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96

Multiply Whole Numbers

Lesson 11 Part 1: Introduction

Develop Skills and Strategies

You have learned how to multiply one-digit numbers by multiples of 10. Take a

look at this problem.

There are 100 stickers on each roll, and a box of stickers has 3 rolls.

How many stickers are there in 4 boxes?

Explore It

Use the math you already know to solve the problem.

How many boxes are there?

How many rolls of stickers are in each box?

What multiplication expression shows how many rolls of stickers there are in all

the boxes?

How many stickers are on each roll?

What multiplication expression shows how many stickers there are in all?

How can you show 100 using tens as factors? Write an expression that is equal to

the one above using tens as factors.

Explain how to use what you know about multiplying by 10 to solve the problem.

CCLS

4.NBT.B.5

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97

L11: Multiply Whole Numbers

Lesson 11 Part 1: Introduction

Find Out More

To multiply with 3-digit and 4-digit numbers, you need to understand how to

multiply by multiples of 10, 100, and 1,000. Take a look at the chart below.

Expression Think of it as... Think of it as... Product

4 3 3 4 3 3 ones 12 ones 12

4 3 30 4 3 3 tens 12 tens 120

4 3 300 4 3 3 hundreds 12 hundreds 1,200

4 3 3,000 4 3 3 thousands 12 thousands 12,000

In each expression, the factor 4 is the same. The other factor increases by one place

value each time.

Look at the products. The digits 1 and 2 from the basic fact 4 3 3 5 12 appear in each

product. In the second expression, 4 is multiplied by 30, which is the same as 3 tens.

Thats 4 times 3 tens which is 12 tens or 120. The factor 30 is 10 times as great as 3 and

the product 120 is 10 times as great as 12.

Reflect

1

Choose a basic multiplication fact that you know. Show how to multiply the

product of the fact by 10, 100, and 1,000. Explain how you know your answer is

correct.

Lesson 11

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L11: Multiply Whole Numbers

98

Part 2: Modeled Instruction

Read the problem below. Then explore different ways to multiply a 4-digit number

by a 1-digit number.

Ezekiel has 3 building sets. Each set includes 1,125 pieces. How many pieces

are in all 3 sets?

Picture It

You can use an area model to help understand the problem.

3

1,000 100 20 5 1 1 1

3 3 1,000 3 3 100 3 3 20 3 3 5

3 3 1,125 5 (3 3 1,000) 1 (3 3 100) 1 (3 3 20) 1 (3 3 5)

5 3,000 1 300 1 60 1 15

5 3,375

Model It

You can also use partial products to multiply the numbers.

1,125

3 3

15

60

300

1 3,000

3,375

3 3 5 ones

3 3 2 tens

3 3 1 hundred

3 3 1 thousand

Lesson 11

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99

L11: Multiply Whole Numbers

Part 2: Guided Instruction

Connect It

Now you will explore the problem from the previous page further.

2

What is the expanded form of 1,125? 1 1 1

3

Where do you see the expanded form in the area model?

4

How is the expanded form used in the partial products equation?

5

The partial products equation shows the 3 being multiplied by the ones column

rst. Would the product change if you multiplied the 3 by the thousands column

rst, followed by the hundreds, tens, and ones? Explain.

6

Describe how the factor 3 is used with the factor 1,125 to nd the product.

7

Explain how you multiply a 4-digit number by a 1-digit number.

Try It

Use what you just learned to solve these problems. Show your work on a

separate sheet of paper.

8

2,041 3 6 5

9

5,342 3 4 5

Lesson 11

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L11: Multiply Whole Numbers

100

Read the problem below. Then explore different ways to multiply a 2-digit

number by a 2-digit number.

Folding chairs are set up in a school auditorium for a play. There are 16 rows of

chairs, each with 28 chairs. How many folding chairs are there?

Picture It

You can use an area model to multiply 2-digit numbers.

To solve this problem, multiply 16 3 28.

20

8

10 6

1

1

20 3 10

2 tens 3 1 ten 5 2 hundreds

200

8 3 10

8 3 1 ten 5 8 tens

80

20 3 6

2 tens 3 6 5 12 tens

120

8 3 6 5 48

200 1 80 1 120 1 48 5 448

Model It

You can also use partial products to multiply 2-digit numbers.

16

3 28

48

80

120

1 200

448

8 ones 3 6 ones

8 ones 3 1 ten

2 tens 3 6 ones

2 tens 3 1 ten

Part 3: Modeled Instruction

Lesson 11

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101

L11: Multiply Whole Numbers

Connect It

Now you will explore the problem from the previous page further.

