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very high strength at low strains

immediate interlocking effect


low creep characteristics (PET)
high interaction coefficient because of
the structured geogrid surfaces
high resistance against installation damage
4.75m wide rolls
made from uniformly extruded solid
PET or PP bars
high resistance against biological
and chemical attack
biaxial geogrid strengths up to 140kN/m
uniaxial geogrid strengths up to 400kN/m
BBA certificate for reinforced
slopes up to 70 for PET range
available with bonded Secutex
nonwoven (Combigrid)
quick and easy to install
ISO 9001 certified
marked
very high radial secant stiffness values
Advantages
of PET/PP
Secugrid
Secugrid
Secugrid geogrids are the next generation of geogrids
produced with state of the art manufacturing technology,
unlike any other geogrid on the marketplace to day. The
reinforcement element is a highly oriented polypro pylene
or polyester bar that is uniformly extruded and drawn to
achieve a high modulus and strength at low elon gations.
This is combined with NAUE patented welding techno-
logy to provide a structurally sound and stable geogrid.
Secugrid geogrids are main ly used for base reinforce-
ment, mechanically stabilised earth walls (MSE) con-
struction including veneer stabilisation, the seg men tal
retaining wall market, embankment reinforcement and
pile cap platforms. Biaxial geogrids are primarily used
in base reinforcement applications, while the uniaxial
geogrids are often used in the other markets.
Advantage: Stress/strain behaviour
Geogrids are used wherever a high strength at low elon-
gation is required. Stress/strain be haviour (also known
as strength/elongation) is therefore decisive when se-
lecting which type of geogrid is to be used/specified.
Geogrids typically have a maximum elongation at break
of 6% to 15%. However, the internal angle of friction of
medium to densely compacted soils in realistic design
conditions is reduced when the soil is subjected to
an elongation of less than 2%. It is necessary to align
the stress/strain behaviour of the installed geogrid to
the uniaxial elongation behaviour of the soil. The per-
formance of the geogrid at a stress/strain ratio in the
range of 2% is therefore important and here Secugrid
shows its strength. Secugrid has excellent ten sile
strengths at low elongations (figure 1) and demonstra-
tes its advantages in the critical elongation ranges.
Advantage: Interlocking
Secugrid absorbs tensile forces induced into the soil
and distributes the stresses through the high tensile
strength bars. This transfer of forces takes place by two
distinct modes: interlock of the granular soil into the
grid apertures which phy sically restrains lateral move-
ment of the granular base course material and frictional
force transfer between the soil and the wide flat and
structured bars of Secugrid. The Secu-
grid aper tures allow for strike-through
of the cover soil material which then
interlocks with the ribs (flat bars) pro-
viding confinement of the overlaying
granular/soil material due to the stiff-
ness and strength of the ribs. This in-
terlocking of the soil aggre gate com-
bined with the very high product mo-
dulus minimises soil deformation and
ensures the inte grity of the Secugrid
reinforced structure.
Advantage: Resistance to installation damage
Secugrid is considered as a very rigid geogrid with a
very high modulus and therefore perfectly suited for soil
reinforcement applications. This is proven also in the
resistance to installation damage. This test is perfor-
med on geogrids to see what, if any, damage occurs to
the geogrid during installation. In this test the geogrid
is installed and covered with, typically, three types of
cover material, exhumed and the geogrid strength is
then tested on the exhumed material. These test results
are compared to the original strength on the same
material not buried and the percentage of retained
strength is calculated. A reduction factor can then be
calculated and taken into account by an engineer when
designing with geogrids. Current Secugrid installation
damage results are listed in table 1 and are compared
to published competitors values in the same test (e.g.
SPRAGUE et al., Geo syn thetics Conference 1999). The
results show that Secu grid is as durable if not better
than other geogrids.
Fig. 1
Stress/strain curves
of Secugrid and
selected geogrids
Fig. 2
Demonstration of the in-
terlock effect with a car
standing on a Secugrid
reinforced gravel column
Fig. 3
Installation
damage test results
Sand
Sandy gravel
Coarse gravel
Extruded
geogrids
83%
90%*
70%
Secugrid
20/20 Q1
98.6%
98.6%
91.3%
Coated PET
geogrids
89% average
84% average
82% average
* Clayey sand
Secugrid
30/30 Q1
98%
91%
90%
NAUE C I R C UMNAV I GAT E S P OL I S H C I T Y
A new section of the A1, running between the wierklany
