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SI 3221 Rekayasa Fondasi

Lessons Learn
From Foundation Failures

Lecture#1

Prepared by: Ir. Dedi Apriadi, Ph.D.

January 2014



Dedi Apriadi SI 3221 Rekayasa Fondasi
Hasil Survei Lapangan 30-31 Juli 2008 (PT Adhi Karya)
Berdasarkan hasil survei di lapangan :
Retak miring pada gedung terjadi baik di lantai dasar maupun di lantai
atas.
Temuan pada lantai atas yang memperlihatkan lantai keramik
terpasang telah mencuat ke atas (terlepasnya ikatan mortar antara
keramik dengan pelat lantai) akibat desakan dari arah tepi ke bagian
tengah pelat lantai.
Hasil Survei Lapangan 30-31 Juli 2008 (PT Adhi Karya)
Masalah keretakan lurus juga dijumpai pada 2 lokasi yang terjadi
pada dinding bagian luar gedung. Pola retak yang ditemukan
adalah sejajar dengan dengan arah beban gravitasi.
Hasil Survei Lapangan 30-31 Juli 2008 (PT Adhi Karya)
Temuan berikutnya adalah lantai dasar yang mengalami
penurunan tidak seragam sehingga nampak seperti
bergelombang. Menurut informasi yang ada, lantai dasar tersebut
langsung ditopang oleh tanah timbunan di bawahnya (slab on
ground).
Hasil Survei Lapangan 30-31 Juli 2008 (PT Adhi Karya)
Settlement of A Building Supported by Shallow Foundations
Tambak Lorok Port Office, Semarang, Central Java
Tawang Railway Station School Building
Sumur No. 6, Kp. Peres Lantai gedung P3B (Pelayaran)
Differential Settlement
Facts:
Height = 60 m
Girth = 19.6 m
Mass = 14,500 tons
Tilt = 5.5 deg
Commenced = 1173
Why should we worry about differential settlement of buildings ?
Cracks Due to Differential
Settlement
Cross Section of A Building With A
Differential Settlement Problem

EVALUASI DAN ANALISIS GEOTEKNIK
AKIBAT PEMANCANGAN TIANG DI
LOKASI DERMAGA PELABUHAN
TELUK LAMONG - SURABAYA
LATAR BELAKANG
Pada foto-foto ini terlihat bahwa telah terjadi pergerakan baik secara
vertikal maupun horizontal pada struktur fondasi tiang pancang
sehingga mengakibatkan adanya pergeseran-pergeseran pada struktur
pelat dermaga.
LATAR BELAKANG
Pergerakan vertikal dan horizontal yang terjadi pada
struktur Dermaga International existing
REVIEW HASIL MONITORING
5.004
5.011
5.014
5.007 5.008 5.009
5.005
5.009
5.005 5.005
5.008
5.020
5.044
5.005
5.015
5.021
5.024
5.022
5.012 5.012
5.024
5.014
5.019
5.011
5.024 5.025
5.014
4.994 4.994
5.002
5.005
4.984
4.994
4.991
5.002
4.94
4.96
4.98
5
5.02
5.04
5.06
29 A' 30 A' 31 A' 32 A' 33 A' 34 A' 35 A' 36 A' 37 A' 38 A' 39 A' 40 A' 41 A' 42 A' 43 A' 44 A' 45 A' 46 A' 47 A' 48 A' 49 A' 50 A' 51 A' 52 A' 53 A' 54 A' 55 A' 56 A' 57 A' 58 A' 59 A' 60 A' 61 A' 62 A' 63 A'
Elevasi Aktual (15-2-2013)
Elevasi Aktual (15-2-2013)
Dilatasi
Elevasi Rencana
+ 5.00 LWS
Perbedaan Elevasi Yang Cukup
Tinggi
5.009
5.019
5.025
5.017
5.015
5.019
5.016 5.015
5.013
5.009
5.012
5.023
5.048
5.005
5.019
5.024 5.025
5.023
5.014
5.012
5.026
5.018
5.021
5.016
5.036
5.045
5.038
5.025 5.024
5.028
5.032
5.012
5.019
5.012
5.014
4.98
4.99
5
5.01
5.02
5.03
5.04
5.05
5.06
29 A' 30 A' 31 A' 32 A' 33 A' 34 A' 35 A' 36 A' 37 A' 38 A' 39 A' 40 A' 41 A' 42 A' 43 A' 44 A' 45 A' 46 A' 47 A' 48 A' 49 A' 50 A' 51 A' 52 A' 53 A' 54 A' 55 A' 56 A' 57 A' 58 A' 59 A' 60 A' 61 A' 62 A' 63 A'
Elevasi Aktual (17-3-2013)
Elevasi Aktual (17-3-2013)
Dilatasi
Elevasi Rencana
+ 5.00 LWS
Perbedaan Elevasi Yang Cukup
Tinggi
SI 3221 Rekayasa Fondasi