10

Why is the area model divided into four sections?

11

How do the four steps in the partial products equation relate to the four sections

in the area model?

12

Would the product change if 20 1 8 on the left side of the area model were

changed to 10 1 10 1 8? Explain.

13

List two dierent ways that you could break up the numbers in 34 3 12 to nd the

product. Explain why both ways would have the same product.

Try It

Use what you just learned to solve these problems. Show your work on a

separate sheet of paper.

14

27 3 21 5

15

37 3 23 5

Part 3: Guided Instruction

Student Model

Part 4: Guided Practice Lesson 11

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L11: Multiply Whole Numbers

102

How did you decide

which model to use to

help you solve the

problem?

Pair/Share

Should you multiply

15 3 24 or 24 3 15?

How else could you

solve this problem?

Pair/Share

The student multiplied

6 by the value of the digit

in each place in 1,785.

Study the model below. Then solve problems 1618.

An aquarium has 6 female sea turtles. Each turtle lays up to

1,785 eggs a year. If each turtle lays 1,785 eggs this year, how

many eggs will there be in all?

Look at how you could show your work using an area model.

6 3 1,000 6 3 700 6 3 80 6 3 5

1,000 700 80 5

6

1 1 1

6 3 1,785 5 (6 3 1,000) 1 (6 3 700) 1 (6 3 80) 1 (6 3 5)

5 6,000 1 4,200 1 480 1 30

5 10,710

Solution:

16

A deli is preparing trays of sandwiches. There are 15 trays, each

with 24 sandwiches. How many sandwiches are there?

Show your work.

Solution:

10,710 eggs

Part 4: Guided Practice Lesson 11

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103

L11: Multiply Whole Numbers

Could you use an area

model to help solve the

problem?

How is this problem

different than the one

modeled on page 102?

Pair/Share

Multiply 5 by the value

of the digit in each place

in 147.

Does Dales answer

make sense?

Pair/Share

17

The owner of 12 bookstores is buying 32 copies of a new book for

each of the stores. How many books is the owner buying in all?

Show your work.

Solution:

18

A hardware store has 147 containers of paint. If each container

holds 5 gallons of paint, how many gallons of paint are at the

store? Circle the letter of the correct answer.

A 235

B 505

C 735

D 905

Dale chose A as the correct answer. How did he get that answer?

Part 5: Common Core Practice Lesson 11

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L11: Multiply Whole Numbers

104

Solve the problems.

1 A person blinks about 16 times per minute. About how many times does a person

blink in 3 hours? [Hint: 1 hour 5 60 minutes]

A 48

B 96

C 960

D 2,880

2 Mr. Larson is planning a pizza party for 273 people. He plans on 3 slices of pizza for

each person. How many slices of pizza is this in all?

A 276

B 546

C 619

D 819

3 Tell whether each expression can be used to solve 29 3 14.

a. (9 3 4) 1 (20 3 4) 1 (9 3 1) 1 (20 3 1) Yes No

b. (14 3 9) 1 (14 3 20) Yes No

c. (9 3 4) 1 (20 3 4) 1 (9 3 10) 1 (20 3 10) Yes No

d. (29 3 4) 1 (29 3 10) Yes No

Part 5: Common Core Practice Lesson 11

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105

L11: Multiply Whole Numbers

4 Which model(s) below could represent the solution to the problem 45 3 15? Circle the

letter for all that apply.

A

40 5

5

10

B

0 15 30 45

C (4 3 1) 1 (4 3 5) 1 (5 3 1) 1 (5 3 5)

D (4 3 1) 1 (5 3 5)

E

0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360 405 450 495 540 585 630 675

5 Mo attended 14 tutoring sessions. Each session was 45 minutes long.

How many minutes long were all 14 sessions?

Show your work.

Answer Mo was tutored for minutes.

6 Fourth grade students held a recycling drive. During one week they collected an

average of 1,238 water bottles each day. How many water bottles did the fourth

graders collect? [Hint: There are 7 days in one week.]

Show your work.

Answer The fourth grade students collected water bottles.

Go back and see what you can check o on the Self Check on page 95. Self Check

Multiply Whole Numbers

Lesson 11

L11: Multiply Whole Numbers

105

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Develop Skills and Strategies

(Student Book pages 96105)

LESSON OBJECTIVES

Multiply whole numbers of up to four digits by

one-digit whole numbers.

Multiply a two-digit number by a two-digit number.

Use equations, rectangular arrays, and area models

to illustrate and explain calculations.

