,
the task is not only to choose the appropriate material for the job but it should be economical
which decrease its cost in market but the quality may not be sacrificed.

Mild Steel
Steel 45
Stainless steel
Bronze
Brass
Ferrous metal
Nonferrous metal

Products Seen In Machine Shop

The tour of machine shop helps us to witness the machining and other process on the required
job. It also helps to understand the modern requirement of the industries, sugar mills, boilers etc.

Following is the list of jobs we saw in machine shop.

Pulley
Parts of boiler
Parts of sugar mill
Barrel Gears
Hub

Tools used In Machine Shop

Tool is probably one of the most important component of any sort of machine. The ability and
durability of tool predicts the quality and nature of machining on the job.

There are lots of tools but few important tools we saw in machine shop are:

Boring Tool
Used in the process of boring.

High Speed Steel (HSS)
Used for different sort of purposes including threading. Mostly used in lathe
machines.

Tapping Tool
Used for inside threading
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Heavy Mechanical Complex, Taxila




MACHINES IN MACHINE SHOP


Machine shop1 consist of various kinds of machines each having its unique identity and
importance in this sector. This kind may not only be classified as for functions only but the
maximum capacity of the machine may also be considered so according to the capacity of job
and the availability of crane the machine shop 1 is divided into three bays which are as follows

1. small bay
2. medium bay
3. heavy bay

1. Universal Engine Lathe

Lathe
"Lathe is actually a machine tool which rotates the workpiece on its axis to perform
various actions such as cutting, sanding, knurling, facing, turning etc with the proper tool"
Lathe has different kinds according to the usage in which engine lathe is also included.


Specifications


2013
Swing over bed 400 mm Max.
turning length 1400 mm
Working since 1973, 11

There are two other same sort of machines are available which differ in the max turning length

2. Universal radial drilling machine

"Radial drilling machine is a machine with an arm which is used for drilling purpose. Its
main part which differs it from others is its large arm which allows the workers to drill
jobs easily"

Specifications
Max. drilling diameter 25mm
Working since 1971,12

Working condition
This universal radial drilling machine was working fine but the other one in medium bay
was not in working condition for 6 days just due to the breakage of belt cost Rs 25/- only.

3. Universal cylindrical grinding

"The cylindrical grinder is a type of grinding machine used to shape the outside of an
object. While the word cylindrical shows that the workpiece should have central axis of
rotation "
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Heavy Mechanical Complex, Taxila
2013


Specifications

Max. grinding diameter 320mm Max.
grinding length 1500m

4. Circular Metal Saw

"It consists of a circular saw which is used to cut the work piece "
Specifications
Max. Working diameter 1500mm
Working since 1971, 12

5. Horizontal surface grinding machine

"It is a grinding machine which is placed horizontally "
Specifications
Table width 300mm
Table length 1000mm Working
since 1971,12

6. Horizontal milling machine

Milling
"Milling is a machining process if using rotary cutters to remove material from a work
piece advancing in a direction at an angle with the axis of tool"

So horizontal milling machine is a milling machine whose tool is placed horizontal to the job

7. Vertical milling machine

"A milling machine whose tool is placed vertical to the job "

Specifications
Table width 400mm Table
length 1600mm Working
since 1972, 6

8. Arc milling machine

Specifications
Max. machine radius of arc 90mm
Working since 1972
Working condition
Not working due to the damage in gear box


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Heavy Mechanical Complex, Taxila
2013


9. Universal milling machine

"A milling machine which performs both horizontal and vertical milling operations"

Specifications
Table width 400mm Table
length 1600mm
10. Universal milling machine with adjustable spindle

"Same as universal milling machine with an extra quality of adjustable spindle "
Specifications
Table width 320mm
Table length 1250mm
Working since 1971

11. Copy lathe machine

"It's a type of lathe machine which copies the structure of template and then
automatically perform the machining on the job"

12. Slotting machine

"a slotting machine consists of a vertical arm which is used for slotting the job with the
help of appropriate tool normally used for making keyways for the jobs as well. Works
with quick return mechanism which works only in forward stroke "
Specifications
Max working capacity 320mm
Working since 1972, 2

13. Broaching machine

"a machine which is used for broaching purposes"

Broaching
Broaching is performed using a multiple tooth cutting tool linearly relative to the
work in the direction of the tool axis, the cutting tool is called broach and the machine is
known as broaching machine.

