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ELECTRICAL MACHNIES LAB -II

DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

ACADEMIC YEAR 2012-2013
III B.Tech EEE I-SEMESTER








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PREFACE


The significance of the Electrical Machines Lab-II, is renowned in the various fields of
engineering applications. For an Electrical Engineer, it is obligatory to have the practical ideas
about the Electrical Machines . By this perspective we have introduced a Laboratory manual cum
Observation for Electrical Machines Lab-II.

The manual uses the plan, cogent and simple language to explain the fundamental aspects of
Electrical Machines in practical. The manual prepared very carefully with our level best. It gives all the
steps in executing an experiment.
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EleACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It is one of lifes simple pleasures to say thank you for all the help that one has extended their
support. I wish to acknowledge and appreciate Assoc Prof K.V.B.Reddy, Foreman. P Prabhu Dass, and
G.Suresh for their sincere efforts made towards developing the Electrical Machines Lab-II. I wish to thank
students for their suggestions which are considered while preparing the lab manual.
I am extremely indebted to Sri.Col Dr. T. S. Surendra, Principal and Professor, Department of
Electrical and Electronics Engineering, BVRIT for his valuable inputs and sincere support to complete the
work.
Specifically, I am grateful to the Management for their constant advocacy and incitement.
Finally, I would again like to thank the entire faculty in the Department and those people who
directly or indirectly helped in successful completion of this work.



(Prof. N. BHOOPAL)
HOD EEE



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GUIDELINES TO WRITE YOUR OBSERVATION BOOK

1. Experiment Title, Aim, Apparatus, Procedure should be on right side.
2. Circuit diagrams, Model graphs, Observations table, Calculations table should be
left side.
3. Theoretical and model calculations can be any side as per your convenience.
4. Result should always be in the ending.
5. You all are advised to leave sufficient no of pages between experiments
for theoretical or model calculations purpose.















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DOS AND DONTS IN THE LAB
DOS:-
1. Proper dress has to be maintained while entering in the Lab. (Boys Tuck in and
shoes, girls with apron)
2. All students should come to the Lab with necessary tools. (Cutting Pliers 6,
Insulation remover and phase tester)
3. Students should carry observation notes and record completed in all aspects.
4. Correct specifications of the equipment have to be mentioned in the circuit
diagram.
5. Student should be aware of operating equipment.
6. Students should be at their concerned experiment table, unnecessary moment is
restricted.
7. Student should follow the indent procedure to receive and deposit the equipment
from the Lab Store Room.
8. After completing the connections Students should verify the circuits by the Lab
Instructor.
9. The reading must be shown to the Lecturer In-Charge for verification.
10. Students must ensure that all switches are in the OFF position, all the
connections are removed.
11. All patch cords and stools should be placed at their original positions.
DONTs:-

1. Dont come late to the Lab.
2. Dont enter into the Lab with Golden rings, bracelets and bangles.
3. Dont make or remove the connections with power ON.
4. Dont switch ON the supply without verifying by the Staff Member.
5. Dont switch OFF the machine with load.
6. Dont leave the lab without the permission of the Lecturer In-Charge.


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JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
III Year B.Tech EEE ISem Academic year 2012-2013
L T/P/D C
0 -/3/- 2
(55602) ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB II
The following experiments are required to be conducted as compulsory experiments.
1. O.C. & S.C. Tests on single phase transformer .
2. Sumpner's test on a pair of single phase transformers .
3. Brake test on three phase squirrel cage induction motor.
4. No-load & blocked rotor tests on three phase Slip ring Induction motor.
5. Regulation of a three phase alternator by synchronous impedance (EMF & MMF) method.
6. V and inverted V curves of a three - phase Synchronous motor .
7. Equivalent circuit of a single phase induction motor .
8. Determination of X
d
and X
q
of a salient pole synchronous machine .
In addition to the above experiments, at least any two of the experiments from the following list are
required to be conducted.
1. Parallel Operation of Single Phase Transformers.
2. Separation of core losses of a single phase transformer.
3. Scott connection of Transformers .
4. Regulation of a three phase alternator by ZPF & ASA method.
5. Efficiency of a tree phase alternator.
6. Heat run test on a bank of 3 No
s
of single phase delta connected transformers.
7. Measurement of sequence Impedance of a 3phase alternator .





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Academic year 2012-2013
Experiments Conducted by the Department:-

1. O.C. & S.C. Tests on single phase transformer .
2. Sumpner's test on a pair of single phase transformers .
3. Scott connection of Transformers .
4. No-load & blocked rotor tests on three phase Slip ring Induction motor.
5. Regulation of a three phase alternator by synchronous impedance (EMF & MMF)
method.
6. V and inverted V curves of a three - phase Synchronous motor .
7. Equivalent circuit of a single phase induction motor .
8. Determination of X
d
and X
q
of a salient pole synchronous machine .
9. Regulation of a three phase alternator by ZPF & ASA method.
10. Brake test on three phase squirrel cage induction motor.

Additional Experments
1. Parallel Operation of Two Single Phase Transformers.
2. Parallel Operation of Two 3 Alternators .

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230V
V
115V
V
(0-15)A
MI
(0-50)V
MI
1-
230V
50 Hz
AC
Supply
Ph
N
1 -Transformer
3KVA, 230V/ 115V
Short
Circuit
DPST
Variac
3KVA, 230V/ (0-270)V
15A, 50V, 600W, UPF
L M
C
V
Fig -2

V
A


DPST
(0-2)A
MI
2A, 150V, 60W, LPF
115V 230V
Ph





1-
230V
50 Hz
AC
Supply
A




V (0-150)V
MI
M



C
L


V






Open
Circuit






N






Variac
3KVA, 230V/ (0-270)V







1 -Transformer
3KVA, 230V/ 115V
1. OC & SC TESTS ON 1- TRANSFORMER
Aim: To conduct OC & SC tests on the given 1- Transformer and to calculate its
equivalent
circuit parameters, efficiency & regulation.
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Name plate details:


1- TRANSFORMER
Capacity 3 KVA
I/P voltage 230V
I/P current 13.04A
O/P voltage 115V
O/P current 26.08A
Frequency 50Hz


Apparatus required:

S.NO DESCRIPTION RANGE TYPE QTY
OC TEST
1 Voltmeter 0-150V M.I 1 No
2 Ammeter 0-2.5A M.I 1 No
3 Wattmeter 2.5A/150V
Dynamo
meter
(LPF)
1 No
4 Auto T/F 230V/0-270V, 8A 1- wire
wound
1 No
5 Fuses 5A - 2 Nos
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SC TEST
1 Voltmeter 0-50V M.I 1 No 2
Ammeter 0-5A M.I 1 No
Dynamo
3 Wattmeter 5A/50V meter 1 No
(UPF)
4 Auto T/F 230V/0-270V, 1- wire 1 No
8A wound
5 Fuses 5A - 2
Nos



Theory: Transformer is a static device which transfers electrical power from
one circuit to another circuit either by step up or step down the voltage with
corresponding decrease increase in the current, with out changing the
frequency.
OC Test
The main aim of this test is to determine the Iron losses & No- load
current of the T/F which are helpful in finding R
o
& X
o
.In this test generally
supply will be given to primary and secondary kept open. Since secondary is
opened a small current(magnetizing current will flow and it will be 5 to 10%
of full load current. The wattmeter connected in primary will give directly the
Iron losses (core losses).



SC Test:
The main aim of this test is to determine the full load copper losses which
is helpful in finding the R
01
, X
01
, Z
01
, efficiency and regulation of the T/F.
Generally low voltage side will be short circuited and supply will be given to
high voltage side & it will be of 5-10% of the rated voltage. The wattmeter
connected in primary will give directly the full load copper losses of the T/F.
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Procedure
OC Test:
1)
2)



3)
SC Test:
1)
2)
:


Give connections as per the circuit diagram.
Switch-ON the supply and apply rated voltage to the
primary of the winding by using the auto transformer.
Note the readings of Ammeter, Voltmeter & Wattmeter



Give connections as per the circuit diagram.
Switch-ON the supply and vary the Dimmerstat till rated
full load current flows through transformer.
3) Note the readings of Ammeter, Voltmeter & Wattmeter
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Graph: A graph is drawn between P.F and % regulation by taking P.F
on X- axis and % regulation on Y-axis.
Observations:
O.C Test: S.C Test:

V
0

volt

I
0

ampere

W
0

watt

V
SC


volt

I
SC


ampere

W
SC


Watt






Calculations:
Load Cu losses Total losses I/P power O/P power
Full










%
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% Regulation
P.F
lag lead

















PRECAITIONS:

















1) The Dimmer stat should be kept at minimum O/P
position initially.
2) In OC test, rated voltage should be applied to the
Primary of the Transformer.
3) In SC test, the Dimmer stat should be varied up to the
rated load current only.
4) The Dimmer stat should be varied slowly & uniformly.




Result:
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2-SUMPNER'S TEST
Aim: To predetermine the equivalent circuit parameters, efficiency & regulation
of a given pair of 1-phase Transformers by conducting Sumpner's test.
Name plate details:
1- TRANSFORMERS
1- TRANSFORMER
Capacity 3 KVA
I/P voltage 230V
I/P current 13.04A
O/P voltage 115V
O/P current 26.08A
Frequency 50Hz

Apparatus required:
S.NO DESCRIPTION RANGE TYPE QTY
Auto T/F 230V/0- 1- wire 2 Nos
1
270V, 16A wound
0-50V M.I 1 No
2 Voltmeter 0-300V M.I 1 No
0-500V M.I 1 No
2 Ammeter 0-2.5A M.I 1 No
0-10A M.I 1 No
2.5A/300V LPF 1 No
3 Wattmeter
10A/150V UPF 1 No
5A 2 Nos
4 Fuses -
10A 2 Nos
5 SPST switch 20A - 1 No
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Precautions:


















Theory:
1) The Dimmerstat should be kept at minimum O/P
position initially.
2) In OC test, rated voltage should be applied to the primary
of the Transformer.
3) In SC test, the Dimmerstat should be varied upto the
rated load current only.
4) For sc test, close the polarity switch only when both
secondaries are at same potential
4) If the polarity voltmeter indicates some voltage, change
secondary winding connections..
Sumpner's test is also known as back-to-back test. This test requires two identical
transformers and is connected as shown in circuit diagram. By this test ,the
equivalent Circuit parameters, efficiency, regulation & heating of both the T/F can
be determined. Each T/F is loaded on the other and both are connected to same
supply. The primaries of Two T/Fs are connected in parallel across same supply
and the Wattmeter connected in Primaries reads the core losses (Iron losses) of
both transformers. The secondaries are so connected such that their potentials are
in opposite to each other.By connecting so there would be no secondary current
flowing around the loop formed by the two secondaries.
Procedure:
OC Test:
1) Give connections as per the circuit diagram.
2) Switch-ON the supply keeping the polarity switch open and
apply rated voltage to the primary of the winding by using the
auto transformer.
3) Note the readings of Ammeter, Voltmeter & Wattmeter
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DPST
(0-5)A
MI
5A, 150V, 75W, LPF
Ph




1-
230V
50 Hz
AC
Supply
A




V (0-150)V
MI
M



C
L


V





N






Variac
230V/ (0-270) V, 1- , 50
H







115V








0V 115V








0V


(0-15)A
MI


15A, 75V, 750W, UPF


230V


0V


230V


0V






V
A




(0-75)V
MI
M



C
L



V


V
(0-600)V
MI





Variac
230V/ (0-270) V, 1- , 50 Hz




Circuit Diagram
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SC Test:
1) Keeping the primary supply as it, Switch-ON the supply and
close the polarity switch.
2) Vary the Dimmerstat till rated full load current flows through
transformers.
3) Note the readings of Ammeter, Voltmeter & Wattmeter.
Graph:
1) A graph is drawn between P.F and % regulation by taking P.F on X-axis and
% reg on Y-axis
2) A graph is drawn between efficiency & O/P power by taking efficiency on X-
axis and O/P power on Y-axis.
Observations:
O.C Test:

V
0

volt



I
0

ampere



W
0

Watt
S.C Test:

V
SC

volt



I
SC

ampere



W
SC

Watt





Calculations:
Load Cu losses Total losses I/P power O/P power

Full









% Regulation
P.F
%
lag lead




Result:
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3-SCOTT CONNECTION OF TRANSFORMERS
Aim: To observe that:
1) The voltage across Teaser secondary and that across main transformers
are in quadrature to each other.
2) If Teaser transformer and Main transformer are equally loaded primary
will also be at balanced.
Name plate details:
SCOTT TRANSFORMERS
Capacity
I/P voltage
I/P current
O/P
voltage
O/P current
Frequency
1 KVA
230V
4.34A
115V
8.64A
50Hz
Apparatus required:
S.NO DESCRIPTION RANGE TYPE QTY
Auto T/F 415V/0- 3- wire 1 Nos
1
470V, 15A wound
2 Ammeter 0-2A M.I 3 No
0-5A M.I 2 No
0-150V M.I 2 No
3 Voltmeters
0-250V M.I 1 No
4 Fuses 5A - 2 Nos
230V/0- 1 No
5 Load box Rheostatic
10A
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R



TPST

T
p


100%
V
86.6%=T
p

115V



100%
V
T
s

3-
415V
50 Hz
AC
Supply

Y




V


(0-600)V
MI

Teaser transformer
Primary
Teaser transformer
Secondary


0%
V

V
(0-300)V
MI
0%
Mp=50% 100% 0% 100%
3-
415V
50 Hz
AC
Supply


B
V Main
transformer
Primary
V
V Main transformerV



V
2



(0-300)V
MI






PRECAITIONS: 1) The Dimmerstat should be kept at minimum O/P position
initially.
2) The Dimmerstat should be varied slowly & uniformly.
3) Rated voltage should be applied to the primary of the
Transformer.
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Theory: In some cases, we may require 2 power instead of 3 or 1 power. For
that it is necessary to convert 3 to2 power (since 3 power is available at every
nook corner).
Scott connection is one by which 3-phase to 2-phase
transformation is accomplished with the help of two identical 1 T/Fs having same
current rating. One T/F has a center tap on primary side and it is known as Main
transformer. It forms the horizontal member of the connection. Another T/F has
0.866tap on primary side and known as Teaser transformer. The 50% tap point on
primary side of the main T/F is joined to 86.6% tap on primary of the teaser T/F.
Obviously full rating of the T/Fs is not at all used. Refer to the fig. The main T/F
primary winding center tap point D is connected to one end of the primary of the
teaser T/F on secondary side, both the main & teaser T/F turns are used (not only
86.6%).Hence the voltage per turn will be equal for both T/Fs.
Since point D is located midway on AB, V
CD
leads V
AB
by 90
0
i.e, voltages across
primary are 90
0
apart also.
Position of Neutral point N on primary side:
Remember point D is not the neutral on primary , since its
voltages w.r.t R, Y, B are not equal to V
1
/ 3 i.e, the neutral point is that one
which gives equal voltage with R, Y, B. The neutral point is one third the
waydown the teaser T/F winding from C to D Or point N divides the teaser
primary winding in the ratio of 1:2. Hence the neutral must be
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At 86.6/3=28.8% from D
Current in Teaser T/F:
w.r.t






For 2:1 T/F,


Current in Main T/F:




N
2
/0.866N
1
= I
R
/I
X



I
R
= I
n
K(1.15)




I
R
= 0.57xI
X



N
2
/N
1
= (I
R
/2 - I
Y
/2)


For balanced load, since I
X
& I
Y
are at 90
0



I
R
= 120
0
; I
B
= -120
0



Like wise, IR, IY & IB are equal in magnitude and are 120
0
apart
from each other.



Procedure:



1) Give all connections as per the circuit diagram.
2) Switch-ON the supply and apply rated voltage to the primaries.
3) Note the voltmeters readings of both sec. Sides of both T/Fs. 4)
Now join the sec. in series aiding as shown in fig.and note he
resultant voltage.
5) Load both the T/Fs equally with out exceeding the rating And
note the ammeter readings on primary side.
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Observations:
V
4
(across sec. of teaser T/F) =


V
5
(across sec. of main T/F) =


Resultant voltage, V
T
= V
21
+V
22
=




Load applied A
1
A
2
A
3
A
4
A
5










Result:
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4-NO LOAD & BLOCKED ROTOR TESTS ON SLIP RING
INDUCTION MOTOR


Aim: To conduct No-load & rotor blocked tests on the given 3 Slip ring
induction motor and to draw its circle diagram.



Nameplate details:
3 -INDUCTION MOTOR
Capacity
Voltage
Current
Speed
Frequency
5 H.P
415V
7.8A
1500rpm
50Hz
Apparatus required:
S.NO DESCRIPTION RANGE TYPE QTY
415V/0- 3- wire
1 Auto T/F 1 Nos
470V, 15A wound
0-2A M.I 1 No
2 Ammeter
0-10A M.I 1 No
0-50V M.I 1 No
3 Voltmeters
0-250V M.I 1 No
2.5A/300V LPF 1 No
4 Wattmeters
10A/150V UPF 1 No
5 Fuses 10A - 3 Nos 6
Tachometer 0-50000rpm Digital 1 NO
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No Load Test
TPST Switch
(0-5)A 5A, 600V, 600W, LPF
MI 3- Alternator
R
A
M L
R R

3-
415V
50 Hz
AC
Supply


V

C
(0-600)V
MI


W
1


V





Y



Stator





B


Y



3-
415V
50 Hz
AC


C



M

W
2



V




L

B



Rotor

Y
Supply 5A, 600V, 600W, LPF
B

3- Auto Transformer
Fuse



Blocked Rotor Test
TPST Switch
(0-15)A 15A, 600V, 600W, UPF
MI 3- Alternator
R



3-
A
M


C
L


V

R
R


(0-30)A
MI
415V
50 Hz
AC
Supply
V (0-600)V
MI
W
1


Y
Stator


B

A


Y



3-
415V
50 Hz
AC


C



M

W
2



V




L

B



Rotor

Y

S1

S2
Supply 15A, 600V, 600W, UPF
B

3- Auto Transformer
Fuse
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Precautions:













Theory:
1)The Dimmerstat should be kept at minimum O/P position
initially.
2) In the rotor-blocked test, the rotor should be blocked firmly.
3) In SC test, the Dimmerstat should be varied slowly such that
current should not exceed the rated value.
4) If the wattmeter shows negative deflection, then reverse either
pressure coil or current coil & take that reading as negative.



