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S & An introduction to ASME &

ASME SEC IX S S C
QA/QC DEPARTMENT QA/QC DEPARTMENT
Contents
The ASME System
Introduction to Section IX
O i ti d U S ti IX Organization and Use Section IX
Section IX Responsibilities
Responsibilities of the Authorized Inspector or Owner User Inspector
Responsibilities of the Manufacturer p
Welding Processes and weld types
Section II, Part C Welding Materials
Welding Procedure Specification QW-200
Procedure Qualification Record (PQR) Procedure Qualification Record (PQR)
Qualifying a WPS
Miscellaneous Application
Welding Variables
Welder performance Qualification QW-300
Welder Essential Variables SMAW
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Th ASME S t The ASME System
Outline
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The ASME System
ASME B il & P V l C d ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Codes
Section IX Subcommittee Organization
The ASME
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The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Provides minimum safety rules for Construction
The Members
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The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
Manufacturer/Certificates Holders
Owners/Users
Authorized Inspection Agencies
Jurisdiction/Regulatory Agencies
Members voluntarily supported by their organizations Members voluntarily supported by their organizations
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Manufacturers
AIAs
Owner/Users
ASME ASME
Voluntary
Members
Jurisdictions
Boiler & Pressure Vessel Committee
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1911: ASME establishes a committee for the purpose of
formulating standard rules for the construction of power
boilers and other pressure vessels.
Construction Codes
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Section I Power Boilers
Section III Divs. 1 & 2 Nuclear Components
Section IV Heating Boilers
Section VIII, Divs. 1, 2 & 3 Pressure Vessels , ,
Section X Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic Pressure
Vessels
History of Construction Codes
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1914: Section I Power Boilers
1923: Section IV Heating Boilers
1928: Section VIII Unrefined Pressure Vessels
1965: Section III- Nuclear Power Plant Components. p
History of Construction Codes
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1968: Renamed Section VIII, Div. 1 Pressure
Vessel Code
1968: Section VIII, Div. 2 Alternate Rules for Pressure
Vessels
1969: Section X Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic Pressure
Vessels
Reference Codes
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Section II Materials
Section V - Nondestructive Examination
Section IX - Welding & Brazing Qualification
History of Reference Codes
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1924: Section II - Material
1937: Section IX Welding Qualification
Subgroup Organization
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Section IX Committee
Subgroup Procedures Subgroup Performance
Subgroup Brazing
Subgroup General
Requirements Requirements
Subgroup Materials
Subgroup Strength
f
Subgroup Materials
of Weldment
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Introduction to Section IX
Outline
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Foreword
WPS/PQR Q lifi ti WPS/PQR Qualifications
Addenda
Organization and Use of Section IX g
Foreword
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Foreword covers topics such as:
Hi t f ASME C itt History of ASME Committee
Submitting interpretations to ASME as referenced in
Appendix A
Effect date of Addenda
Addenda may be used upon issuance although it is
not mandatory six month after issue not mandatory six month after issue
Material requiremen
ASME Code Section IX
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Qualification Standard for
Welding and Brazing Procedures
Welders, Braziers, Welding and Brazing Operators.
WPS/PQR Qualification
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Article I Paragraph QW-100.2 discusses OLD
d d W ld Q lifi ti procedures and Welders Qualifications
Qualification prior to 1962:
Requires updating to a later edition or discard as valid
After 1962, the Procedures and Welders are good forever
Addenda
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Changes to the Code
Issued annually
Mandatory use six months after issue
May be used upon issue May be used upon issue
Reference Code
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Section IX is a reference Code and may be used only
when referenced and as it is referenced by the
Construction or Governing Code
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O i ti d U S ti IX Organization and Use Section IX
Organization
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Part QW
Article 1 General Requirements
Article 11 Welding Procedure Qualification
Article 111 Welding Performance Qualification
Article IV Welding Variables g
Article V Standard Welding Procedure (AWS)
Article I
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General Requirements
QW-100 General
QW-110 Weld Ordination
QW-120 Test Position for Groove welds QW 120 Test Position for Groove welds
QW-130 Test Position for Fillet Welds
QW-140 Types and purpose of test and examinations
Article I
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General Requirements
QW-150 Tension Test
QW-160 Guided bend test
QW-170 Notch Toughness Test QW 170 Notch Toughness Test
QW-180 Fillet Weld Test
QW-190 Other test & examinations
Article II
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Welding Procedure Qualification
QW-200 General
QW-210 Preparation of test coupon
QW-250 Welding Variables QW 250 Welding Variables
Article III
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Welding Performance Qualification
QW 300 G l QW-300 General
QW-310 Qualification test coupon
QW-320 Reset and renewal of qualification q
QW-350 Welding variables for welders
QW-360 Welding variable for welding Operators
QW-380 Special processes QW-380 Special processes
Article IV
Welding Data
QW-400 Variables
QW-410 Techniques
QW-320 P-Number
QW-430 F- Numbers
QW-440 Weld metal chemical composition
QW 450 Specimens QW-450 Specimens
QW-460 Graphics
QW-470 Etching process and reagents
QW 490 D fi i i QW-490 Definitions
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Section IX Responsibilities
Outline
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Responsibilities
Authorized Inspector
Manufacturer
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Responsibilities of the Authorized Responsibilities of the Authorized
Inspector or Owner User Inspector
Before Construction
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Verify that
Procedure comply with procedure
Procedure have been properly qualified
Welding and Operators are properly qualified Welding and Operators are properly qualified
QC Manual has been followed
During Construction
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Make sure welding is preformed within the parameters Make sure welding is preformed within the parameters
of the welding procedure
Verify welder qualification limits are neither exceeded
i d nor expired
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Responsibilities of the Responsibilities of the
Manufacturer
Qualification of Procedure
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Establish a QC program to control qualification
Li t t f t ti List parameters for construction
Prepare a written WPS
Assure metallurgical compatibility between filler and base
metal
Prepare and certify PQR based upon recorded data
Notes
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Recommended that each Manufacturer has, or has
access to, a welding metallurgist
QW-200.3 Hold the manufacturer responsible for
assuring that material are compatible when welded assuring that material are compatible when welded
Qualification of Welders
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Establish QC program to control welder qualification Establish QC program to control welder qualification
Qualify each welder to the process being used
Weld the test coupon in accordance with a written WPS
Contd
Qualification of Welder
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Control and supervise during the welding of coupon
Maintain welder identification
Document welder qualification
Subcontracted Welding Procedures
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Applicable to Section I only when using PP stamp to
ASME/ ANSI B31 1 C d ASME/ ANSI B31.1 Code
The National Certified Pipe Welders Bureau (NCPWB),
a national organization made up of member companies,
provides welding procedures to its members.