Explanation
The piece before the heat treatment is in mild steel so for broaching this machine is
being used where broaching tool is inserted in it which comes out from the other side and
hence broaching process is accomplished




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Heavy Mechanical Complex, Taxila
2013


14. Crank shaping machine

"a shaping machine is a machine used to perform shaping and such other operations
on the job. Crank word shows that it is operated with the help of crank mechanism"
specifications
Max cutting length 630mm
Working since 1971, 10
Working condition
Not working due to bad maintenance

15. Geared head lathe

"Another type of lathe machine probably the most extensively used lathe type in both
machine shops "
Specifications
Swing over bed
Distance between centers
Working since

16. Horizontal boring machine
Boring
1000mm
3000mm
1971, 2
"Boring is a process of expanding the hole made by the drilling machine with the help
of an appropriate tool "
We saw the boring of a pipe for which the center of that pipe was located with the help of dial
gauge. Let's suppose If dial gauge is moving in clockwise direction then the sudden change in it
will indicate the center of that pipe
Specifications
Diameter of spindle 85mm
Working since 1973, 7
Electric powered

17. Vertical lathe machine
"Another type of lathe machine which works vertically"
Working condition
It's in a good working condition during our tour helical gear for Fatima sugar mill was in
progress

18. Single column vertical turret lathe

What is turret lathe?
"a type of lathe machine which performs almost same functions as other lathe machines
except it cannot be used for threading purposes"
Other differences between turret lathe and other lathe machines are given below



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Heavy Mechanical Complex, Taxila
2013


Turret lathe machine

1) It cannot make threads
2) The whole head tilt at large angle
not much
3) It does not have tail stock
4) Electrical movement
5) In vertical turret lathe we cannot work
On long jobs or objects

Specifications


Other lathe machines

It may be used for threading purpose
The bed may rotate in some lathe but

They always have tail stock
Hydraulic movement
In other lathe we cannot work on heavy
objects
max. working length 1250mm

19. Spiral barrel machine

"A machine which is used for making spiral barrels"

20. Single column planar
"a planar machine is used for multiple purpose like planning the surface or finishing it
with the help of appropriate tool"
Specifications
Max. planning width 12500mm Max.
planning length 4000mm
Working condition
It can work but is not used due to the availability of double column planar machine in the
shop

21. Three dimensional copy milling machine
"This machine works automatically once the template or model of the required job is
fixed in the machine. It recognize the shape and regulates the tool so we get the
required job "

Specifications
Max milling width 1120mm
Max. milling L x H 2250 x 710
Working since 1977, 8

22. Plano milling machine
"Performs every action of milling machine except turning and threading "
Specifications
Table width 1250mm Table
length 4000mm

23. Horizontal deep hole boring machine

"performs same actions as boring machine with a capacity of deep boring in the job"
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Heavy Mechanical Complex, Taxila
2013



Specifications
Max drilling diameter 320 mm Max
workpiece length 6000mm

24. Heavy duty lathe
"Same as other lathes except it is used for functioning on heavy and large jobs "
Specifications
Max swing diameter of workpiece 1600mm
Max length of workpiece 1200mm
Working since 1972, 9

Tool Room

Tool room in machine shop serves the purpose of sharpening the tools which are used in whole
machine shop. They does not only make the damaged tools usable but can also make new tools
The machines used in tool room are following

1) Tool sharpening and cutting machine

It is a multiple purpose tooling machine used to sharpen the edge of cutting tools or to cut it in
the required way. Different types of wheels or cups are used for facing and sharpening mostly
silicon carbide cup wheel are used they are best for tip grinding and facing of the cutting tool.
The cutting process actually depends on the speed or RPM so a cutting tool design
must be strong enough to bear all such stresses.