With the help of circle diagram, the behavior of the Induction motor
under various load conditions i.e, the characteristics can be studied. Apart from
that the max torque and max O/P that can be developed by the motor can be
predetermined. Efficiency, slip, p.f, rotor cu losses, stator cu losses, no-load
losses, full load O/P, stable region of operation etc. can also be predetermined. To
draw a circle diagram, it is necessary to conduct two tests on the motor.
a) No-load test and b) blocked rotor test.
Construction of circle diagram:
1) Obtain the values of V
L
, I
O
, W
O
& Cos from the OC test.
2) Obtain the vales of V
S.C
, I
S.C
, W
S.C
& Cos
S.C
from the SC test.
3) Represent the voltage vector on Y-axis to to some convenient scale.
4) Take a suitable current scale.
5) Represent the vector I
O
lag behind V
L
by
O
as per the current scale.
6) Name the vector as OA.
7) Join O
1
A & Draw a
le
line to the X-axis through O
1
and name as O
1
X
1
.
8) Draw a perpendicular bisector to O
1
A so that it meets the line O
1
X
1
at C as
center.
9) Draw a semicircle on the line O
1
X
1
taken O
1
C as radius and C as center.
10) Draw a perpendicular bisector to O1A so that it meets the line O
1
R
1
at C.
11) Draw a perpendicular from A to X-axis so that it meets X-axis at C.
O
1
Z = I
O
Cos
O
similarly: AB = I
1S.C
Cos
O
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Procedure:
No-load test:
1) Give all connections as per the circuit diagram.
2) Switch-ON the supply & apply the rated voltage to motor with
out any load.
3) Note the readings of voltmeter, ammeter & wattmeter.
Blocked rotor test:
1) Give all connections as per the circuit diagram.
2) Apply a low voltage to motor with auto transformer so that
rated load current flows through the stator.
3) Note the readings of voltmeter, ammeter & wattmeter
Observations
O.C Test: S.C Test:

V
0

volt

I
0

ampere

W
0

watt

V
SC

volt

I
SC

ampere

W
SC

watt



























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Model Graph









Result:
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5. REGULATION OF ALTERNATOR BY SYNCHRONOUS IMPEDANCE
METHOD


Aim: To conduct OC test & SC test n the given 3 -Alternator and to
determine its regulation by synchronous impedance method.



Nameplate details:




DESCRPTION
Capacity
Voltage
Current
Speed
Excitation




D.C MOTOR
5 H.P
220V
19A
1500rpm
220V, 1.5A




3 -ALTERNATOR
3 KVA
415V
4.2A
1500rpm
220V, 1.4A



Apparatus required:


S.NO DESCRIPTION RANGE TYPE QTY
0-5A M.I 1 No
1 Ammeter
0-2A M.C 1 No
0-300V M.I 1 No
2 Voltmeters
0-50V M.I 1 No
3 Rheostat 250 /1.5A Wire wound 2 Nos
4 Tachometer 0-50000rpm Digital 1 No
2A 2 Nos
5 Fuses -
10A 2 Nos
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3 point starter OC Test
DPST Switch 3- Alternator TPST Switch
+




230 V
DC
Supply











F




FF
L
FA


400 /
1.7A

A



AA








M



FA



FAA











B



R



N











Y




V



(0-300)V
MI
Fuse
+
230 V

400 /
+

A

DC
Supply


1.7A (0-1)A
MC
Fuse




3 point starter SC Test
DPST Switch 3- Alternator TPST Switch
+




230 V
DC
Supply











F




FF
L FA


400 /
1.7A

A



AA







M



FA



FAA











B



R



N











Y




A



(0-10)A
MI
Fuse
+
400 /
+

A

230 V
DC
Supply


1.7A (0-1)A
MC
Fuse
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Precautions:









Theory:
1) Operate the 3-point starter slowly & uniformely.
2) Keep the speed of the prime mover to its rated value through
out the experiment.
3) In OC test, there should not be any load on Alternator.
4) In SC test, the SC current should not exceed its rated value.




Alternator is a machine, which converts mechanical energy to
electrical energy. Regulation of an Alternator can be calculated by synchronous
impedance method. In OC test the terminals of the alternator are kept opened and a
voltmeter is connected. Keeping speed constant, a relation b/w field current & open
circuit voltage are obtained. In SC test, the terminals are short circuited with a
suitable ammeter & a relation b/w field current & short circuit Current are
obtained.
Voltage regulation:
It is defined as the rise in terminal voltage of an isolated
Machine when full load is thrown off w.r.t voltage on the full load,
when speed & excitation remaining constant.
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Now, Syn.Impedance (Z
S
) = OC voltage / SC current

X
S
= Z
2S
- R
2a
From fig. E
O
= OB
2
+ BD
2

= (Vcos +IR
a
)
2
+ (Vsin +IX
S
)
2
% Regulation = [(E
0
-V) / V] 100
Procedure: OC test:
1) Give all connections as per the circuit diagram.
2) Switch-ON the supply & by varying the starter, prime mover
speed is adjusted to rated.
3) Now keeping the field current at zero, note the induced emf in
armature duo to residual Magnetism.
4) By slowly varying the potential divider, field current is increased
& corresponding emf Induced is noted up to above 20% of rated
voltage.
SC test:
1) Give all connections as per the circuit diagram.
2) Switch-ON the supply & by varying the starter, prime mover
speed is adjusted to rated.
3) By slowly varying the potential divider, field current is increased
& corresponding short Circuit current is noted up to rated value.
To find armature resistance (R
a
):
Give the connections as per diagram and by slowly varying the
rheostat, note the values of ammeter & voltmeter up to some
value and average them.



