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STRUKTUR BETON I

(SNI 2847-2002)
OLEH :
MUDJI IRMAWAN
BAMBANG PISCESA
TABLE OF CONTENTS (1)
Design Method And Strength Requirement
General Principles Of Strength Design
Design For Flexure
Design For Flexure And Axial Load
Design For Slenderness Effect
Shear
Torsion
Shear Friction
TABLE OF CONTENTS (2)
Bracked, Corbel And Beam Ledges
Deep Flexural Members
One Way Slab System
Two Way Slab System
Footings
TABLE OF CONTENTS (3)
Additional :
Design For Biaxial Loading
Shear In Slabs
Walls
Structural Plain Concrete
Unified Design Provision
REFERENCES
PCA NOTES-ON ACI 318-99
SNI 2847-2002
NAWY
MCGREGOR
JACK C. MCCORMAC
CHUKIAWANG-CHARLE S G.SALMON
DESIGN METHOD AND STRENGTH
REQUIREMENTS (1)
Design Strength >= Required Strength (U)
Design Strength = Strength Reduction Factor ( ) x
Nominal Strength
Strength Reduction Factor :
1. Faktor yang memperhitungkan kemungkinan
terjadinya kekuatan elemen struktur dibawah
kekuatan yang diinginkan akibat variasi dari
material penyusunnya dan juga akibat variasi
dimensinya.
DESIGN METHOD AND STRENGTH
REQUIREMENTS (2)
Strength Reduction Factor :
2.Faktor yang memperhitungkan ketidak akuratan
persamaan desain (Design Equation).
3.Faktor yang memperhitungkan Derajad Daktilitas
dan Keandalan yang diperlukan pada elemen yang
dibebani.
4.Faktor yang memperhitungkan kepentingan dari
elemen pada struktur.
DESIGN METHOD AND STRENGTH
REQUIREMENTS (3)
Nominal Strength : Kekuatan elemen strutkur atau
potongan-penampang yang dihitung dengan
menggunakan asumsi dan persamaan kekuatan
dari metode desain kekuatan (Strength Design
method) sebelum diaplikasikan Strength Reduction
Factor.
DESIGN METHOD AND STRENGTH
REQUIREMENTS (4)
Required Strength (U) : Load Factor x Service Load
Effect.
Load Factor : Faktor overload yang terjadi akibat
kemungkinan terjadinya variasi pembebanan yang
berlebih pada beban kerja (Service Load).
Service Load : Beban spesifik yang diatur oleh
peraturan pembebanan (Unfactored).
DESIGN METHOD AND STRENGTH
REQUIREMENTS (5)
Notation :
Required Strength (U):
Mu = Factored Flexural Moment
Pu = Factored Axial Load
Vu = Factored Shear Force
Tu = Factored Torsional Moment
DESIGN METHOD AND STRENGTH
REQUIREMENTS (6)
Notation :
Nominal Strength :
Mn = Nominal Flexural Moment Strength
Pn = Nominal Axial Load Strength At Given
Eccentricity.
Vn = Nominal Shear Strength
Tn = Nominal Torsional Moment Strength
DESIGN METHOD AND STRENGTH
REQUIREMENTS (7)
Notation :
Nominal Strength :
Mn = Design Flexural Moment Strength
Pn = Design Axial Load Strength At Given
Eccentricity.