junction and the Polish-Czech border in Gorzyczki, is built
on land where much underground mining has taken place.
The possible settlement of this land made it imperative
that a suitable and reliable geogrid was selected for
this project a demand met by the Secugrid range from
NAUE.
The geogrid reinforcement was designed to prevent a total
collapse and to confine the vertical differential displace-
ments of the road embankment to within predetermined
tolerances, caused by a potential subsidence of the
foundation soil in areas of former mining activities.
Taking the expected geometries of such mine voids into
consideration, a minimum tensile stiffness and long-term
design strength was determined in the design together
with maximum allowable creep rates for the reinforce-
ment product to be used. All these requirements could be
fulfilled by using a laid and welded geogrid Secugrid
120/120 Q6.
In total, for areas with lower strength requirements,
200,000sqm of Secugrid 100/100 Q6 have been selected,
along with over 1 million sqm of Secugrid 120/120 Q6
for the most of the area.
Secugrid geogrids offer superior soil reinforcement
elements because they resist high tensile forces with
very low elongation. This results in an immediate force
connection and interlocking with the fill soil, with-
out primary deformation.
One of the key advantages of using this material is that
it saved natural mineral resources by reducing base course
thickness reducing the need for large volumes of stabi-
lising soil fill, the construction time that involves and
the associated transportation costs.
R E I NF OR C E D E MBANKME NT " MAR I NA
I S L A DE VAL DE C AAS " , S PAI N
The island "Valdecaas" is located in the middle of a
7,200 hectare water reservoir at the foot of an imposing
mountain range, the Sierra de Gredos in Spain. The site is
located approx. 160km south-west of Madrid. The island
is developed as 135 hectare big tourism complex, which
consists of a golf resort, sailboat marina, holiday village,
villas, sports complex and a congress centre. In the area
of a planned access road, located in the north-eastern part
of the island, it was required to fill up the island up to
21m high to reach the desired height. To create as much
space as possible for construction on top of the created
plateau, the slope sections needed to be built as steep
as possible.
Conventional concrete retaining
walls as slope stabilisation measure
were not an option as they would
not create an attractive impression
from a landscaping point of view. As
economic and ecologic alternative
solution it was decided to construct
the slopes as 70 inclined steep
geogrid reinforced earth structure.
To create an aesthetically more ap-
pealing facing, horizontal planting
zones were embedded in the reinforced slope by 2m wide
berms, which were distributed over the slope in vertical
intervals of approx. 3m. The facing of the reinforced em-
bankment was built using the so called "wrap around me-
thod" in combination with steel mesh facing elements,
which were used as formwork during the installation and
compaction of the fill soil. To be able to analyse the real-
istic stresses developed in the constructed reinforced
slope and to compare those to the stresses determined in
the design, a monitoring programme was carried out using
strain gauges, where were applied to a selected geogrid
layer in the lower part of the reinforced soil structure.
The results show clearly that the largest deformations have
taken place during the construction process of the rein-
forced earth structure. The development of the measured
strains across the monitored geogrid also shows that the
peak strain is developing near the facing and decreases
with increasing embedment length. This indicates that
the line of maximum tension inside the reinforced earth
structure is also close to the surface, which confirms the
calculation results in the carried out design calculations.
Interpretation of the present data and ongoing measure-
ments will be made at a later stage.
A P P L I C A T I O N
Fig. 5
View of completed
geogrid reinforced
embankment
Fig. 4
Placing of
aggregate on the
Secugrid base
course reinforce-
ment layer
The information contained herein is the best to our knowledge, true and accurate. There is no implied or expressed warranty.
2011 by NAUE GmbH & Co. KG, Espelkamp-Fiestel, Germany All rights reserved. No. 58 Status 14.09.2011
NAUE GmbH & Co. KG
Gewerbestrasse 2
32339 Espelkamp-Fiestel Germany
Phone +49 5743 41-0
Fax +49 5743 41-240
E-Mail info@naue.com
Internet www.naue.com

, Combigrid, Secugrid and Secutex are registered trademarks of NAUE GmbH & Co. KG in various countries.
I N S T A L L A T I O N
Loading for
transportation
Site storage
Unrolling of
Secugrid
Overlapping
Combination with
Combigrid
Cover soil
placement
Interlocking
of soil aggregate
Compaction
of fill aggregate