Graph: 1) A graph is drawn b/w I
f
and V which is known as OC
curve, by taking I
f
on X-axis and V on Y-axis.
2) A graph is drawn b/w I
f
and I
SC
which is known as SC
curve, by Taking I
f
on X-axis and I
SC
V on Y-axis.
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Observations:
OC Test: SCTest:
Field OC Field SC
current I
f
voltage current I
f
current












Armature resistance:
voltage current Resistance R
a








MODEL GRAPH




















Result:
If 2
1
Isc
SCC
X
O
Eo
Y
If
OCC
% Voltage
Regulation
Leading PF
Lagging PF
If1
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6 - V & CURVES OF SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR



Aim: To conduct a no-load test on the given Synchronous motor and to draw its
V & curves.



Nameplate details:

3 -SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
Capacity
Voltage
Current
Speed
Excitation
3 KVA
415V
3.5A
1500rpm
220V, 1.4A
Apparatus required:
S.NO DESCRIPTION RANGE TYPE QTY
0-2A M.C 1 No
1 Ammeter
0-5A M.I 1 No
2 SPST switch - - 1 No
Wire
3 Rheostat 250 /1.5A 1 No
wound
4 Starter - D.O.L 1 No
3
5 Fuses 5A -
Nos


Precautions:
1) There should not be any load on the motor.
2) Initially the field current should be adjusted to rated value.
3) The direction of the rotation of the rotor should be in proper direction only.
4) If I
a
value is increased more than rated value, then it should
be brought to rated value by adjusting the field current.
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5) The I/P voltage should be kept constant through out the experiment.
6)After completion of the experiment only 3-phase supply should be disconnected
first and then DC supply.


Theory :The variation of field current effects the power factor at which the
synchro- nous motor operates. For a syn motor, the armature current phasor is
given by I
a
=V-E where V is the applied voltage .From the above equation it is
clear that the magnitude and phase angle of phasor I
a
depends upon the value of
DC excitation. When the syn. Motor is operated at constant load with variable
field excitation , it is observed that:
a) When the excitation is low, the armature current is lag in
nature & the magnitude is comparatively high.
b) If the excitation is gradually increased, the magnitude of I
a
is
gradually decreasing and the angle of lag is gradually
reduced.
c) At one particular excitation, the magnitude of I
a

corresponding to that load in minimum and vector will be in
phase with V vector.
d) If the excitation is further increased, the magnitude of I
a

again gradually increased and I
a
,vector goes to leading state
and the angle of load is also gradually increased.
Procedure: 1) Give all connections as per the circuit diagram.
2) Switch-ON the supply and apply the rated voltage by using
D.O.L starter keeping SPST switch open.
3) Now field supply is given to the field by closing SPST
switch. At this position, the rotor will be pulled into
synchronism.
4) By varying the field current I
f
, Note down the values of
armature currents.

5) Switch-Off the supply.
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Graph:



A graph is drawn b/w
a) Exciting current (I
f
) verses armature current (I
a
) : V curve.
b) Exciting current (I
f
) verses power factor (cos ) : curve.
taking I
f
on X-axis and I
a
& cos on y-axis.







(0-5)A
MI







5A, 600V, 3KW, LPF





Without Load
3-
Synchronous



3-
R
TPST Switch
A


(0-500)V
M


C
L



V
Motor
415V
50 Hz
AC
Supply

Y


3-
415V
V MI







V







C
FA



FAA
50 Hz
AC
Supply

L

M
5A, 600V, 3KW, LPF
B



Fuse


+
230 V
DC
Supply



400 /
1.7A

+


A
(0-5)A
MC


3- Auto Transformer
415V/(0-470V)


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(0-10)A


5A, 600V, 3KW, UPF
With Load
3-
Synchronous
R
TPST Switch MI
A
M L
Motor
S1

S2

3-
415V
50 Hz
AC
Supply

Y


3-
415V
50 Hz
AC


V


(0-500)V
MI


C









V

L


V







C

M


FA





FAA





Brake
Drum
Supply

B
5A, 600V, 3KW, UPF

+

Fuse
+
230 V
400 /
A



3- Auto Transformer
415V/(0-470V)
DC
Supply


1.7A (0-5)A
MC





Observations:
Field current I
f
Armature current I
a
cos















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Model Graph:-














Result :-














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7-EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF 1 -INDUCTION MOTOR
Aim: To conduct OC & SC tests on the given 1 -Induction motor and to
Determine its equivalent circuit parameters.



Nameplate details:
1 -INDUCTION MOTOR
Capacity
Voltage
Current
Speed
Frequency
1.5 H.P
230V
6.5A
1500rpm
50Hz
Apparatus required:
S.NO DESCRIPTION RANGE TYPE QTY
1-
230V/0-
1 Auto T/F wire 1 No
270V, 8A
wound
0-5A M.I 1 No
2 Ammeter
0-10A M.I 1 No
0-50V M.I 1 No
3 Voltmeters
0-250V M.I 1 No
5A/300V LPF 1 No
4 Wattmeters
10A/75V UPF 1 No
5 Fuses 10A - 2 Nos
0-
6 Tachometer Digital 1 NO
50000rpm
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DPST


(0-10)A
MI
No-Load Test

10A, 300V, 600W, LPF
Ph





1-
230V
50 Hz
AC
Supply
A




V (0-300)V
MI
M



C
L


V







IM






N






Variac
230V/ (0-270V)/28A




Blocked Rotor Test


DPST

(0-25)A
MI

30A, 150V, 3KW, UPF
Ph





1-
230V
50 Hz
AC
Supply
A




V (0-150)V
MI
M



C
L


V







IM



S
1


S
2







Brake Drum






N






Variac
230V/ (0-270V)/28A
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Precautions: 1) The Dimmerstat should be kept at minimum O/P position
initially.
2) In the rotor-blocked test, the rotor should be blocked firmly.
3) In SC test, the Dimmerstat should be varied slowly such that
current should not exceed the rated value.
4) If the wattmeter shows negative deflection, then reverse either
pressure coil or current coil & take that reading as negative.