Vn = Design Shear Strength
Tn = Design Torsional Moment Strength
DESIGN METHOD AND STRENGTH
REQUIREMENTS (8)
Strength Requirement :
Design Strength > Required Strength (U)
Strength Reduction Factor ( ) x Nominal Strength
> Load Factor x Service Load Effect
Example :
Mn > Mu
Pn > Pu
Vn > Vu
DESIGN METHOD AND STRENGTH
REQUIREMENTS (9)
DESIGN METHOD AND STRENGTH
REQUIREMENTS (10)
Nominal Strength:
Mn=As.fy.(d-a/2)
.Mn= [As.fy.(d-a/2)
Required Strength (U):
Mu=1.2Md+1.6Ml
Strength Design Requirement :
.Mn>Mu
[As.fy.(d-a/2)>1.2Md+1.6Ml
DESIGN METHOD AND STRENGTH
REQUIREMENTS (11)
Required Strength :
U=1.4D
U=1.2D+1.6L
U=1.2D+1.6L+0.5(A or R)
U=1.2D+1.0L+1.6W+0.5(A or R)
U=0.9D+1.6W
U=1.2D+1.0L+1.0E
U=0.9D+1.0E
U=1.4(D+F)
U=1.2(D+T)+1.6L+0.5(A or R)
DESIGN METHOD AND STRENGTH
REQUIREMENTS (12)
Keterangan :
D=Beban Mati
L=Beban Hidup
A=Beban Atap
R=Beban Hujan
W=Beban Angin
E=Beban Gempa
T=Beban Kombinasi Rangkak,Susut Dan Perbedaan
Penurunan
DESIGN METHOD AND STRENGTH
REQUIREMENTS (13)
Strength Reduction Factor ( ):
Flexure Without Axial Load : 0.8
Axial Compression And Axial Compression W/ Flexure :
Members With Spiral Reinforcement : 0.7
Others Member : 0.65
Shear And Torsion : 0.75
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF STRENGTH
DESIGN (1)
Stress-Strain Curves Of Concrete
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF STRENGTH
DESIGN (2)
Stress-Strain Reinforcement
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF STRENGTH
DESIGN (3)
Design Assumption #1
Strain in Reinforcement And Concrete Shall Be
Assumed Directly Proportional From The Neutral Axis
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF STRENGTH
DESIGN (4)
Design Assumption #1
Strain in Reinforcement And Concrete Shall Be
Assumed Directly Proportional From The Neutral Axis
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF STRENGTH
DESIGN (5)
Design Assumption #2
Maximum usable strain at extreme concrete
compression fiber shall be assumed equal to u =0.003
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF STRENGTH
DESIGN (6)
Design Assumption #3
Stress in reinforcement fs below the yield strength fy
shall be taken as Es times the steel strain s . For
strains greater than fy/Es, stress in reinforcement shall
be considered independent of strain and equal to fy.
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF STRENGTH
DESIGN (7)
Design Assumption #4
Tensile strength of concrete shall be neglected in flexural
calculation of reinforced concrete.
Design Assumption #5
Relationship between concrete compressive stress
distribution and concrete strain shall be assumed to be
rectangular, trapezoidal, parabolic, or any other shape
that results in prediction of strength in substantial
agreement with results of comprehensive tests.
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF STRENGTH
DESIGN (8)
Design Assumption #5
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF STRENGTH
DESIGN (9)
Design Assumption #5
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF STRENGTH
DESIGN (10)
Design Assumption #5
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF STRENGTH
DESIGN (11)
Design Assumption
#6
Parabolic Stress-
Strain distribution
in concrete may be
considered satisfied
by an equivalent
rectangular concrete
stress distribution.
30MPa 58MPa
65 . 0 05 . 0
7
30 '
85 . 0 1
c f
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF STRENGTH
DESIGN (12)
Design Assumption #6
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF STRENGTH
DESIGN (13)
Design Assumption #6
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF STRENGTH
DESIGN (14)
Dalam menganalisa struktur beton bertulang ada tiga
kondisi kegagalan yang harus diketahui :
Balanced Strain Condition
Kondisi dimana kegagalan elemen struktur terjadi pada
saat beton serat terluar tertekan mengalami
kehancuran bersamaan dengan terjadinya leleh pada
tulangan baja tarik terluar.
Over-Reinforced Condition
Kondisi dimana kegagalan elemen struktur terjadi pada