Contd
Subcontracted Welding Procedures
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The member company must
Sign each WPS and PQR
Accept responsibility for its use and Code compliance
Subcontracted Welding
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Allowed by the construction Code, provided;
U i d ib d i th QC M l Use is described in the QC Manual
Work performed within the scope of the Certificate of
Authorization
Certificate holder has contractual control over the
Welders.
Contd
Subcontracted Welding
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Certificate Holder has final responsibility for the welding
W ld i d b t t t th C tifi t h ld Welder is under subcontract to the Certificate holder
Welder are qualified by the Certificate Holder
Inter Company Procedures
QW-201
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Welding procedure may be used among different
companies, provided they are within the same corporate
structure
Each company must state how they control such Each company must state how they control such
procedure in their QC Manual and satisfy the ASME during
joint review
Example
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Company A qualifies and files several PQRs
C B fil th i PQR d bi ith th Company B files their own PQR and combines with the
PQRs from company A to develop a WPS
The PQR from company A was not qualified.
Is this permissible?
Inter Company Procedures
QW-300.2
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Allows to use the Welders amongst different companies
without prequalification, provided both companies are
within the same corporate structure
Each company must satisfy the ASME requirements Each company must satisfy the ASME requirements
during the joint review and incorporate the necessary
control in the QC Manual
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Welding Processes and Welding Processes and
Weld Types
Outline
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Welding Processes
W ld T Weld Types
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Welding Processes
OFW Oxyfuel Welding
SMAW Shield Metal Arc Weldingg
SAW Submerge Arc Welding
GMAW Gas Metal Arc Welding
FCAW Flux-Core Arc Welding FCAW Flux-Core Arc Welding
GTAW Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
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Welding Processes
PAW Plasma Arc Welding
ESW Electro Slag Welding g g
EGW Electro Gas Welding
EBW Electro Beam Welding
LBW Laser Beam Welding
Stud Welding
Inertia and Continuous Friction Inertia and Continuous Friction
Special Processes
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Corrosion resistance overlay and hard surface overlay
ldi welding
Qualification requirement: QW-453
Essential variables: QW-250
Weld Types
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Three types of welds covered in Section IX
G W ld Groove Weld
U Groove
J Groove
V Groove
Partial Penetration
Fillet Welds Fillet Welds
Stud Welds
J and U Preparations
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Root radius
U preparation
Land
Double U butt
Groove Weld
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1
?
1
Contd
Groove Weld
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11
Groove Angle
Contd
Groove Weld
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1
?
1
2
Contd
Groove Weld
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11
2
Bevel Angle
Contd
Groove Weld
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1
3
?
1
2
Contd
Groove Weld
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1
3
1
2
Groove Face
Contd
Groove Weld
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1
3
1
2
?
4
Contd
Groove Weld
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1
3
1
2
Root Face
4
Contd
Groove Weld
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1
3
1
2
4
5
?
Contd
Groove Weld
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1
3
1
2
Root Gap
4
5
Contd
Groove Weld
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Groove Angle
Groove Face
Bevel Angle
Root Face
Root Gap
Fillet Weld
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?
1
?
Contd
Fillet Weld
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?
1
?
Toe of Weld
Contd
Fillet Weld
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1
?
2
Contd
Fillet Weld
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1
2
Weld Face
Contd
Fillet Weld
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1
?
3 2
Contd
Fillet Weld
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1
3 2
Weld Size
Contd
Fillet Weld
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1
?
3 2
44
Contd
Fillet Weld
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1
3 2
4 Weld Leg 4 Weld Leg
Contd
Fillet Weld
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1
3 2
44
?
5
Contd
Fillet Weld
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1
3 2
44
5
Weld Root
Contd
Fillet Weld
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1
3 2
44
?
6
5
Contd
Fillet Weld
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1
3 2
44
6
5
Weld Throat
Contd
Fillet Weld
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Leg
Face
Weld Size
Toe
Leg
Root
Stud Welding
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?
1
Contd
Stud Welding
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Work Piece
1
Contd
Stud Welding
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2
Work Piece
?
1
Contd
Stud Welding
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2
Work Piece
Stud
1
Contd
Stud Welding
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2
Work Piece
Stud
3
1
?
Contd
Stud Welding
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2
Work Piece
Stud
3
1
Weld
Contd
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Section II Part C Section II, Part C
Welding Material
Outline
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Scope of Section II, Part C
Electrode Identification
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ASME Section II, Part C
Scope
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Section II- material specifications referenced in the
f b i ti C d fabrication Code.