Theory: Single phase induction motor also woks on the principle of
'Faraday's laws of electromagnetic induction. The equivalent Circuit of such motor is
based on double field revolving theory i.e, an alternating uniaxial quantity can be
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represented by two oppositely rotating vectors of half magnitude. So here the
single phase motor has been imagined to be made up of one stator winding and two
imaginary rotors. Each rotor will be assigned half the actual value of resistance. In
order to find the equivalent circuit parameters, it is need to conduct OC & SC tests
on it. In OC test, rated voltage will be given to motor with out any load on it. In SC
test, the rotor is blocked and a reduced voltage will be given upto the rated load
current.
Procedure:




















Observations:
O.C Test:
No-load test:
4) Give all connections as per the circuit diagram.
5) Switch-ON the supply & apply the rated voltage to motor with
out any load.
6) Note the readings of voltmeter, ammeter & wattmeter.
Blocked rotor test:
1. Give all connections as per the circuit diagram.
2. Apply a low voltage to motor with auto transformer so
that rated load current flows
through the stator.
3. Note the readings of voltmeter, ammeter & wattmeter




S.C Test:

V
0

volt

I
0

ampere

W
0

watt

V
SC

volt

I
SC

ampere

W
SC

Watt









Result:
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8-DETERMINATION OF X
d
& X
q
OF SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE


Aim: To determine the values of X
d
& X
q
of the given salient pole synchronous
machine.



Nameplate details:
DESCRPTION
Capacity
Voltage
Current
Speed
Excitation
D.C MOTOR
5 H.P
220V
19A
1500rpm
220V, 1.5A
3 -ALTERNATOR
3 KVA
415V
4.2A
1500rpm
220V, 1.4A



Apparatus required:


S.NO DESCRIPTION RANGE TYPE QTY
1 Ammeter 0-5A M.I 1 No
2 Rheostat 250 /1.5A Wire wound 1 Nos
3 Tachometer 0-50000rpm Digital 1 No
4 Voltmeter 0-300V M.I 1 No
Phase sequence
5 500V - 1 No
Meter
6 Auto T/F 415V/0-470V, 15A Wire wound 1 No 7
Fuses 5A - 3 Nos



Precautions:
1) Check the phase sequence of the machine with that of external supply before
closing the switches.
2) Disconnect the excitation supply of the alternator while giving external supply.
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3) Slip should be made as small as possible.


Theory: The values of X
d
& X
q
are determined by conducting the slip-test. The
syn. machine is driven by a separate prime mover at a speed slightly different
from synchronous speed. The field winding is left open and positive sequence
balanced voltages of reduced magnitude (around 25% of the rated value) and of
rated frequency and impressed across the armature terminals. Here, the relative
velocity b/w the field poles and the rotating armature mmf wave is equal to the
difference b/w syn. speed and the rotor speed i.e, the slip speed . When the rotor is
along the d-axis, then it has a position of min reluctance, min flux linkage and
max flux produced links with the winding.then X
d
= (max. armature terminal
voltage/ph) / (min. armature current/ph)As the current is small then V
t
will be high
as drop will be small.When the rotor is along q-axis, then it is max, then the flux
linkage would be max.Then The min flux produced links with winding. So max
emf. X
q
= (min. armature terminal voltage/ph) / (max. armature current/ph)
Procedure: 1) Give all connections as per the circuit diagram.
2) Run the machine at syn speed and give a small excitation so that
to generate a small voltage.
3) Check the phase sequence of the machine with the incoming
external supply.
4) Now, remove the supply for field winding and run the machine
slightly above or below the rated speed.
5) Apply the external supply slowly and observe the oscillations in
ammeter & voltmeter.
6) Note the max & min voltage and current.
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3 point starter
DPST Switch (0-5)A
+ L FA

FA


R

A
MI


R
TPST Switch

R


230 V
DC
Supply



F
400 /
1.7A

A

(0-600)V
MI


V




FAA



N

V
(0-150)V
MI



N
3-
415V
50 Hz
AC
Supply




FF



AA

M


B

Y


B


Y

Y

3- 415V
50 Hz AC
Supply
B


Fuse


Observations:
415 V/50Hz/6.4 A/ 5 KVA

3- Auto Transformer
415V/(0-470V)


Fuse

V
max
V
min
I
mix
I
min













X
d
= V
max
/I
min
; =



X
q
= V
min
/ I
max
=




Result:









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9. REGULATION OF 3 ALTERNATOR BY USING ZPF & ASA METHOD.



Circuit Diagram O.C Test:-






























Y
3- Alternator
F
A
FA
A

230
V
DC
Supp
ly
400
/
1.7A
V
A
OC Test
(0-
1)A
MC
+

+
400
/
1.7A

A
A
F
M
F
F
230
V
DC
Supp
ly
+
DPST
Switch
Fuse
3 point
starter
F
L A
A
N
R
B
TPST
Switch
Fuse
(0-
300)V
MI
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Circuit Diagram for S.C Test:-

Y
3- Alternator
F
A
FAA

230
V
DC
Supp
ly
400
/
1.7A
A
A
SC Test
(0-
1)A
MC
+
+
400
/
1.7A

A
A
F
M
F
F
230
V
DC
Supp
ly
+
DPST
Switch
Fuse
3 point
starter
F
L A
A
N
R
B
TPST
Switch
Fuse
(0-
10)A
MI
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(0-10)A
MI
(0-300)V
MI
Y
3- Alternator
FA
FAA

230 V
DC
Supply
400/
1.7A
A
ZPF Method
(0-1)A
MC
+
+
400/
1.7A

AA
F
M
FF
230 V
DC
Supply
+
DPST Switch
Fuse
3 point starter
F
L A
A
N
R
B
TPST
Fuse

A



I
N
D
U
C
T
I
V
E

L
O
A
D

V
Circuit Diagram for Z.P.F Test:-
Diagram with Inductive Load


















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9. REGULATION OF 3 ALTERNATOR BY USING ZPF & ASA METHOD.

