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APW Chapter 17 and 18: Diversity of American Colonization Societies, 1530-1770 & The Atlantic System
and Africa, 1550-1800

Due by Tuesday 02/11/14 for open notes quizplease include page numbers


1. What were the death rates among Amerindian peoples during the epidemics of the early colonial period?
2. Why did the peoples of the New World lack immunity to the diseases of the Europeans?
3. From where did the worst strain of malaria originate?
4. Identify at least three of the New World foods that revolutionized Old World agriculture.
5. What was the major reason for the growth of the world population after 1700?
6. What effect did European horses have on the Americas?
7. Which export product dominated the Brazilian economy by the seventeenth century?
8. In 1524 in Spain, the Council of Indies was created for what purpose?
9. Who were the highest-ranking Spanish officials in the colonies?
10. In colonial societies, Amerindian religious beliefs did what?
11. Identify the areas that the Viceroyalty of New Spain in 1535 encompassed.
12. What was the most important agent for transmitting European beliefs, language, and culture in Spanish
America and Brazil?
13. By what means did the Spanish pay for their colonies?
14. How were the European languages and cultures primarily transmitted to indigenous populations?
15. Who was the most influential defender of Amerindians in the early colonial period?
16. What became the richest institution of the Spanish colonies?
17. A form of forced labor and tribute is known as what?
18. What dominated the economic development of the colonies in Mexico and Peru?
19. What was the forced labor system in which Amerindian men in Peru worked two to four months of the
year in the mines called?
20. What eventually superseded the economic importance of Amerindian slaves in Brazil?
21. What was the significant effect of the flood of silver from the Americas into the European economy?
22. Who were Spains lesser nobles?
23. Identify the hierarchy in Spanish America.
24. Identify at least three ways that slaves expressed their resistance to the colonial masters in Latin
America.
25. The process by which slaves can purchase their freedom is known as what?
26. The mixed races of mestizos and mulattos became known as what?
27. Why did Brazil develop more slowly than other areas of Latin America?
28. How did the English and French American colonies differ from the Spanish and Portuguese American
colonies?
29. What was one of the significant factors delaying English and French settlement of the Americas?
30. Within ________ years of its settlement, the colony at Jamestown lost ____ percent of its population:
31. What new form of compulsory labor was first introduced by the English in North America?
32. In Virginia, what were the branches within the colonial government?
33. Identify at least three ways that the Amerindian population was effected by the colonial economy.
34. The hybrid culture of Africa and American was most "standardized" by which language?
35. Identify at least three of crops that plantation economies grew.
36. What was the slave revolt called that took place in South Carolina and when did it take place?
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37. Identify the groups of Protestant dissenters that colonized New England.
38. Why did Massachusetts have a lower mortality rate than southern and Caribbean colonies?
39. What was the difference between northern and southern English colonies?
40. What was the first colony to have sole right to form a government as given by Britain?
41. How did the French settlements in America resembled Spanish and Portuguese colonies?
42. What were Frenchmen living among the natives called?
43. Who were the Amerindian enemies of the French?
44. Identify the contributions made by the Jesuits in their efforts to convert the natives to Christianity.
45. What was the effects of the French and Indian War?
46. Who was the Peruvian Amerindian leader?
47. What was the goal of the English Navigation Acts?
48. Besides subjugating the Amerindian people, identify as least three similar effects that Spain, Portugal ,
France, and England had on the Americas.



ch 18
____ 1. Although tobacco was a New World plant long used by Amerindians, who began growing the crop on large
plantations?

____ 2. What were chartered companies?

____ 3. Identify at least four things that describe the Dutch West India Company.

____ 4. What did the expansion of sugar plantations in the West Indies require?

____ 5. Which area best illustrates the dramatic transformation that sugar brought to the 17
th
century Caribbean?

____ 6. In the seventeenth-century Caribbean, how much did indentured servants cost in comparison to slaves?

____ 7. What can the cultivation and production of sugar best be described as?

____ 8. How did France and England expand their Caribbean holdings?

____ 9. Why did the French plantation economies considered "more diverse" ?

____ 10. How did sugar plantations cause environmental damages?

____ 11. Where would slave children most likely be found working?
____ 12. On most islands, what was the percentage of slaves in the population?

____ 13. In the eighteenth century, what controlled the West Indian plantations?

____ 14. Why did men outnumber women on Caribbean plantations?

____ 15. What were "Drivers"?

____ 16. Why were plantation slaves motivated to work hard?

____ 17. What did manumission permitted slaves to do?

____ 18. What was the life expectancy for nineteenth-century Brazilian male slaves?

____ 19. What did most slaves died of?

____ 20. Identify at least three methods used to curtail African cultural traditions by European planters.

____ 21. Among the planter elite in Saint Domingue, where would free blacks rank in the social hierarchy?

____ 22. Which maroon community first signed treaties recognizing their independent status as runaway slaves?

____ 23. What did companies do to reduce the risks of overseas trading?
____ 24. What is Mercantilism?

____ 25. What were the English Navigation Acts in the 1660s meant to do?

____ 26. While the British system of mercantilism was defined by the Navigation Acts, the French system used laws
known as what?

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____ 27. What was the "clockwise" network of trade in the Atlantic?

____ 28. What was the second leg of the Atlantic Circuit, transporting slaves across the Atlantic to plantation colonies,
was known as?

____ 29. During the first 150 years after the European discovery of the Americas, how many Africans were transported
in the Atlantic slave trade?

____ 30. During the "sugar boom" from 1650 to 1800, how many slaves were transported?

____ 31. What was the principal cause of mortality aboard Atlantic slave ships?

____ 32. What did Africans who provided slaves to Europeans most often preferred to receive in return?

____ 33. What was the African state that was most dependent on the slave trade?

____ 34. What were most slaves that were taken from Africa?

____ 35. In the eighteenth century, what was the major source of slaves in the interior of the Bight of Biafra?

____ 36. Where was the greatest source for slaves for the Atlantic trade from?

____ 37. Generally, what was the Atlantic African slave trade based on?

____ 38. What were most slaves in the Islamic world?

____ 39. What did Islamic law prohibit the enslavement of?

____ 40. What were the majority of African slaves in the Islamic world?

____ 41. Both Muslims and Europeans obtained slaves from sub-Saharan Africa, but what was the major difference
between the two?

____ 42. Identify at least four reasons of population loss in Africa as a result of the slave trade?

____ 43. Who gained far more wealth as a result of the Atlantic Slave Trade?
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