Part C Material Specification for welding materials
Section II, Part C
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Information includes:
P th t b d ith i l t d Processes that may be used with various electrodes
Recommended storage requirements
AWS marking
Recommended electrode positions
Recommended polarity
Information on how to meet SFA specification Information on how to meet SFA specification
Table of Contents
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SFA-5.1 Carbon Steel covered arc welding electrodes.
SFA 5 4 C i i t C d C Ni t l d SFA-5.4 Corrosion resistance Cr and Cr-Ni steel covered
electrodes
SFA- 5.5 Low alloy steel-covered arc welding electrodes
SFA-2.18 Carbon steel filler metals for Gas Shielded Arc
Welding
Specification SFA-5.1
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Requirements for classifying carbon steel electrodes
d f Shi ld d M t l A W ldi (SMAW) used for Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)
Example:
E6010, E6011, E7018 and E7028
Specification SFA-5.4
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Requirement for classifying stainless steel-covered
l t d d f SMAW electrodes used for SMAW
Example:
E308H, E309L, E317L and E317L
Specification SFA-5.5
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Requirements for classifying low alloy steel-covered
l t d d f SMAW electrodes used for SMAW
Example:
E7018-A1, E8016-B2, E9015-B3 and E9018-B3L
Specification SFA-5.18
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Requirements for classifying carbon steel electrodes and
rods used for Gas Shielded Arc Welding (GSAW) rods used for Gas Shielded Arc Welding (GSAW)
Examples:
ER70S2, ER70S3, ER70SG and ER70CGM.
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Electrode Identification Electrode Identification
Marking Requirements
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SFA-5.1 requires marking on both the package and
l t d electrode
Package
AWS classification and class
Suppliers name and trade designation
Size and net weight
Lot control or heat number Lot, control or heat number
Electrode
Classification must be within 2.5 of grip end
P fi E b itt d Prefix E may be omitted
Classification SFA-5.1
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P iti Position
Electrode
For 018
Electrodes, 1
indicates that indicates that
charpy values of
20 ft-lbs at -50 F
have been met
EXXXX- 1
Minimum tensile
strength (ksi)
T f ti d Type of coating and
recommended current
Contd
Classification SFA-5.1
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Position Position
Electrode
For 016 E7016 &
E7018 Electrodes,
1 indicates that 1 indicates that
charpy values of 20
ft-lbs at -50 F have
been met
EXXYY- 1
Minimum tensile
strength 70 ksi
Type of coating and Type of coating and
recommended current
Contd
Classification SFA-5.1
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Position
Electrode
For E7016 & E7018
Electrodes, 1
indicates that
charpy values of 20
ft-lbs at -50 F have
been met
EXXYY-1
Minimum tensile
strength 70 ksi
been met
T f ti d Type of coating and
recommended current
Contd
Classification SFA-5.1
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All P iti All Position
Electrode
For E7016 & E7018
Electrodes, 1
indicates that
charpy values of 20
ft-lbs at -50 F have
been met
EXX18- 1
Minimum tensile
strength 70 ksi
been met
L H d P t i Low Hydrogen, Potassium,
Iron powder and use for AC
or DCEP
Contd
Classification SFA-5.1
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Position
Electrode
For E7016 & E7018
Electrodes, 1
indicates that
charpy values of 20
ft-lbs at -50 F have
been met
EXXYY-1
Minimum tensile
strength 70 ksi
been met
T f ti d Type of coating and
recommended current
Contd
Example of SFA-5.1 Electrode
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E6010, E7018, E7024
N t O l 60 k i d 70 k i t il l t d d Note: Only 60 ksi and 70 ksi tensile electrode are covered
by this specification
Contd
Specification SFA-5.4
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Requirements for classifying corrosion-resistant and
h i i k l t l d ldi l t d chromium nickel steel-covered arc welding electrodes
used for SMAW
Contd
Classification SFA-5.4
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Usability (Position &
Electrode
Current type
E-XXX-XXX-XX
Chemical
Composition (first
three digits)
One or more letters
indicating modification of
basic composition
Contd
Classification SFA-5.4
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Usability (Position
Electrode
y (
& Current type
E-XXX-YYY-XX
Chemical Composition
(first three digits)
One or more letters
indicating modification of
basic composition
Contd
Classification SFA-5.4
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Electrode
Usability (Position &
Current type Current type
E-308-YYY-XX
19 Cr 10 Ni
E-308-YYY-XX
19 Cr, 10 Ni
One or more letters
indicating modification of
basic composition
Contd
Classification SFA-5.4
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Usability (Position &
Current type
Electrode
Current type
E-XXX-L-XX
Chemical Composition
(first three digits)
Low carbon contents 0 04% Low carbon contents 0.04%
max
Contd
Classification SFA-5.4
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Electrode
DCEP or AC/ all
position
Electrode
position
E-XXX-YYY-16
Chemical
E-XXX-YYY-16
Chemical
Composition (first
three digits)
One or more letters
indicating modification of g
basic composition
Contd
Example of SFA-5.4
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E308L, E308L-16, E309Cb
L d Legend
L Low Carbon
Cb Addition of columbium, Reduction of Carbon
Mo Addition of molybdenum, reduction of carbon
15 Lime covering, use DCEP
16 Lime or titania use with DCEN or DCEP 16 Lime or titania, use with DCEN or DCEP
Specification SFA-5.5
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Requirements for classifying low-alloy steel electrode
d f SMAW used for SMAW
Contd
Classification SFA-5.5
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One or more letters &
number indicating
h i l iti f
Electrode
chemical composition of
deposited metal
Position
EXX (X) XX-XXX
Minimum tensile strength
(ksi) ( )
Type of coating &
recommended current