PREREQUISITE SKILLS

In order to be procient with the concepts/skills in this

lesson, students should:

Recall basic multiplication facts.

Know properties of operations.

Understand place value.

Understand and use rectangular arrays and

areamodels.

VOCABULARY

There is no new vocabulary. Review the following

key terms.

multiplication: an operation used to nd the total

number of items in equal-sized groups

product: the answer to a multiplication problem

factor: numbers that are multiplied together to get

a product

multiple: the product of the number and any other

whole number (0, 4, 8, 12, etc. are multiples of 4)

THE LEARNING PROGRESSION

In Grade 3, students used equations, rectangular

arrays, and the properties of operations to develop an

understanding of multiplication. They multiplied

one-digit whole numbers by multiples of 10, within

100. In Grade 4, students should continue to utilize

equations, rectangular arrays, and the properties of

operations as they multiply a whole number up to four

digits by a one-digit number, and as they multiply

two-digit numbers. This foundation will prepare them

for Grade 5, when they become uent with the

standard multiplication algorithm with multi-digit

whole numbers.

Teacher Toolbox

Teacher-Toolbox.com

Prerequisite

Skills 4.NBT.B.5

Ready Lessons

Tools for Instruction

Interactive Tutorials

CCLS Focus

4.NBT.B.5 Multiply a whole number of up to four digits by a one-digit whole number, and multiply two two-digit numbers, using

strategies based on place value and the properties of operations. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations,

rectangular arrays, and/or area models.

ADDITIONAL STANDARDS: 4.OA.A.2, 4.OA.A.3, 4.NBT.A.1 (See page A44 for full text.)

STANDARDS FOR MATHEMATICAL PRACTICE: SMP 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 (See page A11 for full text.)

L11: Multiply Whole Numbers

106

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Part 1: Introduction Lesson 11

AT A GLANCE

Students read a word problem and answer a series of

questions designed to explore a method for multiplying

a 3-digit number by a 1-digit number.

STEP BY STEP

Tell students that this page models how to multiply

two numbers by a factor of 10.

Have students read the problem at the top of the page.

Work through Explore It as a class.

Ask students to explain how they found the total

number of rolls of stickers in all of the boxes. Point

out that they may nd it helpful to write 100 under

each roll of stickers.

Explain to students that putting a zero at the end of a

number is a shortcut for multiplying by 10. Make

sure they understand what is happening to the value

of the number when it is multiplied by a factor of 10.

SMP Tip: Point out to students that when

multiplying by multiples of 10, there is a pattern

of putting zeros at the end of the number you are

multiplying. In other words, when multiplying

by 10, add 1 place value or 1 zero; when multiplying

by 100, add 2 places or 2 zeros; when multiplying

by 1,000, add 3 place values, or 3 zeros, and so on.

(SMP 1)

If you have a multiplication problem such as

100 3 12, will it change your answer if you write it

as 12 3 100?

Students responses should be that both

problems have the same answer. This is an

example of the Commutative Property of

Multiplication, of which students understand

the concept, but may not necessarily know the

name. It states that regardless of the order in

which you multiply two numbers, the product

is the same.

Mathematical Discourse

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L11: Multiply Whole Numbers 96

Multiply Whole Numbers

Lesson 11 Part 1: Introduction

DevelopSkills andStrategies

You have learned how to multiply one-digit numbers by multiples of 10. Take a

look at this problem.

There are 100 stickers on each roll, and a box of stickers has 3 rolls.

How many stickers are there in 4 boxes?

Explore It

Use the math you already know to solve the problem.

How many boxes are there?

How many rolls of stickers are in each box?

What multiplication expression shows how many rolls of stickers there are in all

the boxes?

How many stickers are on each roll?

What multiplication expression shows how many stickers there are in all?

How can you show 100 using tens as factors? Write an expression that is equal to

the one above using tens as factors.

Explain how to use what you know about multiplying by 10 to solve the problem.

CCLS

4.NBT.B.5

Possible explanation: When you multiply by 10, the digits in the other

factor move one place to the left and a 0 goes in the ones place.

4 3 3 3 10 3 10

4

3

4 3 3

100

4 3 3 3 100

L11: Multiply Whole Numbers

107

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Part 1: Introduction Lesson 11

AT A GLANCE

Students nd a pattern for multiplying by multiples of

10, such as 10, 100, and 1,000. They learn that when

multiplying basic facts by a multiple of 10, the product

increases by the same place value as the multiple of 10.

STEP BY STEP

Read Find Out More as a class.

