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Question Answer Example Source Questio Topic

n Type
1 CONSIDER CONSIDER does not have anything followed after I CONSIDER this an excellent solution.
it. CONSIDER TO BE is incorrect. CONSIDER is
correct.
2 2-3 SPLIT Categorize the answer choices into two X - A) After gradual declension down OG11 SC 12, MGMAT SC Ch 1 p14 SC GMC,
categories: One category with two choices and O - B) Following a gradual declension down Diction,
the other with three choices based on their X - C) After gradual declining down Rhetorical
grammatical differences. X - D) After gradually declining Constructio
O - E) Following gradually declining n
3 INCLUDING versus LIKE cannot introduce examples (SUCH AS must [Although William Pereira first gained national recognition for his movie set MGMAT SC Ch 1 p15 SC GMC
LIKE be used instead). LIKE is equivalent to "SIMILAR designs, INCLUDING those for the 1942 film "Reap the Wild Wind"] …. Is preferred
TO, BUT NOT NECESSARILY INCLUDING" over [Although William Pereira first gained national recognition for his movie set
designs, LIKE those for the 1942 film "Reap the Wild Wind" ]

4 FUTURE [noun] [verb] Future [noun] [verb] is always preferred over "FUTURE generations remember" is preferred over "FUTURE generations WILL MGMAT SC Ch 1 p15 SC GMC
versus FUTURE [noun] Future [noun] will [verb]. Alternatively, another remember"
WILL [verb] acceptable preference is [Noun] will [verb]
because there is no redundancy. Future and will
should not coexist together in the same phrase
5 AND SO [VERB] [VERB] must be agreeable and usable with the "The STUDENTS came to school without their mittens AND SO WERE unable to go MGMAT SC Ch 1 p16 SC Sub/Verb
noun referred to in the sentence. to recess" is correct unlike "The STUDENTS came to school without their mittens Agreement
AND SO WAS unable to go to recess."

6 EVERYONE [VERB] EVERYONE is singular. So a singular [VERB] or "DOESEVERYONE HAVE HIS OR HER book?" is correct unlike "DO/DOES EVERYONE MGMAT SC Ch2 p19 SC Sub/Verb
[PRONOUN] [object [PRONOUN] must be used. However, if a HAVE THEIR BOOK?" Agreement
noun] question exists, the [VERB] becomes an infinitive "EVERYONE HAS HIS book"
when a helping verb exists (e.g., DO "EVERYONE, HAVE a good time!" (equivalent to "Joe and Mary, HAVE a good
conjugations) For an imperative or exclamation time!")
case, the [VERB] must be plural.
7 HELPING or AUXILIARY
VERBS + [INFINITIVE]
28 auxiliary verbs exist
BE: is, are, am was, were
"He has money"
"He DOES HAVE money"
http://www.englishforums.co SC Sub/Verb
Agreement
BE (non-finite forms): be, being, been "He DOES NOT HAVE money" m/English/DoAndDoesHasAn
DO: do, does, did dHave/bjgd/post.htm
MODALS: will, would, shall, should, can, could,
may, might, must, ought, dare, need
8 ECONOMIC versus ECONOMICAL means thrifty or efficient. My decision to drive a hybrid car was motivated by ECONOMIC considerations MGMAT SC Ch2 p20 SC Idioms
ECONOMICAL ECONOMIC means monetary or having to do with (monetary)
money. ECONOMICAL considerations motivated my decision to drive a hybrid car (cheap,
thrifty, efficient)
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9 AGGRAVATE versus AGGRAVATE means "worsen". AGGRAVATING He AGGRAVATED the delicate situation so that diplomacy became impossible MGMAT SC Ch2 p20 SC Idioms
AGGRAVATING means "irritating". He was very AGGRAVATING so that he did not have any friends
RIGHT: His behavior AGGRAVATED the problem (MADE WORSE)
WRONG: His behavior WAS AGGRAVATING TO the problem (WAS ANNOYING TO)
1

10 KNOWN AS versus KNOWN AS means "named". KNOWN TO BE Saint Nicholas is KNOWN AS Santa Claus. MGMAT SC Ch2 p20 SC Idioms
KNOWN TO BE means "acknowledged as" The CEO was KNOWN TO BE one of the founders of the company

11 LOSS OF versus LOSS LOSS OF means "no longer in possession of". The Emperor incurred a LOSS OF clothes in the fable. MGMAT SC Ch2 p20 SC Idioms
IN LOSS IN means "decline in value" The banker incurred a LOSS IN his portfolio
12 MANDATE [THAT] MANDATE means "command". HAVE A MANDATE The president MANDATED that the bill be passed MGMAT SC Ch2 p20 SC Idioms
[INFINITIVE (without means "have authority from voters" Require also The Congress has a mandate to declare war.
"to" for subjunctive needs [THAT] [INFINITIVE (without "to" for
sentences)] OR subjunctive sentences AKA the unconjugated
MANDATE [THAT] [X] verb] as well.
be [Y] versus HAVE A
MANDATE
13 REQUIRE [THAT] [X] RIGHT: http://www.urch.com/forums/gmat-
BE [Y] versus REQUIRE REQUIRE [THAT] [X] BE [Y] sentence-correction/104784-sc-1000-
/ REQUIRING [X] TO REQUIRE / REQUIRING [X] TO [Y] q228.html
[Y] versus REQUIRING REQUIRING [THAT] [X - noun] [Y - unconjugated http://gmatclub.com/forum/railway-
[THAT] [X - noun] [Y - verb] roadbed-81675.html
unconjugated verb] REQUIRING THAT X AND Y http://www.scribd.com/doc/7153330/Senten
versus REQUIRING REQUIRING THAT X, Y ce-Corrections-Practice
THAT X AND Y versus http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/ridl
REQUIRING THAT X, Y WRONG ey-turtle-t6594.html
versus REQUIRING REQUIRING THAT X TO DO Y http://gmatclub.com/forum/sc-legislation-in-
THAT X TO DO Y the-canadian-province-of-ontario-
I. 32996.html#p226241
a. require a b http://gmatclub.com/forum/sc-require-to-
b. require b of a vs-require-that-64020.html#p468167
c. require of a b http://www.urch.com/forums/gmat-
sentence-correction/5169-medicare-
II. question.html
A. require a to V http://www.beatthegmat.com/gorton-todd-
A2. require S, V ("to be" form) t31980.html
b. require A that S V ("to be" form) (EXAMPLE: OG 12 SC 53
she disclose (not she discloses))
c. require of A that S V ("to be" form)
14 NATIVE OF versus NATIVE OF means "person from". NATIVE TO I am a NATIVE OF India. MGMAT Ch2 p20 SC Idioms
NATIVE TO means "species that originated in" The kangaroo is NATIVE TO Australia
15 RANGE OF versus RANGE OF means "variety of". RANGING means He has a wide range of skills as shown by his ability to type, read, write, and more. MGMAT Ch2 p20 SC Idioms
RANGING "varying" The temperature ranging from -40 to 100 degrees Celcius is normal for this region.

16 RATE OF versus RATES RATE OF refers to the "speed or frequency of" an The car was traveling at a rate of 60 MPH. MGMAT Ch2 p20, OG Verbal SC 76 SC Idioms
FOR object. RATES FOR refers to the "prices for" or The rates for the stock price are $40 or $50.
"prices charged" a certain commodity. WRONG: Officials report that soaring RATES of liability insurance are a problem
RIGHT: Officials report that soaring RATES FOR liability insurance are a problem

17 RISE versus RAISE RISE refers to a "general increase". RAISE refers The temperatures of the region rise every morning. MGMAT Ch2 p21 SC Idioms
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to "a bet or salary increase" or "to introduce a The boss raises the salary of his group every year.
point"
18 LAY versus LIE MGMAT Ch2 p20 SC Idioms
2

19 TRY TO DO versus TRY TRY TO DO means "seek to accomplish". TRY I will try to do this task so that it will be finished MGMAT Ch2 p21 SC Idioms
DOING DOING means "experiment with or examine He will try doing the speech, but he does not write nor speak well.At first we tried
TRY TO REACH versus something" to push the door open but it was stuck and so in the end we tried using a hammer
TRY IN REACHING TRY TO REACH is preferred TRY IN REACHING and it suddenly opened.RIGHT: They TRIED TO REACH the summit and SUCCEED
IN DOING SOWRONG: They TRIED IN REACHING the summit and SUCCEEDED TO
DO so

20 HELPING or AUXILIARY WILL implies certainty. May implies Uncertainty. Certain: The drop in the interest rates WILL create better investment MGMAT Ch2 p21 SC Idioms
VERBS + [INFINITIVE] opportunities.
DIFFERENCE 1/3: WILL Uncertain: The drop in the interest rates MAY create better investment
versus MAY opportunities.
21 HELPING or AUXILIARY MUST implies absolutely necessary. SHOULD Absolutely Necessary: The court ruled that the plaintiff MUST pay full damages. MGMAT Ch2 p21 SC Idioms
VERBS + [INFINITIVE] implies morally obliged and NOT Likelihood. Morally Obliged: The court ruled that the plaintiff SHOULD pay full damages.
DIFFERENCE 2/3: Note that the second example is incorrect since the court cannot impose a moral
MUST versus SHOULD obligation onto a plaintiff. It can only impose a binding resolution, which SHOULD
does, like in the first sentence

22 HELPING or AUXILIARY VERB only implies a cause and effect event. Actual: If Chris and Jad met, they DISCUSSED mathematics. MGMAT Ch2 p21 SC Idioms
VERBS + [INFINITIVE] WOULD DISCUSS implies a hypothetical event Hypothetical If Chris and Jad met, they would discuss mathematics.
DIFFERENCE 3/3: may or may not occur.
VERB versus WOULD + VERB = If this did indeed happen, then that is the
VERB consequence.
WOULD + VERB = If this were to happen, then
that would be the consequence.
23 MODIFIER PLACEMENT Changing the placement of the modifier changes ALL the children are covered in mud. MGMAT Ch2 p22 SC Meaning,
1 the meaning of the sentence. The children are ALL covered in mud. GMC

The first ALL modifies the number of children. The second ALL modifies the extent
of the covering of mud.
24 MODIFIER PLACEMENT Changing the placement of the modifier changes ONLY the council votes on Thursdays. MGMAT Ch2 p22 SC Meaning,
2 the meaning of the sentence. The council votes ONLY on Thursdays. GMC

The first ONLY states that the council alone votes. The second ONLY states that
the council votes on one day only, which is Thursday.

25 AMBIGUITY Make sure the verb and phrases are well defined The council granted the right to make legal petitions to CITY OFFICIALS MGMAT Ch2 p22 SC Overall
and directly modifying the subject Word
Did the city officials receive the right to make legal petitions Order, GMC
OR did someone else receive the right to make petitions TO THE OFFICIALS?

The council granted CITY OFFICIALS the right to make legal petitions
THe right to make legal petitions TO CITY OFFICIALS was granted by the council

26 AMBIGUITY Make sure the verb and phrases are well defined Awkward: A referendum is a general public vote through which IS PASSED A LAW MGMAT Ch2 p22 SC Overall
and directly modifying the subject OR OTHER PROPOSAL. Word
Better: A referendum is a general public vote through which A LAW OR OTHER Order, GMC
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PROPOSAL IS PASSED .

Avoid unnecessary inversions.


3

27 DIFFER versus HAVE DIFFER is less wordy than HAVE DIFFERENCES Wordy: They HAVE DIFFERENCES over THE WAY IN WHICH the company should MGMAT Ch2 p22 SC Concision,
DIFFERENCES and hence preferred. make INVESTMENTS in new technologies. GMC

28 HOW versus THE WAY HOW is less wordy than THE WAY IN WHICH and Wordy: They HAVE DIFFERENCES over THE WAY IN WHICH the company should MGMAT Ch2 p22 SC Concision,
IN WHICH hence preferred. make INVESTMENTS in new technologies. GMC

29 INVEST versus MAKE Invest is less wordy than MAKE INVESTMENTS Wordy: They HAVE DIFFERENCES over THE WAY IN WHICH the company should MGMAT Ch2 p22 SC Concision,
INVESTMENTS make INVESTMENTS in new technologies. GMC

30 ROSE by X% ROSE and INCREASE describe an amount of Wordy: The value of the stock ROSE by a 10% INCREASE. MGMAT Ch2 p23 SC Redundanc
INCREASE versus increase. Having them together is redundant. Better: The value of the stock INCREASED by 10% y, GMC
INCREASED by X% Likewise with the converse with DROP and OR
versus ROSE by X% DECREASE. Better: The value of the stock ROSE by 10%.
31 SUM TO a TOTAL SUM TO and TOTAL describe an amount that is Wordy: The three prices SUM TO a total of $11.56. MGMAT Ch2 p23 SC Redundanc
versus SUM TO versus aggregated. Having them together is redundant Better: The three prices SUM TO $11.56. y, GMC
TOTAL OR
Better: The three prices TOTAL $11.56

32 BEING BEING does not add to the meaning of the Wordy: He is seen as being dumb. MGMAT Ch2 p23 SC Redundanc
sentence so it is almost always wrong. It can be Better: He is dumb. y, GMC
right if other choices are grammatically wrong.
33 TIME REDUNDANCIES A sentence containing a reference to time should TIME REFERENCE EXAMPLES MGMAT Ch2 p23 SC Redundanc
not contain duplicate references to that same Past: Previously, Formerly, In the past, Before now y, GMC
period of time. Present: Now, Currently, Presently, At present
Yearly: Annual, Each year, A year (e.g., three launches a year)
Future: After, subsequently

34 COST OF X versus COST TO X is what X has to pay. COST OF X is The cost of PS3 for me is $400. MGMAT Ch2 p25 SC Idiom
COST TO X what somebody has to pay to buy X. The cost to me for the PS3 is $400.
35 IMPEL versus IMPALE To IMPEL is to force someone to do something. I impeled my sister to buy candies for me by making her feel guilt. MGMAT Ch2 p25 SC GMC
To IMPALE something is to pierce that something I impaled the pinata with my stick to win the candies.
with a sharp object.
36 AS THOUGH AS THOUGH is used to describe things that are You better behave as though you were richer than Bill Gates! MGMAT Ch2 p25 SC GMC
untrue or did not happen
37 THE FACT THAT THE FACT THAT is useless THE FACT THAT he is smart means that he is capable MGMAT Ch2 p25 SC Redundanc
Because he is smart, he is capable y, GMC
38 DROPPED by X% DROP and DECREASE describe an amount of Wordy: The value of the stock DROPPED by a 10% DECREASE. MGMAT Ch2 p25 SC Redundanc
DECREASE versus substraction. Having them together is redundant. Better: The value of the stock DECREASED by 10%ORBetter: The value of the y, GMC
DECREASED by X% Likewise with the converse with ROSE and stock DROPPED by 10%.
versus DECREASE by X INCREASE.
%

39 CONSTITUTE A VERB of a noun is preferable because it is less WORDY: Electronic devices can constitute a distraction to a driver MGMAT Ch2 p25 SC Redundanc
[NOUN] TO versus wordy than CONSTITUTE A [NOUN] TO BETTER: Electronic devices can distract a driver y, GMC
[VERB form of NOUN]
40 IT IS POSSIBLE THAT IT IS POSSIBLE and MAY both experess WORDY: IT IS POSSIBLE THAT John MAY finish on time. MGMAT Ch2 p26 SC Redundanc
versus MAY uncertainty so only one is needed in a sentence BETTER: IT IS POSSIBLE THAT John can finish on time OR John MAY finish on time y, GMC

41 HAVE CAUSED versus HAVE CAUSED is preferred over HAVE BEEN WORDY: He may HAVE BEEN CAUSAL to the accident. MGMAT Ch2 p26 SC Redundanc
HAVE BEEN CAUSAL CAUSAL TO because of wordiness and passive BETTER: He may HAVE CAUSED the accident y, GMC
TO voice.
42 SUSPECT versus HAVE SUSPECT is preferred over HAVE A SUSPICION WORDY: He has a suspicion MGMAT Ch2 p26 SC Redundanc
A SUSPICION because of wordiness BETTER: He suspects. y, GMC
43 X IS TRYING versus OF X IS TRYING is preferred over OF THERE BEING WORDY: He is suspiciuos OF THERE BEING AN ATTEMPT BY X. MGMAT Ch2 p26 SC Redundanc
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THERE BEING AN AN ATTEMPT BY X because of wordiness BETTER: X IS TRYING while he suspects. y, GMC
ATTEMPT BY X
44 ARE READY versus ARE ARE READY is preferred over ARE IN READINESS WORDY: They ARE IN READINESS MGMAT Ch2 p26 SC Redundanc
4

IN READINESS because of wordiness BETTER: They ARE READY y, GMC


45 WHATEVER MAY WHATEVER MAY HAPPEN is preferred over WORDY: They ARE READY FOR WHATEVER IT IS THAT MAY HAPPEN MGMAT Ch2 p26 SC Redundanc
HAPPEN versus WHATEVER IT IS THAT MAY HAPPEN because of BETTER: They ARE READY FOR WHATEVER MAY HAPPEN y, GMC
WHATEVER IT IS THAT wordiness
MAY HAPPEN
46 IT WAS…THAT IT WAS … THAT is wordy and useless. WORDY: It was funny that he jumped. MGMAT Ch2 p26 SC Redundanc
Better: His jump was funny y, GMC
47 HASTILY versus WITH Hastily is preferred over with haste because of WORDY: He performed with haste MGMAT Ch2 p26 SC Redundanc
HASTE wordiness BETTER: He performed hastily y, GMC
ADVERB versus with
VERB
48 EXPECTED versus HAD EXPECTED is preferred over HAD THE WORDY: He HAD THE EXPECTATION of success MGMAT Ch2 p26 SC Redundanc
THE EXPECTATION EXPECTATION because of wordiness BETTER: He expected to succeed y, GMC
49 ORDER versus BE ORDER is preferred over BE PLACING AN ORDER WORDY: He IS PLACING AN ORDER FOR her. MGMAT Ch2 p26 SC Redundanc
PLACING AN ORDER FOR because of wordiness BETTER: He ORDERED FOR her. y, GMC
FOR
50 LAST LONG versus LAST LONG is preferred over LAST FOR A LONG WORDY: It LASTED FOR A LONG AMOUNT OF TIME MGMAT Ch2 p26 SC Redundanc
LAST FOR A LONG AMOUNT OF TIME because of wordiness BETTER: It LASTED LONG y, GMC
AMOUNT OF TIME
51 HELP versus BE A HELP HELP is preferred over BE A HELP because of WORDY: He WAS A HELP MGMAT Ch2 p26 SC Redundanc
wordiness BETTER: He HELPED y, GMC
52 TO IMPROVE versus IN TO IMPROVE is preferred over IN CAUSING WORDY: He was instrumental in CAUSING AN IMPROVEMENT IN the program MGMAT Ch2 p26 SC Redundanc
CAUSING IMPROVEMENT IN because of wordiness BETTER: He was instrumental in improving the program y, GMC
IMPROVEMENT IN
53 SHOWN versus SHOWN THAT is preferred over SHOWN because INCORRECT: Studies have SHOWN he was smart MGMAT Ch2 p26 SC Redundanc
SHOWN THAT SHOWN is a reporting verb. CORRECT: Studies have SHOWN THAT he was smart y, GMC
54 NOT ACCOMPANIED NOT ACCOMPANIED is preferred over UNCLEAR: Unaccomanied by her husband, the wife went shopping MGMAT Ch2 p31, OG 12 SC 12 SC GMC,
versus UNACCOMPANIED because NOT ACCOMPANIED CLEARER: Not accompanied by her husband, the wife went shopping Agreement,
UNACCOMPANIED more effectively expresses the intended negation. Diction

55 WOULD, WILL for WOULD, WILL introduce the concept of UNCLEAR: Retail sales rose in August, intensifying expectations that personal MGMAT Ch2 p31, OG 12 SC 16 SC GMC,
EXPECTATIONS EXPECTATIONS. Without this, the sentence spending in September more than doubled that of the growth rate for the previous Agreement,
would not make sense by making a logical shift in quarter Diction
time. CLEARER: UNCLEAR: Retail sales rose in August, intensifying expectations that
personal spending in September WOULD more than double the growth rate for the
previous quarter

56 OR versus AND OR implies that any of the items in the list are UNCLEAR: It has restricted items that do not contain "natural" components such as MGMAT Ch2 p31, OG 12 SC 17 SC GMC,
included in the list's criteria. AND implies that all color or flavor additives, chemical preservatives, AND anything synthesized Logical
of the items in the list must be inlucided in the CLEAR: It has restricted items that do not contain "natural" components such as predication,
list's criteria. color or flavor additives, chemical preservatives, OR anything synthesized Idiom

AND does not make sense since all of the items individually satisfy the lack of
naturalness in the ingredients.
OR accomplishes the individualism of the items in the list

57 NOTHING versus NOTHING implies that none of objects in this UNCLEAR: It has restricted ingredients that do not contain "natural" components MGMAT Ch2 p31, OG 12 SC 17 SC GMC,
ANYTHING, DOUBLE world can be used for a given criteria. ANYTHING such as color or flavor additives, chemical preservatives, or NOTHING synthesized Logical
NEGATIVES implies that all of the objects can be used for a CLEAR: It has restricted ingredients that do not contain "natural" components such predication,
given criteria. NOT NOTHING is a double as color or flavor additives, chemical preservatives, or ANYTHING synthesized Idiom
negative and should be avoided
The use of double DO NOT or RESTRICT creates a DOUBLE NEGATIVE and reverses
the intended meaning of NOT NOTHING into ANYTHING. Logically, a "natural" food
cannot contain any prohibited ingredient so ANYTHING synthesized is correct
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5

58 DANGLING MODIFIER The phrase or subject must be close to the UNCLEAR: Neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past MGMAT Ch2 p31, OG 12 SC 21 SC GMC,
modifier for it to make sense. Otherwise a twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to ADULTHOOD, NOW Logical
DANGLING MODIFIER exists in which it does not drawing solid conclusions. predication,
describe the appropriate subject and hence CLEARER: NEUROSCIENTISTS, HAVING amassed a wealth of knowledge over the Grammatic
causes logical or grammatical confusion. past wenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are al
now drawing solid conclusions Constructio
n
ADULTHOOD is being modified by NOW when it should modify KNOWLEDGE
instead. HAVING modifies NEUROSCIENTISTS, which is correct.
59 SUCH AS or SUCH X SUCH AS means "for instance" and introduces Can you buy me some fruit SUCH AS apples or watermelon? MGMAT Ch2 p21 SC Idioms
AS A AND B versus examples. LIKE means "similar to, but not I would like you to buy SUCH FRUIT AS apples and watermelon for me.I like to
LIKE including" and not exactly. play sports like basketball and tennis.