saat beton serat terluar tertekan mengalami
kehancuran tetapi leleh belum terjadi pada tulangan
tarik terluar. (Getas)
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF STRENGTH
DESIGN (15)
Dalam menganalisa struktur beton bertulang ada tiga
kondisi kegagalan yang harus diketahui :
Under-Reinforced Condition
Kondisi dimana kegagalan elemen struktur terjadi pada
saat tulangan tarik terluar mengalami pelelehan tetapi
beton pada serat tertekan paling luar belum mengalami
kegagalan. (Daktail)
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF STRENGTH
DESIGN (16)
Balanced Strain Condition
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF STRENGTH
DESIGN (17)
Balanced Strain Condition
fy fy 600
600
200000 / 003 . 0
003 . 0
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF STRENGTH
DESIGN (18)
Balanced Strain Condition
fy fy
f
c
600
600 85 . 0
' 1
Untuk menjamin sebuah struktur berada dalam kondisi
under reinforced maka :
fy fy
f
c
bal
600
600 85 . 0
75 . 0 75 . 0
' 1
max
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF STRENGTH
DESIGN (19)
Minimum Reinforcement Of Flexural Member
d b
f
d b
f
f
A
w
y
w
y
c
s
4 . 1
3
'
min
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF STRENGTH
DESIGN (20)
Stress Strain Diagram In 3 Condition :
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (1)
Single Reinforced Concrete Beam
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (2)
Force Equilibrium :
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (3)
Moment Equilibrium :
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (4)
A nominal strength coefficient of resistance Rn is
obtained when both sides of Eq. (2) are divided by bd2:
When b and d are preset, is obtained by solving the
quadratic equation for Rn:
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (5)
Equation (3) can be used to determine the steel ratio
given Mu or vice-versa if the section properties b and d
are known. Substituting Mn = Mu/ into Eq. (3) and
dividing each side by fc :
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (6)
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (7)
Graphics Rn Vs
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (8)
Example 1 (Analyzing) :
Calculate the Moment Nominal of The Concrete Section :
d=350mm h=400mm
b=250mm
cover=50mm
3D19
Mutu Beton (fc) : 35 MPa
Mutu Baja (fc) : 400 MPa
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (9)
Example 1 (Analyzing) :
2 2
850 19 25 . 0 3 mm As
mm
b f
f A
a
c
y s
71 . 45
250 35 85 . 0
400 850
85 . 0
'
kNm M
M
a
d f A M
n
n
y s n
229 . 111
2
71 . 45
350 400 850
2
T
C
d
a
d-a/2
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (10)
Example 2 (Design) :
Design the concrete section of the beam, which is simple
supported and were loaded as below :
L=6m
Ql=1.5t/m;Qd=1t/m
kNm M M M
kNm tm l q M
kNm tm l q M
l d u
l l
d d
76 . 158 15 . 66 6 . 1 1 . 44 2 . 1 6 . 1 2 . 1
15 . 66 75 . 6 6 5 . 1
8
1
8
1
1 . 44 5 . 4 6 1
8
1
8
1
2 2
2 2
Spesification :
Mutu Beton (fc)=35 MPa
Mutu Baja (fy)=400 MPa
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (11)
Example 2 (Design) :
#1 Determine maximum reinforcement ratio ( max) for
material strength fc=35MPa And fy=400MPa :
65 . 0 814 . 0 1
65 . 0 05 . 0
7
30 35
85 . 0 1
65 . 0 05 . 0
7
30 '
85 . 0 1
c f
0272 . 0
400 600
600
400
35 814 . 0 85 . 0
75 . 0
600
600 85 . 0
75 . 0 75 . 0
max
max
' 1
max
fy fy
f
c
bal
Calculating 1
Calculating max :
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (12)
Example 2 (Design) :
#2 Compute bd2 required :
3 2
'
2 2
23008696
625 . 8 8 . 0
1000000 76 . 158
625 . 8
35 85 . 0
400 0272 . 0 5 . 0
1 400 0272 . 0
85 . 0
5 . 0
1
mm
R
M
bd
MPa R
f
f
f
bd
M
bd
M
R
n
u
n
c
y
y
u n
n
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (13)
Example 2 (Design) :
#3 Size member so that bd2 > bd2 required :
mm d
mm b
37 . 303
250
23008696
250
Minimum Beam Depth (h) = d + cover
Minimum Beam Depth (h) = 303.37 + 50 = 353.37 mm
Use minimum Beam Depth (h) = 400 mm
Therefore :
