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Assessment of Existing
Concrete Structures in the
Absence of Drawings
Assessment of Existing
Concrete Structures in the
Absence of Drawings
Presented by: John M. Grill, P.E.
Senior Engineer
Presented by: John M. Grill, P.E.
Senior Engineer
WDP & Associates, PC is a Registered Provider with The Ameri can
I nsti tute of Archi tects Conti nui ng Educati on Systems
(AI A/ CES). Credit(s) earned on completion of this program will be
reported to AI A/ CES for AIA members. Certificates of Completion
for both AIA members and non-AIA members are available upon
request.
This program is registered with AI A/ CES for continuing professional
education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed
or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any
material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using,
distributing, or dealing in any material or product.
Questions related to specific materials, methods,
and services will be addressed at the conclusion
of this presentation.
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Copyright Materials
This presentation is protected by US and International Copyright
laws. Reproduction, distribution, display and use of the presentation
without written permission of the speaker is prohibited.
Whitlock Dalrymple Poston & Associates, PC 2011
(WDP & Associates)
A common problem facing design professionals involved in the
modification, repair and reuse of existing structures is how to assess the
capacity of an existing concrete structure when the original design
plans and specifications are not available. The assessment requires an
understanding of the future use, structure type and dimensions,
material properties used in the original construction, the extent of
deterioration present and current building code status of the structure.
This presentation describes methods for assessment of existing
structures with a focus on the assessment of the existing concrete
material properties and structural conditions.
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Learning Objectives Learning Objectives
At the end of this program, participants will be able
to:
Identify critical structural parameters and properties that
are necessary to obtain,
Obtain familiarity with industry publications offering
guidelines and techniques for obtaining information
related to evaluating existing structures,
Recognize some available test methods (destructive and
nondestructive) for sampling and gathering the desired
data, and
Obtain familiarity with how these test methods are applied
in practice.
Motivation Motivation
We have a need to evaluate existing structures
Repair/rehabilitation is needed
Change in building use/occupancy
Sustainable construction
Drawings are commonly not available
Lost over time
Changes in ownership
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Assessment Goals Assessment Goals
ACI 364.1R Guide for Evaluation of Concrete
Structures Before Rehabilitation
Develop as-built drawings
Existing geometry
Structure type
Identify current conditions
Deterioration
Variations/additions to original construction
Determine material properties
Considerations Considerations
Structural assessment
Current conditions
Member geometry
Material properties
Analysis requirements/limitations
Building code requirements
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Typical Parameters to Determine Typical Parameters to Determine
Verification/identification of current
geometry/member sizes
Location and spacing of embedded items
Mild reinforcing steel, post-tensioning, conduit, etc.
Damage assessment
Corrosion
Locating hidden flaws and defects (voids, trapped
moisture, poor consolidation, etc.)
Concrete properties
Reinforcing steel properties
Motivation Why NDT? Motivation Why NDT?
Older Structure some signs of deterioration
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Methods to Verify Conditions Methods to Verify Conditions
Measurement
Direct measurement
Laser scanning
Destructive test methods
Coring
Cutting
Drilling
Methods to Verify Conditions Methods to Verify Conditions
Nondestructive test methods
ACI 228.2R Nondestructive Test Methods for
Evaluation of Concrete in Structures
Visual Tactile/sounding methods
Pachometer/eddy current devices
Surface Penetrating Radar (SPR)
Impact-Echo (IE)
Electrochemical corrosion testing
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Visual/Tactile Sounding Survey Visual/Tactile Sounding Survey
Visual Survey
ACI 201.1R Guide for Making a Condition Survey
on Concrete in Service
Tactile Sounding Survey
Used to identify locations and limits of
delaminations in concrete
Chain-dragging or hammer sounding
Shallow delaminations are identified by a drummy
or hollow sound
Tactile Sounding Surveys Tactile Sounding Surveys
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Pachometer/Eddy Current Devices Pachometer/Eddy Current Devices
Used to identify location and approximate depth of
embedded metallic objects
Locate position and spacing of masonry wall ties
and steel studs in brick veneer systems
Location position and spacing of embedded
reinforcing steel in concrete slabs and reinforced
masonry walls
Surface Penetrating Radar Surface Penetrating Radar
Uses electromagnetic energy to locate objects,
subsurface flaws, or interfaces within a material
Thickness determination
(member sizes)
Location/orientation/depth
of reinforcement or conduit
Track post-tensioning
tendon trajectories
Locate voids below slabs-
on-grade or within CMU
masonry
Identify splice locations
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Surface Penetrating Radar Surface Penetrating Radar
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Post-Tensioning Tendon Rebar Wake
Surface Penetrating Radar Surface Penetrating Radar
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Impact-Echo Impact-Echo
Based on evaluation of stress waves generated by an
elastic impact on a concrete surface
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Applications
Thickness of members
ASTM C1383
Location of internal defects
Repair quality assurance
Often used in conjunction
with other methods
Impact-Echo Impact-Echo
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Impact-Echo Impact-Echo
Impact-Echo Impact-Echo
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Impact-Echo Impact-Echo
Summary
Requires significant experience
Powerful method for flaw detection
Applications to quality control
Verification of results is critical
Information Sources
Construction documents
Construction testing records
Historical material properties
CRSI References
In-situ testing