60 SO SO X AS TO Y is NOT a correct idiom if WRONG: Although schistosomiasis is not often fatal, SO debilitating is it AS TO MGMAT Ch2 p31, OG 12 SC 32, OG 12 37, SC Idiom
<ADJECTIVE/ADVERB> <ADJECTIVE> and <ADVERB> is not used in that become an economic drain. OG 10 SC 88, OG 12 SC 39
AS TO <VERB> order. <SO> <AS> <TO> is incorrect as well. WRONG: Henry wanted to divorce from Catherine so as to marry Anne. http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/ma
SO Note that so + adj/adv + as to is much more CORRECT: It is SO debilitating AS TO become an economic drain. nhattan-sc-guide-has-an-incorrect-idiom-
<ADJECTIVE/ADVERB> frequent than such + noun + as to CORRECT: The features are SO unrealistic AS TO constitute an artificial face t2566.html
AS <INFINITIVE> CORRECT: He was convinced that the puzzle would appear the SAME TO Sally AS http://www.beatthegmat.com/a/files/2009/0
SAME TO X AS TO Y TO Mary. 5/free-gmat-flashcards.pdf

61 SO SO X THAT is only correct if X is an <ADVERB> or CORRECT: Among the cossacks, vegetable farming was once so despised that it http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/ma SC Idiom
<ADVERB/ADJECTIVE> <ADJECTIVE>. was forbidden on pain of death. nhattan-sc-guide-has-an-incorrect-idiom-
THAT JUST AS X SO is an idiom. CORRECT: He is so happy that … t2566.html
JUST AS X Y CORRECT: So foul as to make a lady faint http://www.beatthegmat.com/a/files/2009/0
CORRECT: JUST AS gills are to fish, SO lungs are to humans. 5/free-gmat-flashcards.pdf

62 SO THAT SO THAT is equivalent to "in order that : I CORRECT: Xue Mei spoke so that we would stop asking her questions. http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/ma SC Idiom
stopped so that you could catch up". It is used to CORRECT: The sales materials are presented at the end of the meetings so that nhattan-sc-guide-has-an-incorrect-idiom-
introduce the RESULT or CONSEQUENCE. the participants won't realize the meeting is actually a sales presentation. t2566.html

63 SUCH <ADJECTIVE> SUCH <NOUN> is also correct. SUCH <X> THAT CORRECT: It was such a good new that I couldn’t wait to share it with my parents. http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/ma SC Idiom
<NOUN> THAT is correct only if X is composed of either a NOUN CORRECT: Such changing conditions as seasonal and daily cycles or different nhattan-sc-guide-has-an-incorrect-idiom-
or a noun that is described (<ADJECTIVE> planetary t2566.html
<NOUN>). The base of X has to be a NOUN. CORRECT: Such extraodinary fees

64 SUCH <NOUN=WAY, NOTE – such + noun + as to is much less CORRECT: Xue Mei spoke in such a way as to calm us down. http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/ma SC Idiom
MANNER, ETC>> AS common than so + adj/adv + as to CORRECT: The sales materials are presented in such a way as to encourage nhattan-sc-guide-has-an-incorrect-idiom-
TO <VERB> attendees to purchase the products on the spot. t2566.html

65 SUCH X AS Y AND Z SC Idiom


66 X ENOUGH TO SC Idiom
67 NOT SO MUCH AS SC Idiom
Page

68 REASON IS … THAT REASON IS … THAT is preferred over the REASON INCORRECT: The reason is because the weather is rainy. SC Idiom
versus REASON IS … IS … BECAUSE because REASON and BECAUSE CORRECT: The reason is that the weather is rainy.
BECAUSE are redundant together
6

69 REQUIRED <TO VERB / MGMAT Ch2 p31, OG 12 SC 57 SC Idiom


INFINITIVE>
70 ….. BECAUSE OF …. BECAUSE OF is a form of TO BE. It has to follow WRONG: Today's delays IS BECAUSE OF the rain http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/vie SC Sub/Verb
a NORMAL verb. Only ONE exception exists when RIGHT: The train was delayed BECAUSE OF the rain wtopic.php?f=31&t=648&view=previous Agreement
it is preceded by "IT IS BECAUSE OF X THAT Y RIGHT: IT IS ONLY BECAUSE OF LUCK THAT JIM SURVIVED the crash
VERB" in which X and Y are parallel
71 BECAUSE, WHICH BECAUSE and WHICH are known as WRONG: BECAUSE the dog was never mine. MGMAT Ch3 SVA p35 SC Sub/Verb
SUBORDINATORS. They cannot stand alone WRONG: WHICH will be approved tomorrow Agreement
otherwise their sentences will become
FRAGMENTS
72 WORKING VERB Sentences require a WORKING VERB in order for WRONG: The electron named in 1894 MGMAT Ch3 SVA p35 SC Sub/Verb
the sentence to be complete. RIGHT: The electron WAS NAMED in 1894 Agreement
RIGHT: Stoney NAMED the electron in 1894.

The electron cannot name itself.


73 SUBJECT VERB The SUBJECT and VERB must make literal WRONG: The DEVELOPMENT of the hydrogen car based on expected performance MGMAT Ch3 SVA p36 SC Sub/Verb
MEANING MEANING and SENSE. parameters WILL BE ABLE TO TRAVEL hundreds of miles without refueling Agreement
RIGHT: Once developed, a hydrogen CAR based on expected performance
parameters WILL BE ABLE TO TRAVEL hundreds of miles without refueling,

DEVELOPMENT cannot TRAVEL. HYDROGEN CAR only can TRAVEL.

74 MIDDLEMEN TO PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES, SUBORDINATE OF mice, IN Zambia, TO the store, FOR milk, WITH her, ON their orders, BY 1800, MGMAT Ch3 SVA p37 SC Sub/Verb
ELIMINATE 1/3: CLAUSES, and OTHER MODIFIES are MIDDLEMEN AT that level, FROM the office Agreement
PREPOSITIONAL that must be eliminated to target the SUBJECT so
PHRASE that it can AGREE with the appropriate VERB. NEAR GALWAY, the houses ON THE ROAD TO SPIDDLE are gorgeous
PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE is a group of words led the HOUSES ARE gorgeous
by a PREPOSITION. Only exception are SANAM
indefinite pronouns which precede
PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES, so their phrases'
SUBJECTS determine the plurality.
75 MIDDLEMEN TO PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES, SUBORDINATE WHEN THE AUDITORS LEFT, the executive WHO HAD BEEN INTERVIEWED was MGMAT Ch3 SVA p37 SC Sub/Verb
ELIMINATE 2/3: CLAUSES, and OTHER MODIFIES are MIDDLEMEN glad. Agreement
SUBORDINATE that must be eliminated to target the SUBJECT so The EXECUTIVE WAS glad.
CLAUSES that it can AGREE with the appropriate VERB.
SUBORDINATE CLAUSES begin with connecting
vrebs such as WHO or WHICH, words that cannot
stand alone in a sentence. SUBORDINATE
CLAUSES act as BIG ADJECTIVES, ADVERBS, or
NOUNS.
76 MIDDLEMEN TO PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES, SUBORDINATE LIMPING, the horse ONCE CONSIDERED ONE OF THE FAVORITES was taken away MGMAT Ch3 SVA p37 SC Sub/Verb
ELIMINATE 3/3: CLAUSES, and OTHER MODIFIES are MIDDLEMEN The HORSE WAS taken away Agreement
OTHER MODIFIERS that must be eliminated to target the SUBJECT so
that it can AGREE with the appropriate VERB.
OTHER MODIFIERS describe other portions of the
sentence by acting as PRESENT PARTICIPLES (-
ING form of VERBS) and PAST PARTICIPLES (-ED
and -EN forms of VERBS). COMMAS separate
modifiers as well.
77 STRUCTURING A NOUN in a PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE cannot be WRONG: In the waning days of the emperor's life, the CONQUEST of new lands on MGMAT Ch3 SVA p38 SC Sub/Verb
SENTENCES FOR SVA the SUBJECT of the sentence. Pick out what is the borders of the empire WERE CONSIDERED vital. Agreement
vital and formulate an agreement. RIGHT: In the wayning days of the emperor's life, the CONQUEST of new lands on
the borders of the empire WAS considered vital

WRONG: The tidal FORCES to which an OBJECT falling into a black hole ARE
Page

subjected IS sufficient to tear the object apart


RIGHT: The tidal FORCES to which an OBJECT falling into a black hole IS subjected
ARE sufficient to tear the object apart
7
78 AND versus ADDITIVE AND always results in plural subjects. ADDITIVE RIGHT: Joe AND his friends ARE going to the beach MGMAT Ch3 SVA p39 SC Sub/Verb
PHRASES PHRASES besides AND do NOT form plural RIGHT: Math, Science, and History ARE his favorite subjectsADDITIVE Agreement
subjects. PHRASES:ALONG WITH Polly, IN ADDITION to surgery, AS WELL AS the mayor,
ACCOMPANIED BY me, TOGETHER WITH a tie, INCLUDING SALT and
pepperRIGHT: Joe, AS WELL AS his friends, IS going to the beachRIGHT:
Mathematics, IN ADDITION TO history and science, IS a required subject.

79 OR, EITHER … OR, and OR, EITHER … OR, and NEITHER … NOR link TWO RIGHT: NEITHER the coach NOR the PLAYERS ARE going to the beach MGMAT Ch3 SVA p39 SC Sub/Verb
NEITHER … NOR NOUNS. The VERB should agree with the RIGHT: NEITHER the players NOR the COACH is going to the beach Agreement
CLOSEST noun.

80 COLLECTIVE NOUNS: COLLECTIVE NOUNS is a noun that LOOKS People: agency, army, audience, class, committee, crowd, orchestra, team MGMAT Ch3 SVA p40 SC Sub/Verb
ALMOST ALWAYS SINGULAR (does not end with s) but refers to a Items: baggage, citrus, equipment, fleet, fruit, furniture Agreement
SINGULAR GROUP of people or objects. Only in RARE
circumstances are COLLECTIVE NOUNS PLURAL RIGHT: The CROWD in the stands IS CHEERING loudly
when individual uinits rather than its unity are RIGHT: Our ARMY of hundred thousand soldiers IS attacking
emphasized.

81 INDEFINITE INDEFINITE PRONOUN is not specific about the SINGULAR (note that ALL that end in -ONE, -BODY, -THING are included): MGMAT Ch3 SVA p40 SC Sub/Verb
PRONOUNS: USUALLY thing to which it refers. ANYONE, ANYBODY, ANYTHING Agreement
SINGULAR EACH, EVERY (as pronouns)
EVERYONE, EVERYBODY, EVERYTHING
NO ONE, NOBODY, NOTHING
SOMEONE, SOMEBODY, SOMETHING
WHATEVER, WHOEVER
EITHER, NEITHER (may require a plural verb if paired with OR/NOR)

FIVE INDEFINITE PRONOUNS can be PLURAL or SINGULAR with acronym SANAM:


S - SOME
A - ANY
N - NONE
A - ALL
M - MORE / MOST / MANY
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82 SANAM INDEFINITE INDEFINITE PRONOUNS that can either be FIVE INDEFINITE PRONOUNS can be PLURAL or SINGULAR with acronym SANAM: MGMAT Ch3 SVA p40 SC Sub/Verb
PRONOUNS PLURAL or SINGULAR S - SOME Agreement
8

A - ANY
N - NONE
A - ALL
M - MORE / MOST

Their PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES (e.g, -OF phrases) SUBJECTS determine the


plurality.

SOME OF the MONEY WAS stolen (MONEY = singular)


SOME OF the DOCUMENTS WERE stolen.

83 EACH and EVERY EACH and EVERY are INDEFINITE PRONOUNS RIGHT: EVERY dog HAS paws MGMAT Ch3 SVA p41 SC Sub/Verb
that are ALWAYS SINGULAR. But note that EACH RIGHT: EVERY dog and cat HAS paws Agreement
AFTER A SUBJECT is IRRELEVANT and only THAT RIGHT: EACH of these shirts is pretty
SUBJECT is RELEVANT. RIGHT: THEY EACH ARE great players.
84 THE NUMBER OF THE NUMBER OF is always SINGULAR. A RIGHT: THE NUMBER OF students is quite large. MGMAT Ch3 SVA p41 SC Sub/Verb
versus A NUMBER OF NUMBER OF IS ALWAYS PLURAL. ITS NUMBERS RIGHT: A NUMBER OF students ARE hard workers. http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/the Agreement
versus ITS NUMBERS / IS PLURAL and ARE acceptable. ITS NUMBER is RIGHT: ITS NUMBERS ARE now close to zero. -gyrfalcon-an-arctic-bird-of-prey-has-
NUMBER SINGULAR and is also acceptable. RIGHT: ITS NUMBER says the number 5 and not 6. survived-a-close-t1926.html
85 THE MAJORITY versus THE MAJORITY is always SINGULAR. A MAJORITY RIGHT: THE MAJORITY students is quite large. MGMAT Ch3 SVA p41 SC Sub/Verb
A MAJORITY versus is always PLURAL. THE/A MAJORITY OF … could RIGHT: A MAJORITY students ARE hard workers. http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/sin Agreement
THE/A MAJORITY OF be PLURAL or SINGULAR depending on the RIGHT: THE MAJORITY OF students ARE hard workers. gular-or-plural-t5837.html
versus NONE versus subject of the PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE. NONE RIGHT: A MAJORITY OF students ARE hard workers. http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/us
NONE OF alone is SINGULAR. NONE OF … is SINGULAR or RIGHT: NONE IS smart age-of-none-as-singular-or-plural-
PLURAL depending on the prepositional SUBJECT RIGHT: NONE of them ARE smart t4375.html
86 QUANTITY WORDS These expressions also are exceptions like the RIGHT: HALF of the pie IS blueberry MGMAT Ch3 SVA p41 SC Sub/Verb
SANAM to the ignore-preopositional-subjects rule. RIGHT: HALF of the SLICES are gone. Agreement
If you want to indicate that the many individual RIGHT: The MAJORITY of the STUDENTS in this class ARE hard workers
parts of the totality, use a plural verb. If you RIGHT: The MINORITY HAS coalesced into a unified voting block
want to indicate the totality itself, then use a
singular verb form. Others: A NUMBER (NOT THE NUMBER), FRACTIONS, PERCENTS, PARTS,
MAJORITY, MINORITY, PLURALITY

87 SUBJECT PHRASES All -ING phrases or clauses are always RIGHT: HAVING good friends IS a good thing MGMAT Ch3 SVA p42 SC Sub/Verb
AND CLAUSES SINGULAR. Also words like WHATEVER is always RIGHT: WHATEVER they want to do IS fine with me Agreement
SINGULAR. SUBJECT PHRASES AND CLAUSES
ARE ALWAYS SINGULAR.
88 FLIP IT! Flip confusing sentences to avoid the GMAT trap WRONG: Near those buildings SIT a lonely HOUSE, inhabited by squatters. MGMAT Ch3 SVA p42 SC Sub/Verb
of picking the wrong subject. FLIP IT: A lonely HOUSE, inhabited by squatters, SITS near those buildingsRIGHT: Agreement
Near those buildings SITS a lonely HOUSE, inhabited by squatters.WRONG: There
IS a young man and an older woman at the bus stopFLIP IT: A YOUNG MAN AND
AN OLDER WOMAN ARE there at the bus stopRIGHT: There ARE A YOUNG MAN
AND AN OLDER WOMAN at the bus stop.UNCERTAIN: Pong is a classic game from
which HAVE/HAS descended many current computer pastimes.FLIP IT: Pong is a
classic game from which many current computer PASTIMES HAVE
descended.Right: Pong is a classic game from which HAVE descended many
current computer PASTTIMES.
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9
89 SUMMARY OF SVA When in doubt, go with SINGULAR rather than SINGULAR: MGMAT Ch3 SVA p43 SC Sub/Verb
PLURAL since most have SINGULAR forms. A SINGULAR subject linked to other nouns by an ADDITIVE PHRASE Agreement
Collective nouns
Most INDEFINITE PRONOUNS
Subjects preceded by EACH or EVERY
Subjects preceded by THE NUMBER OF
SUBJECT PHRASES or CLAUSES

PLURAL:
SUBJECTS joined by AND
SUBJECTS joined by A NUMBER OF
THEY preceding EACH

SINGULAR OR PLURAL:
SUBJECTS joined by OR or NOR (closed subject to verb)
SANAM indefinite pronouns
Other NUMERICAL or QUANTITY words and phrases

90 ONE OF THE <PLURAL RIGHT: ONE of the STUDENTS IS cheating http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/po SC Sub/Verb
SUBJECTS> RIGHT: ONE of the STUDENTS THAT ARE cheating is dumb st28929.html#p28929 Agreement
<SINGULAR VERB>
ONE OF THE <PLURAL
SUBJECTS> THAT
<PLURAL VERB>
91 THOSE / THAT in If the descriptive phrase was placed in an http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/the SC Parallelism
COMPARISONS adjective phrase, THOSE / THAT is required in -gyrfalcon-an-arctic-bird-of-prey-has-
parallel construction survived-a-close-t1926-15.html
If the descriptive phrase was placed in an adverb
phrase, THOSE / THAT is NOT required for
paralellism
92 EXCEPT FOR [NOUN] EXCEPT FOR is correctly followed by a noun. RIGHT: EXCEPT FOR A CONCERT PERFORMANCE that the composer himself staged OG Verbal SC 13 SC GMC,
versus EXCEPTING EXCEPTING [NOUN] is ONLY used in negative in 1911 Idiom,
[NOUN] constructions. WRONG: EXCEPTING A CONCERT PERFORMANCE that the composer himself staged Rhetorical
Constructio
n
93 SOME OTHER [X] ANOTHER [X] is preferred over SOME OTHER [x] WRONG: You will require SOME OTHER DOCTOR's prescription. OG Verbal SC 57 SC GMC,
versus ANOTHER [X] due to its conciseness and idiomatic construction. RIGHT: You will require ANOTHER DOCTOR's prescription Idiom,
Rhetorical
Constructio
n
94 LACK OF [X] versus WITHOUT [X] is preferred over LACK OF [X] WRONG: WITH A LACK OF FOOD, the birds starved OG Verbal SC 57 SC GMC,
WITHOUT [X] RIGHT: WITHOUT FOOD, the birds starved Idiom,
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Rhetorical
Constructio
n
10

95 Y WILL HAPPEN FUTURE TENSE occurs before UNLESS. PRESENT WRONG: A patient WILL find it difficult to prove damage OG Verbal SC 57 SC GMC,
UNLESS X HAPPENS TENSE occurs after UNLESS AND NOT ANY OTHER UNLESS there WILL BE another doctor's testimony. Idiom,
TENSE RIGHT: A patient WILL find it difficult to prove damage UNLESS there is another Rhetorical
doctor's testimony. Constructio
n
96 ESTIMATED TO BE ESTIMATED TO BE <X> implies that the object RIGHT: The fossil was ESTIMATED TO BE millions years old OG 12 SC 27 SC GMC; Idiom
versus ESTIMATED AT being described is estimated to have a RIGHT: The mountain is estimated at Kathmandu, Nepal.
characteristic of X. ESTIMATED AT pertains to
location and is used to describe its nearness to
location X.
97 GROW TO BE versus GROW TO BE is preferred over AS BIG AS WRONG: It can be AS BIG AS 30 feet. OG 12 SC 66 SC GMC; Idiom
AS BIG AS because of an idiomatic preference RIGHT: It can GROW TO BE 30 feet.
98 WHICH X USE AS COLLATERAL AGAINST WHICH X BORROW is WRONG: Declining values for equipment and land, WHICH FARMERS USE AS OG Verbal SC 16 SC SVA
COLLATERAL TO preferred over WHICH X USE AS COLLATERAL TO COLLATERAL TO BORROW AGAINST TO GET THROUGH THE SEASON, …
BORROW AGAINST BORROW AGAINST because WHICH X USE AS RIGHT: Declining values for equipment and land, THE COLLATERAL AGAINST
versus COLLATERAL COLLATERAL TO BORROW AGAINST is redundant WHICH FARMERS BORROW TO GET THROUGH THE SEASON, …
AGAINST WHICH X and its word choice is awkward
BORROW
99 PARALLELISM Comparable sentence parts must be structurally WRONG: The employees were upset by the company's low PAY, poor working MGMAT SC Ch4 Parallelism p53 SC Parallelism
and logically similar. NOUN, PHRASES and CONDITIONS, and they did not have enough outlets for their cretivity
CLAUSES must be parallel RIGHT: The employees were upset by the company's low PAY, poor working
CONDITIONS, and SHORTAGE of outlets for employees' creativity.