d = h cover = 400 50 = 350 mm
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (14)
Example 2 (Design) :
#4 Using the 400 mm. beam depth, compute a revised
value of :
MPa
bd
M
R
bd
M
R
u
n
u
n
48 . 6
350 250 8 . 0
1000000 76 . 158
2 2
2
0035 . 0 0185 . 0 0272 . 0
400
4 . 1 4 . 1
35 85 . 0
48 . 6 2
1 1
400
35 85 . 0
0272 . 0
4 . 1
85 . 0
2
1 1
85 . 0
min max
min max
min
'
'
max
fy
fy f
R
f
f
c
n
y
c
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (15)
Example 2 (Design) :
#5 Compute As Required :
As = x b x d
As = 0.0185 x 250 x 350
As = 1618.75 mm2
Pakai 6 D19 (As=1701 mm2)
#6 CrossCheck The Moment Nominal with Moment
Ultimate :
kNm M kNm M
kNm
a
d f A M
n u
y s n
071 . 178 76 . 158
071 . 178
2
71 . 45
350 400 1701 8 . 0
2
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (16)
Example 2 (Design) :
#7 Ilustrated The Section With Reinforcement :
d=350mm
b=250mm
h=400mm
cover=50mm
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (17)
Concrete Section With Compression Reinforcement
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (18)
Concrete Section With Compression Reinforcement
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (19)
Concrete Section With Compression Reinforcement
2
'
' 85 . 0
1
'
1
a
d f A A M
f A A ab f
T C
y s s n
y s s c
c
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (20)
Concrete Section With Compression Reinforcement
' '
' '
'
'
2
2
2
d d f A M
or
d d f A M
f A f A
T C
y s n
s s n
y ss s s
s
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (20)
Concrete Section With Compression Reinforcement
' '
2
'
2 1
d d f A
a
d f A A M
M M M
s s y s s n
n n n
2 1
'
T T T
C C C
T C
s c
Force Equilibrium :
Solving The Force Equilibrium We Achieved That :
b f
f A A
a
b f
f A f A
a
c
y s s
c
s s y s
' '
85 . 0
'
;
85 . 0
'
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (21)
Design Procedure :
#1 Calculate c < 0.75 cb :
d
fy
c c
b
600
600
75 . 0 75 . 0
#2 Calculate As1 with c determined from above :
y
c
s
f
cb f
A
' 1
85 . 0
#3 Calculate Mn1 :
2
1
a
d f A M
y s n
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (22)
Design Procedure :
#4 Calculate Mn-Mn1 :
#5 If Compression Reinforcement is Required Then
Calculate T2 :
#6 Control The Yield Of Compression Reinforcement :
0
0
1
1
n n
n n
M M
M M (Compression Reinforcement Is Required)
(Compression Reinforcement Is Not Required)
'
'
1
2
d d
M M
T C
n n
s
fy
c
d
fs
fy
c
d
fs
600
'
1
600
'
1
(Compression Reinforcement Yield)
(Compression Reinforcement Not Yield)
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (23)
Design Procedure :
#7 Calculate The Required Compression Reinforcement :
#8 Calculate The Additional Tension Reinforcement :
#9 Calculate Required Reinforcement :
As = As1 + Ass
As = As
#10 Check Required Strength :
Mn > Mu
c s
s
s
f f
C
A
'
85 . 0 '
'
'
y
ss
f
T
A
2
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (24)
Example 3 (Design) :
Design the concrete section below if the factored moment
applied to the concrete section is 300 kNm (Mu) :
d=550mm
h=600mm
b=300mm
cover=50mm
Mutu Beton (fc) : 35 MPa
Mutu Baja (fc) : 400 MPa
cover=50mm
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (25)
Example 3 (Design) :
#1 Calculate c < 0.75 cb :
mm d
fy
c c
b
5 . 247 550
400 600
600
75 . 0
600
600
75 . 0 75 . 0
#2 Calculate As1 with c determined from above c=85mm:
2
'
1543
400
300 85 35 814 . 0 85 . 0 85 . 0
mm
f
cb f
A
y
c
s
#3 Calculate Mn1 :
kNm M
n
134 . 318
2
85 813 . 0
550 400 1543
1
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (26)
Example 3 (Design) :
#4 Calculate Mn-Mn1 :
#5 If Compression Reinforcement is Required Then
Calculate T2 :
#6 Control The Yield Of Compression Reinforcement :
0 686 . 56 314 . 318
8 . 0
300
1
kNm M
M
n
u
N
d d
M M
T C
n n
s
113372
500
1000000 686 . 56
'
'
1
2
MPa fy MPa fs 400 247 600
85
50
1
(Compression Reinforcement Not Yield)
(Compression Reinforcement Is Required)
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (27)
Example 3 (Design) :