Contd
Classification SFA-5.5
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One or more letters &
number indicating
Electrode
chemical composition of
deposited metal
Position
EXX (X) YY-XXX
Minimum tensile strength
(ksi) (ksi)
Type of coating &
recommended current
Contd
Classification SFA-5.5
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One or more letters &
number indicating
Electrode
g
chemical composition of
deposited metal
Position
E 100 XX-XXX
Minimum tensile strength
100 ksi 100 ksi
Type of coating &
recommended current
Contd
Specification SFA-5.5
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One or more letters &
number indicating
Electrode
g
chemical composition of
deposited metal
All Position
EXX (X) 16-XXX
Minimum tensile strength
(ksi) (ksi)
Low hydrogen Potassium
AC/DCEP
Contd
Classification SFA-5.5
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One or more letters &
number indicating
Electrode
number indicating
chemical composition of
deposited metal
All Position
EXX (X) 16-B2L
Minimum tensile strength
(ksi) (ksi)
Low hydrogen Potassium
AC/DCEP
Contd
Classification SFA-5.5
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Chromium- molybdenum
steel electrode
Position
Electrode
steel electrode
( ) 2 EXX (X) YY-B2L
Minimum tensile strength
(ksi)
Type of coating & Type of coating &
recommended current
Contd
Example of SFA-5.5
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E7012, E7013-B3A
C C
A
2 Chemical Composition Number
A1- C Mo (1/2 % Mo)
B1- Cr Mo (1/2%Cr 1/2%Mo)
2
3
3 B1 Cr Mo (1/2%Cr,1/2%Mo)
B2- Cr Mo (1-1/4%Cr, 1/2%Mo)
B3- Cr Mo (2-1/4%Cr, 1/2%Mo)
3
4
Specification SFA-5.18
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Requirements for classifying carbon steel electrodes and
d d ith th f ll i ldi th d rods used with the following welding methods:
Gas Metal Arc GMAW)
Gas Tungsten Arc (GTAW)
Plasma Arc (PAW)
Contd
Classification SFA-5.18
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Suffix relating to
f t h i l
Rod
Electrode
manufacture chemical
composition
ERXXS-X(XX)
Minimum tensile strength
(ksi) ( )
Bare, Solid wire or rod
Contd
Classification SFA-5.18
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Suffix relating to
manufacture chemical
Rod
Electrode
manufacture chemical
composition
ERXXC-X(XX)
Minimum tensile strength
(ksi)
Composite wire
Contd
Classification SFA-5.18
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Suffix relating to
Rod
Electrode
manufacture chemical
composition
ER70S-X
Minimum tensile strength
70ksi
Bare, Solid wire or rod
Contd
Classification SFA-5.18
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Suffix relating to
f t h i l
Rod
Electrode
manufacture chemical
composition
ERXXS-X(XX)
Minimum tensile strength
(ksi) ( )
Solid Wire
Contd
Classification SFA-5.18
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Low carbon with trace of
Ti Zr and Al content
Rod
Electrode
Ti, Zr and Al content
ERXXS-2(XX)
Minimum tensile strength
(ksi)
Bare, Solid Wire or rod
Contd
Classification SFA-5.18
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ER70S-2, ER70S-3
Suffix "A" Shielding Gas
2 1 Ar/O2, Ar, Ar/CO2
3 1 Ar/CO2, CO2
4 1 CO2 4 1 CO2
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Welding Procedure Specification Welding Procedure Specification
QW-200
Outline
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Weld Procedure Specification (WPS) qualification
Procedure Qualification Record (PQR) Procedure Qualification Record (PQR)
Writing a WPS
Qualifying a WPS
Testing weld specimens
Groove weld Qualifications
Miscellaneous applications pp
Welding variables
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WPS Qualification
What is a WPS?
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A document that has been prepared by qualification and
i d t id di ti d t l f is used to provide necessary direction and control for
making a weld joint
Contents of a WPS
A WPS must address:
E ti l d N ti l i bl i QW 250 Essential and Non-essential variables in QW-250
Supplemental variables, when impact testing required
Acceptance qualification ranges
Other information
Category of Variables
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Essential
M t b lifi d h h Must be qualified when a change occur
Non- Essential
Must be addressed in the WPS
Supplementary Essential
Must be requalified when notch toughness is involved
Considerations
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Joint designs
W ld d b t l tibilit Weld and base metal compatibility
Heat treatment
Metallurgical properties
Desired mechanical properties
Service requirements
Welders ability Welders ability
Equipment availability
Weld location
E Economy
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Procedure Qualification Record Procedure Qualification Record
(PQR)
PQR
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Record of welding data used to weld a test coupon
M difi j tifi th WPS Modifies or justifies the WPS
Supporting document that includes the results of welding
and testing a coupon
Contents of PQR
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Essential variables (as a minimum)
S l t l E ti l V i bl (Wh i t t ti Supplemental Essential Variables (When impact testing
required)
Other information, if desired
WPS/PQR Forms
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Recommended, non-mandatory sample forms in QW-482
d QW 483 and QW-483
Multiple PQRs Supporting One WPS
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Example
PQR N 1 ith PWHT d PQR N 2 ith t PWHT PQR No. 1 with PWHT and PQR No. 2 without PWHT
supports a WPS with and without PWHT
It is possible to have one WPS that covers all possible
welding circumstances welding circumstances
Single PQR Supporting Multiple WPS
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Example
A PQR i lifi d f F4 d F6 l t d Thi PQR A PQR is qualified for F4 and F6 electrodes. This PQR
can be used to support a WPS using F4 electrodes
and the second WPS using the F6 electrodes
QW-200.2 allows the use of one PQR to support several
WPS WPS
Permitted Change without
Requalification
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q
Ch i ti l i bl Changes in non-essential variable