100 NINE POPULAR AND, BOTH/AND, OR, EITHER/OR, NOT/BUT, NOT X AND Y MGMAT SC Ch4 Parallelism p53 SC Parallelism
PARALLEL MARKERS ONLY/BUT ALSO, RATHER THAN, FROM/TO. AND, APPLES AND PEARSX, Y, AND ZAPPLES, PEARS, and BANANASBOTH X AND YBOTH
BUT, and OR are most common APPLES AND PEARSORAPPLES OR PEARSEITHER X OR YEITHER APPLES OR
PEARSNOT ONLY X BUT ALSO YNOT ONLY APPLES BUT ALSO PEARSX RATHER
THAN YAPPLES RATHER THAN PEARSFROM X TO YFROM APPLES TO PEARS

101 PARALLEL ELEMENTS NOUNS, ADJETIVES, VERBS, INFINITIVES, NOUNS = Her expression reflected BOTH ANGER AND RELIEF MGMAT SC Ch4 Parallelism p54 SC Parallelism
PARTICIPLES, PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES, ADJECTIVES = The park was NEITHER ACCESSIBLE NOR AFFORDABLE. We
SUBORDINATE CLAUSES must all be parallel. collected BOTH SECOND- AND THIRD-grade books
NOTE that PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES can contain
different prepositions. VERBS
The custodian CLEANED the basement and WASHED the windows
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INFINITIVES
We would like NOT ONLY TO HEAR your side of the story BUT ALSO TO PROVIDE a
response
11

PARTICIPLES
The actor left quickly, SHUNNING fans and DUCKING into a car

Prepositional Phrases
It was important to leave the money IN THE DRAWER RATHER THAN ON THE
TABLE
NOTE: the prepositions DO NOT have to be the same.

SUBORDINATE CLAUSES
They contended THAT THE COMMITTEE WAS BIASED and THAT IT SHOULD BE
DISBANDED
102 PARALLEL HELPING Phrases contain helping verbs that can often be RIGHT: The division WAS OPENING offices, HIRING staff, and INVESTING in MGMAT SC Ch4 Parallelism p54 SC Parallelism
VERBS split apart from parallel verbs. equipment
RIGHT: The railroad CAN EITHER LOSE more money OR SOLVE its problems
RIGHT: They wanted TO INCREASE, SPARK interst, AND MOTIVATE purchases

103 PARALLEL CLAUSES PARALLEL CLAUSES should start with the same WRONG: I want to retire to a place WHERE I CAN RELAX AND THAT HAS LOW MGMAT SC Ch4 Parallelism p54 SC Parallelism
word unlike PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES TAXES
RIGHT: I want to retire to a place WHERE I CAN RELAX AND WHERE the taxes are
low
104 PARALLEL CLAUSES Depending on the start of the PARALLEL WRONG: Ralph likes BOTH THOSE WHO ARE POPULAR AND WHO ARE NOT MGMAT SC Ch4 Parallelism p54 SC Parallelism
WITH CONCISION CLAUSES, repetition may be required to maintain RIGHT: Ralph likes BOTH THOSE WHO ARE POPULAR AND THOSE WHO ARE NOT
parallelism, which is a higher priority in grammar. (Popular does not have to be repeated again)
If the starting word is repeated before and after RIGHT: Ralph likes BOTH THOSE WHO ARE POPULAR AND NOT POPULAR (but this
the parallel marker, repetition is required. changes meaning)

105 LISTS WITH AND X and Y X and Y MGMAT SC Ch4 Parallelism p55 SC Parallelism
X, Y, and Z APPLES AND PEARS
X, Y, Z, and W
X, Y, and Z
APPLES, PEARS, AND BANANAS

X, Y, Z, and W
APPLES, PEARS, BANANAS, AND PEACHES

X, AND Y (combines long, independent, or both types of clauses)


I really like candy apples, AND I eat them often

LONG LISTS
WRONG: She argues that the agency acts with disregard for HUMAN LIFE AND
PROPERTY AND RECKLESS ABANDON AND IT SHOULD THEREFORE BE SHUT
DOWN
RIGHT: SHE argues THAT the agency acts WITH reckless ABANDON AND WITH
DISREGARD for HUMAN LIFE AND PROPERTY, AND THAT that it should therefore
be shut down.
Structure 1: THAT the agency acts AND THAT it should therefore be abandoned
Structure 2: WITH reckless abandon AND WITH DISREGARD FOR
Structure 3: human life AND property
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12
106 IDIOMS WITH BUILT- These idioms are fully explored in the MGMAT SC X ACTS AS Y MGMAT SC Ch4 Parallelism p56 SC Parallelism
IN PARALLEL Ch9 IDIOMS chapter. AS X, SO YBETWEEN X AND YCOMPARED TO X, Y CONSIDER X YIN CONTRAST TO
STRUCTURE 1/25 X, YDECLARE X YX DEVELOPS INTO YX DIFFERS FROM YDISTINGUISH X FROM
YESTIMATE X TO BE YX INSTEAD OF YX IS KNOWN TO BE YX INSTEAD OF YX IS
KNOWN TO BE YX IS LESS THAN YMAKE X YMISTAKE X FOR YNOT ONLY X(,) BUT
ALSO Y (comma is OPTIONAL)REGARD X AS YX IS THE SAME AS YX IS GOOD,
AND SO TOO IS YX, SUCH AS Y (example)THINK OF X AS YX IS THOUGHT TO BE
YVIEW X AS YWHETHER X OR Y (if Y is NOT, NOT is OPTIONAL. If Y is NOT
[VERB], then [VERB] is OPTIONAL)

107 SUPERFICIAL LOGICAL PARALLELISM takes precedence over WRONG: Sal APPLIED himself in his new job, ARRIVED early every day, SKIPPED MGMAT SC Ch4 Parallelism p56 SC Parallelism
PARALLELISM verus STRUCTURAL or SUPERFICIAL PARALLELISM. The lunch regularly, AND LEFT late every night
LOGICAL PARALLELISM sentence must make sense first. Do NOT assume RIGHT: Sal APPLIED himself in his new job, ARRIVING early every day, SKIPPING
that ALL verbs and verbal forms in a sentence lunch regularly, AND LEAVING late every night
must be parallel APPLIED himself is the primary clause ,and ARRIVING, SKIPPING, and LEAVING is
the secondary clause
Do not assume that ALL verbs and verbal forms in a sentence must be parallel
Page
13
108 LINKING VERBS AND Action verbs are like WALK, DANCE, and JUMP. LINKING VERB PARALLEL MARKERS MGMAT SC Ch4 Parallelism p57 SC Parallelism
PARALLELISM But another class of verbs exist that are more TO BE: is, are, was, were, am been, be, being
subtle. Instead of describing what the subject OTHER LINKING VERBS: appear, become, feel grow, look, remain, represent,
DOES, these verbs describe what the subject IS resemble, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste, turn
or what CONDITION it is in. This is often by
using "TO BE" or other similar verbs. LINKING WRONG: THE BOUQUET of flowers was A GIVING of love
VERBS require the OBJECTS AND SUBJECTS to be RIGHT: THE BOQUET of flowers was a GIFT of love.
PARALLEL. Hence LINKING VERBS are PARALLEL Noun and gerund versus Noun versus Noun
MARKERS.
WRONG: Upon being nominated, THIS POLITICIAN REPRESENTS A STEP FORWARD
in urban-rural relations in this country
RIGHT: THE NOMINATION of this politicans REPRESENTS A STEP FORWARD in
urban rural relations in this country
Politician represents step forward versus Nomination represents step forward (the
event should be parallel)

TO BE DOES NOT always have to be a LINKING VERB when it is used in a


progressive or passive format. So NO PARALLELISM is required.
PROGRESSIVE: I AM water the plants
PASSIVE: The plants WERE watered last night

109 PRONOUNS Pronoun is a word that takes place of a noun so GASOLINE has become so expensive that IT now consumes as much as 16% of MGMAT SC Ch5 Pronouns p67 SC Pronouns
that we do not have to repeat that noun personal income in some rural areas
elsewhere in the sentence. The ANTECEDENT is
derived from the NOUN. The pronoun must FEW EXAMPLES
AGREE with the identified ANTECEDENT IT, ITS, THEY, THEM, THEIR

110 PRONOUN Rule 1 THE ANTECEDENT must exist. Otherwise the WRONG: The PARK RANGERS discussed measures to prevent severe WILDFIRES, MGMAT SC Ch5 Pronouns p67 SC Pronouns
sentence with a pronoun is flawed. which would be devastating to IT.
RIGHT: The rangers discussed measures to prevent severe wildfires, which would
be devastating to THE PARK.

IT has NO antecedent since the nouns are plural and IT is singular Park acts as an
adjective and not as a noun.
Page

111 PRONOUN Rule 2 The ANTECEDENT and PRONOUN must make WRONG: Although the term supercomputer may sound fanciful or exaggerated, IT MGMAT SC Ch5 Pronouns p68 SC Pronouns
sense together LOGICALLY. DEFINITIONS and is simply an extremely fast mainframe that can execute trillions of calculations
TERMS can be PITFALLS for PRONOUNS since every second
14

PRONOUNS cannot be the TERMS OR RIGHT: Although the term supercomputer may sound fanciful or exaggerated, IT
DEFINITIONS but only REFERENCES to them. REFERS TO simply an extremely fast mainframe that can execute trillions of
calculations every second
The TERM is NOT a MAINFRAME. The TERM REFERS TO a MAINFRAME.
112 PRONOUN Rule 3 The ANTECEDENT must be UNAMBIGUOUS. Researchers claim to have developed new nano-papers incorporating tiny cellulose MGMAT SC Ch5 Pronouns p68 SC Pronouns
fibers, which THEY allege to give THEM the strength of cast iron
RIGHT: Researchers claim to have developed NEW NANO-PAPERS incorporating
tiny cellulose fibers, which allegedly give THESE MATERIALS the strength of cast
ironTHEY AND THEM refer to either RESEARCHERS or NANO-PAPERS. Hence
AMBIGUOUSNESS exists and must be eliminated by removing the pronouns and
adding specific reference markers

113 PRONOUN Rule 4 The ANTECEDENT must AGREE in NUMBER. WRONG: Confronted by radical changes in production and distribution, modern MGMAT SC Ch5 Pronouns p69 SC Pronouns
Watch out for ADDITIVE PHRASE TRAPS like Hollywood studios are attempting various experiments in an effort to retain ITS
ALONG WITH since those PHRASES should NOT status as the primary arbiter of movie consumption.
change the ANTECEDENT's NUMBER.
Studios does NOT agree with ITS
RIGHT: Confronted by radical changes in production and distribution, modern
Hollywood studios are attempting various experiments in an effort to retain THEIR
status as the primary arbiter of movie consumption.
Confronted by radical changes in production and distribution, modern Hollywood
studio are attempting various experiments in an effort to retain ITS status as the
primary arbiter of movie consumption.

114 PRONOUN CASES THREE CASES of PRONOUNS exist: SUBJECT, SUBJECT = prounouns can be SUBJECTS of sentences MGMAT SC Ch5 Pronouns p69 SC Pronouns
OBJECT, and POSSESSIVE I, YOU, HE, SHE, IT, WE, THEY, WHO
THEY arrived late

OBJECT pronouns can be the OBJECTS of VERBS or PREPOSITIONS


ME, YOU, HIM, HER, IT, US, THEM, WHOM
No one saw THEM or talked to THEM

POSSESSIVE pronouns indicate ownership or a similar election


MY/MINE, YOUR/YOURS, HIS, HER/HERS, ITS, OUR/OURS, THEIR/THEIRS, WHOSE
THEIR presence went unnnoticed

115 PRONOUN CASE Sometimes pronouns can refer to nouns in the RIGHT: SUPERNOVAS destroy their immediate environments in vast explosions, MGMAT SC Ch5 Pronouns p70 SC Pronouns
Example 1 same case, especially in parallell structures. A BUT by synthesizing heaving chemical ements, THEY provide the univers with the
Page

pronoun in a SUBJECT POSITION in ONE CLAUSE possibility of biochemistry-based life as we known it.
may often be presumed to REFER to the SUBJECT
of a PARALLEL clause.
15
116 PRONOUN CASE NOUNS IN POSSESSIVE CASES (with 's or s') are WRONG: The board is investigating several executives' compensation packages in MGMAT SC Ch5 Pronouns p70 SC Pronouns
Example 2 OFTEN POOR antecedents. order to determine how much may have been improperly awarded to THEM.

THEM refers better to PACKAGES than to EXECUTIVES incorrectly. THEM cannot


REFERS to EXECUTIVES' in this format.

BETTER: The board is investigating the compensation packages of SEVERAL


EXECUTIVES in order to determine how much THEY may have been improperly
awarded.

SEVERAL EXECUTIVES or PACKAGES could refer to THEY and most likely it refers
to PACKAGES since it's the main subject of a prepositional phrase

BEST: The board is investigating the compensation packages of SEVERAL


EXECUTIVES in order to determine how much THESE EXECUTIVES may have
improperly awarded.

Replace THEY with THESE EXEUCTIVES to remove ambiguity

117 THE DEADLY FIVE IT, ITS, THEY, THEM, THEIR are the most WRONG: Whenever A STUDENT calls, take down THEIR info MGMAT SC Ch5 Pronouns p71 SC Pronouns
PRONOUNS common pronoun errors since they involved the RIGHT: Whenever A STUDENT calls, take down HIS or HER info
THIRD PERSON. Check these prounouns viability RIGHT: Whenever STUDENTS call, take down THEIR info.
by finding the antecedent. Colloquialism DOES
NOT apply like when THEIR refers to singular
subjects
119 WHO veruss WHOM WHOM is the DIRECT OBJECT of the verb in the WRONG: She receives emails from friends WHO she knowes well MGMAT SC Ch5 Pronouns p69, MGMAT SC SC Pronouns
verus WHOSE sentence RIGHT: She receives emails from friends WHOM she knowes well Ch5 PS 6 p75
WHOM is the direct object of the verb KNOWS. She KNOWS THEM

WRONG: She receives emails from friends about WHO she KNOWS nothing at all
RIGHT: She receives emails from friends about WHOM she KNOWS nothing at all
WHO is incorrect because an OBJECTIVE pronoun is needed. WHOM is the object
of the preposition ABOUT
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16
120 THIS, THAT, THESE, DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS refer to THIS, NEW NANOPAPERS incorporate fibers that give THESE MATERIALS strength MGMAT SC Ch5 Pronouns p71 SC Pronouns
and THOSE THAT< THESE, and THOSE. They can be used as THESE refers to specific materials mentioned in the sentence. A "NEW COPY" or
ADJECTIVES in front of NOUNS. COPIES of the antecedent are created with THAT AND THOSE.The MONEY spent by
her parents is less than THAT SPENT by her childrenThe MONEY spent by her
parents is more than IT was expected to be.THAT refers to MONEY spent by her
children. Two pots of money are not the same. A NEW COPY is made. They are
different: one for parents and one for children. ITS would imply only ONE pot of
money. A NEW COPY is NOT made.The MONEY spent by her parents is less than
THAT SPENT by her childrenHer COMPANY is outperforming THAT OF her
competitorTHAT or THOSE must be modified. You have to indicate how "NEW
COPIES" differ from their previous versionsWRONG: Her COMPANY is
outperforming THOSE of her competitors.RIGHT: Her COMPANY is outperforming
THESE COMPANIES of her competitors.NEW COPIES with THOSE or THESE must
AGREE with their respective antecedents only if ANTECEDENT IS PLURAL. NOTE
that THAT refers to COMPANY and not COMPETITORS. If you MUST CHANGE THE
NUMBER, REPEAT THE NOUN.

121 DUE TO versus DUE TO functions as an adjectival phrase and is RIGHT: His failure was DUE TO his laziness. OG 12 SC 6, SC Sub/Verb
BECAUSE OF used to modify a noun. BECAUSE OF functions as RIGHT: The fire was DUE TO drought http://www.urch.com/forums/gmat- Agreement
an adverbial phrase and is used to modify a verb RIGHT: He failed BECAUSE OF his laziness. verbal/63829-due-vs-because.html
or verb phrase (e.g., He failed because of his
laziness). BECAUSE OF cannot follow a "TO BE" RIGHT: The heavy snowfall was DUE TO El Nino.
verb except in the case of "IT IS BECAUSE OF X RIGHT: The snowfall came BECAUSE OF the effects of El Nino.
THAT Y VERB" . RIGHT: BECAUSE OF the effects of El Nino, the snowfall was heavy.
BECAUSE OF = answers WHY questions and RIGHT: The crash was DUE TO to the erratic nature of the other driver.
EXPRESSES REASONS RIGHT: The crash occurred BECAUSE OF the erratic nature of the other driver.
DUE TO = equivalent to CAUSED BY. USE THE RIGHT: Due to arrive at 7:30, the bus was 45 minutes late. It didn't arrive until
SUBSTITUTE WITH "CAUSED BY" test to see if 8:15 (REFERENCE TO TIME)
Page

sentence makes sense


DUE TO [NOUN=cause] that led to [NOUN=effect]
and NOT DUE TO [NOUN=effect] that led to
[NOUN=cause]
17

122 BECAUSE versus ON BECAUSE precedes a CLAUSE and serves as a http://www.urch.com/forums/gmat-


ACCOUNT OF versus CONJUNCTION. BECAUSE OF and ON ACCOUNT sentence-correction/56329-account-vs-
BECAUSE OF OF precedes A PHRASE and serves as a because-problem.html
PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE. BECAUSE OF /
BECAUSE is preferred over ON ACCOUNT OF
because of its conciseness
This is because ‘because’ can introduce an entire
subordinate clause in the sentence (Golden crab
is not fished, on account of living… - is not
correct). Golden crab is not fished, because it
lives… - is correct
123 BECAUSE versus AS BECAUSE > SINCE > BEING http://gmattoughies.blogspot.com/2009/07/ SC
versus SINCE Because is used in sentences where the "reason" because-vs-as-vs-since.html,
is the most important thing. http://www.beatthegmat.com/since-
Ex: I played cricket because there was nothing because-t40558.html, OG 12 SC 1
else to do.

Please understand that playing cricket was an


outcome of doing nothing.. so the most important
thing in this sentence is the reason that "there
was nothing else to do". In such scenarios you
use because.