#7 Calculate The Required Compression Reinforcement :
#8 Calculate The Additional Tension Reinforcement :
#9 Calculate Required Reinforcement :
As = 1543 + 283 = 1826 mm2 ( 7 D 19 = 1988 mm2)
As = 521 mm2 (2 D 19 = 568 mm2)
2
'
521
35 85 . 0 247
113372
85 . 0 '
'
' mm
f f
C
A
c s
s
s
2
2
283
400
113372
mm
f
T
A
y
ss
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (28)
Example 3 (Design) :
#10 Check The Moment Required :
kNm M kNm M
M
d d f A
a
d f A f A M
u n
n
s s s s y s n
300 325 148 . 70 190 . 337 8 . 0
50 550 247 568
2
26 . 70
550 247 568 400 1988 8 . 0
' '
2
'
mm
b f
f A f A
a
c
s s y s
378 . 73
300 35 85 . 0
247 568 400 1988
85 . 0
'
'
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (29)
Example 3 (Design) :
Design the concrete section below if the factored moment
applied to the concrete section is 300 kNm (Mu) :
d=550mm
h=600mm
b=300mm
cover=50mm
Mutu Beton (fc) : 35 MPa
Mutu Baja (fc) : 400 MPa
cover=50mm
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (30)
T-Beam Concrete Section
bw
h
d
beff
hf
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (31)
T-Beam Concrete Section
bw 2bo bw bw 2bo
beff beff beff
hf
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (32)
T-Beam Concrete Section
Lo
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (33)
T-Beam Concrete Section
No Effective Width
Spandrel Center T-Beam
1 beff < 1/12 Lo beff < 1/4 Lo
2 beff < bw + 6 hf beff < bw + 16 hf
3 beff < bw + bo beff < bw + 2bo
Single T-Beam
1 beff < 4 bw
2 Flange Thickness (hf) > 1/2 bw
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (34)
T-Beam Concrete Section Neutral Axis x < hf
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (35)
T-Beam Concrete Section Neutral Axis x < hf
a b f C
eff c '
85 . 0
y s
f A T
Force Equilibrium :
eff c
y s
b f
f A
a
' 85 . 0
2
a
d f A M
y s n
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (36)
T-Beam Concrete Section Neutral Axis x > hf
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (37)
T-Beam Concrete Section Neutral Axis x > hf
f w eff c
h b b f C
' 2
85 . 0
y s
f A T
Force Equilibrium :
f
eff
e
w c
y s
h
b
b
b f
f A
a 1
' 85 . 0
2 2
2 1
f
n
h
d C
a
d C M
a b f C
w c ' 1
85 . 0
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (38)
T-Beam Concrete Section (Example 1) Analyze Mn :
bw=300mm
d=510mm
beff
hf=120mm
h=600mm
Specification :
fc = 40 MPa
fy = 400 Mpa
Lo = 6000 mm
Bo = 2000 mm
10 D19
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (39)
T-Beam Concrete Section (Example 1) :
#1 Calculate Beff Of T-Beam :
mm b b b
mm h b b
mm L b
o w eff
f w eff
o eff
4300 2000 2 300 2
2220 120 16 300 16
1500 6000 25 . 0
4
1
Diambil beff = 1500 mm
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (40)
T-Beam Concrete Section (Example 1) :
#2 Calculate a Of T-Beam :
mm hf mm
b f
fy As
a
eff c
120 235 . 22
1500 40 85 . 0
400 2835
' 85 . 0
kNm M
a
d f A M
n
y s n
565
2
235 . 22
510 400 2835
2
#3 Calculate Mn Of T-Beam :
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (41)
T-Beam Concrete Section (Example 2) Analyze Mn :
bw=300mm
d=510mm
beff
hf=120mm
h=600mm
Specification :
fc = 20 MPa
fy = 500 Mpa
Lo = 4000 mm
Bo = 2000 mm
10 D25
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (42)
T-Beam Concrete Section (Example 2) :
#1 Calculate beff Of T-Beam :
mm b b b
mm h b b
mm L b
o w eff
f w eff
o eff
4300 2000 2 300 2
2220 120 16 300 16
1000 4000 25 . 0
4
1
Diambil beff = 1000 mm
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (43)
T-Beam Concrete Section (Example 2) :
#2 Calculate a Of T-Beam :
mm hf mm
b f
fy As
a
eff c
120 375 . 144
1000 20 85 . 0
500 4908
' 85 . 0
mm
b
b
b f
fy As
a
eff
e
w c
76 . 201 1
300
1000
300 20 85 . 0
500 4908
1
' 85 . 0
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (44)
T-Beam Concrete Section (Example 2) :
#3 Calculate Mn Of T-Beam :
kNm M
M
a
d C
h
d C M
kN a b f C
kN h b b f C
h
d C
a
d C M
n
n
f
n
w c
f w eff c
f
n
57 . 1063 97 . 420 6 . 642
2
76 . 201
510 1028
2
120
510 1428
2 2
1028 76 . 201 300 20 85 . 0 85 . 0 2