Using base-ten blocks, emphasize to students that

120 is 10 times greater than 12.

Use the chart to show how the product increases by

one place-value position as the multiple of 10

increases.

Make sure students know how many zeros are

associated with each place value name.

[ones 5 no zeros, tens 5 1 zero, hundreds 5 2 zeros,

thousands 5 3 zeros]

Use a Bingo game to understand multiplying

numbers (multiples of ten).

Materials: Bingo game cards that have squares lled

with various types of answers to multiplication

problems involving multiples of ten.

Distribute a bingo card and some markers to each

student or pair of students.

Choose a multiplication problem (from a set you

have) and read it aloud (e.g., 5 times 60).

Students will then look for any way that this

problem may be represented on their bingo card.

Repeat the steps of reading problems and covering

spaces until a student has covered all the spaces

in a column or in a row on his or her card.

Hands-On Activity

Encourage students to think of any everyday

situation where they may encounter the need to

multiply.

Examples: calculating the number of minutes in a

given number of hours, calculating the number of

pennies, nickels, or dimes in a given number of

dollars, calculating the number of rows of items

Real-World Connection

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97 L11: Multiply Whole Numbers

Lesson 11 Part 1: Introduction

Find Out More

To multiply with 3-digit and 4-digit numbers, you need to understand how to

multiply by multiples of 10, 100, and 1,000. Take a look at the chart below.

Expression Think of it as... Think of it as... Product

4 3 3 4 3 3 ones 12 ones 12

4 3 30 4 3 3 tens 12 tens 120

4 3 300 4 3 3 hundreds 12 hundreds 1,200

4 3 3,000 4 3 3 thousands 12 thousands 12,000

In each expression, the factor 4 is the same. The other factor increases by one place

value each time.

Look at the products. The digits 1 and 2 from the basic fact 4 3 3 5 12 appear in each

product. In the second expression, 4 is multiplied by 30, which is the same as 3 tens.

Thats 4 times 3 tens which is 12 tens or 120. The factor 30 is 10 times as great as 3 and

the product 120 is 10 times as great as 12.

Reflect

1

Choose a basic multiplication fact that you know. Show how to multiply the

product of the fact by 10, 100, and 1,000. Explain how you know your answer is

correct.

Answers may vary. Look for explanations that include following a pattern

of shifting the product one place to the left or adding a place value to each

product.

108

L11: Multiply Whole Numbers

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Lesson 11 Part 2: Modeled Instruction

AT A GLANCE

Students use partial products and an area model to nd

the product of a 4-digit number and a 1-digit number.

STEP BY STEP

Read the problem at the top of the page as a class.

Read Picture It. Have a volunteer explain how the

number is written in the area model and why it is

written this way. [The number 1,125 is written in

expanded form to multiply 3 by a multiple of 10 and

make calculations easier.]

Ask students how they could use addition to check

the answer. [1,125 1 1,125 1 1,125 5 3,375]

Read Model It.

Make sure students understand that the digits in the

tens, hundreds, and thousands places represent 20,

100, and 1,000.

SMP Tip: Discuss with students the benets of

using an area model. An area model is a tool they

can use to help visualize the multiplication

problem, which can sometimes seem abstract.

Models also break down the problem into smaller,

simpler pieces that can be easier to multiply.

(SMP5)

To help students understand the concept of

multiplication, let them know that multiplication is

the same as repeated addition. Show a few simple

examples, such as:

3 3 7 5 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3

ELL Support

How can you determine if your answer to the

problem is reasonable?

Students should explain that 1,125 is close to

1,000. Replacing 1,125 with 1,000 in the

problem, you get an estimate of 3,000. The

actual product should be close to 3,000.

Mathematical Discourse

Lesson 11

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L11: Multiply Whole Numbers 98

Part 2: Modeled Instruction

Read the problem below. Then explore different ways to multiply a 4-digit number

by a 1-digit number.

Ezekiel has 3 building sets. Each set includes 1,125 pieces. How many pieces

are in all 3 sets?

Picture It

You can use an area model to help understand the problem.

3

1,000 100 20 5 1 1 1

3 3 1,000 3 3 100 3 3 20 3 3 5

3 3 1,125 5 (3 3 1,000) 1 (3 3 100) 1 (3 3 20) 1 (3 3 5)

5 3,000 1 300 1 60 1 15

5 3,375

Model It

You can also use partial products to multiply the numbers.