Since is used in sentences where the reason is


already well known or less important.
Ex: Since its your b'day, we'll go out for dinner
tonight.
Please understand that we both know its your
b'day and that's the reason we use since here.
Since is also used when alluding to time period.
Ex: Since time immemorial, religion and politics
have never worked together.
SINCE loses the important CAUSATION part of
the sentence, which BECAUSE does well
124 IN ORDER TO versus IN ORDER TO can be simplified into TO and can WRONG: The academy urged the nation to revamp and create an organization for OG 12 SC 15 SC Parallelism
TO versus FOR be used to eliminate "TO VERB FOR GERUNDS" taking charge
choices and choose "TO VERB TO [IN ORDER TO] RIGHT: The academy urged the nation to revamp and create an organization to
VERB". take charge
125 RESTRICTIONS ON RESTRICTIONS ON is preferred over WRONG: Politicians will try to establish tighter RESTRICTIONS FOR the amount of OG 12 SC 62 SC Idiom
versus RESTRICTIONS RESTRICTIONS FOR depending on the object. grain.
FOR RESTRICTIONS ON implies a limit is placed on the RIGHT: Politicians will try to establish tighter RESTRICTIONS ON the amount of
object itself. RESTRICTIONS FOR implies that the grain.
limits were placed for a specific purpose.
126 AS A MEANS TO versus AS A MEANS TO means a method for achieving a WRONG: Cities are [STRESSING THE ARTS] AS A MEANS FOR [GREATER OG 12 SC 72 SC Idiom
AS A MEANS OF versus result. [X] AS A MEANS FOR [Y] implies that X is ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT]
AS A MEANS FOR a kind of Y. AS A MEANS FOR is unidiomatic RIGHT: Cities are [STRESSING THE ARTS] AS A MEANS TO [GREATER ECONOMIC
DEVELOPMENT]
RIGHT: Basketball is a MEANS OF exercise
127 CITRUS versus Citrus is SINGULAR. Citruses are PLURAL. Citrus WRONG: The only way for growers to salvage the frozen CITRUS is to process OG 12 SC 77 SC Idiom
CITRUSES can be PLURAL but only in non-count form, and THEM quickly
most of the time Citrus is referred as an RIGHT: The only way for growers to salvage the frozen CITRUS is to have it quickly
aggregate rather than individuals processed
128 NOT JUST/ONLY NOT ONLY/JUST BECAUSE OF X … BUT ALSO WRONG: The premiums are higher NOT ONLY/JUST BECAUSE OF expensive drugs, OG 12 SC 83 SC Idiom
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BECAUSE OF X BUT BECAUSE OF Y is proper idiomatic syntax. BUT BECAUSE OF doctors ALSO prescribing more drugs
ALSO BECAUSE OF Y, Likewise, NOT ONLY/JUST BY THE FACT THAT X RIGHT: The premiums are higher NOT JUST/ONLY BECAUSE OF expensive drugs,
NOT ONLY/JUST BY BUT ALSO BY THE FACT THAT Y is idiomatic BUT ALSO BECAUSE OF doctors prescribing more drugs
THE FACT THAT X BUT syntax RIGHT: Premiums are higher, a phenomenon that is explained NOT JUST/ONLY BY
18

ALSO BY THE FACT THE FACT THAT drugs are becoming more expensive BUT ALSO BY THE FACT THAT
THAT Y doctors are prescribing more drugs

129 PROBABLY NOT X, BUT PROBABLY NOT X is balanced by BUT MORE THAN WRONG: The writing WAS PROBABLY NOT a direct rendering of a speech, BUT OG 12 D 39 SC Idiom; Verb
MORE THAN LIKELY Y / LIKELY Y. When MORE is used in comparative MORE THAN LIKELY TO BEGIN AS language. form
MORE LIKELY THAN Y forms of an adjective (MORE difficult) or adverb RIGHT: The writing WAS PROBABLY NOT a direct rendering of a speech, BUT MORE
(MORE LIKELY), it is followed by THAN to have THAN LIKELY BEGAN AS language.WAS … BEGAN are parallel and has the proper
MORE DIFFICULT THAN or MORE LIKELY THAN / PROBABLY NOT X / MORE THAN LIKELY WHY idioms
MORE THAN LIKELY. The words that compare X
and Y, BUT MORE THAN LIKELY must introduce
parallel verb forms and tenses to be
grammatically correct.
130 THE ONLY ONE OF THE ONLY ONE OF [NOUN(S)] is SINGULAR RIGHT: THE ONLY ONE OF THE STATES THAT HAS WOLVES IS MINNESOTA OG Verbal SC 27 SC SVA
[NOUN(S)] versus ONLY ONE OF THE STATES IS PLURAL RIGHT: ONLY ONE OF THE STATES HAVE WOLVES. http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/mi
ONLY ONE OF nnesota-is-the-only-one-of-the-t4285.html
[NOUN(S)]
131 RATHER THAN versus RATHER THAN shows preference and CHOICE. RIGHT http://gmat- SC Idiom
INSTEAD OF (LOOSE (not always strictly followed) TEST: 1). We ought to invest in machinery rather than buildings. grammar.blogspot.com/2006/06/rather-
George is a dog RATHER THAN a cat DOES NOT 2). I prefer starting early rather than leaving things to the last minute. than-vs-instead-of.html
MAKE sense, so INSTEAD OF is needed) 1). I'll have tea instead of coffee, please. http://www.urch.com/forums/gmat-
INSTEAD OF suggests that one person, thing or 2). I stayed in bed all day instead of going to work. sentence-correction/80770-insted-rather-
action replaces another. than.html
RATHER THAN is ALMOST ALWAYS PREFERRED
over INSTEAD OF.
[NOUN] INSTEAD OF [NOUN is CORRECT. X,Y
CAN NOT be VERBS.
RATHER THAN can act as a PREPOSITION and
INTRODUCE a PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE or act as
an CONJUNCTION and INTRODUCE a CLAUSE
132 INDEPENDENT OF X INDEPENDENT OF Y implies that X has nothing RIGHT: OG Verbal SC 56 SC Idiom
versus INDEPENDENT to do at all with Y and is irrelevant with respect to His reasoning was flawed, and appeared to be INDEPENDENT OF any logic.
FROM Y (SEPARATE FROM)
X INDEPENDENT FROM Y means that X and Y are INDEPENDENT FROM
two different entities such as people and nations The children have been INDEPENDENT FROM their parents
(SHOOT OFF)

133 AS versus LIKE LIKE compares NOUNS. AS compares ACTIONS. LIKE Cats and Dogs, pets are fun http://www.beatthegmat.com/a/files/2009/0 SC Idiom
AS is PREFERRED over LIKE. AS focuses on TWO AS SWIMMING AND DIVING are fun, he does them daily 5/free-gmat-flashcards.pdf
NOUNS doing TWO ACTOINS. LIKE focuses on
TWO NOUNS or more (LIKE X and Y, Z …)
134 PRESENT PARTICIPLE Present participle or -ing gerund clause describes WRONG: Five eagles left their nests this summer, AND BROUGHT to 34 the OG 12 SC 47 SC SVA
AND TENSES an action that happens at the same time as the number of wild birds
action in the main clause RIGHT: Five eagles left their nests this summer, BRINGING to 34 the number of
wild birds

BRINGING correctly links the two sentences. BRINGING indicates that the number
of wild birds became 34 when the five eagles left the nests. BROUGHT is not logical
because it was not the eagles themselves but rather the action of their leaving
their nests that brought the number to 34

135 OWED RESTITUTION OWED RESTITUTION TO X FOR Y and not OWED WRONG: The court ruled that the two states OWED RESTITUTION TO THE INDIANS OG 12 SC 53 SC Idiom
TO X FOR Y versus RESTITUTION TO X BECAUSE OF Y is an IDIOM BECAUSE OF THE UNLAWFUL SEIZE OF THEIR LANDS
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OWED RESTITUTION RIGHT: The court ruled that the two states OWED RESTITUTION TO THE INDIANS
TO X BECAUSE OF Y FOR THE UNLAWFUL SEIZE OF THEIR LANDS
19

136 THAT and REPORTING THAT is necessary after REPORTING VERBS REPORTING VERBS, which need THAT: MGMAT Ch11 GMC, SVA, Parallelism p213 SC GMC, SVA,
VERBS except when SAID /SAY is used AGREE: The criminals AGREED THAT http://web.ku.edu/~edit/that.html Parallelism
CLAIM: They CLAIMED THAT
CONTEND: They CONTENDED THAT
DECLARE: They DECLARED THAT
FIND: Investors FOUND THAT
INDICATE: An article INDICATED THAT
REVEAL: An investigation REVEALED THAT
RULE: The court RULED THAT
SHOW: This story SHOWS THAT

EXCEPTION:
SAID: The water was so cold that PEOPLE SAID polar bears would shiver
137 SO versus PRONOUNS PRONOUNS refer to NOUNS or SUBJECTS. SO WRONG: The court did not accord full refugee benefits to recent immigrants OG 12 SC 65 SC Idiom;
refers back to the VERB that describes the because it believed that to do IT rewards them for entering the country Prounouns
subject's action RIGHT: The court did not ACCORD full refugee benefits to recent immigrants
because it believed that DOING SO would reward recent immigrants for entering
the country.

138 ADJECTIVES and ADJECTIVES and ADVERBS are one word The SMART student works QUICKLY MGMAT SC Ch6 Modifiers p83 SC Modifiers
ADVERBS MODIFIERS. ADJECTIVE modifies a NOUN or SMART = adjective
PRONOUN. ADVERB modifies ALMOST ANYTHING QUICKLY = adverb
BUT a noun or pronoun. ADVERB often modifies
a VERB, but it can modify ADJECTIVES, Amy is a GOOD PERSON (good = adjective)
ADVERBS, PREPOSITION, a PHRASE, or CLAUSE AMY is feeling GOOD (good = adjective)
AMY is feeling WELL (well = adjective)
Amy WRITES WELL (well = adverb)

WRONG: Joyce is Max's SUPPOSEDLY Irish ancestor


RIGHT: Joyce is Max's SUPPOSED Irish ancestor
Adverb + adjective + noun = adverb modifies the adjective that modifies the noun
adjective + adjective + noun = both adjectives modify the noun

WRONG: Max's grandma is his SUPPOSED Irish ancestor


RIGHT: Max's grandmother is his SUPPOSEDLY Irish ancestor

What is in question is whether the ancestor is Irish and not whether the
grandmother is an ancestor, since grandmothers are implied ancestors

139 INTERCHANGEABLE Adjectives that have observed alternating with CORRESPONDING MGMAT SC Ch6 Modifiers p84 SC Modifiers
ADVERBS and their corresponding adverbs are TRAPS as choices FREQUENTINDEPENDENTRARERECENTSEEMINGSEPARATESIGNIFICANTSUPPOSED
ADJECTIVES may neglect or add on an unnecessary -LY USUAL
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20
140 NOUN MODIFIERS PHRASES or CLAUSES that MODIFY NOUNS are Type/First Words, Position, Example MGMAT SC Ch6 Modifiers p84 SC Modifiers
NOUN MODIFIERS, which act like LONG ADJECTIVE, BEFORE NOUN, The LAZY CAT took a nap
ADJECTIVES. The first words determines its type. ADJECTIVE, AFTER NOUN, The CAT, LAZY from overeating, took a nap.
PREPOSITION, BEFORE NOUN, ON the couch, the CAT took a nap
PREPOSITION, AFTER NOUN, The CAT ON the couch took a nap
PAST PARTICIPLE, BEFORE NOUN, the TIRED CAT took a nap. TIRED from chasing
mice, the CAT took a nap
PAST PARTICIPLE, AFTER NOUN, the CAT, TIRED from chasing mice, took a nap
PRESENT PARTICIPLE without commas, BEFORE NOUN, the SLEEPING CAT took a
nap
PRESENT PARTICIPLE, AFTER NOUN, the CAT SLEEPING on the rug is named "Sue"
RELATIVE PRONOUN, AFTER NOUN, The grey CAT, WHICH loves tuna, took a nap.
The CAT THAT lives next door is noisy. The PERSON WHO lives next door is noisy.
The city WHERE I live is noisy.
ANOTHER NOUN / APPOSITIVE, BEFORE NOUN, A LOVER of mice, my CAT hunts
night and day.
ANOTHER NOUN / APPOSITIVE, AFTER NOUN, The CAT, a TABBY raised on a farm,
took a nap

141 NOUN MODIFIER A NOUN and its MODIFIER should TOUCH each MISPLACED MODIFIER MGMAT SC Ch6 Modifiers p85 SC Modifiers
TOUCH RULE other. Otherwise a MISPLACED MODIFIER exists. WRONG: Jim biked along an old dirt ROAD to get to his house, WHICH CUT
If the noun being modified is not in the sentence, THROUGH THE WOODS.
a DANGLING MODIFIER exists. RIGHT: To get to his house, Jim biked along an old dirt ROAD, WHICH cut through
the woods.

DANGLING MODIFIER
WRONG: RESIGNED TO THE BAD NEWS, there was no commotion in the office.
WRONG: There was no commotion in the office, RESIGNED to bad news.
RIGHT: RESIGNED to the bad news, the OFFICE WORKERS made no commotion.
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21
142 VERB MODIFIER VERB MODIFIERs are often DANGLING MODIFIER WRONG: USING the latest technology, the PROBLEM was identified MGMAT SC Ch6 Modifiers p86 SC Modifiers
TRAPS and the TOUCH RULE DOES NOT APPLY, WRONG: The PROBLEM was identified, USING the latest technology
but the sentence must MAKE SENSE. RIGHT: USING the latest technology, the ENGINEER identified the problem.
RIGHT: The ENGINEER identified the problem, USING the latest technology

WRONG: GEORGE CARLIN, BOTH SHOCKING AND ENTERTAINING audiences


across the nation, WHO ALSO STRUGGLED PUBLICLY with drug abuse, influenced
and inspired a generation of comedians
WHO ALSO STRUGGLED PUBLICLY... should be next to CARLIN and NOT nation
BETTER, but WRONG: BOTH SHOCKING AND ENTERTAINING audiences across the
nation, GEORGE CARLIN, WHO ALSO STRUGGLED publicly with drug abue,
influenced and inspired a generation of comedians
The sentence is AWKWARD if the main verb is DELAYED or if ideas are NOT
CONNECTED
BEST: BOTH SHOCKING AND ENTERTAINING audiences across the nation,
GEORGE CARLIN influenced and inspired a generation of comedians, even as he
struggled publicly with drug abuse.
REMOVE UNNECESSARY MODIFIERS to LINK IDEAS CLEARLY. CONTRAST is
stressed with EVEN AS

143 MODIFIER MISPLACED MODIFIERS and POSSESSIVES are WRONG: UNSKILLED IN COMPLEX MATH, Bill's SCORE on the exam was poor MGMAT SC Ch6 Modifiers p87 SC Modifiers
POSSESSIVES often TRAPS since MODIFIER does NOT MODIFY RIGHT: UNSKILLED IN COMPLEX MATH, BILL did not score well on the exam
the noun, but the NOUN's possessively modified WRONG: Only in the past century has orgami's DEVELOPMENT, a CERMONIAL
object. ACTIVITY invented millenia ago, into a true art form taken place
RIGHT: ORIGAMI - a CEREMONIAL ACTIVITY invesnted millenia ago - has
develolped into a true art form only in the past century.

144 NOUN MODIFIERS with NOUN MODIFIERS are often introduced by WRONG: The scientists THAT made the discovery were rewarded MGMAT SC Ch6 Modifiers p88 SC Modifiers
RELATIVE PRONOUNS RELATIVE PRONOUNS such as the following: WRONG: The scientists WHO made the discovery were rewardedRIGHT: The TOWN
WHICH, THAT, WHO, WHOSE, WHOM, WHERE, WHOSE water supply was contaminatedRIGHT: The canal THROUGH WHICH water
WHEN. Such modifiers are called RELATIVE flowsRIGHT: The senator FOR WHOM we workedWRONG: The security guard WHO
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CLAUSES. WE MET was niceRIGHT: The security guard WHOM WE MET was niceRIGHT: The
WHO and WHOM must modifiy ONLY movie THAT we watched last Friday was scaryRIGHT: The movie WE WATCHED last
PEOPLEWHICH must modify THINGSTHAT or Friday was scaryWRONG: We had an arrangement WHERE he cooked and I
22

WHICH can NOT modify PEOPLEWHOSE can cleanedRIGHT: We had an arrangement IN WHICH he cooked and I cleaned.
modify BOTH PEOPLE OR THINGSWHICH or
WHOM can follow PREPOSITIONSWHO is the
SUBJECT of the verb in the RELATIVE
CLAUSEWHOM is the OBJECT of the verb or of a
prepositionTHAT or WHOM can be DROPPED when
MODIFIED NOUN is the OBJECT of the
MODIFYING CLAUSEWHERE must modify a NOUN
PLACE and NOT A METAPHORICAL PLACE such as
CONDITION, SITUATION, CASE,
CIRCUMSTANCES, or ARRANGEMENTIN WHICH
modifies METAPHORICAL PLACESWHEN OR IN
WHICH modifies NOUN EVENTS or TIME such as
PERIOD, AGE, 1987, or DECADE.
145 ESSENTIAL versus ESSENTIAL MODIFIERS provide NECESSARY info ESSENTIAL: The MANSION PAINTED RED is owned by the LEES MGMAT SC Ch6 Modifiers p89 SC Modifiers
NON-ESSENTIAL NOUN to IDENTIFY the NOUN out of many possibilities Lees owned which house? THE MANSION PAINTED RED
MODIFIERS or to ATTACH the modifier to the NOUN from that NON-ESSENTIAL: THIS MANSION, RECENTLY PAINTED RED, is owned by the Lees.
point onward. Lees owned which house? THIS MANSION
NON-ESSENTIAL MODIFIERS provide EXTRA info
for a NOUN that has already been identified.
NON-ESSENTIAL MODIFIERS can be EXCLUDED
and any later reference to the noun does NOT
INLCLUDE EXTRA info
ESSENTIAL MODIFIERS HAVE NO COMMAS.
NON-ESSENTIAL MODIFIERS HAVE COMMAS.
146 WHICH versus THAT Use WHICH AND COMMAS if modifier is NON- NON-ESSENTIAL: THIS MANSION, WHICH HAS BEEN RECENTLY PAINTED RED, is MGMAT SC Ch6 Modifiers p89 SC Modifiers
ESSENTIAL owned by the Lees.
Use THAT AND NO COMMAS if modifier is ESSENTIAL: The MANSION THAT HAS BEEN AINED RED is owned by the Lees.
ESSENTIAL

However a simple choice between THAT and


WHICH may not exist when WHICH and a
PREPOSITION are USED TOGETHER, but the
COMMA RULE applies.
147 COMMA RULE Use COMMA with NON-ESSENTIAL WHICH's, and NON-ESSENTIAL: THIS MANSION, FOR WHICH I yearn, is owned by the Lees MGMAT SC Ch6 Modifiers p89 SC Modifiers
DO NOT USE COMMAS with ESSENTIAL WHICH's ESSENTIAL: The MANSION FOR WHICH I YEARN is owned by the Lees
Other relative pronouns, such as WHO, can be
used in essential or non-essential modifiers.
USE COMMAS ONLY FOR NON-ESSENTIAL
MODIFIERS
148 VERB MODIFIERS VERB MODIFIERS modify VERBS and answer Type/First Words, Position, Example MGMAT SC Ch6 Modifiers p89 SC Modifiers
questions such as HOW, WHEN, WHERE, WHY, ADVERB, BEFORE VERB, FREQUENTLY, I WALK to the store. I FREQUENTLY WALK
etc. Most basic verb modifier is AN ADVERB. to the store.
ADVERB, AFTER VERB, I WALK to the store FREQUENTLY
PREPOSITION, BEFORE VERB, ON MONDAYS, I WALK to the store.
PREPOSITION, AFTER VERB, I WALK to the store ON MONDAYS
SUBORDINATOR, BEFORE VERB, WHEN my car is broken, I WALK to the store
SUBORDINATOR, AFTER VERB, I WALK to the store WHEN my car is broken

149 SUBORDINATORS SUBORDINATORS begin SUBORDINATE CLAUSES SUBORDINATORS include words such as MGMAT SC Ch6 Modifiers p89 SC Modifiers
which CANNOT stand alone as sentences, but BECAUSE
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rather are ATTACHED to MAIN CLAUSES ALTHOUGH


IF
UNLESS
WHILE
23

SO THAT
WHILE
150 ADDITIONAL VERB Some VERB MODIFIERS may apply to BOTH VERB Type/First Words, Position, Example MGMAT SC Ch6 Modifiers p90 SC Modifiers
MODIFIERS AND VERB'S SUBJECT. In these cases, the PRESENT PARTICIPLE with COMMAS, BEFORE VERB, WHISTLING "Beat It", I
SUBJECT MUST MAKE SENSE with the MODIFIER LIFTED the weight
PREPOSITION with SIMPLE GERUND, BEFORE VERB, BY CONCENTRATING, I
LIFTED the weight
PREPOSITION with SIMPLE GERUND, AFTER VERB, I LIFTED the weight BY
CONCENTRATING
INFINITIVE of PURPOSE, BEFORE VERB, TO FREE my leg, I LIFTED the weight
INFINITIVE of PURPOSE, AFTER VERB, I LIFTED the weight TO FREE my leg

WRONG: The weight was lifted BY CONCENTRATING


WRONG: The weight was lifted TO FREE my leg

151 NOUN MODIFIERS VERB MODIFIERS can be placed MORE FREELY WRONG: The nameless symphony was at last performed, decades after it was MGMAT SC Ch6 Modifiers p90 SC Modifiers
versus VERB than NOUN MODIFIERS, WHICH MUST TOUCH composed, YESTERDAY
MODIFIERS THE NOUN. RIGHT: The nameless symphony WAS at last PERFORMED YESTERDAY, decades
HOWEVER, VERB MODIFIERS must be PLACED to after it was composed
MODIFY a VERB so that NO AMBIGUITY exists
152 WHICH versus Use WHICH ONLY to REFER to the NOUN WRONG: Crime has recently decreased in OUR NEIGHBORHOOD, WHICH has led to MGMAT SC Ch6 Modifiers p91 SC Modifiers
PRESENT PARTICIPLE IMMEDIATELY PRECEDING IT. a rise in property values
-ING WHICH NEVER REFERS to an ENTIRE CLAUSE RIGHT: The recent DECREASE in crime in our neighborhood HAS LED to a rise in
property values
RIGHT: CRIME HAS RECENTLY DECREASED IN OUR NEIGHBORHOOD, LEADING to
a rise in property values

153 PRESENT PARTICIPLE The -ING form is very FLEXIBLE. It can modify MODIFY NOUNS: the CHANGING seasons MGMAT SC Ch6 Modifiers p91 SC Modifiers
-ING NOUNS DIRECTLY MODIFY VERB: I LIFTED the weights, WHISTLING
It can modify VERBS and THEIR SUBJECTS MODIFY ENTIRE CLAUSES: CRIME HAS RECENTLY DECREASED IN OUR
It can modify ENTIRE CLAUSES, as long as the NEIGHBORHOOD, LEADING to a rise in property values
entire clause CONVERTED INTO A NOUN PHRASE,
could function as the SUBJECT of the verb that is
in -ING FORM. This works ONLY when you want
to EXPRESS THE RESULT of the main clause
154 BASED ON [X] versus BASED ON [X} modifies the NOUN subject of the WRONG: BASED ON the recent decline in enrollment, he admissions office MGMAT SC Ch6 Modifiers p98 SC Modifiers
BECAUSE OF [X} main clause and NOT the verb. BECAUSE OF is a DECIDED to evaluate its recruitment strategies
prepositional phrase that describes a cause-effect RIGHT: BECAUSE OF the recent decline in enrollment, he admissions office
situation and describes the VERB. DECIDED to evaluate its recruitment strategies

155 BASED ON … modifies a VERB. BASED ON .. Is OG 12 SC 25 SC Modifiers


Page

equivalent to ON ACCOUNT OF. Note that the


noun is modified not by the event but by the
BASIS of that event. An ING- introductory clause
MODIFIES a NOUN and must make LOGICAL
24

SENSE. http://www.beatthegmat.com/sc-
confusing-modifiers-t15768.html
156 ARGUING FOR is the proper idiom over ARGUING OG 12 SC 38 SC Modifiers
IN. ADVOCATING does not require any
succeeding preoposition similar to CONSIDER.
157 TARGETED … AT is the proper idiom over OG 12 SC 40 SC Modifiers
TARGETED … TO
158 IDIOM: X IS/ARE TO Y WHAT A ARE/IS TO B OG 12 SC 58 SC Modifiers
159 Idiom: Active voice - ATTRIBUTES X (an effect) OG 12 SC 79 SC Modifiers
TO Y (a cause). Passive voice - X (The effect) IS
ATTRIBUTED TO Y (the cause)
160 THE FINDING OF is unidiomatic. THE FINDING OG Verbal SC 63 SC Modifiers
THAT is idiomatic unless you are literally FINDING
or locating something. [ONE] REASON THAT is
161 SUBSTITUTES X FOR Y is the correct idiom (NOT OG Verbal SC 91 SC Modifiers
SUBSTITUTE X IN PLACE OF Y, etc.)
162 EXPONENT RULE for Any number ending in a units digit of 3 will have What is the remainder when 43^43+ 33^33 is divided by 10? http://www.beatthegmat.com/a/2009/08/18 NP Exponents
NUMBERS THAT HAVE the units digit pattern: 3, 9, 7, 1, repeating. /breaking-down-an-exponent-question
UNIT DIGITS OF 3 The pattern repeats every 4th term. So 3^4, 3^8, 3^12, etc, will all have the
units digit 1. What is the largest multiple of 4 that is still less than the exponent,
43, in our starting number? 40 is the largest multiple of 4 that is still smaller than
43. So, 3^40 will have a units digit of 1, 3^41 will have a units digit of 3, 3^42
will have a units digit of 9, and 3^43 will have a units digit of 7.

