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11.

2 Islam Expands
In spite of internal
conflicts, the
Muslims create a
huge empire that
includes land on
three continents.
Vocabulary
caliph Highest political and religious
leader in a Muslim government
Umayyads Dynasty that ruled the
Muslim Empire from A.D. 661 to 750
Shia Branch of Islam whose
members believe the first four
caliphs are the rightful successors of
Muhammad
Sunni Branch of Islam whose
members believe Ali and his
descendants are the rightful
successors of Muhammad
Vocabulary
Sufi Muslim who tries to achieve
direct contact with God
Abbasids Dynasty that ruled much
of the Muslim Empire from A.D. 750
to 1258
Muhammads Successors Spread Islam
A New Leader
In 632 Muhammad dies; Muslims elect
Abu-Bakr to be the first caliph.
Caliphtitle for a Muslim leadermeans
successor or deputy.
Muhammads Successors Spread Islam
Rightly Guided Caliphs
The first four caliphs are guided by the
Quran and Muhammads actions.
Jihadan armed struggle against
unbelieversis used to expand Islam.
Muslims control all of Arabia, and
armies conquer Syria and lower Egypt.
By 750, the Muslim empire stretches
from the Atlantic Ocean to the Indus
River.
Muhammads Successors Spread Islam
Reasons for Success
Muslim armies are well disciplined and
expertly commanded.
Byzantine and Sassanid empires are
weak from previous conflict.
Persecuted citizens of these empires
welcome Islam.
People are attracted to Islams offer of
equality and hope.
Muhammads Successors Spread Islam
Treatment of Conquered Peoples
Muslim invaders tolerate other religions.
Christians and Jews receive special
consideration as people of the book.

From 632 to
750, highly
mobile troops
mounted on
camels were
successful in
conquering lands
in the name of
Allah.
Spread Islam also through
Preaching and Trading
Muslims spread Islam through preaching
A group called Sufis spent their time praying
and teaching Islam and won many followers.
Arab merchants set up trade posts throughout
Southeast Asia and taught Islam to people there.
Indonesia is home to more Muslims than any
other nation because of this. Traders also
crossed the Sahara Desert into West Africa to
trade in Timbuktu which became another
leading center of Muslim learning.
Internal Conflict Creates a Crisis
From 632-661 the Rightly Guided
Caliphs ruled, but last one, Ali, was
assassinated by one of his rivals,
Muawiyah, who was also the
governor of Syria. Once he had
become caliph, Muawiyah made it so
the caliphate would be passed down
to his family if he died. There by
making the Umayyad Dynasty. He
also moved the capital to
Damascus.
Internal Conflict Creates a Crisis
SunniShia Split
Shia party of Alibelieve the caliph
should be a descendant of Muhammad.
Sunnifollowers of Muhammads
examplesupported the Umayyads.
Sufi followers pursue life of poverty and
spirituality. They reject the Umayyads.
In 750, a rebel groupthe Abbasids
topple the Umayyads.

Control Extends Over Three-Continents
Fall of the Umayyads
Abbasids murder Umayyad family; one
prince escapes, Abd al-Rahman
He flees to Spain and establishes the
Umayyad caliphate in al-Andalus.
al-Andalus is a Muslim state in southern
Spain settled by North Africans.
Control Extends Over Three-Continents
Abbasids Consolidate Power
In 762, Abbasids move Muslim capital
from Damascus to Bagdad.
Location provides access to trade goods,
gold, and information.
Abbasids develop a strong bureaucracy
to manage empire.
The Seljuk Turks
The Abbasid rule the area for the next
500 years
But around 1000 AD the Seljuk Turks of
Central Asia will begin moving south into
the Arab Empire. They were nomads and
great warriors.
The Abbasid will try to hire them as
soldiers but will eventually lose control to
them and will only remain on as a religious
leader while the Seljuk ruler will be the
Sultan holder of power for the next 200
years.
The empire will fall when the Mongols
arrive and burn it to the ground.
Later Muslim Empires
The Ottoman Empire
In the late 1200s, a group of Turks in
the northwest corner of Asia Minor
began a new empire. The ruler was
named Osman so the empire became
known as the Ottoman Turks.
They attacked the Byzantine Empire and
seized Constantinople in 1453, changed
the name of the city to Istanbul.
Also conquered Syria, Palestine, Egypt,
Mesopotamia, and parts of Arabia and
Northern Africa.
Later Muslim Empires
The Ottoman leader was called a sultan.
The most famous was Suleiman I (the
Magnificent). He ruled in the 1500s.
Loved architecture and built many
schools and mosques.
Brilliant general attacking north into
Europe.
The Empire collapsed after WWI.
How Were Non-Muslims Treated Under the
Ottoman Rule?
Non-Muslims had to pay taxes so they
could practice their religion.
Some Christian families had to send their
sons off to Istanbul where they were
forced to become Muslim and trained as
soldiers for the sultan.
The Mogul Empire
1500s India
Muslim warriors that came from the
mountains of India. The Moguls used
guns, cannons, elephants and horses to
conquer the area.
Capital was Delhi.
Akbar was the greatest ruler. He
brought peace and order. He allowed
the Hindu people to continue to worship
and work in the government.
Mogul Empire
No other Mogul leader uses this idea and
so little by little the empire loses its power.
They put too many restrictions on the
people, who then rebel.
Eventually Great Britain will take control of
India.