Corrections or update, supported by an exciting PQR
Permitted Changes to a PQR
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Obvious errors or changes supported by data recorded
d i t t ldi during test coupon welding
Example: Code- driven material specification change in a
later edition
Example of a Revised RQR
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A section IX revision assigns a P-number to a material
i l lifi d b t i l ifi ti previously qualified by material specifications
The PQR may now be revised to identify a P-number
rather than just a specific material
PQR Review
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PQRs may be written but
Al i t i th i i l Always maintain the original
Never White-out or pencil-in an original PQR
Always rectify a PQR if revised and note reason for
revision
Combining Welding Procedures
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Several welding processes may be included in one WPS
( lifi d t d bi d) (qualified separated or combined)
Section IX treats the following combination procedures:
More than one welding process used
More than one F-No. filler metal
More than one A-No. electrode, except A-1 and A-2
Examples of Combination Procedures
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WPS with GTAW and SMAW
WPS ith SMAW(F 1) d SMAW(F 4) WPS with SMAW (F-1) and SMAW (F-4)
GTAW WPS and SMAW WPS used to make the same
weld
WPS with E7018-A1 and E8018-B2 (A-No. difference)
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Q lif i WPS Qualifying a WPS
Six steps to Qualify a WPS
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Review Essential Variables
W it D ft WPS Write Draft WPS
Weld the test coupon using the WPS
Prepare test specimens
Evaluate test results
Document results on a PQR and certify
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W iti WPS Writing a WPS
Writing a WPS
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What base material will be welded?
Wh t fill t i l ill b d? What filler material will be used?
What welding processes will be used?
What service or production restriction (s) will be required?
Base Material
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P-Number: QW-422
S b tit t t i l t i l f t ti QW 424 Substitute most economical material for testing: QW-424
Filler Material
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F-Number: QW-432
A N b QW 442 A-Number: QW-442
Shielding (Gas, Flux)
Position restriction
Processes to be used
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Required variables: QW-250
P d ti j i t t Production joint types
Welder technique
Equipment available
Service Requirements
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Code/Customer
Preheat/PWHT
C i Corrosion
Notch toughness (supplemental variable)
Qualifying a WPS
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Write an unqualified WPS around job parameters.
Watch variables QW-250 and QW-260
Qualifying a WPS
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Weld the test coupon using unqualified parameters QW-
250 QW 260 250, QW-260
Monitor all essential variables and record the actual
values on the PQR
Recommended also recording non-essential
variables
Record supplementary variables if required Record supplementary variables if required
Qualifying a WPS
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Prepare the test coupon into specimens per QW-462,
QW 463 QW-463
Cut test coupon to size per QW-451, QW-462,
QW463
Make the required test per QW-451
Qualifying a WPS
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Evaluate results against Article 1 standards, QW-150 to
QW 260 QW-260
Compare unqualified WPS (essential and supplementary
if required)
Variable with results of the PQR
Assure compliance to section IX
Qualifying a WPS
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When acceptable, certify the PQR
Th C tifi t H ld The Certificate Holder
Approves WPS
Develops WPS and file
Uses the WPS for production welding
Additional Qualification
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An Additional PQR is required when:
A ti l i bl h An essential variable changes
The validity of the procedure is in doubt
Notes
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A manufacturer must have a WPS that describes the
ldi t welding parameters
The WPS may reference production drawings to covers
some variables
The WPS may be pieces of paper or documents
The WPS documentation must be controlled
How to Change WPS
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Amendment (i. e additional PQRs)
N (I l di R i i ) New (Including Revision)
Groove Weld Qualification Thickness
Limits and Test Specimens
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p
See reference table QW-451
QW- 451.1: Example 1
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T= .062 to 0.20
t 0 20 t= 0.20 max
T= 0.10 GTAW
QW- 451.1: Example 2
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T= 1/16 to 1/2
t= 1/2 max
T= 1/4
SMAW
QW- 451.1: Example 3
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T= 3/16 to 1
t= 1 max
T= 1/2
SMAW
QW- 451.1: Example 4
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T= 3/16 to 1
GTAWt 1/4 GTAW t= 1/4 max
SMAW t=3/4 max
T= 1/2
SMAW = 3/8
GTAW= 1/8
QW- 451.1: Example 5
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T= 3/16 to 2
GTAWt 1/2 GTAW t= 1/2 max
SMAW t=2 max
T= 1
SMAW = 3/8
GTAW = 1/4
QW- 451.1: Example 6
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T= 3/16 to 2
F 4 SMAW 2 F-4 SMAW = 2 max
F-3 SMAW t=1/2 max
T= 1
3/4 SMAW F-4
1/4 SMAW F-3
QW- 451.1: Example 7
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T= 3/16 to 8
GTAWt 8 GTAW t= 8 max
SMAW t=8 max
1-1/2
SMAW = 3/4
GTAW = 3/4
QW- 451.1: Example 8
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T= 3/16 to 8
F 4 SMAWt 8 F-4 SMAW t= 8 max
F-1 SMAW t=1/2 max
1-1/2
1-1/4 SMAW F-4
1/4 SMAW F-1
Observation
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If the welding material is less than 8 thick, a test coupon
greater than 1-1/2 is not required.
A ld d it d t l f 3/4 thi k lifi th ld t A weld-deposited metal of 3/4 thick qualifies the weld to
be deposited on maximum thickness.