Same pattern as above. 3^32 will have a units digit of 1, 3^33 will have a units
digit of 3.

So the units digit of 43^43 = 7 and the units digit of 33^33 = 3. 7 + 3 = 10,
which is a units digit of 0. Anything that ends in 0 will also have a remainder of 0
when divided by 10!

163 VERB TENSE versus VERB TENSE indicate when the action of the verb MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice SC Verb Tense,
VERB MOOD versus takes place. Strategy p105 Mood, &
VERB VOICE Voice
VERB MOOD indicates what the writer believes Strategy
about, or wants to do with, the action. TWO
MOODS are tested: SUBJUNCTIVE and
INDICATIVE,
INDICATATIVE is used to describe KNOWLEDGE
AND BELIEF.
SUBJUNCTIVE is used to express SUGGESTIONS,
DESIRES, or HYPOTHETICAL events.

VERB VOICE indicates who or what is doing the


action. Two VOICES are tested: ACTIVE and
PASSIVE.
ACTIVE VOICE - the subject of sentence performs
the action
PASSIVE VOICE - the subject of the sentence has
an action performed on it by someone or
something else
164 SIMPLE TENSES SIMPLE PRESENT, SIMPLE PAST, and SIMPLE SIMPLE PRESENT: Sandy PLAYS well with her friends MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice SC Verb Tense,
FUTURES are the three SIMPLE TENSES. SIMPLE SIMPLE PAST: Sandy PLAYED well with her friends yesterday Strategy p105 Mood, &
PRESENT express three basic times and are often SIMPLE FUTURE: Sandy WILL PLAY well with her friends tomorrow. Voice
to express "ETERNAL" states or FREQUENT Strategy
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events. SIMPLE TENSES are preferred over the In SIMPLE PRESENT, Sandy is NOT playing right now, but rather that as a general
more complex tenses rule, Sandy plays well with her friends.
25

165 PROGRESSIVE TENSES To emphasize the ongoing nature of an action, PRESENT PROGRESSIVE: Sandy IS PLAYING well with her friends MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice SC Verb Tense,
PROGRESSIVE tenses are used by combining TO PAST PROGRESSIVE: Sandy WAS PLAYING well with her friends yesterday Strategy p105 Mood, &
BE with the VERB in the -ING form. FUTURE PROGRESSIVE: Sandy WILL BE PLAYING well with her friends tomorrow. Voice
Strategy
In PRESENT PROGRESSIVE, Sandy is playing RIGHT NOW. In SIMPLE PRESENT,
Sandy plays soccer, she plays FREQUENTLY or she KNOWS how to play.
166 PROGRESSIVE versus DO NOT use PRESENT PROGRESSIVE for general WRONG: Cherenkov radiation is light that particles ARE EMITTING when they ARE MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice SC Verb Tense,
SIMPLE TENSE RULE 1: tenses. SIMPLE PRESENT must be USED. TRAVELING faster than the effective speed of light in any medium Strategy p106 Mood, &
GENERAL RIGHT: Cherenkov radiation is light that particles EMIT when they TRAVEL faster Voice
DEFINITIONS than the effective speed of light in any medium Strategy

167 PROGRESSIVE versus DO NOT use PRESENT PROGRESSIVE for general WRONG: Bob IS MEETING Harvey for lunch tomorrow MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice SC Verb Tense,
SIMPLE TENSE RULE 2: tenses. SIMPLE FUTURE must be USED. RIGHT: Bob WILL MEET Harvey for lunch tomorrow. Strategy p106 Mood, &
FUTURE ACTIONS Voice
Strategy
168 PROGRESSIVE versus DO NOT use PROGRESSIVE in general to express WRONG: This inscription IS SIGNIFYING the emperor's birth MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice SC Verb Tense,
SIMPLE TENSE RULE 3: GENERAL STATES. STATE VERBS like KNOW or RIGHT: This inscription SIGNIFIES the emperor's birth Strategy p106 Mood, &
STATE VERBS SIGNIFY usually are written in simple form. Voice
Strategy
169 VERB CONSISTENCY In a sentence, unless a logical predication exists, She WALKED to school in the morning and RAN home in the afternoon MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice SC Verb Tense,
keep VERBS CONSISTENT in the SAME TENSE. She WALKS to school in the morning and RUNS home in the afternoon Strategy p107 Mood, &
She WILL WALK to school in the morning and RUN home in the afternoon Voice
Strategy
Note that the WILL applies to both verbs because of parallelism

RIGHT: He IS THINNER now because he SPENT the last 6 months on a strict diet
RIGHT: She WAS PLAYING with her friends when the babysitter ARRIVED.
WAS PLAYING takes place in the background, and ARRIVE is the interrupting
foreground event
RIGHT: She PLAYED with her friends when the babysitter ARRIVED
PLAYED took place AFTER the babysitter ARRIVED

170 PERFECT TENSES TENSE that is used to describe COMPLEX time MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice SC Verb Tense,
sequences that can not be expressed with SIMPLE Strategy p108 Mood, &
or PROGRESSIVE tenses. Voice
Strategy
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26
171 PRESENT PERFECT means STILL IN EFFECT. ACTION OCCURING FROM A MOMENT in the PAST <= CONTINUING THROUGH MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice SC Verb Tense,
PRESENT PERFECT tense for actions that NOW Strategy p108 Mood, &
PRESENT PERFECT
STARTED IN THE PAST BUT CONTINUE INTO THE RIGHT: We HAVE LIVED in a hut for 3 daysSTARTED living in hut 3 days ago and Voice
PRESENT, OR REMAIN TRUE IN THE PRESENT. It STILL living in hutRIGHT: We LIVED in the hut for 3 daysNO LONGER living in the Strategy
has one FOOT in the PAST and one FOOT in the hut and 3 days are overRIGHT: This country HAS ENFORCED strict immigration
PRESENT. PRESENT PERFECT is defined by laws FOR 30 YEARSRIGHT: They HAVE KNOWN SINCE 1987Sentence had an action
[HAVE/HAS + PAST PARTICIPLE]. PRESENT that BEGAN in the PAST and CONTINUING INTO the PRESENT. The
PERFECT indicates either CONTINUED ACTION or CONTINUATION is described by FOR 30 YEARS and SINCE 1987Right: The child
CONTINUED EFFECT of a COMPLETED ACTION. HAS DRAWN a square in the sandThe child is NO LONGER drawing a square, but
the square still REMAINS. If the square is GONE, then SIMPLE PAST is
neededRIGHT: The child DREW a square in the sand, but the ocean ERASED
it.RIGHT: The child DREW a square in the sand, but the ocean HAS ERASED
it.Awkward: The child HAS DRAWN a square in the sand, but the ocean HAS
ERASED it.The first RIGHT with SIMPLE PAST says the current state of the sand IS
NOT KNOWN. The second RIGHT with PRESENT PERFECT says the sand is
SQUARE-FREE.

172 WITHIN or SINCE and If you use SINCE or WITHIN, you MUST use WRONG: SINCE 1986, no one broke that world record MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice SC Verb Tense,
PRESENT PERFECT PRESENT PERFECT and NOT SIMPLE PAST to RIGHT: Since 1986, no one HAS BROKEN that world record Strategy p108 Mood, &
versus SIMPLE PAST indicate CONTINUED ACTION or EFFECT of a RIGHT: WITHIN the past 10 days, no one HAS BROKEN the world record Voice
COMPLETED ACTION. Strategy

173 IN and PRESENT If you use IN to discuss a COMPLETED time WRONG: Veronic HAS TRAVELED all over the world IN 2007 MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice SC Verb Tense,
PERFECT versus period, use SIMPLE PAST and NOT PRESENT RIGHT: Veronica TRAVELED all over the world IN 2007 Strategy p108 Mood, &
Page

SIMPLE PAST PERFECT Voice


If this sentence was used "Veronica HAS TRAVELED all over the world", you are Strategy
talking about Veronic TODAY. The examples above talk about 2007 time period so
SIMPLE PAST is needed
27

174 PRESENT PERFECT PRESENT PERFECT can be placed earlier than RIGHT: She WILL PAY you when you ASK her MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice SC Verb Tense,
with -ING forms, another action in -ING forms, INFINITIVES, or time of WILL PAY = time of [WILL] ASK. Note [WILL] is OPTIONAL since WILL is Strategy p109 Mood, &
INFINITIVES, or SUBORDINATE CLAUSES used in SUBORDINATE CLAUSE Voice
SUBORDINATE RIGHT: She WILL PAY you when you HAVE TAKEN out the garbage. Strategy
CLAUSES Time of WILL PAY is LATER than FUTURE time of HAVE TAKEN
175 PAST PERFECT PAST PERFECT (earlier past moment) < SIMPLE PAST (later past monent) < NOW MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice SC Verb Tense,
Strategy p109 Mood, &
PAST PERFECT means EARLIER ACTION. If TWO ACTIONS occurred at
RIGHT: The film HAD STARTED by the time we ARRIVED at the theater Voice
different times in the PAST, PAST PERFECT is the PAST of the PAST or
RIGHT: The teacher THOUGHT that Jimmy HAD CHEATED on the exam Strategy
PAST TWICE REMOVED. PAST PERFECT is defined with [HAD + PAST
PARTICIPLE]
USE PAST PERFECT ONLY IF NECESSARY
RIGHT: An asteroid STRUCK the earth millions of years AGO
STRUCK = SIMPLE PAST. NO MULTIPLE PAST events occurred so PAST PERFECT is
NOT needed.

176 AND, BEFORE, AFTER, In a GENERAL rule (not exact), clauses linked Also if OBVIOUS statements occur because of VERB SEQUENCE, no PAST PERFECT MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice SC Verb Tense,
and BUT with PAST with AND, BEFORE, AFTER, or BUT do NOT NEED is needed Strategy p110 Mood, &
PERFECT versus past perfect. RIGHT: Antonio DROVE to the store and BOUGHT some ice cream Voice
SIMPLE PAST RIGHT: Antonio DROVE to the store, and Cristina BOUGHT some ice cream Strategy

RIGHT: Laura LOCKED the DEADBOLT BEFORE she LEFT for work
LOCKED happens before LEFT because of BEFORE. BEFORE and AFTER indicate
sequence of events to make PAST PERFECT unnecessary

177 PAST EVENT and PAST EVENT should have SIMPLE PAST tense. LATER PAST events DO NOT need SIMPLE PAST. A DATE or TIME REFERENCE can MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice SC Verb Tense,
LATER PAST EVENT LATER PAST EVENT should have PAST PERFECT be USED Strategy p110 Mood, &
with SIMPLE PAST and tense. RIGHT: BY 1945, The United STates HAD BEEN at war for several years Voice
PAST PERFECT Strategy
FIRST CLAUSE can be in EARLY action in SIMPLE PAST, and SECOND CLAUSE as
LATER ACTION in PAST PERFECT to indicate CONTINUED EFFECT (by still a later
past time)
RIGHT: The band U2 WAS just one of the many new groups on the rock music
scene in the early 1980's, but less than ten years later, U2 HAD fully ECLIPSED its
early rivals in the pantheon of popular music

178 PERFECT TENSES PERFECT TENSES should only be used WHEN WRONG: Joe LEARNED about an epoch in which dinosaurs HAD WALKED the earth MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice SC Verb Tense,
Page

NEED RULE NECESSARY. GMAT prefers SIMPLE TENSES over RIGHT: Joe LEARNED about an epoch in which dinosaurs WALKED the earthHAD Strategy p110 Mood, &
PERFECT TENSES. PERFECT TENSES should WALKED is unnecessary. HAD WALKED did take place earlier than LEARNED did, Voice
ONLY be used to STRESS SEQUENCE of time or but EARLIER ACTION does NOT have a direct bearing on the CONTEXT of the later Strategy
events action. SEQUENCE of time or events does not need to be CLARIFIED.
28
179 TENSE SEQUENCE The REPORTING VERB tense must serve as the RIGHT: The supercollider IS ready, it DID not COST too much, and it WILL MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice SC Verb Tense,
BASE of the other VERB tenses. The other verb PROVIDE new insights. Strategy p111 Mood, &
TENSES will SHIFT RELATIVE to the REPORTING RIGHT: The scientist ANNOUNCED that the supercollider WAS ready, it HAD not Voice
VERB TENSE. With a PAST TENSE reporting verb, COST too much, and it WOULD PROVIDE new insights. Strategy
move PRESENT to PAST, PAST to PAST PERFECT, IS (Simple PRESENT) => WAS (Simple PAST)
and FUTURE to CONDITIONAL in which WILL is DID NOT COST (Simple PAST) => HAD NOT COST (PAST PERFECT)
changed To WOULD WILL PROVIDE (Simple FUTURE) => WOULD PROVIDE (CONDITIONAL TENSE)
The helping verb WOULD expresses FUTURE from PAST's point of view

180 CONDITIONAL TENSE With a PAST TENSE reporting verb, move RIGHT: I WILL PROVIDE money MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice SC Verb Tense,
PRESENT to PAST, PAST to PAST PERFECT, and RIGHT: I WOULD PROVIDE money Strategy p111 Mood, &
FUTURE to CONDITIONAL in which WILL is Voice
changed To WOULD. The helping verb WOULD Strategy
expresses FUTURE from PAST's point of view
181 REPORTING In REPORTING SENTENCES, AVOID mixing RIGHT: The scientist BELIEVES that the machine WILL BE wonderful MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice SC Verb Tense,
SENTENCES and PRESENT TENSE with CONDITIONAL TENSES. BELIEVES = Simple PRESENT Strategy p111 Mood, &
TENSES AVOID mixing PAST TENSE with FUTURE TENSE. WILL BE = Simple FUTURE Voice
Usual sequences are EITHER PRESENT+FUTURE, Strategy
or PAST+CONDITIONAL RIGHT: The scientist BELIEVED that the machine WOULD BE wonderful
BELIEVED = Simple PAST
WOULD BE = CONDITIONAL

WRONG: The scientist BELIEVES that the machine WOULD BE wonderful


BELIEVES = Simple PRESENT
WOULD BE = CONDITIONAL (SHOULD BE SIMPLE FUTURE)

WRONG: The scientist BELIEVED that the machine WILL BE wonderful


BELIEVED = Simple PAST
WILL BE = SIMPLE FUTURE (SHOULD BE CONDITIONAL)

182 SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD INDICATIVE MOOD, IMPERATIVE MOOD, and RIGHT: If I WERE a rich man, … MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice SC Verb Tense,
SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD are 3 different TYPES of WRONG: If I WAS a rich man, … Strategy p112 Mood, &
Page

MOODS. INDICATE expresses KNOWLEDGE or Voice


BELIEF. IMPERATIVE expresses EXCLAMATION or RIGHT implies hypothetical situation or subjunctive mood Strategy
EMOTION. SUBJUNCTIVE expresses two types WRONG implies that you ARE a rich man with certainty.
1) HYPOTHETICAL Subjunctive: UNLIKELY or
29

UNREAL situation (Usually after IF or similar


word)
2) COMMAND Subjunctive: PROPOSALS,
DESIRES, and REQUESTS with certain verbs and
THAT

Basic form of SUBJUNCTIVE is to use TO BE in


SIMPLE PAST format with ONE EXCEPTION: WERE
is ALWAYS used and NOT WAS.
183 HYPOTHETICAL HYPOTHETICAL SUBJUNCTIVE indicates UNLIKELY RIGHT: To overcome my fear of germs, I will think about disease AS THOUGH it MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice SC Verb Tense,
SUBJUNCTIVE or UNREAL conditions introduces by words such WERE harmless Strategy p112 Mood, &
as IF, AS IF, or AS THOUGH. The speaker does not believe that disease IS harmless, but with the word WERE, Voice
she reveals a hypothetical situation that she THINKS that the disease is NOT Strategy
harmless.

WRONG: Water freezes if it were cooled to zero degrees Celsius.


RIGHT: Water freezes if it IS cooled to zero degrees Celsius.
RIGHT: Water freezes if cooled to zero degrees Celsius.
INDICATIVE tense is PRESENT, and implies NO UNCERTAINTY so HYPOTHETICAL
SUBJUNCTIVE does NOT EXIST and follows the first IF-THEN construction rule

184 IF … THEN IF do NOT ALWAYS use Hypothetical Subjunctive. RIGHT: IF you study diligently, [THEN] you will score highly MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice SC Verb Tense,
CONSTRUCTIONS Sentences with IF condition and THEN outcome RIGHT: You will socre highly IF you study diligently1) GENERAL RULE WITH NO Strategy p112 Mood, &
can follow any of these patterns. THEN CAN be UNCERTAINTY (EQUIVALENT to WHENEVER)IF X HAPPENS, THEN Y Voice
OMITTED. Five PATTERNS exist HAPPENSWHENEVER X HAPPENS, THEN Y HAPPENSIF Sophie EATS pizza, THEN Strategy
1) GENERAL with NO UNCERTAINTY 2) GENERAL she BECOMES ill.WHENEVER Sophie EATS pizza, THEN she BECOMES ill.IF Present,
with SOME UNCERTAINTY3) PARTICULAR (in THEN Present2) GENERAL RULE with SOME UNCERTAINTYIF X HAPPENS, THEN Y
FUTURE) with NO UNCERTAINTY4) UNLIKELY (in MAY HAPPENIF Sophie EATS pizza, THEN she MAY BECOME ill.IF Present, THEN
FUTURE)5) CASE that NEVER HAPPENED (in CAN or MAYCAN or MAY allows for UNCERTAIN outcomes3) PARTICULAR CASE (in
PAST) the future) with NO UNCERTAINTYIF X HAPPENS, THEN Y WILL HAPPENY WILL
HAPPEN ONLY IF X HAPPENS FIRSTIF Sophie EATS pizza tomorrow, THEN she WILL
BECOME illIf Present, THEN FutureIf Sophie HAS EATEN pizza, then She WILL
BECOME illIF Present Perfect, THEN FUTURE4) UNLIKELY CASE (IN THE FUTURE)IF
X HAPPENED, THEN Y WOULD/COULD HAPPENIF Sophie ATE pizza tomorrow, then
she WOULD / COULD become illIF HYPOTHETICAL SUBJUNCTIVE, THEN
CONDITIONAL5) CASE that NEVER HAPPENED (IN THE PAST)IF X HAD HAPPENED,
THEN Y WOULD HAVE HAPPENEDIF Sophie HAD EATEN pizza yesterday, THEN she
WOULD HAVE BECOME ill.If Past Perfect, THEN CONDITIONAL PERFECTWOULD and
SHOULD NEVER go in IF part of sentence!ONCE X HAD HAPPENED, THEN Y
HAPPENED.
Page
30
185 COMMAND COMMAND SUBJUNCTIVE is used with BOSSY BOSSY VERB + THAT + subject + COMMAND SUBJUNCTIVE MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice SC Verb Tense,
SUBJUNCTIVE VERBS such as REQUIRE or PROPOSE. BOSSY The agency REQUIRED that he BE ready before noon Strategy p113-114 Mood, &
VERBS tell people to do things and make verbs We PROPOSE that the school board DISBAND Voice
become BARE FORMS (infinitives WITHOUT "TO") BE and DISBAND are in SUBJUNCTIVE Mood in BARE FORM: Strategy
with TWO exceptions: 1) NO -S ending in the COMMAND SUBJUNCTIVE:
verb (DISBAND, not DISBANDS) 2) TO BE BE ready before noon, Gary!
becomes BE and not IS, ARE, or AM. DISBAND, school board!