1,125

3 3

15

60

300

1 3,000

3,375

3 3 5 ones

3 3 2 tens

3 3 1 hundred

3 3 1 thousand

L11: Multiply Whole Numbers

109

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Lesson 11 Part 2: Guided Instruction

AT A GLANCE

Students revisit the problem on page 98.

STEP BY STEP

Read Connect It as a class. Be sure to point out that

the questions refer to the problem on page 98.

Make sure that students see the connection between

the expanded form and base-ten blocks: 5 is 5 ones

blocks, 20 is 2 tens rods, 100 is 1 hundreds at,

1,000 is 1 thousands cube.

Have students explain their answer to problem 4.

Have them use colored pencils to connect the partial

products in the Model It to the area model in the

Picture It.

Have students explain their answer to problem 5.

Make sure they understand that multiplication can

be performed in any order and the product remains

the same.

TRY IT SOLUTIONS

8 Solution: 12,246; Multiply 6 by each digit in 2,041:

(2,000 3 6) 1 (0 3 6) 1 (40 3 6) 1 (1 3 6).

Find the partial products: 12,000 1 240 1 6.

Add to nd the product: 12,246

9 Solution: 21,368; Multiply 4 by each digit in 5,342:

(5,000 3 4) 1 (300 3 4) 1 (40 3 4) 1 (2 3 4).

Find the partial products:

20,000 1 1,200 1 160 1 8.

Add to nd the product: 21,368.

Relate the partial products method to the

Distributive Property.

The partial products method is an example of the

Distributive Property.

The Distributive Property states that you can

multiply a number and a sum by multiplying the

number by each part of the sum and then adding

these products.

Explain that when breaking down the numbers

into expanded form, you get 1,000 1 100 1

20 1 5.

You can write the problem like this:

3 3 1,125 5 3(1,000 1 100 1 20 1 5)

Using the Distributive Property, this simplies to

3,000 1 300 1 60 1 15, which matches the

partial products shown.

Concept Extension

ERROR ALERT: Students who wrote 1,446

multiplied 6 by 241 instead of 2,041. Those students

added partial products of 1,200, 240, and 6.

Lesson 11

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99 L11: Multiply Whole Numbers

Part 2: Guided Instruction

Connect It

Now you will explore the problem from the previous page further.

2

What is the expanded form of 1,125? 1 1 1

3

Where do you see the expanded form in the area model?

4

How is the expanded form used in the partial products equation?

5

The partial products equation shows the 3 being multiplied by the ones column

rst. Would the product change if you multiplied the 3 by the thousands column

rst, followed by the hundreds, tens, and ones? Explain.

6

Describe how the factor 3 is used with the factor 1,125 to nd the product.

7

Explain how you multiply a 4-digit number by a 1-digit number.

Try It

Use what you just learned to solve these problems. Show your work on a

separate sheet of paper.

8

2,041 3 6 5

9

5,342 3 4 5

One side of the area model is separated into the expanded form.

The 3 is multiplied by the number in each place-value position in 1,125.

Then all the partial products are added.

Multiply the

numbers in each place-value position of the 4-digit number by the 1-digit

number. Find the partial products and then add to find the final product.

Each number in the expanded form is multiplied by the other factor, 3.

No, the product

would be the same. You would add the partial sums in a different order,

but the sum doesnt change when you add in a different order.

12,246

21,368

1,000 100 20 5

110

L11: Multiply Whole Numbers

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Lesson 11 Part 3: Modeled Instruction

AT A GLANCE

Students use an area model and partial products to

multiply a 2-digit number by a 2-digit number.

STEP BY STEP

Read the problem at the top of the page as a class.

Read Picture It.

Relate one side of the area model to the number of

rows and one side of the area model to the number of

chairs in each row.

Have students identify the multiplication expression

for each section of the area model.

[10 3 20, 10 3 8, 6 3 20, 6 3 8]

Encourage students to circle the partial products

within each section to help them distinguish the

addends for the nal step.

Read Model It.

Be sure students use placeholder zeros as they

multiply by the multiples of ten.

Present the lattice multiplication method for multiplying two 2-digit numbers. The following is an example of

how to use this method to nd 53341.

1 Draw a 2-by-2 table. Draw diagonal lines through

all four squares. Write the digits in 53 above the

columns and the digits in 41 next to the rows.

2 Multiply 3 times 4, and record the product, 12, in

the corresponding box (keeping the digit in the

tens place above the diagonal and the digit in the

ones place below the diagonal).

3 Repeat Step 2 for the other numbers.

4 Add the numbers you recorded in the diagonals,

writing their sums outside the lattice boxes.

(In the sample shown, the answers are underlined.)