1428 120 300 1000 20 85 . 0 85 . 0 1
2 2
2 1
'
'
2 1
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (45)
T-Beam Concrete Section (Example 3) Analyze Mn :
bw=300mm
d=510mm
beff
hf=120mm
h=600mm
Specification :
fc = 40 MPa
fy = 400 Mpa
Lo = 6000 mm
Bo = 2000 mm
10 D19
d=20mm
5 D19
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (46)
T-Beam Concrete Section (Example 3) :
#1 Calculate Beff Of T-Beam :
mm b b b
mm h b b
mm L b
o w eff
f w eff
o eff
4300 2000 2 300 2
2220 120 16 300 16
1500 6000 25 . 0
4
1
Diambil beff = 1500 mm
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (47)
T-Beam Concrete Section (Example 3) :
#2 Calculate a Of T-Beam with assumption that
compression and tension steel yield :
' 12 . 11
1500 40 85 . 0
400 1417 2835
' 85 . 0
'
d h mm
b f
f A A
a
f
eff c
y s s
Therefore the first assumption that the compression
steel is yield is not true because a < d, this means that
the compression steel is tension steel. Analyzing the
beam using single reinforced concrete :
' 235 . 22
1500 40 85 . 0
400 2835
' 85 . 0
d hf mm
b f
fy As
a
eff c
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (48)
T-Beam Concrete Section (Example 3) :
From the calculation before a < hf and a > d this means
that actualy the top reinforcement is in compression but
not yielding. #3 Calculate the stress in compression
reinforcement :
65 . 0 778 . 0
65 . 0 05 . 0
7
30 40
85 . 0
65 . 0 05 . 0
7
30
85 . 0
1
1
'
1
c
f
mm
a
x 57 . 28
778 . 0
235 . 22
1
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (49)
T-Beam Concrete Section (Example 3) :
#3 Calculate the stress in compression reinforcement :
MPa
x
d
fs 978 . 179 600
57 . 28
20
1 600
'
1 '
mm
b f
f A f A
a
eff c
s s y s
23 . 17
1500 40 85 . 0
99 . 179 1417 400 2835
' 85 . 0
'
#4 Calculate the new value of a :
kNm M
M
d d f A
a
d f A f A M
n
n
s s s s y s n
567 8215 . 126 39 . 441
2
20
510 179 1417
2
23 . 17
510 179 1417 400 2835
' '
2
'
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (50)
T-Beam Concrete Section (Example 4) Analyze Mn :
bw=300mm
d=510mm
beff
hf=100mm
h=600mm
Specification :
fc = 20 MPa
fy = 500 Mpa
Lo = 4000 mm
Bo = 2000 mm
10 D25
5 D19
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (51)
T-Beam Concrete Section (Example 4) :
#1 Calculate beff Of T-Beam :
mm b b b
mm h b b
mm L b
o w eff
f w eff
o eff
4300 2000 2 300 2
2220 120 16 300 16
1000 4000 25 . 0
4
1
Diambil beff = 1000 mm
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (52)
T-Beam Concrete Section (Example 4) :
#2 Calculate a Of T-Beam with assumption that
compression and tension steel yield :
' 103
1000 20 85 . 0
500 1417 4908
' 85 . 0
'
d h mm
b f
f A A
a
f
eff c
y s s
Therefore the first assumption that the compression
steel is yield is might be true because a > d, #3
Calculate the stress in compression reinforcement :
85 . 0
1
mm
a
x 176 . 121
85 . 0
103
1
MPa fy MPa
x
d
fs 500 97 . 500 600
176 . 121
20
1 600
'
1 '
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (53)
T-Beam Concrete Section (Example 4) :
#4 Since the compression steel is yielding therefore the
first assumption is right, therefore the a value before is
used :
kNm M
M
d d f A
a
d f A f A M
n
n
s s s s y s n
69 , 1138 25 . 354 44 . 784
2
20
510 500 1417
2
176 . 121
510 500 1417 500 4908
' '
2
'
DESIGN FOR SHEAR (1)
Shear Strength Of Concrete Section
DESIGN FOR SHEAR (2)
Shear Strength Of Concrete Section
Perlawanan geser yang terjadi setelah retak miring :
1. Perlawanan geser beton yang belum retak, Vcz.
2. Gaya ikat (interlock) antara aggregat atau transfer
geser antar permukaan.
3. Aksi pasak (dowel action), Vd.
4. Aksi pelengkung (arch action), Deep Beam.
5. Perlawanan tulangan geser bila ada, Vs.
DESIGN FOR SHEAR (3)
Shear Strength Of Concrete Section
Types of Reinforcement
DESIGN FOR SHEAR (4)
Shear Strength Of Concrete Section
Fungsi tulangan geser (Sengkang Begel):
1. Memikul sebagian gaya geser, Vs.
2. Melawan pertumbuhan geser miring dan ikut
menjaga terpeliharanya lekatan/geseran antar
aggregat.