Specifications
Speed 28-80 rpm
Max. work diameter 250mm
Working since 1971, 8

2) Pedestal grinding machine

This particular machine performs the actions just similar to the grinding machine. They are used
for shinning and facing the cutting tools it may be used for sharping the tip also. Silicon carbide
wheel is used for grinding according to the worker daily they have to change that wheel 3 to 4
times as it all consumes while grinding the metal piece or cutting tool

3) Lathe cutting tool

Lathe machine is known as "the mother of all machines" as its also the most widely used
machine in machine shop due to its versatility and easy usage. The continuous usage of lathe
machine requires the continuous supply of cutting tool as well which can only be managed if a
machine like Lathe cutting tool is available. It sharpens the cutting tool of lathe and make it
readily available even if the tool is damaged.
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Heavy Mechanical Complex, Taxila




SPARK ERROSION

Its an electronic machine used to make different types of dyes which can also be used in
fabrication shop as well. Its preciseness can be guessed with a fact that its single cut is less than
the thickness of our hair but at the same time it can make dye from any sort of material no matter
how hard it is.
Working condition
It is in perfect condition but still workers prefer to use other machines as compared to
it due to its difficult handling and controller as according to our survey only one person in the
whole shop knows how to operate it.



PRODUCTION PLANNING SECTION



Production Planning Section is an important section of machine shop which plans the whole job
making procedure and way through which it have to be treated. Another important action which
it performs is the preparation of technical drawings which helps workers to understand the proper
dimensions of the job along with the properties of material which is required for that specific job.

Working


2013
Monthly schedule
Job order
Receiving

The job order can further be classified as

Drawing sets
Component list
Cutting plan
MIA receiving
Drawing set planning
Loading
Machining
Inspection
Assembly
Dispatch cell

ROUTES
The route of job may differ according to its requirement but normally it follows following route

Route 1
i. Forging process
ii. Heat treatment shop
iii. Machining
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Heavy Mechanical Complex, Taxila
2013


iv. Assembly shop

Route 2
i. Fabrication shop
ii. Machining
iii. Assembly shop

Route 3
i. Casting
ii. Heat treatment shop
iii. Machining
iv. Assembly shop


RECOMENDATIONS


completion but it then also totally depends on the experience and qualification of that
specific worker.
Maintenance issues also affecting the productivity of machine shop due to which the
assembly shop is just bounded to specific small area not large enough for assembling of
different jobs.
uniform which leads them
in extreme danger of damaging themselves or may lose any organ.

danger while cranes loading heavy jobs over their heads.
ld enough to work perfectly as it may also be concluded through the
installation dates of each machine (mentioned in the specifications of machine). So
modern machinery should be introduced which may help to increase the production along
with the quality and durability of the job.



















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Heavy Mechanical Complex, Taxila




8. Assembly Shop

In Assembly shop of HMC like other modern industries various fastening methods are used to
mechanically attach two (or more) parts together. Many products in HMC are assembled largely
by mechanical fastening methods;


2013

Sugar industry machinery
Boiler components
Metal gates
Cranes
Road Rollers
Industrial Fans (both suction and blowing)
Small Tractors
Electric power control panels

In HMC both temporary and permanent fastening methods are used.

1. Temporary Fastening:
Those that allow for disassembly e.g Threaded fasteners like Screw, bolts and nuts

2. Permanent Fastening:
Those that create a permanent joint e.g rivets


Why we prefer mechanical assembly?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Ease of assembly
Ease of disassembly
Mechanical assembly can be done by unskilled workers as compare to welding.
Ease of transportation
Easily inspected
Saves Time

HMC provides the facility of assembly at the site saving both time and cost of the costumer.