186 INCORRECT COMMAND Note the following INCORRECT COMMAND RIGHT: BOSSY VERB + THAT + subject + COMMAND SUBJUNCTIVE MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice SC Verb Tense,
SUBJUNCTIVES SUBJUNCTIVES. Do NOT use SHOULD in Strategy p114 Mood, &
COMMAND SUBJUNCTIVES WRONG: We PROPOSE the school board DISBAND (THAT is MANDATORY) Voice
WRONG: We PROPOSE THAT the school board DISBANDS Strategy
WRONG: We PROPOSE THAT the school board IS TO DISBAND
WRONG: We PROPOSE THAT the school board WILL DISBAND
WRONG: We PROPOSE THAT the school board SHOULD DISBAND

187 INFINITIVE versus Some BOSSY VERBS take infinitives and not RIGHT: The vice president WANTS her TO GO to the retreat MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice SC Verb Tense,
SUBJUNCTIVe for subjunctives. It is an IDIOMATIC preference. WRONG: The vice president WANTS THAT she GO to the retreat Strategy p114 Mood, &
BOSSY VERBS Voice
Strategy
188 COMMON BOSSY DEMAND, DICTATE, INSIST, MANDATE, RIGHT: We DEMAND that he BE here MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice SC Verb Tense,
VERBS that take PROPOSE, RECOMMEND, REQUEST, STIPULATE, Strategy p114 Mood, &
SUBJUNCTIVE SUGGEST Voice
Strategy
189 COMMON BOSSY ADVISE, ALLOW, FORBID, PERSUADE, WANT. RIGHT: We ALLOW him to be here MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice SC Verb Tense,
VERBS that take NOTE that these verbs do NOT NEED THAT THAT is NOT needed Strategy p114 Mood, &
INFINITIVE Voice
Strategy
190 COMMON BOSSY ASK, BEG, INTEND, ORDER, PREFER, URGE, We REQUIRE THAT he be here MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice SC Verb Tense,
VERBS that take BOTH REQUIRE (SPECIAL) We REQUIRE HIM TO BE here Strategy p114 Mood, &
SUBJUNCTIVE and Voice
INFINITIVE Strategy
191 REQUIRE THAT subj ASK, BEG, INTEND, ORDER, PREFER, URGE, We REQUIRE THAT he be here MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice SC Verb Tense,
cmdSubj versus REQUIRE (SPECIAL) We REQUIRE HIM TO BE here Strategy p114 Mood, &
REQUIRE subj verb Voice
Page

Strategy
192 BOSSY VERBS that PROHIBIT RIGHT: The agency PROHIBITED him FROM WORKING on weekends MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice SC Verb Tense,
have SPECIAL Strategy p115 Mood, &
construction Voice
31

Strategy
193 BOSSY NOUNS derived DEMAND or REQUEST can use SUBJUNCTIVE RIGHT: His DEMAND THAT he BE paid full severance was not met MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice SC Verb Tense,
from BOSSY VERBS verbs. If sentence has DEMAND, Look for either Strategy p115 Mood, &
for an INFINITIVE or THAT followed by COMMAND Voice
SUBJUNCTIVE Strategy
194 IT IS X with IT IS X can be illustrated by having X as an RIGHT: IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT he BE ready before noon MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice SC Verb Tense,
SUBJUNCTIVE or ADJECTIVE that conveys URGENCY. RIGHT: IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT he TO BE ready before noon Strategy p115 Mood, &
INFINITIVE X can be ESSENTIAL, ADVISABLE, CRUCIAL, Voice
DESIRABLE, FITTING, IMPERATIVE, IMPORTANT, Strategy
NECESSARY, MANDATORY, PREFERABLE,
URGENT, and VITAL
195 WHETHER with AVOID WHETHER with SUBJUNCTIVE. IT should WRONG: I like ice cream, WHETHER it BE chocolate, vanilla, or any other flavor MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice SC Verb Tense,
SUBJUNCTIVE use IS, ARE, or similar TO BE forms RIGHT: I like ice cream, WHETHER it IS chocolate, vanilla, or any other flavor. Strategy p115 Mood, &
Voice
Strategy
196 ACTIVE versus ACTIVE voice - the subject of the sentence ACTIVE: The hungry students ATE the pizza MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice SC Verb Tense,
PASSIVE voice performs the action PASSIVE: The pizza WAS EATEN by the hungry studentsWRONG: The pizza GOT Strategy p115 Mood, &
PASSIVE voice - the subject of the sentence has EATEN by the hungry students.WRONG: The pizza must GET EATEN Voice
an action performed on it by someone or todayPASSIVE: It HAS BEEN DECIDED by Jason that he will not attend Strategy
something else. It is normally formed by using collegeACTIVE: Jason HAS DECIDED not to attend college
TO BE verbs with a past participle. GET verb
should NOT be used. PASSIVE voices are
USUALLY NOT correct because they are wordy or
the identity of main subject is uncertain, but
PASSIVE CAN BE correct because it is NOT
UNGRAMMATICAL when no other answer choice is
correct
197 BY versus THROUGH Whoever actually performs the ACTION in the WRONG: The pizza WAS accidentally EATEN BY a quirk of fate MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice SC Verb Tense,
versus BECAUSE OF sentence may follow the verb in the phrase WRONG: A quirk of fate accidentally ate the pizza Strategy p116 Mood, &
headed by the preposition BY (BY THE HUNGRY RIGHT: THROUGH a quirk of fate, the pizza WAS accidentally EATEN Voice
STUDENTS). Use BY only for the ACTUAL DOERS Strategy
of the action (SUBJECT). Use THROUGH or
BECAUSE OF when you want to DESCRIBE
INSTRUMENT or MEANS, which might be awkward
in ACTIVE voice but clear in PASSIVE voice
198 TRANSITIVE VERBS Verbs that take DIRECT OBJECTS can be written WRONG: The aliens WERE ARRIVED on Nepture in the 20th century MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice SC Verb Tense,
in PASSIVE VOICE. Verbs that do NOT TAKE RIGHT: The aliens ARRIVED on Neptune in the 20th century j Strategy p116 Mood, &
DIRECT OBJECTS should NEVER be written in Voice
PASSIVE form WRONG: TV shows PLAYED on Friday. Strategy
RIGHT: TV shows WERE PLAYED on Friday.

WRONG: The shuttle launch SEEN AROUND THE WORLD by people of all ages, all
races, and all religions
RIGHT: The shuttle launch WAS SEEN AROUND THE WORLD by people of all ages,
all races, and all religions

199 COMPARISONS Comparisons are a form of PARALLELISM that IMPORTANT COMPARISON SIGNALS MGMAT SC Ch8 Comparisons p127 SC Comparison
deserves SPECIAL attention. COMPARISONS LIKE s
compare TWO PARTS of the sentence or MORE UNLIKE
than TWO PARTS. Spot SIGNAL words or phrases MORE THAN
and IDENTIFY the COMPARISON so that they LESS THAN
make sense LOGICALLY and STRUCTURALLY. FASTER THAN
DIFFERENT FROM
IN CONTRAST TO/WITH
AS
AS adjective AS
Page

AS MUCH AS
AS LITTLE AS
AS FAST AS
THE SAME AS
32

200 LIKE versus AS LIKE is a PREPOSITION. LIKE must be followed RIGHT: LIKE HER BROTHER, AVA aced the test MGMAT SC Ch8 Comparisons p127 SC Comparison
by NOUNS, PRONOUNS, or NOUN PHRASES. RIGHT: LIKE SWIMMING, SKIING is a great exercise s
Never put a clause or prepositional phrase after HER BROTHER and AVA are compared as NOUNS
LIKE. CLAUSE contains WORKING VERB (one SWIMMING and SKIING are compared as NOUNS
that can be the MAIN VERB in sentence). LIKE
compares TWO NOUNS. WRONG: LIKE HER BROTHER DID, AVA ACED the test
AS is either PREPOSITION (with a NOUN) or RIGHT: AS HER BROTHER DID, AVA ACED the test
CONJUNCTION (with a CLAUSE). AS can HER BROTHER DID is compared with AVA ACED because of the usage of AS
compare TWO CLAUSES and LIKE CANNOT
compare TWO CLAUSES.
201 COMPARISONS and The TWO items being COMPARED must be WRONG: Frank's BUILD, LIKE his BROTHER, is broad and muscular MGMAT SC Ch8 Comparisons p128 SC Comparison
LOGICAL PARALLELISM PARALLEL and contain SIMILAR things. THAT and RIGHT: Frank's build, LIKE his BROTHER'S, is broad and muscular (Note that s
THOSE can be used to make NEW COPIES of the BUILD does not have to be repeated as it is IMPLIED)
NOUN being compared. RIGHT: Frank's BUILD, LIKE THAT OF HIS BROTHER, is broad and muscular
RIGHT: Frank's TOES, LIKE THOSE of his brother, are short and hairy

202 COMPARISONS and The compared items must have SIMILAR WRONG: I llike TO RUN through forests MORE THAN I ENJOY WALKING through MGMAT SC Ch8 Comparisons p129 SC Comparison
STRUCTURAL grammatical STRUCTURE crowds s
PARALLELISM RIGHT: I like RUNNING through forests MORE THAN WALKING through crowds

203 OMITTED WORDS POSSESSIVE NOUNS provide one opportunity in RIGHT: Frank's build, LIKE his BROTHER'S, is broad and muscular (Note that MGMAT SC Ch8 Comparisons p129 SC Comparison
which the noun being compared is omitted in the BUILD does not have to be repeated as it is IMPLIED) s
second instance. OMITTED words are OK RIGHT: My car is bigger than Brian's [car]
because they are IMPLIED. OMISSION of NOUNS RIGHT; My toes are longer than Brian's [toes]
as well as UNITS, VERBS, and WHOLE CLAUSES RIGHT: My car is bigger than the Smiths' [car]
are OK as long as NO AMBIGUITY exists. PUT in RIGHT: My toes are longer than the Smiths' [toes]
OMITTED words or HELPING VERBS like BE, DO,
or HAVE to REMOVE Ambiguity. UNNECESSARY RIGHT: Whereas I drink 2 quarts of milk a day, my friend drinks 3 [quarts].
HELPING VERBS are OK since NO AMBIGUITY still RIGHT: I walk faster than Brian [walks]
EXISTS. RIGHT: I walk as fast now as [I walked] when I was younger

RIGHT: Vishal eats more carrots than donuts (DONUTS must be the object)
WORDY: Vishal eats more carrots than HE DOES donuts
This is NOT ambiguous because DONUTS cannot EAT CARROTS so concise version
is preferred

AMBIGUOUS: I like cheese more than Yvette (Yvette could be subject or object)
RIGHT: I like cheese more than Yvette DOES (= than Yvette LIKES CHEESE)
RIGHT: I like cheese more than I DO Yvette (= than I LIKE Yvette)

UNNECESSARY HELPING VERBS


RIGHT: Apples are more healthy to eat than Caramels
RIGHT: Apples are more healthy to eat than Caramels ARE
Page
33
204 COMPARATIVE and When comparing TWO things, COMPARATIVE REGULAR FORMS MGMAT SC Ch8 Comparisons p130 SC Comparison
SUPERLATIVE FORMS form of adjective or adverb is used. When COMPARATIVE: She is SHORTER than her sister (ADD -ER)SUPERLATIVE: She is s
comparing THREE things, SUPERLATIVE form of the SHORTEST of her five siblings (ADD -EST)COMPARATIVE: You are MORE
adjective or adverb is used. INTERESTING than he (ADD MORE)SUPERLATIVE: You are the MOST INTERSTING
Do NOT compare ADVERB that ends in LY by person here (ADD MOST)COMPARATIVE: You are LESS INTERESTING than she
changing ENDING to ER. ADD MORE (ADD LESS)SUPERLATIVE: You are the LEAST INTERESTING person here (Add
INSTEADLikewise, Do NOT compare ADJECTIVES LEAST)IRREGULAR FORMSGOOD versus BETTER versus BESTWRONG: Adrians
with ADVERBS ending in LY. ADD -ER ending runs QUICKLY. He runs QUICKER than JACOBRIGHT: Adrians runs QUICKLY. He
instead runs MORE QUICKLY than JACOBWRONG: This car goes SLOWER than
yours.RIGHT: This car goes MORE SLOWLY than yoursRIGHT: Adrians runs FAST.
He runs FASTER than Jacob

205 THAN with ALWAYS use THAN with COMPARATIVE FORMS WRONG: With winter coming, I will have HIGHER energy bills. MGMAT SC Ch8 Comparisons p130 SC Comparison
COMPARATIVE form and NOT OVER. Do NOT use COMPARATIVE WRONG: I will have HIGHER bills OVER last year s
adjective unless you have THAN in the sentence. RIGHT: I will have HIGHER bills THAN last year
The sentence without THAN implies THAN NOW,
but it must EXPLICITLY be said so THAN MUST be
included
206 INSECURE versus NOT NOT SECURE versus INSECURE: NOT SECURE WRONG: His grip on the ball was INSECURE OG 12 SC 67 SC Verb Tense,
SECURE means not firmly held and INSECURE means not RIGHT: His grip on the ball was NOT SECURE Mood, &
confident WRONG: He had low self esteem so he was NOT SECURE Voice
WRONG: He had low self esteem so he was INSECURE Strategy

207 DOUBT in NEGATIVE DOUBT used in NEGATIVE construction must have WRONG: They did NOT DOUBT WHETHER … OG 12 SC 69 SC Verb Tense,
CONSTRUCTION THAT followed "there is no DOUBT THAT" or "He WRONG: They had NO DOUBT WHETHER... Mood, &
does not DOUBT THAT". RIGHT: They did NOT DOUBT THAT… Voice
RIGHT: They had NO DOUBT THAT... Strategy
208 ELLIPSIS If you omit a word in a sentence, that word must RIGHT: Beaded wedding gowns are so expensive because seamstress still OG 12 SC 87 SC Verb Tense,
have already appeared in the sentence PURSUES her art as they HAVE [PURSUED] for centuries. Mood, &
Page

RIGHT: Their wines are priced to SELL, and they DO [SELL] WRONG: Their wines Voice
are priced to SELL, and they HAVE [SOLD] Strategy
SOLD <> SELL
WRONG: Their wines are priced to SELL, and they ARE [SELLING]
34

SELLING <> SELL

209 ABOUT versus THAT ABOUT cannot introduce a clause. Only THAT can RIGHT: Smokers frequently expressed anxiety THAT their prospects for being hired OG Verbal SC 28 SC Verb Tense,
introduce a clause. and promoted are being stunted by their habit. Mood, &
WRONG: Smokers frequently expressed anxiety ABOUT their prospects for being Voice
hired and promoted are being stunted by their habit. Strategy
210 AS MUCH BECAUSE X Parallel structures that uses because with clauses WRONG: Retailers reporting gains, AS MUCH BECAUSE OF THEIR SALES A YEAR OG 12 SC 76 SC Comparison
AS BECAUSE Y with active verbs, thereby eliminating wordiness. EARLIER BEING AS BAD AS BECAUSE shoppers were getting headstarts in s
shopping
MISSING 2nd OF
RIGHT: Retailers reporting gains, AS MUCH BECAUSE THEIR SALES A YEAR
EARLIER HAD BEEN SO BAD AS BECAUSE shoppers were getting headstarts in
shopping

211 EQUIVALENT versus Equivalent means SAME IN NUMBER and WRONG: The contents of one beaker is as many as the that of the other beaker: OG Verbal SC 92 SC Rhetorical
AS MANY AS: CONTENT. AS MANY AS means SAME IN NUMBER they both contain 10 ml of water constructio
but NOT NECESSARILY CONTENT. RIGHT: The contents of the beakers are equivalent: they both contain 10 ml of n; Verb
water form
WRONG: The people in my class are equivalent to yours.
RIGHT: The people in my class are as many as yours.
212 EQUAL versus AS EQUAL is used for UNCOUNTABLE quantities. AS WRONG: Men has EQUAL genes AS women do. OG Verbal SC 92 SC Rhetorical
MANY AS MANY AS is used for COUNTABLE quantities RIGHT: Men have AS MANY genes AS women do. constructio
RIGHT: Men have AS MANY rights as women do n; Verb
RIGHT: Men and women have EQUAL rights form

RIGHTS are not countable


GENES are countable
213 HOW TO FIND IDIOMS USE YOUR EAR. SPOT the suspect idiomatic MGMAT SC Ch9 p141 SC Rhetorical
expression, EXTRACT various forms of the idiom, constructio
REPLACE the corrected idiom in the snetence n; Verb
form
214 SUCCEED IN DOING SUCCEED IN DOING is preferred over SUCCEED RIGHT: They TRIED TO REACH the summit and SUCCEED IN DOING SO MGMAT SC Ch9 p141 SC Idioms
versus SUCCEED TO TO DO
DO WRONG: They TRIED IN REACHING the summit and SUCCEEDED TO DO so

215 ** ABILITY TO versus ** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE on GMAT. BEST (preferred over RIGHT): I CAN SING MGMAT SC Ch9 p142 SC Idioms
ABILITY X [VERB]
RIGHT: I value my ABILITY TO SING

WRONG: I value my ABILITY OF SINGING


WRONG: I value my ABILITY FOR SINGING
WRONG: I value the ABILITY FOR me TO SING
216 ACT AS versus ACT ACT AS means FUNCTION AS. AS means ACTUAL RIGHT: The bay ACTED AS a funnel for the ride MGMAT SC Ch9 p142 SC Idioms
LIKE FUNCTION. RIGHT: My friend ACTED LIKE a fool
ACT LIKE means BEHAVED IN SIMILAR
MANNER. LIKE is used for METAPHORICAL SUSPECT: The bay ACTED LIKE a funnel for the tide
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COMPARISON
217 AFFECT versus EFFECT AFFECT means HAVE AN EFFECT UPON RIGHT: The new rules will AFFECT our performance MGMAT SC Ch9 p142 SC Idioms
EFFECT means CONSEQUENCE or RESULT SUSPECT: The new rules will HAVE AN EFFECT ON our performance (WORDY)
WRONG: The new rules will CAUSE AN EFFECT ON our performance
35

218 AFTER versus AFTER is preferred over FOLLOWING because it RIGHT: AFTER the gold rush, the mining town collapsed MGMAT SC Ch9 p142 SC Idioms
FOLLOWING does not cause AMBIGUITY SUSPECT: FOLLOWING the gold rush, the mining town collapsed
(AMBIGUOUS)
219 AGREE versus AGREE THAT is preferred over AGREEMENT RIGHT: They AGREE THAT electrons EXIST MGMAT SC Ch9 p143 SC Idioms
AGREEMENT AMONG X THAT or AGREE NOUN THAT VERB RIGHT: Electrons are particles THAT physicists AGREE EXIST
(TO is NOT between AGREE and EXIST because if it were the case, then physicists
are willing to let electrons exist. Instead. Physicists AGREE THAT electrons
EXISTS => Shortened would be Physicists AGREE EXIST.

SUSPECT: There is AGREEMENT AMONG them that electrons exist


SUSPECT: They AGREE electrons EXIST (AGREE THAT is preferred over AGREE X
THAT)
SUSPECT: Electrons are particles THAT physicist AGREE ON AS EXISTING.