5 Read the answer from top left to bottom right,

so the nal product is 2,173.

Visual Model

Lesson 11

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L11: Multiply Whole Numbers 100

Read the problem below. Then explore different ways to multiply a 2-digit

number by a 2-digit number.

Folding chairs are set up in a school auditorium for a play. There are 16 rows of

chairs, each with 28 chairs. How many folding chairs are there?

Picture It

You can use an area model to multiply 2-digit numbers.

To solve this problem, multiply 16 3 28.

20

8

10 6

1

1

20 3 10

2 tens 3 1 ten 5 2 hundreds

200

8 3 10

8 3 1 ten 5 8 tens

80

20 3 6

2 tens 3 6 5 12 tens

120

8 3 6 5 48

200 1 80 1 120 1 48 5 448

Model It

You can also use partial products to multiply 2-digit numbers.

16

3 28

48

80

120

1 200

448

8 ones 3 6 ones

8 ones 3 1 ten

2 tens 3 6 ones

2 tens 3 1 ten

Part 3: Modeled Instruction

5

2

1

7 3

2

0

5

0

0

1

2

3

4

1

3

L11: Multiply Whole Numbers

111

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Lesson 11 Part 3: Guided Instruction

AT A GLANCE

Students revisit the problem on page 100.

STEP BY STEP

Read Connect It as a class. Be sure to point out that

the questions refer to the problem on page 100.

Have students explain their answer to problem 10.

Ask, When you multiply the ones in 28 and the tens in

16, why is the product 80 and not 8? [There are

8groups of 10, which is 80.]

Have students explain their answer to problem 11.

Students should understand how the partial products

and the area model are related. [The partial products

are the same numbers as the areas in each section of

the area model.]

TRY IT SOLUTIONS

14 Solution: 567; Students can use any method shown

to nd the product. The partial products are

(20 3 20) 1 (20 3 7) 1 (1 3 20) 1 (1 3 7) 5

400 1 140 1 20 1 7.

15 Solution: 851; Students can use any method shown

to nd the product. The partial products are

(20 3 30) 1 (20 3 7) 1 (3 3 30) 1 (3 3 7) 5

600 1 140 1 90 1 21.

SMP Tip: Discuss the importance of being able to

use mathematical language accurately. Review the

meanings of the terms digit, factor, and product,

showing examples of each. Encourage students to

practice using these terms in the right context at

the appropriate time. (SMP 1)

Use base-ten blocks to multiply a 2-digit

number by a 2-digit number.

Materials: base-ten blocks

Group students in pairs. Distribute base-ten

blocks to each pair. Use the steps below to model

43 3 14 (similar to using an area model).

Model 43 on a at surface by displaying 4 tens

rods and 3 unit cubes in a single row.

Model 14 by displaying 1 tens rod and 4 unit

cubes in a single column to the left and below the

row showing 43.

Fill the inside with the largest blocks that match

the area of each row and column. For this

example, use 4 ats, 19 rods, and 12 unit cubes.

The product is the value of the inside blocks.

[4001 190 1 12 5 602]

Model other products as time allows.

Concept Extension

Lesson 11

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101 L11: Multiply Whole Numbers

Connect It

Now you will explore the problem from the previous page further.

10

Why is the area model divided into four sections?

11

How do the four steps in the partial products equation relate to the four sections

in the area model?

12

Would the product change if 20 1 8 on the left side of the area model were

changed to 10 1 10 1 8? Explain.

13

List two dierent ways that you could break up the numbers in 34 3 12 to nd the

product. Explain why both ways would have the same product.

Try It

Use what you just learned to solve these problems. Show your work on a

separate sheet of paper.

14

27 3 21 5

15

37 3 23 5

Part 3: Guided Instruction

567

851

Each step shows the product in one section of the

area model.

No, the product would be the same.

Instead of a partial product of 200, you would have two partial products of

100. Instead of a partial product of 120, you would have two partial

products of 60. The total of all the partial products would still be the same.

Each number in the

expanded form of one factor is multiplied by each number in the

expanded form of the other factor. Each section shows a product.

Possible answer: 30 1 4 and 10 1 2 or 20 1 10 1 4 and 5 1 5 1 2. As long

as the sum of the numbers equals the factor, the partial products will add

up to the same product.

112

L11: Multiply Whole Numbers

Curriculum Associates, LLC Copying is not permitted.

Lesson 11 Part 4: Guided Practice

AT A GLANCE

Students solve problems involving multiplication of a

whole number of up to 4 digits by a 1-digit number and

a 2-digit number by a 2-digit number.