3. Mengikat batang tulangan memanjang untuk tetap
diposisinya.
4. Aksi pasak pada beton dan aksi ikatan
(confinement) sengkang meningkatkan kekuatan.
DESIGN FOR SHEAR (4)
Shear Strength Of Concrete Section
Shear nominal strength (Vn) of concrete section is a
combination of shear strength from concrete (Vc) and
sehar strength from shear reinforcement (Vs) :
Vn=Vc+Vs
Where Vc :
If accurate calculation were used then :
d b f Vc
w c '
6
1
d b f d b
b M
d V
f V
w c w
u
u
w c c ' '
3 . 0 120
7
1
DESIGN FOR SHEAR (5)
Shear Strength Of Concrete Section
Where :
bd
A
s
w
1
u
u
M
d V
If there is an axial compression load acting in the
concrete section therefore Vn can be calculated as follows:
d b f
A
N
V
w c
g
u
c '
6
1
14
1
Nu/Ag is in MPa.
DESIGN FOR SHEAR (6)
Shear Strength Of Concrete Section
If accurate calculation were used (Axial Compression
Load) :
Where :
g
u
w c w
m
u
w c c
A
N
d b f d b
M
d V
f V
3 . 0
1 3 . 0 120
7
1
' '
8
4 d h
N M M
u u m
DESIGN FOR SHEAR (7)
Shear Strength Of Concrete Section
If there is an axial tension load acting in the concrete
section therefore Vn can be calculated as follows:
Nu/Ag is in MPa.
For circular concrete section area for Vc can be calculated
from diameter multiplied by effective width (d=0.8h).
0
6
1 3 . 0
1
'
d b f
A
N
V
w c
g
u
c
DESIGN FOR SHEAR (8)
Shear Strength Of Concrete Section
Minimumshear reinforcement area Avmin :
Minimumshear force acquired from shear reinforcement :
y
w
v
f
s b
A
3
min
d b V
w s
3
1
min
DESIGN FOR SHEAR (9)
Design Of Shear Reinforcement
Design of shear reinforcement is divided into several
categories, which each category is corresponds with the
shear forces acting on the concrete section. This category
is divided as below :
Condition 1 :
c u
V V 5 . 0
Shear reinforcement is not required.
Condition 2 :
c c
V Vu V 5 . 0
Smax < d/2 or Smax < 600 mm, minimum shear
reinforcement need to be chekced.
DESIGN FOR SHEAR (10)
Design Of Shear Reinforcement
Condition 3 :
Smax < d/2 or Smax < 600 mm, minimum shear
reinforcement need to be chekced.
Condition 4 :
min s c c
V V Vu V
d b f V Vu V V
w c c s c ' min
3
1
Smax < d/2 or Smax < 600 mm, shear reinforcement need
to be calculated as follows :
s
d f A
V V V V
y v
s c u sperlu
;
DESIGN FOR SHEAR (11)
Design Of Shear Reinforcement
Condition 5 :
Smax < d/4 or Smax < 600 mm, shear reinforcement need
to be calculated as follows :
s
d f A
V V V V
y v
s c u sperlu
;
d b f V Vu d b f V
w c c w c c ' '
3
2
3
1
DESIGN FOR SHEAR (12)
Design Of Shear Reinforcement
Condition 6 :
Enlarge the concrete cross section.
d b f V Vu
w c c '
3
2
DESIGN FOR SHEAR (13)
Design Of Shear Reinforcement (Example 1)
L=6m
Ql=6t/m;Qd=4t/m Spesification :
Mutu Beton (fc)=35 MPa
Mutu Baja (fy)=400 Mpa
Lebar Balok = 300 mm
Tinggi Balok = 500 mm
Desain tulangan geser
yang diperlukan untuk
memikul beban geser
yang terjadi.