Filler metal is still limited to 8 maximum.
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Miscellaneous Application
WPS for Root Pass or Tack Welding
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QW-200.4(b) allows special qualification for root deposit
t k ld l or tack welds only.
Deposit filler metal on a 1/2 minimum base metal; the
base metal qualification thickness range is unlimited.
t deposit is limited to 2t
General Variables
QW-202.2
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Variables that may be applicable or may reduce the
b f d lifi d number of procedures qualified.
Partial penetration welds
Groove and filler weld relationship
P-11 requirement
Weld metal repair and build-up
Dissimilar base material thickness Dissimilar base material thickness
Full Penetration Groove Welds
QW-202.2(a)
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( )
Full Penetration Groove Welds shall qualify for both base q y
metal and deposited metal used in production
Qualification for Filler Welds
QW-202.2(c)
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( )
Groove weld test coupon qualifies for all fillet welds:
Thickness
Si Sizes
Pipe Diameter
Within essential variables
Note: exemption is P-11A groups 3 4 5 and P-11B which Note: exemption is P 11A groups 3,4,5 and P 11B which
requires special qualification
Fillet Weld Qualification
QW-202.2(c)
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( )
Table QW-451.3: information for types of tests that must
b f d be performed
Fillet weld qualification may not be used for pressure-
retaining welds
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Welding Variables
QW-253: All Welding Variables (SMAW)
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QW-402: Joints
QW 403 B M t l QW-403: Base Metal
QW-404: Filler Metals
QW-405: Positions
QW-406: Preheat
QW-407: PWHT
Qw-409: Electrical Qw 409: Electrical
QW-410: Technique
Essential Variables: SMAW
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QW-403.7: T/t limits>8" QW-404.5 A No.
QW-403.8: T qualified QW-404.30: t
QW-403.9: t pass > 1/2"
QW-406.1 Decrease > 100
F
QW-403.11: P-No.
qualified QW-407.1 PWHT
QW-403.13: P-No. 9/10 QW-407.4: T limits
QW-404.4: F-No.
QW-403.7: T/t Limits > 8
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For thickness > 8, the procedure test coupon thickness
shall not be less than the thickness of the joint to be
welded in production weld divided by 1.33, and the
maximum thickness of deposited weld metal qualified is maximum thickness of deposited weld metal qualified is
1.33 or 1.33t as applicable.
PWHT
QW-407.1
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A separate PQR is required for each of the following
diti conditions:
For P-No. 1,3,4,5,6,9,10 and 11 materials, the
following PWHT conditions apply:
No PWHT
PWHT below the lower transformation temperature
Contd
PWHT
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PWHT above the upper transformation
t t ( N li i ) temperature (e.g. Normalizing)
PWHT above the upper transformation
temperature followed by heat treatment below the
lower transformation temperature (e.g. Normalizing
or quenching, followed by Tempering)
PWHT between the upper and lower PWHT between the upper and lower
transformation temperatures
Contd
PWHT
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For all other materials, the following condition apply:
N PWHT No PWHT
PWHT within a specified temperature range
Alternative Preheat
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For thickness over 1-1/4 to 1-1/2 thick, you may preheat
t 200 F at 200 F
Non-Essential Variable
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QW-402.1 Groove design
QW 402 4 B ki QW-402.4 Backing
QW-402.10 Root Spacing
QW-402.11 Retainers
QW-404.6 Diameter
QW-404.33 AWS Class
QW-405 1 + Position QW 405.1 + Position
QW-405.3 Vertical up or down
Non-Essential Variable
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QW-406.2 Preheat maintenance
QW 409 8 T I I & E QW-409.8 Type I or I & E range
QW-410.1 String/Weave
QW-410.5 Method Cleaning
QW-410.5 Method back gouging
QW-410.25 Manual or Automatic
QW-410 26 Peening QW 410.26 Peening
QW-402.1
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Change in type of groove
Vee-groove Vee-groove
U-groove
Single bevel
D bl b l Double bevel
QW- 402.4
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Deletion of backing in single welded grove welds
D bl ld d ld id d ldi Double welded groove welds are considered welding
with backing
QW-402.10
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A change in specified root spacing.
QW-402.11
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The addition or deletion of nonmetallic retainers or
f i t l t i nonfusing metal retainers
QW-404.6
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A change in the nominal size of the electrode or e
l t d ifi d i WPS electrodes specified in WPS
QW-404.33
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A change in the SFA specification filler metal
l ifi ti if t f i t AWS fill t l classification; or, if not conforming to an AWS filler metal
classification, a change in the manufacturers trade name
for the electrode or filler metal
QW-405.1
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The addition of the welding position than those already
lifi d (S QW 120 QW 130 d QW 303) qualified (See QW-120, QW-130 and QW- 303)
Limits of Position
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Electrode must be suitable for the position to be used.
Example: E7024
May not be used for vertical welding without special
qualification
Section II only recognize E7024 for flat groove and
horizontal fillet welds horizontal fillet welds
QW-405.3
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A change from upward to downward, or from downward
t d i th i ifi d f f to upward in the progression specified for any pass of a
vertical weld (the cover or wash pass may be up or down)
A change in the range of electrode wire feed speed may
be used as an alternative to amperage
QW-406.2
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A change in the maintenance or reduction of preheat
l ti ldi i t i d t upon completion or welding prior to any required post-
weld heat treatment
QW-409.8
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A change in the type of current or polarity, a change in
th f t f SMAW d GTAW the range of amperage, except for SMAW and GTAW
welding, a change in the range of voltage
A change in the range of electrode wire feed speed may
be used as an alternative to amperage
QW-410.1
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A change from the stringer bead technique to the weave
b d t h i i bead technique, or vice versa
QW-410.5
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A change in the method of initial and inter-pass cleaning,
(b hi i di t ) (brushing, grinding, etc.)