We divide mechanical assembly methods used in HMC into following categories:

1. Threaded fasteners
2. Rivets

Threaded fasteners

Threaded fasteners are discrete hardware components that have external or internal threads for
assembly of parts. Eg Screw, Bolts and Nuts
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Heavy Mechanical Complex, Taxila




In HMC threaded fasteners are used to assemble almost every major product. From rollers in
sugar industry to boilers, cranes to road rollers, fans to metallic gates.

Screw, Bolts and Nuts:

Screw and bolts are threaded fasteners that have external threads. A Screw is an externally
threaded fastener that is generally assembled into a blind threaded hole. A bolt is an externally
threaded fastener that is inserted through holes in the parts and screwed into a nut on the opposite
side.

Machine screws are used for assembly into tapped holes. Cap screws are used for higher strength
metals and to closer tolerances. Set screws are used for fastening collars, gears and pulleys to
shafts. A self tapping screw is used to cut or form threads in a preexisting hole into which it is
being turned.

Thread fasteners in HMC are mainly made of steel because of its good strength and low cost.
They are usually coated in Ni, Cr, Zn, and black oxide etc for resistance to corrosion.

Various head styles available at HMC were;

Flat head, Truss head, Hexagonal head, Phillips head

Washer


It is a hardware component often used with threaded fasteners to ensure tightness of the
mechanical joint. They


2013

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Distribute stresses that might otherwise be concentrated at the bolt or screw head and nut
Provide support for large clearance holes in the assembled parts
Increase spring tension
Protect part surfaces
Seal the joint
Resist inadvertent unfastening

Tools and Methods for threaded fasteners

Tools used in HMC varies from simple hand held Screwdrivers or wrenches to hydraulic,
pneumatic or electric powered tools. Usually the pneumatic power tightening is done at the site
and simple manual tightening is done at the shop





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Heavy Mechanical Complex, Taxila
2013



Rivets and Eyelets

A rivet is an unthreaded, headed pin used to join two(or more) parts by passing the pin through
holes in the parts and then forming (upsetting) a second head in the pin on the opposite side. The
deforming operation is usually performed by hammering or steady pressing.

Rivet types used are

Solid
Tubular
Semi-tubular
Bifurcated
Compression

In addition special rivets are used for special applications. Rivets are primarily used for lap
joints.

Riveting method is used as it

1. Offers higher production rates 2.
Simplicity
3. Dependability 4.
Low cost

In HMC the tooling and methods used in riveting are

1. Impact, in which pneumatic hammer delivers a succession of blows to upset the rivet.
2. Steady compression, in which the riveting tool applies a continuous squeezing pressure to
upset the rivet
3. A combination of impact and compression

Equipment used was portable and manually operated.

Eyelets are thin walled tubular fasteners with flange on one end, usually made from sheet
metal. Eyelets are substituted for rivets in low stress applications to save material, weight and
cost.The formation process is called setting. Assembly methods used in HMC based on
interference

Several assembly methods in HMC are based on mechanical interference between the two
mating parts being joined. These methods include

1. Press fitting
2. Shrink fitting
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Heavy Mechanical Complex, Taxila
2013


3. Transition fitting
Press fitting

In press fitting the two components have interference between them. A typical case is a key or
pin.
Shrink fitting

This term refer to the assembly of two parts that have an interference fit at room temperature.
The external part is heated to enlarge it by thermal expansion, and the internal part either remains at
room temperature or is cooled to contract its size. The parts are assembled and bought back to
room temperature, so that the external part shrinks, and if previously cooled the internal part
expands, to form a strong interference fit.

This method is used to fit

1. Gears
2. Pulleys 3.
Sleeves

And other components into solid and hollow shafts..Heating equipment used are furnaces and
torches.
Transition fitting

In this method both the inner diameter of outer part and outer diameter of inner part are equal
and are assembled by pressure applied via hammer.

Recommendations

Pneumatic, electric or hydraulic powered tools for fastening are not provided to
workers at the shop. This reduces efficiency, Wastes time and decreases quality. Hence
these tools must be provided.
The bending machine is under maintenance.