WRONG: There is AGREEMENT AMONG them TO THE FACT THAT electrons exist
WRONG: Electrons are particles physicists AGREE THAT EXIST
WRONG: Electrons are particles physicists AGREE TO EXIST

220 AID versus AID TO All of the following are acceptable in the following RIGHT: She AIDS her neighbor MGMAT SC Ch9 p143 SC Idioms
versus AID FOR versus syntax: RIGHT: She provides AID TO victims.
AID IN [NOUN] AID(S) [NOUN] RIGHT: AID FOR victims is available
[NOUN] [HELPING VERB] AID TO [NOUN] Her AID IN WALKING the dog was appreciated
AID FOR [NOUN] [VERB]
[NOUN] AID IN [GERUND] [VERB] WRONG: Her AID TO WALK the dog was appreciated
221 AIM AT versus WITH AIM AT [NOUN] RIGHT: We adopted new procedures AIMED AT REDUCING theft MGMAT SC Ch9 p143 SC Idioms
THE AIM OF [GERUND] AIM OF [GERUND] RIGHT: We adopted new procedures WITH THE AIM OF REDUCING theft.
versus THE AIM OF are idiomatic
WHICH [VERB] TO SUSPECT: We adopted new policies, THE AIM OF WHICH was TO REDUCE theft.
[VERB] versus WITH
THE AIM TO [VERB] WRONG: We adopted new policies WITH THE AIM TO REDUCE theft.

222 ALLOW ** ** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE on GMAT. RIGHT: The holiday ALLOWS her TO WATCH the movie today MGMAT SC Ch9 p143 SC Idioms
ALLOWS TO [VERB], ALLOWS [NOUN] TO [VERB] ALLOWS = PERMITS
means TO PERMIT RIGHT: Maria WAS ALLOWED TO WATCH the movie
ALLOWED FOR [NOUN] means TO PERMIT THE RIGHT: The demolition of the old building ALLOWS FOR new construction
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EXISTENCE OF ALLOWS FOR = PERMITS THE EXISTENCE OF


WRONG: The holiday ALLOWED FOR her TO WATCH the movie
WRONG: The holiday ALLOWED her the WATCHING OF the movie
36

The holiday ALLOWS THAT homework BE/CAN BE done


Homework is ALLOWED FOR DOING BY her.
The ALLOWING OF shopping (TO DO) / (TO BE DONE)

223 ALTHOUGH See BUT MGMAT SC Ch9 p143 SC Idioms


224 AMONG See BETWEEN MGMAT SC Ch9 p143 SC Idioms
225 AND ** ** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE on GMAT. RIGHT: We are concerned about the forests AND the oceans MGMAT SC Ch9 p143-4 SC Idioms
AND serves as a CONJUNCTION and makes RIGHT: We are concerned about the forests, the oceans, AND the mountains
subjects PLURAL RIGHT: We work all night, AND we sleep all day (NOTE the comma before AND and
ADDITIONAL we)

SUSPECT: We are concerned about the forests AND ALSO the oceans
SUSPECT: We work all night AND we sleep all day (LINK 2 CLAUSES with COMMA
+ AND, No Comma present in this statement)

WRONG: We are concerned about the forests, ALSO the oceans

226 ANXIETY ABOUT ANXIETY ABOUT [NOUN] [VERB] RIGHT: His ANXIETY ABOUT his company's future is ill-founded MGMAT SC Ch9 p144 SC Idioms
versus ANXIETY THAT ANXIETY THAT [NOUN] [RESTRICTIVE VERB] RIGHT: His ANXIETY THAT his company MAY BE SOLD is ill-founded
[MAIN VERB] WRONG: His ANXIETY ABOUT his company MAY BE SOLD is ill-founded

227 APPEAR versus APPEAR APPEAR AS means SHOW UP AS RIGHT: Imperfections APPEAR AS tiny cracks (SHOW UP AS) MGMAT SC Ch9 p144 SC Idioms
AS versus APPEAR TO APPEARS means SEEMS RIGHT: He APPEARS confused (SEEMS)
HAVE BEEN versus APPEAR TO HAVE BEEN means SEEM TO HAVE RIGHT: The dinosaurs APPEAR TO HAVE BEEN relatively smart (SEEM TO HAVE
APPEARS THAT BEEN BEEN)
APPEARS THAT means SEEMS THAT RIGHT: IT APPEARS THAT the dinosaurs WERE smart (IT SEEMS THAT…WERE)

WRONG: He APPEARS AS confused


WRONG: The dinosaurs APPEARED AS smart

228 APPLY TO versus APPLY TO is preferred over APPLICABILITY OF RIGHT: The ruels APPLY TO all of us MGMAT SC Ch9 p144 SC Idioms
APPLICABILITY OF
WRONG: All of us ARE SUBJECT TO THE APPLICABILITY OF the rules

229 AS ** ** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE on GMAT RIGHT: AS I walked, I became more nervous = DURING MGMAT SC Ch9 p144 SC Idioms
AS NOUN ACTION, ... = DURINGAS CLAUSE, … = RIGHT: AS I had already paid, I was unconcerned = BECAUSE, SINCERIGHT: AS
BECAUSE, SINCEAS NOUN ACTION, SAME_NOUN We did last year, we will win this year (= IN THE SAME WAY)RIGHT: JUST AS We
SAME_ACTION = IN THE SAME WAYJUST AS did last year, we will win this year (= IN THE SAME WAY)RIGHT: AS a child, I
NOUN ACTION, SAME_NOUN SAME_ACTION = delivered newspaper (= IN THE STAGE OF BEING) (MUST AGREE IN
IN THE SAME WAYAS NOUN, NOUN VERB = IN NUMBER)RIGHT: My first job as an apprenticeship AS a sketch artist (= IN THE
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THE ROLE OF (MUST AGREE IN NUMBER)AS STAGE OF BEING) (MUST AGREE IN NUMBER)RIGHT: AS PART OF the
NOUN, NOUN = IN THE STAGE OF BEING (MUST arrangement, he received severance (= IN THE STAGE OF BEING, NO "A" needed
AGREE IN NUMBER)NOUN VERB AS NOUN = IN in front of PART) (MUST AGREE IN NUMBER)SUSPECT: AS A PART OF the
THE STAGE OF BEING (MUST AGREE IN arrangement, he received severanceWRONG: My first job was an apprenticeship
37

NUMBER)AS PART OF NOUN, NOUN VERB = IN OF a sketch artistWRONG: THey worked AS a sketch artist (AGREE IN
THE STAGE OF BEING (MUST AGREE IN NUMBER)WRONG: WHILE BEING a child, I delievered newspapersWRONG: WHILE
NUMBER) IN childhood, I delievered newspapers
230 AS … AS ** ** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE on GMAT RIGHT: Cheese is AS GREAT AS people say MGMAT SC Ch9 p144-5 SC Idioms
Use for Comparisons RIGHT: Cheese is NOT AS great AS people say
(NOT) AS [ADJECTIVE] AS RIGHT: We have AS MANY apples AS need to be cooked
AS MANY [NOUN] AS [NOUN] / [ELLIPTICAL RIGHT: We have THREE TIMES AS MANY pears AS you.
VERB] RIGHT: We have AT LEAST AS MANY apples AS you
NUMBER (three) TIMES AS MANY [NOUN] AS RIGHT: We have ten apples, ABOUT AS MANY AS we picked yesterday
[NOUN] (VERB) RIGHT: His knowledge springs AS MUCH from experience AS from schooling
AT LEAST AS MANY [NOUN] AS [NOUN] (VERB) RIGHT: His knowledge srings NOT SO MUCH from experience AS from schooling
ABOUT AS MANY AS [NOUN] [VERB] RIGHT: He wins frequently, AS MUCH because he plays SO hard AS because he
AS MUCH [NOUN] AS [NOUN] cheats
NOT SO MUCH [NOUN] AS [NOUN]
AS MUCH (because) [NOUN] SO [VERB] AS SUSPECT: CHeese is NOT SO great AS people say
(because) [NOUN VERB] SUSPECT: We have AS MANY apples AS OR MORE apples THAN you
SUSPECT: We have AS MANY apples AS THERE need to be cooked
NOTE that the SECOND AS may NOT APPEAR if SUSPECT: He wins frequently, AS MUCH because he plays AS hard AS because he
the SECOND NOUN is MENTIONED in a cheats
PRECEDING PHRASE
ALTHOUGH Y=NOUN VERB, X=NOUN [VERB] AS WRONG: Cheese is SO great AS people say
[ADJECTIVE] [NOUN] (AS Y=NOUN) WRONG: Cheese is SO great THAT people say
X and Y have to be PARALLEL WRONG: Cheese is AS great THAT people say
WRONG: We have AS MANY apples THAN you
WRONG: We have SO MANY apples AS you
WRONG: We have AS MANY OR MORE apples THAN you
WRONG: We have ten apples, ABOUT EQUIVALENT TO what we picked yesterday
WRONG: His knowledge springs NOT from experince AS from schooling

RIGHT: (1) Although chocolate is a popular ice cream flavor, vanilla has as great a
following.
RIGHT: (2) Vanilla has as great a following as chocolate, a popular ice cream
flavor.
WRONG: (1) Although chocolate is a popular ice cream flavor, the most popular
flavor of ice cream that has as great a following is vanilla

AS LONG AS versus SO AS LONG AS [NOUN] [VERB] RIGHT: I will leave, AS LONG AS it IS safe MGMAT SC Ch9 p145 SC Idioms
LONG AS versus RIGHT: I will leave SO LONG AS it IS safe
231
PROVIDED THAT RIGHT: I will leave, PROVIDED THAT it IS safe
versus BUT (it) HAS TO
BE versus BUT (it) BE SUSPECT: I will leave, BUT it HAS TO BE safe

WRONG: I will leave, BUT it BE safe


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38
232 Incribed Triangle In Incribed triangle has an angle of 90 degrees only The reason that angle ADB is a right angle is because central angle ACB is 180° http://www.platinumgmat.com/gmat_study_ Geometry Triangle &
Circle Property if its opposite side is on the diameter of the circle. and ADB is an inscribed angle whose endpoints are the same as ACB. guide/circles Diagonals,
Given triangle ABD with circle D, For the rule to Lines &
hold true: (1) C must be the center of the circle Consequently: Angles,
(2) AB must be a diameter of the center ADB = 1/2(ACB) Circles &
ADB = 1/2(180) = 90 Cylinders

233 Inscribed Angle & A central angle is an angle whose vertex is the For a central angle and an inscribed angle with the same endpoints: http://www.platinumgmat.com/gmat_study_ Geometry Triangle &
Central Angle center of the circle and whose endpoints are the guide/circles Diagonals,
edge of the circle. Angle ACB is a central angle. 1. All inscribed angles with the same endpoints are equal Lines &
An inscribed angle is an angle whose vertex lies ADB = AEB Angles,
on the edge of the circle and whose endpoints lie 2. Inscribed Angle = (1/2)(Central Angle) Circles &
on another part of the edge of the circle. Angle ADB = (1/2)ACB Cylinders
ADB and angle AEB are both examples of
inscribed circles.

234 AS … SO versus JUST AS … SO = in the same way or manner RIGHT: AS you practice, SO shall you play (= in the same way or manner) MGMAT SC Ch9 p145 SC Idioms
AS … SO versus JUST JUST AS … SO = in the same way or manner RIGHT: JUST AS you practice, SO shall you play. (=in the same way or manner)
AS JUST AS … = in the same way; the situations are RIGHT: JUST AS you practice piano regularly, you should study regularly. (=in the
analogous same way, situations are ANALOGOUS)

WRONG: You practice, SO shall you play


WRONG: Just LIKE you practice, SO shall you play
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39
235 Given RIGHT ANGLE that is SPLIT INTO TWO If arc PQR above is a semicircle, what is the length of diameter PR? MGMAT CAT #1 Geometry Triangle &
inside a SEMICIRCLE< the TWO TRIANGLES are (1) a = 4(2) b = 1METHOD 1: PYTHAGORAS THEOREMPQ = Sqrt(20)QR = Diagonals,
SIMILAR TRIANGLES IN
SIMILAR Sqrt(b^2+4)PQR is right angle triangle as arc PQR is semi circlePR^2 = PQ^2 + Circles &
SEMICIRCLE
QR^2(4+b)^2 = 20 + b^2 +416+b^2+8b = b^2+248b = 8b = 1Diameter = Cylinders
5.....Sufficient2. b=1a can be determined as way as above ......Sufficientanswer:
DMETHOD 2: SIMILAR TRIANGLESQMP vs. QMR: QMP=QMR...(1) (because each
angle is 90 degree)Angle QPM=Angle RQM...(2) (because each angle is
complementary to angle PQM)Angle PQM=Angle QRM...(3) (because each angle is
complementary to angle RQM)Once you have identified the equal angles, you now
apply the side ratio relationship. You must choose side opposite to corresponding
angles.(1) gives you PQ/RQ(2) gives you QR/RM(3) gives you PM/QR.So,
PQ/RQ=QR/RM=PM/QR. Here you do not need to first ratio.So, QR/RM=PM/QR =>
PM*RM=QR^2. This relationship in split right triangles is so favorite among GMAT,
GRE, SAT, CAT, MBA tentmakers that you can memorize it.
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40

236 ASK FOR versus ASK ASKED FOR [NOUN] RIGHT: I ASKED FOR his AID MGMAT SC Ch9 p145 SC Idioms
TO versus ASK THAT ASK [NOUN] TO [VERB} RIGHT: He ASKED her TO GO to the store
NOUN [BARE VERB] ASK THAT [NOUN] [BARE VERB] (SUBJUNCTIVE) RIGHT: He ASKED THAT she GO to the store (SUBJUNCTIVE)

WRONG: He ASKED THAT she SHOULD GO to the store (SHOULD + SUBJUNCTIVE


= WRONG)

237 ATTRIBUTE TO versus RIGHT: ATTRIBUTE [NOUN] TO [NOUN]. RIGHT: We ATTRIBUTE the uprising TO popular discontent MGMAT SC Ch9 p145 SC Idioms
ATTRIBUTE AS WRONG: ATTRIBUTE [NOUN] AS [NOUN]
WRONG: We ATTRIBUTE the uprsiing AS popular discontent
238 AVERAGE AVERAGE is an ADJECTIVE and ITS DESCRIBED RIGHT: Tech COMPANIES are as likely as the AVERAGE COMPANY to fail MGMAT SC Ch9 p145 SC Idioms
NOUN must be compared with appropriate WRONG: Tech COMPANIES are as likely as the INDUSTRY AVERAGE to fail
NOUNS.

239 AWARE OF versus AWARE OF and AWARE THAT are correct RIGHT: AWARE OF the danger, he fled MGMAT SC Ch9 p146 SC Idioms
AWARE THAT versus WITH AN AWARENESS OF/THAT is not RIGHT: AWARE THAT danger was near, he fled
WITH AN AWARENESS
OF versus WITH AN WRONG: WITH AN AWARENESS THAT danger was near, he fled
AWARENESS THAT WRONG: WITH AN AWARENESS OF the danger, he fled

240 BAN PROHIBITING BAN PROHIBITING is correct. BAN THAT is not RIGHT: They passed a BAN PROHIBITING us FROM CARRYING bottles MGMAT SC Ch9 p146 SC Idioms
versus BAN THAT WRONG: They passed a BAN that we CANNOT CARRY bottles

241 BASED ON BASED ON is equivlanet to ON ACCOUNT OF and RIGHT: The verdict was BASED ON the evidence MGMAT SC Ch9 p146 SC Idioms
be next or near the modifying object RIGHT: The jury reached a verdict BASED ON the evidence

WRONG: BASED ON the evidence, the jury reached a verdict


(The jury itself is not BASED on the evidence)

242 BEING ** ** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE ON THE GMAT RIGHT: BEING infected does not make you sick MGMAT SC Ch9 p146 SC Idioms
BEING is OFTEN wordy or awkward. BEING can RIGHT: The judges saw the horses BEING led to the stables
sometimes be right as a GERUND or PARTICIPLE
and only if other choices are WRONG SUSPECT: BEING an advocate of reform, I would like to make a different proposal

243 BECAUSE ** ** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE ON THE GMAT RIGHT: BECAUSE the sun SHINES, plants grow MGMAT SC Ch9 p146 SC Idioms
BECAUSE illustrates an EXPALANATION or RIGHT: PLANTS grow BECAUSE the sun SHINESRIGHT: BECAUSE OF the sun,
RATIONALE. BY describes NOUNS and NOT plants growRIGHT: BY SHINING, the sun makes plants growRIGHT: Plants grow,
REASONSFOR can SUBSTITUTE for FOR the sun shinesSUSPECT: Plants grow BECAUSE OF the sun, WHICH
BECAUSEWRONG SUBSTITUTESBECAUSE OF SHINESSUSPECT: Plants are amazing IN THAT they grow in the sun(Grammatically
[GERUNDS]ON ACCOUNT OFITSTHE ABILITY OF correct, but WORDY)SUSPECT: The growth of plants IS EXPLAINED BY THE FACT
… TO … IS BECAUSEAS A RESULT OF THAT the sun shines(Grammatically correct, but WORDY)WRONG: Plants grow
BECAUSE OF the sun SHININGWRONG: Plants grow AS A RESULT OF the sun
SHININGWRONG: BECAUSE OF SHINING, the sun makes plants growWRONG: ON
ACCOUNT OF SHINING or ITS SHINING, the sun makes plants growWRONG:
BECAUSE the sun SHINES IS the REASON that plants growWRONG: The ABILITY
OF plants TO grow IS BECAUSE the sun shines
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41

244 BEGAN AS versus WAS BEGUN FROM is WRONG RIGHT: The movement BEGAN AS a protect (= was born as) MGMAT SC Ch9 p147 SC Idioms
BEGAN WITH versus BEGAN AS = was born as RIGHT: The movement BEGAN WITH a protest (= protest was the first part)
BEGAN versus WAS BEGIN WITH = starts with RIGHT: The protest BEGAN a movement (= caused)
BEGUN FROM BEGAN = caused
WRONG: The movement WAS BEGUN FROM a protest
245 BELIEVE ** BELIEVED BY [NOUN] TO BE is WRONG RIGHT: She BELIEVES THAT Gary IS right MGMAT SC Ch9 p147 SC Idioms
BELIEVE THAT versus RIGHT: She BELIEVES Gary TO BE right
BELIEVE TO BE versus RIGHT: IT IS BELIEVED THAT Gary IS right
IT IS BELIEVED versus RIGHT: Gary IS BELIEVED TO BE right
IS BELIEVED TO BE
versus BELIEVED BY SUSPECT: Gary IS BELIEVED BY her TO BE right
[NOUN] TO BE
246 BETWEEN versus BETWEEN involves TWO parties. AMONG involves RIGHT: A battle ensued BETWEEN the reactionaries AND the radicals (2 PARTIES) MGMAT SC Ch9 p147 SC Idioms
AMONG THREE OR MORE parties. RIGHT: A sirmish ensued AMONG the combatants (MORE THAN 2 PARTIES)

BETWEEN … WITH is WRONG WRONG: A battle ensued BETWEEN the reactionaries WITH the radicals
AMONG … WITH/AND is WRONG WRONG: A battle ensued AMONG the reactionaries AND the radicals
WRONG: A battle ensued AMONG the reactionaries WITH the radicals

247 WITHIN BORDERS WITHIN BORDERS is corect over IN THE RIGHT: WITHIN the BORDERS of a country MGMAT SC Ch9 p147 SC Idioms
versus IN THE BORDERS and INSIDE THE BORDERS
BORDERS versus WRONG: IN the BORDERS of a country
INSIDE THE BORDERS WRONG: INSIDE the BORDERS of a country
248 BOTH … AND ** ** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE ON GMAT RIGHT: She was interested BOTH IN plants and IN animals MGMAT SC Ch9 p147 SC Idioms
BOTH … AND is correct RIGHT: She was interested IN BOTH plants and animals
BOTH … AS WELL AS, BOTH … BUT ALSO are
WRONG WRONG: She was intersted BOTH IN plants and ANIMALS. (Missing IN)
WRONG: She was interested BOTH in plants AS WELL AS in animals
WRONG: She was interested BOTH in plants BUT ALSO in animals

249 BUT ** BUT can be SUBSTITUTED BY RIGHT: I STUDY hard BUT TAKE tests MGMAT SC Ch9 p147-8 SC Idioms
BUT versus DESPITE [VERB/NOUN] BUT [PARALLEL VERB/NOUN] RIGHT: I STUDY hard, BUT I TAKE breaks
versus ALTHOUGH [CLAUSE] , BUT [CLAUSE] RIGHT: ALTHOUGH I TAKE frequent naps, I STUDY effectively
versus YET versus DESPITE [GERUND] RIGHT: DESPITE TAKING frequent naps, I study effectively
DESPITE THE FACT ALTHOUGH [CLAUSE] RIGHT: I TAKE frequent naps, YET I STUDY effectively
THAT , YET [CONJUNCTION with COMMA]
SUSPECT: DESPITE THE FACT THAT I TAKE frequent naps, I STUDY effectively
SUSPECT: SUSPECT: ALTHOUGH a frequent napper, I STUDY effectively (ALTHOUGH
DESPITE THE FACT THAT [CLAUSE] is needed)
ALTHOUGH non-clause….
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WRONG: I STUDY effectively ALTHOUGH TAKING frequent naps


WRONG: WRONG: ALTHOUGH I TAKE frequent naps, YET I STUDY effectively
CLAUSE, ALTHOUGH [CLAUSE] WRONG: ALTHOUGH I TAKE frequent naps, AND I STUDY effectively
ALTHOUGH, … YET WRONG: DESPITE TAKING frquent naps, YET I STUDY effectively
42