Sample extraction and testing
Material Properties Material Properties
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Material Properties Material Properties
Concrete
Compressive strength
Durability
Air content
Chloride concentrations
Carbonation
Reinforcing steel
Yield strength
Corrosion damage
Concrete Sampling and Testing Concrete Sampling and Testing
Chloride content analysis
Cast in concrete during construction
Diffusion of de-icing salts
Carbonation testing
Reduction in concrete pH
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Concrete Sampling and Testing Concrete Sampling and Testing
ASTM C42 Standard Test Method for Obtaining
and Testing Drilled Cores and Sawed Beams of
Concrete
ACI 214.4 Guide for Obtaining and Interpreting
Compressive Strength Results
Corrections for sample conditions
Number of samples
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Concrete Sampling and Testing Concrete Sampling and Testing
ASTM C856 Standard Practice for Petrographic
Examination of Hardened Concrete
Air content
w/c ratio
Cement content
Aggregate types/sizes/gradation
Carbonation
Microcracking
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Concrete Sampling and Testing Concrete Sampling and Testing
Estimation of Concrete Strength Estimation of Concrete Strength
ACI 228.1R In-Place Methods to Estimate
Concrete Strength
Probe / Pin penetration ASTM C 803
Pulse velocity ASTM C 597
Rebound hammer ASTM C 805
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Estimation of Concrete Strength Estimation of Concrete Strength
Faster than core testing
More samples can be tested
Identify low strength areas
Require correlation with core samples
Estimation of Concrete Strength Estimation of Concrete Strength
Windsor Probe ASTM C 803
Utilizes a powder charge to drive probes into the
concrete with a known force
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Estimation of Concrete Strength Estimation of Concrete Strength
Estimation of Concrete Strength Estimation of Concrete Strength
Pulse velocity ASTM C 597
Measure travel time of an ultrasonic pulse
Relative compressive strength
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Estimation of Concrete Strength Estimation of Concrete Strength
Estimation of Concrete Strength Estimation of Concrete Strength
Rebound Hammer ASTM C 805
Utilizes an internal spring and rod to strike the concrete
with a calibrated force
Easy to use
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Estimation of Concrete Strength Estimation of Concrete Strength
Reinforcing Steel Reinforcing Steel
Verify yield strength
30 to 40 to 60 to ?? Ksi
NDT Methods
Not possible
Grade marks
Hard to find
Destructive tests
Corrosion damages
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Reinforcing Steel Reinforcing Steel
Reinforcing Steel Reinforcing Steel
# 6 Bar
# 4 Bar
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Reinforcing Steel Reinforcing Steel
Yield strength
ASTM A370 Standard Test Methods and Definitions for
Mechanical Testing of Steel Products
CRSI historical data
Reinforcing Steel Reinforcing Steel
Electrochemical corrosion testing
Half-cell potential ASTM C 876
Likelihood of corrosion
Concrete resistivity 4 pin Wenner method
Concretes ability to resist flow of electrons
Corrosion rate measurement linear polarization
methods
Current rate of corrosion in reinforcing steel
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Corrosion Assessment Corrosion Assessment
Polarization Resistance
Measure of corrosion current
Based upon evaluation of polarization resistance
of reinforcing bar
Allows measurement of rate of corrosion
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Analysis Concerns Analysis Concerns
Capacity of Existing Structure
Account for in-situ conditions
Account for actual material properties
Account for construction process
Unbraced length changes
Shoring
Loads imposed
Temporary loads
Design for future loads
Analysis Issues Analysis Issues
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Building Code Issues Building Code Issues
Project specific assessment
When do current code requirements have to be
satisfied?
Grandfather clause?
Seismic requirements?
Energy codes?
IBC 5% rule
Concrete Repair Code Concrete Repair Code
ACI 318 Building Code Requirements for
Structural Concrete
New construction
ICRI Concrete Repair Manual
Collection of industry guidelines and documents
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Concrete Repair Code Concrete Repair Code
ACI 562 Code Requirements for Evaluation,
Repair, and Rehabilitation of Concrete
Buildings
Final stages of development
Expect completion in 2012
Parallel to ACI 318 for repair
Adopt into IEBC or IBC
Code requirements not guidelines
Evaluation
Repair design
Quality control
Summary Summary
Existing structures commonly encountered
Lack of design / construction documents
Need to preserve / protect these structures
Assessment
Numerous methods exist
Generally project specific
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Summary Summary
Summary Summary
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Summary Summary
Existing structures commonly encountered
Lack of design / construction documents
Need to preserve / protect these structures
Assessment
Numerous methods exist
Generally project specific
Analysis / Codes
More involved than new structures
Repair code to be published in 2012
AIA Continuing Education Systems AIA Continuing Education Systems
Learning Objectives:
Identify critical structural parameters and properties that
are necessary to obtain,
Obtain familiarity with industry publications offering
guidelines and techniques for obtaining information
related to evaluating existing structures,
Recognize some available test methods (destructive and
nondestructive) for sampling and gathering the desired
data, and
Obtain familiarity with how these test methods are applied
in practice.
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Resources/References Resources/References
American Concrete Institute (ACI)
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute (CRSI)
International Code Council (ICC)
International Concrete Repair Institute (ICRI)
Questions? Questions?
This concludes this portion of the
the American Institute of Architects
Continuing Education Systems Course.
Please take a few moments to complete the Evaluation Form.
John M. Grill, P.E. | Senior Engineer
703.257.9280 main | 703.257.7589 fax | jgrill@wdpa.com
Keith Kesner, Ph.D., P.E., S.E. | Associate
203-354-4503 main | 203-354-4528 fax | kkesner@wdpa.com
Whitlock Dalrymple Poston & Associates, P.C.
10621 Gateway Boulevard, Suite 200 | Manassas, VA 20110 | www.wdpa.com