STEP BY STEP

Ask students to solve the problems individually and

label units in their calculations.

When students have completed each problem, have

them Pair/Share to discuss their solutions with a

partner or in a group.

SOLUTIONS

Ex Multiplying using partial products in an area model

is shown as one way to solve the problem. Students

need to multiply 6 by each digit in 1,785. Then add

the partial products.

16 Solution: 360 sandwiches; Multiply 10 by each digit

in 24, and multiply 5 by each digit in 24 to nd the

partial products: 200 1 40 1 100 1 20. Then add.

(DOK 1)

17 Solution: 384 books; Multiply 10 by each digit in 32

and multiply 2 by each digit in 32 to nd the partial

products: 300 1 20 1 60 1 4. Then add. (DOK 1)

18 Solution: C; Multiply 5 by each digit in 147, and

then add the partial products.

Explain to students why the other two answer

choices are not correct:

B is not correct because 5 3 100 5 500 and

47 3 5 is more than 5.

D is not correct because 5 should be multiplied by

(100 1 40 1 7), not (1 1 40 1 700) (DOK 3)

Part 4: Guided Practice Lesson 11

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103 L11: Multiply Whole Numbers

Could you use an area

model to help solve the

problem?

How is this problem

different than the one

modeled on page 102?

Pair/Share

Multiply 5 by the value

of the digit in each place

in 147.

Does Dales answer

make sense?

Pair/Share

17

The owner of 12 bookstores is buying 32 copies of a new book for

each of the stores. How many books is the owner buying in all?

Show your work.

Solution:

18

A hardware store has 147 containers of paint. If each container

holds 5 gallons of paint, how many gallons of paint are at the

store? Circle the letter of the correct answer.

A 235

B 505

C 735

D 905

Dale chose A as the correct answer. How did he get that answer?

384 books

Dale multiplied 5 by the tens and 5 by the ones. He did not

multiply 5 by the hundreds.

30 3 10

3 tens 3 1 ten 5 3 hundreds

300

2 3 10

2 3 1 ten 5 2 tens

20

30 3 2

3 tens 3 2 5 6 tens

60

2 3 2 5 4

10 2

30

2

1

1

Student Model

Part 4: Guided Practice Lesson 11

Curriculum Associates, LLC Copying is not permitted.

L11: Multiply Whole Numbers 102

How did you decide

which model to use to

help you solve the

problem?

Pair/Share

Should you multiply

15 3 24 or 24 3 15?

How else could you

solve this problem?

Pair/Share

The student multiplied

6 by the value of the digit

in each place in 1,785.

Study the model below. Then solve problems 1618.

An aquarium has 6 female sea turtles. Each turtle lays up to

1,785 eggs a year. If each turtle lays 1,785 eggs this year, how

many eggs will there be in all?

Look at how you could show your work using an area model.

6 3 1,000 6 3 700 6 3 80 6 3 5

1,000 700 80 5

6

1 1 1

6 3 1,785 5 (6 3 1,000) 1 (6 3 700) 1 (6 3 80) 1 (6 3 5)

5 6,000 1 4,200 1 480 1 30

5 10,710

Solution:

16

A deli is preparing trays of sandwiches. There are 15 trays, each

with 24 sandwiches. How many sandwiches are there?

Show your work.

Solution:

10,710 eggs

360 sandwiches

15

3 24

20

40

100

1 200

360

4 ones 3 5 ones

4 ones 3 1 ten

2 tens 3 5 ones

2 tens 3 1 ten

L11: Multiply Whole Numbers

113

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Lesson 11 Part 5: Common Core Practice

AT A GLANCE

Students solve multiplication problems that might

appear on a mathematics test.

SOLUTIONS

1 Solution: D; Multiply 3 by each digit in 16:

(10 3 3) 1 (6 3 3). Add the partial products:

30 1 18 5 48. Multiply 60 by each digit in 48:

(60 3 40) 1 (6038). Add the partial products:

2,400 1 480 5 2,880. (DOK 1)

2 Solution: D; Multiply 3 by each digit in 273. Find

the partial products. Add to nd the product.

(DOK 1)

3 Solution: a. No; b. Yes; c. Yes; d. Yes (DOK 2)

4 Solution: A; The area model can be split into four

sections: 40 3 10, 40 3 5, 5 3 10, and 5 3 5. Those

partial products can be added together to equal the

product of 45 3 15.

