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Distributed Ray Tracing
a stochastic sampling method
based on randomly distributed rays
over the pixel area used to reduce
aliasing effect
The random distribution of a number of rays over the
pixel surface is achieved by the technique called
jittering.
Distributed Ray Tracing
Uses non-uniform (jittered) samples
Replacing aliasing artifacts with noise
Provides additional effects by distributing rays to
sample:
Reflections and refractions
Light source area
Camera lens area
Time

DRT uses a slightly better approximation for the
illumination and reflectance integrals
The idea is based in the theory of oversampling
Instead of approximating an integral by a single scalar value, the
function is point sampled and these samples are used to define a
more accurate scalar value
Practical benefits:
o Gloss (fuzzy reflections)
o Translucency
o Depth of field
o Motion blur

Gloss
Glossy surfaces are generated by randomly distributing
rays reflected by a surface
Instead of casting a single ray out in the reflecting
direction, a packet of rays are sent out around the
reflecting direction
actual value of reflectance -> statistical mean of the
values returned by each of these rays
Gloss
DRT can also be used to generate specular highlights
by using area light sources.
If rays that reflect off a surface hit a light source, they
will add to the specular component of the surface
illumination.
This can replace the specular component of the Phong
model.

Translucency
Achieves translucent surface by casting randomly
distributed rays in general direction of the transmitted
Calculated by distributing the secondary rays about
the main direction of the transmitted light
The value computed from each of these rays is then
averaged to form the true translucent component.

Attempts to approximate soft shadows by modeling
light sources as spheres
When a point is tested to see if it is in shadow, a set of
rays are cast about the projected area of the light
source. The amount of light transmitted from the
source to the point can be approximated by the ratio of
the number of rays that hit the source to the number
of rays cast.
This ratio can be used in the standard Phong lighting
calculations to scale the amount of light that hits a
surface.

Depth of Field
Creates depth of field by placing an artificial lens in
front of the view plane
Randomly distributed rays are used to simulate the
blurring of depth of field.
Depth of Field
The first ray cast is assumed that the focal point of the
lens is at a fixed distance along this ray.
The rest of the rays sent out for the same pixel will be
scattered about the surface of the lens. At the point of
the lens they will be bent to pass through the focal
point.
Points in the scene that are close to the focal point of
the lens will be in sharp focus. Points closer or further
away will be blurred.

Motion Blur
Simulate motion blurring by distributing rays
temporally as well as spatially
Before each ray is cast, objects are translated or rotated
to their correct position for that frame. The rays are
then averaged afterwards to give the actual value.
Objects with the most motion will have the most
blurring in the rendered image.

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References