Foundation Design Concept

Lecture#1

Prepared by: Ir. Dedi Apriadi, Ph.D.

January 2014




Dedi Apriadi SI 3221 Rekayasa Fondasi
Dedi Apriadi SA 5104 Geoteknik
Foundation Types
Dedi Apriadi SI 3221 Rekayasa Fondasi
Shallow foundations (spread footings and mats)
Natural ground
Improved ground
Replacement
Drained
Compaction
etc (grouting, freezing)

Pile foundations
Prefabricated (concrete or steel driven pile)
Cast-in place (bored pile or drilled shaft)

Caissons
Open caissons/sink caissons
pneumatic caissons


Dedi Apriadi SA 5104 Geoteknik
Shallow Foundation
Dedi Apriadi SI 3221 Rekayasa Fondasi
Good ground condition exists surface
Bearing from bottom face
Horizontal resistance from friction of bottom face
Fast and lowest expense
Can be used in combination with ground improvement
For increasing stability
For reducing settlement



spread footing
mat foundation
(Das, B.M., 2010)
Dedi Apriadi SA 5104 Geoteknik
Pile Foundation
Dedi Apriadi SI 3221 Rekayasa Fondasi
Supporting layer is at great depth
Resistance from shaft friction and end bearing
Horizontal resistance from pile bending stiffness and
ground resistance
Construction techniques
Driven, Bored, Pre-bored
Material used
RC, Steel, PC


Pile foundation
Bored pile/drilled shaft
(Das, B.M., 2010)
Dedi Apriadi SA 5104 Geoteknik
Caisson
Dedi Apriadi SI 3221 Rekayasa Fondasi
Large scale body
Use for massive structure
Open caisson / Sink caisson
Deep / Easy construct / has heave, boiling problem
End bearing from bottom base
Horizontal resistance from
Passive earth pressure
Skin friction and base friction


Caisson foundation
(Assimaki, no year)
Dedi Apriadi SA 5104 Geoteknik
Selection criteria
Dedi Apriadi SI 3221 Rekayasa Fondasi
Depends on
Ground condition
Existence of obstruction layer
Supporting layer condition
Ground water condition
Structure characteristic
Magnitude of load
Dominant supporting mechanism
Construction workability
Water table
Construction space
Environment impact


Dedi Apriadi SA 5104 Geoteknik
Selection Table
Dedi Apriadi SI 3221 Rekayasa Fondasi
Dedi Apriadi SA 5104 Geoteknik
Performance Requirements
Dedi Apriadi SI 3221 Rekayasa Fondasi
If a builder builds a house for a man and
does not make its construction firm, and
the house which he has built collapses
and causes the death of the owner of the
house, that builder shall be put to death

From The Code of Hammurabi, Babylon, circa 2000 B.C.,
rewritten after Coduto, 2001
Dedi Apriadi SA 5104 Geoteknik
Performance Requirements
Dedi Apriadi SI 3221 Rekayasa Fondasi
Design requirements
Design loads
Strength requirements
Serviceability requirements

Construction requirements

Economic requirements


Dedi Apriadi SA 5104 Geoteknik
Design Requirements
Dedi Apriadi SI 3221 Rekayasa Fondasi
Design loads by types


(Coduto, 2001)
Dedi Apriadi SA 5104 Geoteknik
Design Requirements
Dedi Apriadi SI 3221 Rekayasa Fondasi
Design loads by sources


(Coduto, 2001)
Dedi Apriadi SA 5104 Geoteknik
Design Requirements
Dedi Apriadi SI 3221 Rekayasa Fondasi
Design loads by sources


(Coduto, 2001)
Dedi Apriadi SA 5104 Geoteknik
Design Requirements
Dedi Apriadi SI 3221 Rekayasa Fondasi
Design loads by methods
Allowable or Working Stress Design (ASD/WSD)
The design loads reflect conservative estimates
of the actual loads

Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) or
Ultimate Strength Design
It applies load factor, most of which are greater
than one, to the nominal loads to obtain factored
load and also applies resistance factor (nearly
less than one) to the ultimate capacity.