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Heavy Mechanical Complex, Taxila




9. Heat Treatment

This Shop involves various heating and cooling procedures performed to effect micro-structural
changes in a material, which in turn affect its mechanical properties.

Heat treatment operations are performed in HMC at various times during its manufacturing
sequences. In some cases, the treatment is applied prior to shaping. In other cases, heat treatment
is used to relieve the effects of strain hardening that occur during forming, so that the material
can be subjected to further deformation. Heat treatment is also performed at or near the end of
the sequence to achieve the final strength and hardness required in the finished product.

The heat treatments performed are


2013

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Annealing
Normalization
Quenching/Hardening
Flame quenching
Surface Hardening
Case Hardening
Tempering

Annealing:

It consists of heating the metal to a suitable temperature (upper critical temperature), holding at
that temperature for a certain time (soaking), and slowly cooling inside the furnace along with the
furnace stopped.

It is performed:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

To reduce hardness and brittleness
To alter microstructure so that desirable mechanical properties can be obtained
To soften metals for improved machinability or formability
To re-crystallize cold worked metals
To relieve residual stresses induced by prior shaping processes

Normalizing:

It consists of heating the metal to a suitable temperature (upper critical temperature), holding at
that temperature for a certain time (soaking), and cooling at faster rate in air to room
temperature. Hence:

1. Fine pearlite
2. Higher strength and hardness
3. Lower ductility
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Heavy Mechanical Complex, Taxila
2013


Quenching/Hardening:

It consists of heating the metal to a suitable temperature (upper critical temperature), holding at
that temperature for a certain time (soaking), and cooling rapidly. The cooling rate depends upon
the quenching medium and the rate of heat transfer within the steel workpiece.

Various quenching media used in HMC are

1. Barine - salt water
2. Fresh water
3. Still oil

Brine quenching is the fastest and air quenching is the slowest.

Tempering:

It is a heat treatment applied to hardened steel to reduce brittleness, increase ductility and
toughness and relieve stresses in the materials structure.

It involves heating and soaking at a temperature below the eutectoid for about an hour, followed
by slow cooling. A slight reduction in strength and hardness accompanies the improvement in
ductility and toughness.

Surface hardening:

It involves several thermo-chemical treatments applied to steels in which the composition of the
part surface is altered by addition of carbon, nitrogen or other elements.

The processes used are:

1. Carburizing
2. Nitriding
3. Carbonitriding

In HMC carburizing is used mostly.

Carburizing:

It is the most common surface hardening treatment. It involves heating a part of low carbon steel in
the presence of a carbon rich environment so that C is diffused into the surface.

The carbon rich environment can be created in several ways:

1. Pack carburizing 2. Gas
carburizing
3. Liquid carburizing
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Heavy Mechanical Complex, Taxila
2013


Pack carburizing

This process produces a relatively thick layer of wood coal and a catalyst (barium carbonate) on
the part surface, ranging from 0.6-4 mm.

Gas carburizing:

This method uses hydrocarbon fuels such as propane/kerosene oil inside a sealed furnace to
diffuse C into the parts

Liquid carburizing:

This method employs a molten salt bath containing sodium cynide, barium chloride and other
compounds to diffuse carbon into the steel.

This method is used when machine allowance is not given and we require smooth surface. The
salt bath prevents the atmospheric air to come in contact with the part hence preventing oxidation
and chemical reactions.

Typical carburizing temperatures are 875-925 degree Celsius, well into the austenite range.
Carburizing followed by quenching produces a case hardness of around HRC = 60.



Selective Surface hardening / case hardening:

When we require different HRC at different surface and regions then case hardening is applied.

Different case hardening methods are:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Flame hardening
Induction hardening
surface Hardening and then machining
high frequency resistance heating
electron beam heating
laser beam heating

Methods used in HMC are flame hardening, induction heating and surface hardening +
machining.