Aim:- To find the regulation of 3 Alternator by ZPF & ASA Method, comparing the values obtained by
two methods

Name plate details:-

D.C Shunt Motor Alternator

Power
Speed
Current
Voltage
Field
Excitation

Apparatus:-

S.No Name of the Item Type Range Qty
1
2
3
4
5
6


Procedure:-

O.C Test:-
1) Give all connections as per the circuit diagram.
2) switch-ON the supply & by varying the starter, prime mover
Speed is adjusted to rated.
3) Now keeping the field current at zero, note the induced emf in
Armature duo to residual Magnetism.
4) By slowly varying the potential divider, field current is increased
& corresponding emf Induced is noted up to above 20% of rated
voltage.
SC test:
1) Give all connections as per the circuit diagram.
2) switch-ON the supply & by varying the starter, prime mover
Speed is adjusted to rated.
3) By slowly varying the potential divider, field current is increased
& corresponding short Circuit current is noted up to rated value.
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To find armature resistance (R
a
):
Give the connections as per diagram and by slowly varying the
Rheostat, note the values of ammeter & voltmeter up to some
value and average them.


Z.P.F Test:-
1) Give all connections as per the circuit diagram.
2) Verify the connections by the instructor.
2) switch-ON the supply & Start the motor with the 3-pont
starter, Adjust the rated speed of prime mover by varying the
field rheostat.

3) Gradually increasing the field excitation bring the alternator
voltage to rated value

4) Switch on the inductive load and adjust, so that the full load
current will flow through the ammeter. In mean time rated
voltage must be maintained.
















Graph: 1) A graph is drawn b/w I
f
and V which is known as OC
curve, by taking I
f
on X-axis and V on Y-axis.
2) A graph is drawn b/w I
f
and I
SC
which is known as SC
curve, by Taking I
f
on X-axis and I
SC
V on Y-axis.
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Observations:-
O.C Test:-
If(A) E0(v)


S.C Test:-
If(A) Ise(A)


Z.P.F Test:-
If(A) I Load V






Circuit Diagram for Ra:-















Ia V R in



Result:-







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10 - BRAKE TEST ON 3 -SQUERREL CAGE INDUCTION MOTOR
Aim: To conduct a brake test on the given 3 -Slip ring Induction motor and to
draw its performance Characteristics.
Nameplate details:
3 -INDUCTION MOTOR
Capacity
Voltag
Current
Speed
Frequency

Apparatus required:



S.NO DESCRIPTION RANGE TYPE QTY

1 Starter
2 Ammeter
3 Voltmeter
4 Wattcmeters
5 Fuses
6 Tachometer
Precautions:
1) There should not be any load on the motor initially.
2) The brake drum should be filled with water to cool it.
3) If the wattmeter shows negative deflection, reverse either


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pressure coil or current coil and take that reading as
negative.
4) The rotor external resistance should be kept at max
resistance position initially.



Theory: As a general rule, conversion of electrical energy to mechanical energy
takes place in to the rotating part on electrical motor. In DC motors, electrical
power is conduct directly to the armature, i.e, rotating part through brushes and
commutator. Hence, in this sense, a DC motor can be called as 'conduction motor'.
However, in AC motors, rotor does not receive power by conduction but by
induction in exactly the same way as secondary of a two winding T/F receives
its power from the primary. So, these motors are
known as Induction motors. In fact an induction motor can be taken as rotating
T/F, i.e, one in which primary winding is stationary and but the secondary is free.
The starting torque of the Induction motor can be increase by improving its p.f
by adding external resistance in the rotor circuit from the stator connected rheostat,
the rheostat resistance being progressively cut out as the motor gathers speed.
Addition of external resistance increases the rotor impedance and so reduces the
rotor current. At first, the effect of improved p.f predominates the current-
decreasing effect of impedance. So, starting torque is increased. At time of starting,
external resistance is kept at maximum resistance position and after a certain time,
the effect of increased impedance predominates the effect of improved p.f and so
the torque starts decreasing. By this during running period the rotor resistance
being progressively cut-out as the motor attains its speed. In this way, it is possible
to get good starting torque as well as good running torque.
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(0-15)A
MI

10A, 600V, 3KW, UPF
R



3-

A
M



C
L



V

L
1


B
1




A
1
415V
50 Hz AC
Supply
V

(0-600)V

Y/
A
1
B
1
S S2



Y





3-
415V
MI Starter

L
2


A
2


C
1



A
2





C
1





C
2




B
2
50 Hz AC
Supply


B

C



M


V




L




L
3


C
2


B
2





Procedure:
10A, 600V, 3KW, UPF




1) Give all the connections as per the circuit diagram.
2) Switch -ON the supply and press the ON button of the
starter.
3) Now put the rotor external resistance switch to run
position in steps & slowly.
4) Note the no-load readings of ammeter, voltmeter,
wattmeter, speed & loads.
5) Gradually increase the load on the motor by tightening the
hand-swivels and note the corresponding meter's
readings.
6) Remove the load completely & Switch-Off the power.