QW-410.6
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A change in the method of back gouging
QW-410.25
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A change from the manual or semi-automatic to machine
t ti ldi d i or automatic welding and vice versa
QW-410.26
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Addition or deletion of peening
Non-Essential Variables
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Must be addressed on the WPS but do not require
qualification
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Welder performance p
Qualification
QW-300 QW 300
Outline
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Rules & Definitions
W ld P f Welders Performance
Qualification Record
Welder/Operator Record
Test Coupons:
Mechanical Testing
Radiography Radiography
Essential Variables (SMAW)
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R l d D fi iti Rules and Definitions
Rule
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Use QW-300, Article III to qualify
ld l welder plus:
Applicable QW-100 paragraphs
Applicable QW-100 paragraphs
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D fi W ld Define a Welder
A Welder is
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One who performs a manual or semi-automatic welding
ti operations
A Welder Operator
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is one who operates machine
t ti ldi i t or automatic welding equipment
Purpose of Qualifying a Welder Operator
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To determine the operators ability to operate the welding
i t equipment
Welders Performance
Qualification Record
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A document used to record the Welder and Welding
t lifi ti operator qualification
Contents of the WPQ
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All applicable variables used by the Welder to make a
t t test coupon
Results of test
Ranges of qualification (same variables only have
minimum or maximum values)
Essential Variables
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For Welders see QW-350
F W ldi O t QW 360 For Welding Operators see QW-360
Performance Qualification Record only has essential
variables
Welder/Operator Records
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QW-103.2 requires the Manufacturer to maintain a record
f th lt bt i d i f lifi ti for the results obtained in performance qualification
Records must be certified by the Manufacturer
See non-mandatory Appendix A for
Sample from QW-484 Sample from QW 484
Welder/Operator Records
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Welders Continuity Log: used by Manufactures to comply
with QW-322.1
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T t C Test Coupons
Welding of Test Coupon
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Must use a WPS (qualified or not)
E h t b t d ith th b b l Each coupon must be stamped with the number, symbol
or letter assigned to identify the welder
Preheat nor PWHT is not required
WPS qualification may be used for the welder who made
the weld
Visual Examination
QW-302.4
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Plate coupon: Shall be performed on all surfaces (not
k d di d) marked discard)
Pipe: Shall be performed over the entire circumference,
inside and out.
Visual examination shall be per QW-194
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Q lifi ti b R di h Qualification by Radiography
Visual Examination
QW-302.4
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Plate coupon: Shall be performed on all surfaces (not
k d di d) marked discard)
Pipe: Shall be performed over the entire circumference
inside and out.
Visual examination shall be per QW-194
Qualification by Radiography
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Radiography may be used in-lieu of mechanical testing
itt d i QW 304 d QW 305 as permitted in QW-304 and QW-305
Only limited to the following processes
SMAW, SAW, PAW, GTAW (except for P-6X
materials)
GMAW (except short circuit)
Welder Qualification by Radiography
QW-304, QW-302
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,
Test coupon: 6 min. weld length
P d ti ld 6 i ld l th Production weld: 6 min. weld length
Qualification on pipe shall include the entire weld
circumference
Small dia. pipe may require multiple coupons the
quantity need not exceed four
Welder Operator Qualification by
Radiography QW-304, QW-302
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Test coupon: 6 min. weld length
P d ti ld 6 i ld l th
g p y ,
Production weld: 6 min. weld length
Qualification on pipe shall include the entire weld
circumference
Small dia. pipe may require multiple coupons the
quantity need not exceed four coupons
Requirements of Radiography
QW-191
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Technique must meet ASME Code Section V, Article 2
A t C it i QW 191 2 Acceptance Criteria per QW-191.2
Welding Operator Radiographic
Acceptance Criteria
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p
Same as welder as using test coupons
S C t ti C d t it i Same as Construction Code acceptance criteria on
production test coupon (QW-191.2.3)
Failure of Test Coupon
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Immediate retest using same method
M h i l T ti t t Mechanical: Two consecutive test coupons
Radiography: Two consecutive test coupons (NOT 12
in one coupon)
With additional training, just start over
No specific requirements for training in Section IX
WPS Exceptions
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Examples of welding variables with no impact for
f lifi ti performance qualification
Preheat and PWHT
Substitution of base material per QW-423
Possible substitution of filler metal
Impact testing
Requirements of Radiography
QW-191
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Not welding with a process during a six month period
S ifi t ti bilit Specific reason to question ability
Renewal of Qualification
QW-322.2
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For each process
O t t One test
Any material, thickness, plate or pipe
Any position
Requalifies all previous qualifications
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Welder Essential Variables Welder Essential Variables
SMAW
QW-353: SMAW
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Brief of Variables
Paragraph
QW-402
Joints
Deletion of Backing .4
P-No. .18
QW-403
Base Material
.16 Pipe Diameter
.30
QW-404
Filler metals
.15 F-No.
t weld deposit
QW-405
Position
.1
.3
position
Vertical Welding 3 g
QW-402.4
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The deletion of the backing in single welded groove joints
D bl ld d ld id d ldi Double- welded groove welds are considered welding
with backing
QW-353: SMAW
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Brief of Variables
Paragraph
QW-402
Joints
Deletion of Backing .4
.18
QW-403
Base Material
.16 Pipe Diameter
P-No.