Ra=Rb=43.2 ton = 423.36 kN
423.36 kN
423.36 kN
Bidang Gaya Lintang
DESIGN FOR SHEAR (14)
Design Of Shear Reinforcement
#1 Check All Shear Boundary Condition before
calculating the shear reinforcement :
Condition 1 :
Condition 2 :
kN d b f Vc
w c
133 450 300 35
6
1
6
1
'
kN V V
c u
9 . 49 133 75 . 0 5 . 0 5 . 0
kN Vu kN
V Vu V
c c
8 . 99 9 . 49
5 . 0
DESIGN FOR SHEAR (15)
Design Of Shear Reinforcement
#1 Check All Shear Boundary Condition before
calculating the shear reinforcement :
Condition 3 :
Condition 4 :
kN V
s
45 450 300
3
1
min
kN Vu kN
V V Vu V
s c c
5 . 133 45 133 75 . 0 8 . 99
min
kN Vu kN
d b f V Vu V V
w c c s c
5 . 299 266 133 75 . 0 5 . 133
3
1
' min
DESIGN FOR SHEAR (16)
Design Of Shear Reinforcement
#1 Check All Shear Boundary Condition before
calculating the shear reinforcement :
Condition 5 :
Condition 6 (Concrete Section Is Satisfied) :
kN Vu kN
d b f V Vu d b f V
w c c w c c
75 . 498 532 133 75 . 0 5 . 299
3
2
3
1
' '
kN kN
d b f V Vu
w c c
75 . 498 6 . 423
3
2
'
DESIGN FOR SHEAR (17)
Design Of Shear Reinforcement
#2 Drawing The Shear Boundary Condition :
Vu=423.36 kN
V=498.75kN
IV=299.5kN
III=133kN
II=99.8kN
X1=0.878m
X2=2.057m
X3=2.3m
X4=3m
DESIGN FOR SHEAR (18)
Design Of Shear Reinforcement
#3 Calculate each boundary distance :
m X
m
Ql Qd
Vu
X
m
Ql Qd
Vu
X
m
Ql Qd
Vu
X
3
300 . 2
8 . 58 6 . 1 2 . 39 2 . 1
8 . 99 36 . 423
6 . 1 2 . 1
133
057 . 2
8 . 58 6 . 1 2 . 39 2 . 1
133 36 . 423
6 . 1 2 . 1
133
878 . 0
8 . 58 6 . 1 2 . 39 2 . 1
5 . 299 36 . 423
6 . 1 2 . 1
5 . 299
4
3
2
1
DESIGN FOR SHEAR (19)
Design Of Shear Reinforcement
#4 Calculate required shear reinforcement in each
condition :
Condition II :
Use 2 Leg of 10, As = 157 mm2,. Use s = 200 mm.
Since smax < d/2 = 450/2 =225 mm or smax <600mm.
Therefore s = 200mm is adequate.
kN d b V
w s
45
3
1
min
2 2
min
157 50
400 3
200 300
3
mm Av mm
f
s b
A
y
w
v
kN V kN
s
d f A
V
s
y v
s
45 3 . 141
200
450 400 157
min
DESIGN FOR SHEAR (20)
Design Of Shear Reinforcement
#4 Calculate required shear reinforcement in each
condition :
Condition III :
Use 2 Leg of 10, As = 157 mm2,. Use s = 200 mm.
Since smax < d/2 = 450/2 =225 mm or smax <600mm.
Therefore s = 200mm is adequate.
kN d b V
w s
45
3
1
min
2 2
min
157 50
400 3
200 300
3
mm Av mm
f
s b
A
y
w
v
kN V kN
s
d f A
V
s
y v
s
45 3 . 141
200
450 400 157
min
DESIGN FOR SHEAR (21)
Design Of Shear Reinforcement
#4 Calculate required shear reinforcement in each
condition :
Condition IV :
Therefore in condition IV use s = 100 mm, since smax <
d/2 = 450/2 = 225 mm and smax < 600 mm, s =100 mm is
adequate.
kN
V V
V
c u
sperlu
26 . 266
75 . 0
8 . 99 5 . 299
mm
V
d f A
s
s
y v
106
26 . 266
450 400 157
DESIGN FOR SHEAR (22)
Design Of Shear Reinforcement
#4 Calculate required shear reinforcement in each
condition :
Condition V :
Therefore in condition IV use s = 50 mm, since smax < d/3
= 450/4 = 112.5 mm and smax < 300 mm, s =50 mm is
adequate.
kN
V V
V
c u
sperlu
73 . 431
75 . 0
8 . 99 6 . 423
mm
V
d f A
s
s
y v
65
73 . 431
450 400 157
DESIGN FOR SHEAR (23)
Design Of Shear Reinforcement
#5 Drawing the shear reinforcement with the spacing
shown below :
3m
0.878m
1.179m
0.943m
S=50mm S=100mm S=200mm
DESIGN FOR SHEAR (24)
Design Of Shear Reinforcement
#4 Drawing the cross section with longitudinal and shear
reinforcement :
Condition V
10-50mm
b=300mm
h=500mm
4D 19
10D 19