Internship Report June-July 13` Page 47
Heavy Mechanical Complex, Taxila
2013


Flame hardening:

This method involves heating of the work surface by means of one or more torches followed by
rapid quenching via water. Fuel used is acetylene. Usually used for large and small gears.
Typical hardness depth is about 2.5 mm. both manual and automatic flame hardening facility is
available at HMC.

Induction heating:

This method involves application of electromagnetically induced energy supplied by an
induction coil to an electrically conductive work part.

High frequency resistance heating:

This method is used to harden specific areas of steel work surfaces by application of localized
resistance heating at high frequency (400 kHz typical). Hardness can range up to 60 HRC.

Phosphating:

It is a chemical cleaning process to remove oil, dirt and other components from the surface of the
part. Further phosphating is a electrolytic cleaning also called electro-cleaning. In this process 3-
12 V DC is applied to an alkaline cleaning solution (Grenadine + water 1:10) at a temperature
98-100 degree C. The electrolytic action results in the generation of gas bubbles at the part
surface, causing a scrubbing action that aids in removal of tenacious dirt films and phosphate is
being deposited on the part surface.



Recommendations


up to dated.

Modern heat treatment techniques like laser beam heating and electron beam heating are
not used and are not provided. They must be introduced to increase the quality and
performance.









Internship Report June-July 13` Page 48
Heavy Mechanical Complex, Taxila
2013



10.Metrological Laboratory
Introduction

Metrology is the science of measurements. The science is concerned with six fundamental
quantities length, mass, time, electric current, temperature and light radiation. In manufacturing
metrology our main concern is with measuring length quantity in the many ways which it
manifests itself in a part or product. These include length, width, diameter, depth, straightness,
flatness and roundness.

Inspection involves the use of measurement and gauging techniques to determine whether a
product, it's components, subassemblies or starting material conform to design specifications. The
design specifications are established by the product designer and for mechanical products they
refer to dimensions, surface finish and similar features.
Instruments

1) Two Flank Gear Testing Roller

Total composite error and tooth error or spur, helical and bevel gears are measured by it.

2) Projection Type JIT 500

Projector is an optical instrument for measuring profile section and surface for workpiece such as
formed milling cutter and gear hobbies

3) Square Tester

It is used for periodical inspection of square in using.

4) Run Out Tester

Inspects eccentricity, bending, facial error of cylindrical workpieces.

5) Optical Dividing Head

This is a precision instrument for checking and measuring angular divisions. It is used to check
protractors, levels cam plate etc or in the inspection of finished part for indexing error.

6) BC-J-2 Surface Measuring Instrument

This instrument is used for measuring the roughness of plane surfaces, cylindrical surfaces of
bore down to 6 mm. The scope of the instrument can be extended by means of accessories.

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Heavy Mechanical Complex, Taxila
2013


7) Eccentricity Tester

It is used for cylindrical and taper jobs.

8) Microscope Type JG X 3

The microscope can measure various parameters of threads , roundness, flatness, straightness of
profile. Thread cutters, thread milling cutter, comb type thread cutters, template form cutters,
profiles, milling cutter, punching dies and cams.

9) Metroscope JD5

The universal metro-scope is an opto-mechanical and electrical precision length making
instruments. It can be used to determine the size of work pieces by methods of direct and
differential measurements such as external and internal screw thread measurements.

10) Length Measuring Machine

An optical Metrological instrument with comparatively high precision . It is generally used for
examining the inside and outer diameter of precision parts and measuring tools of large axis.

11) Two Flank Gears Rolling Tester

It is used for testing composite error and back lash of straight and helical (external & internal
gears) as well as bevel and worm gears.

12) Testing Unit for Gauge Blocks

It is used to measure error of gauge blocks.

13) Testing Machine for dial indicators and comparators

To calibrate dial indicators rapidly and accurately.
Recommendations



for measuring
Co-ordinate Measuring Machines have a higher productivity and reduced human error as
compared to manual machines.

computers can be used for better analysis and observation.



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