.30
QW-404
Filler metals
.15 F-No.
t weld deposit
QW-405
Position
.1
.3
position
Vertical Welding 3 g
QW-403.16
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A change in pipe diameter beyond the range qualified in
QW 452 t th i itt d i QW 303 1 d QW-452, except as otherwise permitted in QW-303.1 and
QW-303.2
QW-353: SMAW
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Brief of Variables
Paragraph
QW-402
Joints
Deletion of Backing .4
.16
QW-403
Base Material
.18
Pipe Diameter
P-No.
t weld deposit
.15
QW-404
Filler metals
.30
F-No.
QW-405
Position
.1
.3
position
Vertical Welding
QW-403.18
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A change from one P-Number to another P-Number or to
b t l t li t d i QW 422 t itt d i a base metal not listed in QW-422, except as permitted in
QW-423 and QW- 420.2 (S-Number)
QW-353: SMAW
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Brief of Variables
Paragraph
QW-402
Joints
Deletion of Backing .4
16 Pi Di t
QW-403
Base Material
.16
.18
Pipe Diameter
P-No.
QW-404
Filler metals
.15
.30
F-No.
t weld deposit
QW-405
Position
.1
.3
position
Vertical Welding
QW-404.15
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A change from one F-Number in QW-432 to any F-
N b t th fill t l t itt d i Number or to any other filler metal, except as permitted in
QW-433
QW-353: SMAW
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Brief of Variables
Paragraph
QW-402
Joints
Deletion of Backing .4
QW-403
Base Material
.16
.18
Pipe Diameter
P-No.
QW-404
Filler metals
.15
30
F-No.
t weld deposit
Filler metals
QW-405
P iti
.30
.1
t weld deposit
position
Position
.3 Vertical Welding
QW-404.30
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A change in deposited weld metal thickness beyond the
lifi d i QW 452 t th i itt d range qualified in QW-452, except as otherwise permitted
in QW-303.31 and QW-303.2
When a welder is qualified using Radiography, the
thickness range of QW-452.1 apply
Deposited Metal Thickness
QW-452.1
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Q
Thickness " t" of Thickness of Type Thickness t of
deposited weld metal
qualified
Thickness of
test Coupon
Welded
Type
of
Joint
Max
G
2 t Up to 3/8"
Groove
Groove
2 t Over 3/8"
Groove
Max. to be Welded 1/2" and Over
Groove
Test Positions
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Four positions for welding with plate
IG 2G 3G 4G IG, 2G, 3G, 4G
Four positions for welding with pipe
IG, 2G, 5G, 6G
Groove Weld in Plate Test Position
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Groove Weld in Plate Test Position
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Groove Weld in Plate Test Position
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Groove Weld in Plate Test Position
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Groove Welds Pipe Test Position
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Groove Welds Pipe Test Position
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Groove Welds Pipe Test Position
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Groove Welds Pipe Test Position
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Fillet Weld Plate Test Position
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Limits of Qualified Position and Diameter
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Welders qualified in the grooves position in QW-461.9
h ll b lifi d t ld f th t iti i b th shall be qualified to weld for that position in both groove
and fillet welds
Welders shall also be qualified to make fillet welds in all
thickness and pipe diameter
Qualification Test Position and type Weld Qualified [Note 1]
Groove Fillet
Plate and Pipe Pipes 24" OD Plate and Pipe
Plate Groove 1G F F [Note 2] F
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2G F,H F,H [Note 2] F,H
3G F,V F [Note 2] F,H,V
4G F,O F [Note 2] F,H,O
3G and 4G F,V,O F [Note 2] All
2G, 3G and 4G All F,H [Note 2] All
Special Positions SP SP [Note 2] SP,F
Pipe Filter 1F . . . . . . F [Note 2]
2F . . . . . . F,H [Note 2]
3F . . . . . . F,H,V [Note 2]
4F . . . . . . F,H,O [Note 2]
3F and 4F . . . . . . All [Note 2]
Special Positions . . . . . . SP,F [Note 2]
Pipe Groove 1G F F F
2G F,H F,H F,H
5G F,V,O F,V,O All
6G All All All
2G and 5G All All All
Special Positions SP SP SP,F
Plate - Fillet 1F . . . . . . F
[Note 3] 2F . . . . . . F,H
2FR . . . . . . F,H
4F . . . . . . F,H,O
5F . . . . . . All
Special Positions . . . . . . SP,F
Position Qualification
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The Welder is qualified to weld
V ti l Vertical
Overhead
Flat Positions
For both
Pipe
Plate Plate
Position Qualification
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The Welder Welded in Position 5G Pipe.
Position Qualification
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The Welder Welded in Position: 2G Pipe.
Position Qualification
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The Welder Welded 2G, 3G & 4G Plate
2G
3G
4G
Position Qualification
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The Welder is qualified to weld in both horizontal and flat
iti positions
Position Qualification
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The Welder is qualified to all positions in both plate and
i NPS 24 d pipe, NPS 24 and over
Is the Welder qualified to weld all positions on an NPS 10
pipe
QW-353: SMAW
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Brief of Variables
Paragraph
.4
QW-402
Joints
Deletion of Backing
QW-403
Base Material
.16
18
Pipe Diameter
P-No .18
QW-404
Filler metals
.15
30
P No.
F-No.
t ld d it
Filler metals
QW-405
P iti
.30
.1
t weld deposit
position
Position
.3 Vertical Welding
QW-405.3
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A change from upward to downward, or from downward to
d i th i ifi d f f upward, in the progression specified for any pass of a
vertical weld, except that the cover or wash pass may be
up or down
The root pass may be run either up or down when the
root pass is removed to sound weld metal in preparation for
welding the second side welding the second side
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THE END