Graph: A graph is drawn b/w O/P power in watts (on X-axis) verses speed,
torque, current, slip, efficiency & p.f (on Y-axis).
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Volt
meter
Rea-
ding
Am-
meter
reading
I/P=W1 W2 Force
Net
Force
Torq-
ue
Speed O/P % % Slip p.f
V A W
1

W
2


F
1
F
2
F
1
~F
2
9.8xF
e
.R
e

N
2 NT/
60
O/p
/i/p
X 100
N
s
-N
a
/N
s


Volt ampere watt Watt kg kg kg FxR
e
rpm watt - - -




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Thickness of the belt, t=


Circumference of the drum, 2 R =


Radius, R = C/2 =


Effective radius, R
e
= R + t/s =









Result:






PF
IL
%
T
% Slip
N
PF
IL
N
%

T
% Slip

Output power (W)

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L
C
V
(0-10)A
MI
A
1
C
M
10A, 300V, 3000W,
UPF
M
V
(0-10)A
MI
10A, 300V, 3000W,
UPF
L
A
(0-
500)V
MI
V
3
M
V
(0-20)A
MI
20A, 300V, 6000W,
UPF
L
L
O
A
D
c A3

V
1
(0-300V)
MI
A
2
2KVA,230/115V
Single Phase T/F
LV HV
LV HV
C

V
1
(0-300V)
MI
1- ,VARIAC
3KVA
T
A
T
B
1-
230V
50 Hz
AC
Supply
Ph
N
DPST
Parallel Operation Of Two Single Phase Transformers


Circuit Diagram:-



















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ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENT NO:-1
Parallel Operation Of Two Single Phase Transformers
Aim:-
To operate the given two 2KVA, 230/110V single phase Transformers in parallel and study the
load sharing between them when supplying resistive load .
APPRATERS:-
1. Watt meters UPF 300V/10A 2NO
300V/20A 1No
2. Voltmeter MI (0-500V) 1NO
(0-300V) 1NO
(0-150V) 1NO
3. Ammeters MI (0-10A) 2NO
(0-20A) 1NO
NAME PLATE DITEALS:-


PROCEDURE :-
a) Make connections as for circuit diagram, keep the load switch and switch S open .
b) Switch on the mains , see the volt meter reading of V
1
, if this reading is 460V(double
the secondary voltage of both the machines) then switch of and inter change the
connections of secondary of any transformer . if reads zero then the switch S can be
closed , this way the polarities can be checked since wrong polarity will short circuit
the transformers if operated in parallel .
c) Close switch S and then close the load switch.
d) For various values of load current , record terminal voltage ,current in two secondarys
,power supply by the two transformers and the total power,(do not exceed 10 A for
total current)
e) Switch of load and switch of main.
f) Determine the equivalent reactances and resistances of both transformers referred
to HV winding by SC test
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Observation Table:-
S.
NO
I

I
A
I
B
V
L
S
A
S
B
W Cos

A
Cos

B
W
A
W
B
By Measurement By calculations By Measurement By calculations






CAULATIONS :-
For a given load current I
L
at an angle the current and power supply by each
transformer can be found out by the following formula

I
A
= (I
L
)X{(Z
B
)/(Z
A
+Z
B
)}

I
B
= (I
L
)X{(Z
A
)/(Z
A
+Z
B
)}
If S is the load KVA, then the KVA shared by the transformers can be found out by

S
A
= (S)X{(Z
B
)/(Z
A
+Z
B
)}

S
B
= (S)X{(Z
A
)/(Z
A
+Z
B
)}
Check the result obtained with the Theoretical calculations .
RESULTS:-
a) With the help of phasor diagram verify if I
A
= I
B
= I.
b) Check if the load shared is proportional to the KVA capacities of the respective
transformers
c) From the results state if R
A
/X
A
=R
B
/X
B


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3- Alternator
N
A
1
V
A
1
V
A
1
V
(0-20)A
MI
(0-300)V
MI
(0-600)A
MI
(0-600)A
MI
R
R
Y B
B Y
FF
F
400 /
1.7A
400 /
1.7A
FF
F
3- Alternator

440V ,60w

S 2
3-
Resistive
Load


R
Y
B
N
+
-
220V DC
Supply
220V DC
Supply
+
-
(0-10)A
MI
(0-10)A
MI
PARELLEL OPERATION OF TWO 3- ALTERNATORS

Circuit Diagram:-






















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EXPERMENT NO -12
PARELLEL OPERATION OF TWO THREE PHASE ALTERNATORS
Aim:-
To run two 3 Alternators in parallel and to study the load sharing .

Operators:
1. Voltmeter MI (0-600V) 2NO
(0-300V) 1NO
2. Ammeter MI (0-10A) 2NO
(0-20A) 1NO
3. Switch Board for parallel operation 1NO
4. 3 Resistive load 5KW 1NO
5. Rheostat 400/1.7A 2NO

Name Plate Details:-



Procedure:-
1. Make connections as for circuit diagrams, and verify the connections by the lab
Instructor.
2. Ensure that the paralleling switch S1 is open and the change our switch S2 is in OFF
position
3. Then start the alternator no 1 and adjust the field excitation so that it generates the
rated voltage
4. Put switch S2 in position 1 gradually increase the load current in steps.
5. Not down the current and voltage of 1 alternator at ever step , repeat the step up to full
load of the alternator
6. Bring the load 0 stop the alternator .
7. Put the change our switch S2 in OFF position. Now start the alternator number 2 and
adjust excitation to its rated value and repeat the steps done for alternator 1.
8. Stop the machine and put change our switch in OFF position .
9. Now run both alternators keeping parallel switch S1 open adjust the voltage both
alternators to its rated value, for Dark lame method if phase sequence and voltage of
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both alternators is same then the lamp will glows OFF . then switch on the parallel in
switch , put the change our switch to either position 1 OR 2 load the alternators and
note down the individual alternator load current and the total load current and the bus
bar voltage

Observation Table :-
S.NO ALTERNATOR -1 ALTERNATOR -2 ALTERNATOR 1&2 PARELLEL TOTAL
CURRENT
BUSBAR
VOLTAGE
VOLTAGE CURENT VOLTAG
E
CURRENT LOAD CURRENT
OF ALT-1
LOAD
CURRENT
OF ALT-2




GRAPH :
Bus bar voltage V
s
Total Current





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