(Coduto, 2001)
Dedi Apriadi SA 5104 Geoteknik
Design Requirements
Dedi Apriadi SI 3221 Rekayasa Fondasi
Strength requirements
Geotechnical strength requirements
The ability of the soil to accept the loads imparted
by the foundation without failing -> bearing capacity





Structural strength requirements
Address the foundations structural integrity and its
ability to safely carry the applied loads.

(Coduto, 2001)
Dedi Apriadi SA 5104 Geoteknik
Design Requirements
Dedi Apriadi SI 3221 Rekayasa Fondasi
Serviceability requirements

Foundation may experience excessive settlement
when subjected to the service load.



(Coduto, 2001)
Dedi Apriadi SA 5104 Geoteknik
Constructibility Requirements
Dedi Apriadi SI 3221 Rekayasa Fondasi


Do not design on paper what you have to wish into
the ground



(Coduto, 2001)
Karl Terzaghi
Dedi Apriadi SA 5104 Geoteknik
Economic Requirements
Dedi Apriadi SI 3221 Rekayasa Fondasi


An engineers job is that of doing well with one
dollar which any bungler can do it with two



(Coduto, 2001)
Arthur Wellington
Dedi Apriadi SA 5104 Geoteknik
General Design Practice
Check bearing capacity
Control by shear strength parameters of soil

Conduct settlement analysis
Control by elastic and compressibility parameters
of soil

Check foundation material strength


Dedi Apriadi SI 3221 Rekayasa Fondasi
Stability analysis
1.Vertical direction
Applying force < Allowable bearing pressure
< Ultimate capacity / F.S.
Q < Q
a
< Q
u
/ F.S.*
2. Horizontal direction
Driving force < Allowable hor. resistance
< (Base friction + face) / F.S.
H < H
a
< (H
u
+ R
p
) / F.S.
3. Overturning..





Dedi Apriadi SI 3221 Rekayasa Fondasi
Settlement consideration

Two types of settlement occurs
Immediate settlement -> Elastic deformation
Long term settlement -> Consolidation
Three criteria to control
Total settlement
Differential settlement
Angular distortion
Dedi Apriadi SI 3221 Rekayasa Fondasi
Criteria for settlement control
Total settlement
Differential sett.
Tilt
Relative sett.
Angular distortion
Dedi Apriadi SI 3221 Rekayasa Fondasi
Guideline for allowable settlement (Immediate)
Spread Stripe Mat
Differential settlement 1 cm 1.5 cm 2 cm
Total settlement 3 cm 4 cm 6 cm
Angular distortion 1/2000 1/1000 1/1500
Guideline for allowable settlement (Consolidation)
Spread Stripe Mat
Differential settlement 3 cm 4 cm 5 cm
Total settlement 10 cm 20 cm 25 cm
Angular distortion 1/500 1/500 1/750
Dedi Apriadi SI 3221 Rekayasa Fondasi

References

1. Das, B.M., Fundamentals of Geotechnical Engineering,
Thomson Canada Limited, 2005.
2. Das, B.M., Principles of Geotechnical Engineering,
Thomson Canada Limited, 5
th
Ed., 2006.
3. Lambe, T.W., and Whitman, Soil Mechanics, John Wiley
and Son, 1979.
4. Holtz, R.D., and Kovacs, W.D., An Introduction to
Geotechnical Engineering, Prentice-Hall Inc., 1981.
5. Budhu, M., Soil Mechanics & Foundations, John Wiley &
Sons, Inc., 2000.




Dedi Apriadi SI 3221 Rekayasa Fondasi