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THE 12 TITANS

Cronus-was the leader and the youngest of the


Titans. He was the god of time and the ages, and is
said to have ruled over Earth during its "Golden
Age," together with his wife, Rhea. He is usually
shown carrying an adamant sickle, which he used
both to harvest crops and to castrate and overthrow
his father. Cronus feared a prophecy that he would
be overthrown by one of his children, so he
swallowed them whole when they were born.
Cronus was generally considered by the Greeks to
be cruel and tempestuous.
Rhea-was a goddess of female fertility,
motherhood, generation, comfort and ease. She
was the wife and sister of Cronus, and the mother
of three sons: Zeus, Poseidon and Hades, and three
daughters: Hera, Demeter and Hestia. Zeus would
later overthrow his father and rule from Mount
Olympus. Rhea conspired with her mother Gaia to
hide Zeus from Cronus when he was born. When
she returned to Cronus, she gave him a stone
wrapped in swaddling clothes, which he promptly
swallowed, thinking that it was his newborn son.
Zeus later did overthrow his father and forced him
to disgorge his siblings.
Oceanus-was the god of the Earth-encircling river
Okeanos, which was the source of all fresh water,
including rivers, springs, wells and rain clouds. He
also controlled the rising and setting of all
heavenly bodies, which were believed to descend
into his watery realm at the ends of the Earth. His
wife was Tethys.
Tethys-was a goddess of the sources of fresh water
that nourish the Earth. Her husband was Oceanus.
Their children were the Potamoi (river gods) and
Okeanides (nymphs of springs and fountains) and
the Nephelai (clouds). She fed her children's
streams by drawing water from her husband
through underground caverns or aquifers. Her
name is derived from "nurse" or "grandmother."
She and her husband brought up Hera.
Hyperion-was the god of light, and the father of
the lights of the sky. His name means "watcher
from above" or "he who goes above." His wife was
his sister Theia.
Theia-was goddess of sight and the aether, the
shining blue of the sky. She was mother to Helios
(Sun), Selene (Moon) and Eos (dawn). The Greeks
believed that the eyes emitted a ray of light, which
allowed one to see. The Sun and the Moon, whose
rays light up the Earth, are therefore associated
with the gift of sight.
Mnemosyne-was the goddess of memory and
remembrance and the inventor of language and
words. She was also a goddess of time, and
represented the rote memorization that was
required before the invention of writing, to
preserve the stories of history and the sagas of
myth. She was represented as the mother of the
muses. She also presided over the underground
oracle of Trophonios in Boiotia.
Themis-was the goddess of divine law and order.
She was also prophetic, and presided over the
oracle at Delphi. She was the divine voice who
first instructed mankind in the primal laws of
justice and morality, including the precepts of
piety, the rules of hospitality, good governance,
conduct of assembly, and pious offerings to the
gods. She was an early wife of Zeus, and his first
counsellor. She had six children.
Coeus-was the god of intelligence, wisdom and
deep searching questions. He was known for
probing the limits of knowledge. He was husband
to his sister Phoebe, and father to Leto and Asteria.
Leto and Zeus were the parents of Artemis and
Apollo.
Phoebe-was the goddess of wise counsel and
thoughtful replies. She was the wife of Coeus, and
was associated with the Moon. She was the third
goddess to hold the oracle of Delphi, which she
eventually gave to her grandson, Apollo.
Crius- was the god of the heavenly constellations
and the measure of the year. He is associated with
the constellation Aries, the ram, whose springtime
rising in the south marked the beginning of a new
Greek year. His son Astraios was god of the stars.
His other sons were Perses (the Destroyer) and
Pallas. His wife was Eurybia, a daughter of the sea.
Iapetus- was the god of morality and the allotment
of the mortal lifespan. Like several of his siblings,
he was a god of time. As the "piercer," he was the
god of violent death. He married Asia, daughter of
his brother Oceanus. His sons Prometheus and
Epimetheus were the creators of men and animals.
He was also father to Atlas and Menoetius. Iapetus
and his family are regarded as the ancestors of
mankind, a race that inherited the worst qualities of
his four sons: crafty scheming (Prometheus),
foolish stupidity (Epimetheus), excessive daring
(Atlas) and rash violence (Menoetius).