E; The number line shows 45 added 15 times, which

is the same as multiplying 45 3 15. (DOK 2)

5 630; Multiply 10 by each digit in 45 and multiply

4 by each digit in 45. Add the partial products:

400 1 50 1 160 1 20 5 630 (DOK 1)

6 8,666; Multiply 7 by each digit in 1,238.

Add the partial products:

7,000 1 1,400 1 210 1 56 5 8,666 (DOK 1)

Part 5: Common Core Practice Lesson 11

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L11: Multiply Whole Numbers 104

Solve the problems.

1 A person blinks about 16 times per minute. About how many times does a person

blink in 3 hours? [Hint: 1 hour 5 60 minutes]

A 48

B 96

C 960

D 2,880

2 Mr. Larson is planning a pizza party for 273 people. He plans on 3 slices of pizza for

each person. How many slices of pizza is this in all?

A 276

B 546

C 619

D 819

3 Tell whether each expression can be used to solve 29 3 14.

a. (9 3 4) 1 (20 3 4) 1 (9 3 1) 1 (20 3 1) Yes No

b. (14 3 9) 1 (14 3 20) Yes No

c. (9 3 4) 1 (20 3 4) 1 (9 3 10) 1 (20 3 10) Yes No

d. (29 3 4) 1 (29 3 10) Yes No

3

3

3

3

Part 5: Common Core Practice Lesson 11

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105 L11: Multiply Whole Numbers

4 Which model(s) below could represent the solution to the problem 45 3 15? Circle the

letter for all that apply.

A

40 5

5

10

B

0 15 30 45

C (4 3 1) 1 (4 3 5) 1 (5 3 1) 1 (5 3 5)

D (4 3 1) 1 (5 3 5)

E

0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360 405 450 495 540 585 630 675

5 Mo attended 14 tutoring sessions. Each session was 45 minutes long.

How many minutes long were all 14 sessions?

Show your work.

Answer Mo was tutored for minutes.

6 Fourth grade students held a recycling drive. During one week they collected an

average of 1,238 water bottles each day. How many water bottles did the fourth

graders collect? [Hint: There are 7 days in one week.]

Show your work.

Answer The fourth grade students collected water bottles.

Go back and see what you can check o on the Self Check on page 95. Self Check

630

8,666

Dierentiated Instruction Lesson 11

L11: Multiply Whole Numbers

114

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Assessment and Remediation

Hands-On Activity Challenge Activity

Present the students with the following

problems.

Each problem will require two steps to solve,

multiplication being one of the steps involved.

Brandon had 48 collectible cards. He gave 3 cards

to each of his 10 friends. How many cards does

Brandon have left? [18 cards]

Amelia earns $12 an hour babysitting. She babysat

for 16 hours. She also earned $25 for watering her

neighbors tomato garden. How much has Amelia

earned altogether? [$217]

Mr. Rutledge is taking inventory of the items

on the shelves of his store. He has 9 unopened

boxes of soap and 16 bars of soap on the shelf.

Each unopened box of soap has 312 bars in it.

How many total bars of soap does Mr. Rutledge

have? [2,824 bars]

Use play money to understand multiplying

numbers.

Materials: play money: one-dollar bills (for

hundreds); dimes (for tens); pennies (for ones)

(You can also use hundred-dollar bills for hundreds,

ten-dollar bills for tens, and one-dollar bills

for ones.)

Have students work in pairs.

Present a multiplication problem to students.

Have students model the problem with the play

money. For example: 154 3 3 would be modeled

with 3 sets of 1 one-dollar bill, 5 dimes, and

4 pennies.

Have students exchange 10 of the pennies for

1 dime and 10 of the dimes for a one-dollar bill.

The nal result would be: 4 one dollar bills,

6dimes, and 2 pennies, which is 462.

Ask students to nd the product of 36 and 15. [540]

For students who are still struggling, use the chart below to guide remediation.

After providing remediation, check students understanding. Ask students to explain their thinking while

nding the product of 18 and 27. [486]

If a student is still having difculty, use Ready Instruction, Level 3, Lesson 2.

If the error is . . . Students may . . . To remediate . . .

51 have added. Remind students that product means multiplication.

54 have found all partial

products as ones times

ones.

Demonstrate using base-ten blocks that 36 is 30 1 6 and 15 is

10 1 5. Draw an area model to show students each partial

product.

270 have incorrectly found

the tens by tens partial

product as 3 3 10.

Remind students that when multiplying tens by tens, the result is

30 3 10 5 300, not 3 3 10 5 30.

440 have incorrectly added

partial products.

Remind students that they must regroup 14 tens as 1 hundred

and 4 tens when adding partial products.

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