ALTHOUGH, … AND
DESPITE, … YET
250 MGMAT SC Ch9 p148 SC Idioms

RIGHT: The manager CAN RUN the plant


RIGHT: The plant CAN CAUSE damageSUSPECT: The manager IS ABLE TO RUN the
CAN [VERB] plantSUSPECT: The manager IS CAPABLE OF RUNNING the plantSUSPECT: The
CAN CAUSEWRONG:IS ABLE TO [VERB]IS manager HAS THE ABILITY TO RUN the plantSUSPECT: The manager HAS THE
CAPABLE OF [GERUND]HAS THE ABILITY TO CAPABILITY OF RUNNING the plantSUSPECT: It is POSSIBLE FOR the plant TO
[VERB}HAS THE CAPABILITY OF [GERUND]… CAUSE damageSUSPECT: The plant POSSIBLY CAUSES damageSUSPECT: The
POSSIBLE FOR … TO CAUSE …POSSIBLY plant HAS THE POSSIBILITY OF CAUSING damage(NOTE, SUSPECT is WORDY but
CAN ** CAUSESHAS THE POSSIBILITY OF CAUSING could be RIGHT if no other choice is correct)
251 CHANCE … OF versus CHANCE … OF is CORRECT RIGHT: I have ONE CHANCE IN A THOUSAND OF WINNING tonight MGMAT SC Ch9 p148 SC Idioms
CHANCE TO versus
CHANCE OF versus WRONG: CHANCE … FOR, CHANCE … TO, WRONG: I have ONE CHANCE IN A THOUSAND FOR WINNING tonight
CHANCE THAT CHANCE … THAT WRONG: I have ONE IN A THOUSAND CHANCES TO WIN tonight
WRONG: I have ONE CHANCE IN A THOUSAND THAT I WILL WIN tonight
WRONG: I have ONE CHANCE IN A THOUSAND FOR ME TO WIN tonight

252 CLAIM TO BE [VERB] CLAIM TO BE [VERB] and CLAIM THAT are RIGHT RIGHT: They CLAIM THAT they CAN read minds MGMAT SC Ch9 p148 SC Idioms
versus CLAIM THAT RIGHT: They CLAIM TO BE ABLE to read mines
versus CLAIM CLAIM [GERUND], CLAIM BEING, CLAIM … are
[GERUND] versus WRONG SUSPECT: They CLAIM the ABILITY to read minds
CLAIM BEING SUSPECT: They CLAIM they CAN read minds
CLAIM TO BE ABLE TO Y FROM X is preferred over
CLAIM FROM X THAT Y CAN ASSESS WRONG: They CLAIM BEING ABLE to read minds
253 COMPARABLE versus COMPARABLE, COMPARABLY are preferred over RIGHT: Costs are rising, but incomes have not increased COMPARABLY MGMAT SC Ch9 p148 SC Idioms
COMPARABLY versus TO A COMPARABLE EXTENT SUSPECT: Costs are rising, but incomes have not increased TO A COMPARABLE
TO A COMPARABLE EXTENT
EXTENT
254 IN COMPARISON WITH IN COMPARISON WITH / TO RIGHT: IN COMPARISON WITH / TO horses, zebras are vicious MGMAT SC Ch9 p148-9 SC Idioms
versus IN COMPARED TO / WITH RIGHT: A zebra can be COMPARED TO a horse in many ways
Page

COMPARISON TO TO and WITH are the SAME on GMAT although TO RIGHT: COMPARED WITH a horse, however, a zebra is very hard to tame
versus COMPARED TO (emphasizes similarities) and WITH (emphasizes
versus COMPARED differences) SUSPECT: AS COMPARED WITH / TO horses, zebras are vicious
43

WITH versus AS WRONG: WHEN COMPARED TO horses, zebras are vicious


COMPARED WITH WRONG:
versus AS COMPARED AS COMPARED WITH / TO
TO versus WHEN WHEN COMPARED TO
COMPARED TO

255 CONFIDENCE THAT CONFIDENCE THAT is preferred over CONFIDENT RIGHT: We have CONFIDENCE THAT the market WILL RECOVER MGMAT SC Ch9 p149 SC Idioms
versus CONFIDENCE IN
IN RIGHT: CONFIDENCE THAT NOUN VERB SUSPECT: We have CONFIDENCE IN the market's ABILITY TO RECOVER
SUSPECT: CONFIDENCE IN NOUN's ABILITY TO
VERB WRONG: We have CONFIDENCE IN the market TO RECOVER
WRONG: CONFIDENCE IN NOUN VERB
256 CONCEIVE OF [NOUN] CONCEIVE OF … AS is RIGHT RIGHT: He CONCEIVES OF architecture AS a dialogue MGMAT SC Ch9 p149 SC Idioms
AS versus SUSPECT: His CONCEPTION OF architecture IS AS a dialogue
CONCEPTION OF SUSPECT: CONCEPTION OF … IS AS WRONG: He CONCEIVES of architecture TO BE a dialogue
[NOUN] IS AS versus WRONG: CONCEIVES OF … TO BE
CONCEIVES OF
[NOUN] TO BE
257 CONNECTION CONNECTION BETWEEN .. AND is RIGHT RIGHT: There is a strong CONNECTION BETWEEN his grades AND his effort MGMAT SC Ch9 p149 SC Idioms
BETWEEN .. AND WRONG: There is a strong CONNECTION OF his grades AND his effort
versus CONNECTION CONNECTION OF … AND is WRONG
OF … AND
258 CONSIDER ** ** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE ON GMAT RIGHT: I CONSIDER her a friend. I CONSIDER her intelligent MGMAT SC Ch9 p149 SC Idioms
CONSIDER does not have anything followed after RIGHT: I CONSIDER illegal the law passed last week by the new regime
it. CONSIDER TO BE is incorrect. CONSIDER is (NOTE: You can switch the order of the two objects, if ONE is LONG)
correct. RIGHT: The law IS CONSIDERED illegal

RIGHT: SUSPECT: The judge CONSIDERS the law TO BE illegal


CONSIDER …
TO BE CONSIDERED WRONG: The judge CONSIDERS the law AS illegal (or AS BEING illegal)
WRONG: The judge CONSIDERS the law SHOULD BE illegal
WRONG: WRONG: The jude CONSIDERS the law AS IF IT WERE illegal
CONSIDER TO BE
CONSIDER AS ...
CONSIDER THAT
CONSIDER … SHOULD

259 CONTEND THATis RIGHT MGMAT SC Ch9 p149 SC Idioms

WRONG: RIGHT: They CONTEND THAT they can decipher the code
CONTEND … WRONG: They CONTEND they can decipher the code
CONTEND … TO BE WRONG: They CONTEND the code TO BE decipherable
CONTEND CONTEND the ABILITY WRONG: They CONTEND the ABILITY to decipher the code
260 CONTINUE TO versus RIGHT: CONTINUE TO VERB RIGHT: The danger will CONTINUE TO GROW MGMAT SC Ch9 p149 SC Idioms
CONTINUE [GERUND] SUSPECT: The danger will CONTINUE GROWING (correct but not apparently used)
versus CONTINUE ITS SUSPECT: CONTINUE GERUND
NOUN versus WRONG: The danger will CONTINUE ITS GROWTH
CONTINUE NOUN WRONG: WRONG: The danger will CONTINUE GROWTH
versus CONTINUE ITS CONTINUE ITS NOUN WRONG: The danger will CONTINUE ITS GROWING
GERUND CONTINUE NOUN
CONTINUE ITS GERUND
261 IN CONTRAST WITH IN CONSTRAST WITH [NOUN] RIGHT: IN CONTRAST WITH the zoo, the park charges no admission MGMAT SC Ch9 p150 SC Idioms
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versus IN CONTRAST IN CONTRAST TO [NOUN]UNLIKE [NOUN]are RIGHT: IN CONTRAST TO the zoo, the park charges no admissionRIGHT: UNLIKE
TO versus UNLIKE RIGHTWRONG:AS CONTRASTED WITH [NOUN]IN the zoo, the park charges no admission.WRONG: AS CONSTRASTED WITH the zoo
versus AS CONTRAST CONSTRAST TO [NOUN] [PRESENT PARTICIPLE (- the park charges no admissionWRONG: IN CONSTRAST TO the zoo CHARGING
TO versus IN ING verb)] admission, the park does not
44

CONTRAST TO
[GERUND]

262 MGMAT SC Ch9 p150 SC Idioms


CONVINCED THAT
versus OF THE CONVINCED THAT is preferred over OF THE RIGHT: She was CONVINCED THAT she had been robbed
CONVICTION THAT CONVICTION THAT SUSPECT: She was OF THE CONVICTION THAT she had been robbed
263 COSTS IN versus COST COSTS … IN is preferred RIGHT: Pollution COSTS us billions IN increased medical bills MGMAT SC Ch9 p150 SC Idioms
OF versus COST … RIGHT: The COST OF pollution TO us is billions IN increased medical bills
BECAUSE OF SUSPECT: COST OF [NOUN] TO WRONG: Increased medical bills COST us billions BECAUSE OF pollution
WRONG: COST us [NOUN] BECAUSE OF [NOUN]
264 COULD DO versus COULD DO is preferred. RIGHT: You COULD DO anything you want MGMAT SC Ch9 p150 SC Idioms
COULD POSSIBLY DO SUSPECT: You HAVE or MAY HAVE THE POSSIBILITY OF DOING anything you want
versus (MAY) HAVE SUSPECT: (MAY) HAVE THE POSSIBILITY OF WRONG: You COULD POSSIBLY DO anything you want
THE POSSIBILITY OF DOING
DOING WRONG: COULD POSSIBLY DO
265 CREATE TO VERB CREATE TO is RIGHT RIGHT: We WILL CREATE a team TO LEAD the discussion MGMAT SC Ch9 p150 SC Idioms
versus CREATE FOR WRONG: We WILL CREATE a team FOR LEADING the discussion
GERUND CREATE FOR GERUND is WRONG

266 CREDIT (NOUN) WITH CREDIT (NOUN) WITH is CORRECT RIGHT: Hugo CREDITS Sally WITH good taste MGMAT SC Ch9 p150 SC Idioms
versus CREDIT FOR IS CREDITED WITH is CORRECT RIGHT: Sally IS CREDITED WITH good taste
versus FOR HAVING
versus AS HAVING WRONG: WRONG: Sally IS CREDITED FOR good taste
versus CREDITED AS CREDIT FOR WRONG: Sally IS CREDITED FOR HAVING good taste
versis CREDITED TO FOR HAVING WRONG: Sally IS CREDITED AS a person with good taste
BE CREDITED AS WRONG: Sally IS CREDITED AS HAVING good taste
CREDITED TO BE WRONG: Sally IS CREDITED TO BE a person with good taste
HAS HAVING

267 IN DANGER OF IN DANGER OF GERUND is CORRECT RIGHT: We ARE IN DANGER OF FORGETTING the past MGMAT SC Ch9 p150 SC Idioms
GERUND versus ARE SUSPECT: We ARE ENDANGERED BY FORGETTING the past
ENDANGERED BY SUSPECT:
GERUND versus IN ARE ENDANGERED BY GERUND WRONG: We ARE IN DANGER TO FORGET the past
DANGER TO VERB WRONG: We HAVE A DANGER OF FORGETTING (or TO FORGET) the past
versus HAVE A WRONG:
DANGER OF GERUND IN DANGER TO VERB
versus HAVE A HAVE A DANGER OF GERUND
DANGER TO VERB HAVE A DANGER TO VERB
268 DATED AT versus WAS DATED AT and WAS DATED AT are RIGHT RIGHT: They DATED the artificat AT 300 years old MGMAT SC Ch9 p150 SC Idioms
DATED AT versus WAS RIGHT: The artifact WAS DATED AT 300 years old
DATED TO BE versus WRONG: WAS DATED TO BE, WAS DATED AS WRONG: The artifact WAS DATED TO BE 300 years old
WAS DATED AS BEING BEING WRONG: The artifact WAS DATED AS BEING 300 years old

269 DECIDE TO versus DECIDE TO is preferred RIGHT: She DECIDED TO START a company MGMAT SC Ch9 p151 SC Idioms
DECISION WAS TO SUSPECT: Her DECISION WAS TO START a company
SUSPECT: DECISION WAS TO START
270 DECLARED DECLARED (SUBJUNCTIVE without THAT) is RIGHT: I DECLARED the election a fraud. I DECLARED the referendum invalid MGMAT SC Ch9 p151 SC Idioms
(SUBJUNCTIVE without RIGHT RIGHT: I DECLARED invalid the referendum that the new regime imposed (NOTE:
THAT) versus DECLARED THAT [CLAUSE] is RIGHT you can switch the order if one is TOO LONG)
DECLARED THAT
[CLAUSE] versus SUSPECT: SUSPECT:
Page

DECLARED [CLAUSE] DECLARED [CLAUSE] They DECLARED the election was a fraud (DECLARE THAT is better)
versus DECLARED DECLARED [NOUN] TO BE The judge DECLARE the election TO BE fraud
[NOUN] TO BE versus
DECLARED [NOUN] AS WRONG: WRONG:
45

DECLARED [NOUN] AS The judge DECLARED the election AS a fraud

DECLARE X Y , DECLARE THAT X IS Y are


preferred over DECLARED X as Y. DECLARE
[Y=adj] [X=noun] via inversion is OK for long
phrases and preferable over passive voice
DECLARED Y BY X
271 DECLINE IN versus DECLINE and DECLINE IN are correct but RIGHT: MGMAT SC Ch9 p151 SC Idioms
DECLINE versus DECLINE must refer to appropriate subject that is The price of oil DECLINED
DECLENSION IN DECLINING Oil DECLINED in price
The DECLINE IN the price of oil was unexpected
WRONG: My friend's reputation DECLINED
DECLENSION
WRONG:
My friend DECLINED in reputation (NOTE: reputation not friend)
The DECLENSION IN the price of oil was unexpected (OBSOLETE)

272 DEMAND THAT versus DEMAND THAT … BE (SUBJUNCTIVE) is correct RIGHT: They DEMANDED THAT the store BE closed MGMAT SC Ch9 p151 SC Idioms
DEMAND versus RIGHT: Their DEMAND THAT the store BE closed was not met
DEMAND TO BE versus WRONG: DEMAND TO BE, DEMAND THAT … WRONG: They DEMANDED the store TO BE closed
DEMAND THAT … SHOULD BE WRONG: They DEMANDED THAT the store SHOULD BE closed
SHOULD

273 DEPENDS ON DEPENDS ON WHETHER is preferred RIGHT: The outcome DEPENDS ON WHETHER he CAN make friends MGMAT SC Ch9 p151 SC Idioms
WHETHER versus SUSPECT: The outcome DEPENDS ON his ABILITY TO make friends
DEPENDS ON the
ABILITY TO
274 IS DESIGNED TO IS DESIGNED TO is correct RIGHT: This window is DESIGNED TO open MGMAT SC Ch9 p151 SC Idioms
versus IS DESIGNED WRONG: This window IS DESIGNED SO THAT IT OPENS
SO THAT versus IS DESIGNED SO THAT and IS DESIGNED SO AS TO WRONG: This window IS DESIGNED SO AS TO OPEN
DESIGNED SO AS TO are WRONG
275 DETERMINED BY DETERMINED BY [NOUN] RIGHT: The winner was DETERMINED BY a coin toss MGMAT SC Ch9 p151 SC Idioms
[NOUN] versus WRONG:DETERMINED THROUGH WRONG: The winner was DETERMINED THROUGH (or BECAUSE OF) a coin
DETERMINED [NOUN]DETERMINED FROM [NOUN]AS A RESULT tossWRONG: The winner was DETERMINED FROM (or AS A RESULT OF) a coin toss
THROUGH [NOUN] OF [NOUN]BECAUSE OF [NOUN]
versus DETERMINED
FROM [NOUN] versus
AS A RESULT OF
[NOUN] versus
BECAUSE OF [NOUN]
276 DEVELOPED [NOUN] DEVELOPED [NOUN] and DEVELOPED INTO RIGHT: The executive DEVELOPED her idea INTO a project MGMAT SC Ch9 p151 SC Idioms
INTO versus [NOUN] are RIGHT RIGHT: The idea DEVELOPED INTO a project
DEVELOPED INTO WRONG: An idea DEVELOPED ITSELF INTO a project
[NOUN] versus WRONG: DEVELOPED [PRONOUN]
DEVELOPED
[PRONOUN] INTO
277 DIFFER FROM versus DIFFER FROM, DIFFERENT FROM, IS DIFFERENT RIGHT: My opinion DIFFERS FROM yours MGMAT SC Ch9 p152 SC Idioms
Page

DIFFERENT FROM FROM are CORRECT RIGHT: My opinion IS DIFFERENT FROM yours
versus DIFFERENT WRONG: My opinion IS DIFFERENT IN COMPARISON TO yours
THAN versus IS DIFFERENT THAN is SUSPECT DIFFERENT FROM > DIFFERENT THAN when comparing NOUNS
46

DIFFERENT FROM
versus IS DIFFERENT IS DIFFERENT IN COMPARISON TO is WRONG
IN COMPARISON TO
278 DIFFERENCE IN DIFFERENCE IN [NOUN] BETWEEN RIGHT: There is a DIFFERENCE IN ability BETWEEN us MGMAT SC Ch9 p152 SC Idioms
[NOUN] BETWEEN DIFFERENCE BETWEEN X AND Y VERB RIGHT: There is a DIFFERENCE BETWEEN what you can do AND what I can do
versus DIFFERENCE DIFFERENCES IN X VERB and Y VERB (BOTH X RIGHT: There are DIFFERENCES IN what you and I can do
BETWEEN X AND Y and Y MUST have VERBS)
VERB versus WRONG: There are DIFFERENCES BETWEEN what you AND I can do
DIFFERENCES IN … WRONG:
AND versus DIFFERENCES BETWEEN X VERB AND Y VERB
DIFFERENCES
BETWEEN X VERB AND
Y VERB
279 DIFFICULT TO versus DIFFICULT TO is CORRECT RIGHT: Quantum mechanics is DIFFICULT TO STUDY MGMAT SC Ch9 p152 SC Idioms
DIFFICULT FOR WRONG: Quantum mechanics is DIFFICULT FOR STUDY
280 DISCOVERY THAT DISCOVERY THAT is CORRECT RIGHT: I love the DISCOVERY THAT carbon CAN form soccer-ball molecules MGMAT SC Ch9 p152 SC Idioms
versus DISCOVERY OF SUSPECT: I love the DISCOVERY OF carbon's ABILITY TO form soccer-ball
noun's ABILITY TO SUSPECT: DISCOVERY OF noun's ABILITY TO molecules
versus DISCOVERY OF WRONG: I love the DISCOVERY OF carbon BEING ABLE TO TO form soccer-ball
noun BEING ABLE TO WRONG: DISCOVERY OF noun BEING ABLE TO molecules

281 DISINCLINED TO DISINCLINED TO is CORRECT RIGHT: She IS DISINCLINED TO WRITE to her parents MGMAT SC Ch9 p152 SC Idioms
versus HAS A WRONG:
DISINCLINATION WRONG: She HAS A DISINCLINATION TO WRITE to her parents
versus IS A HAS A DISINCLINATION There IS A DISINCLINATION ON HER PART TO WRITE
DISINCLINATION ON IS A DISINCLINATION ON HER PART TO WRITE Her busy schedule BRINGS OUT A DISINCLINATION IN HER TO WRITE
HER PART TO WRITE BRINGS OUT A DISINCLINATION IN HER TO
versus BRINGS OUT A WRITE
DISINCLINATION IN
HER TO WRITE
282 DISTINGUISH RIGHT: RIGHT: The investor DISTINGUISHED BETWEEN trends AND fads MGMAT SC Ch9 p152 SC Idioms
BETWEEN X AND Y DISTINGUISH BETWEEN X AND Y RIGHT: There is a DISTINCTION BETWEEN trends and fads
versus DISTINCTION DISTINCTION BETWEEN X AND Y
BETWEEN X AND Y SUSPECT: The investor DISTINGUISHED trends FROM fads
versus SUSPECT:
DISTINGUISHED X DISTINGUISHED X FROM Y WRONG:
FROM Y versus The investor DISTINGUISHED trends AND fads
DISTINGUISHED X WRONG: The investor DISTINGUISHED BETWEEN trends FROM fads
AND Y versus DISTINGUISHED X AND Y There is a DISTINCTION BETWEEN trends WITH fads
DISTINGUISHED DISTINGUISHED BETWEEN X FROM Y There is a DISTINCTION OF trends TO fads
BETWEEN X FROM Y DISTINCTION BETWEEN X WITH Y Trends HAVE A DISTINCTION FROM fads
versus DISTINCTION DISTINCTION OF X TO Y
BETWEEN X WITH Y Y HAVE a DISTINCTION FROM Y
veruss DISTINCTION
OF X TO Y versus Y
HAVE a DISTINCTION
FROM Y
283 DO or DO SO versus DO, DO SO, DID, DID SO are RIGHT RIGHT: I did not eat the cheese, but my mother DID or DID SO MGMAT SC Ch9 p153 SC Idioms
DID IT versus DID WRONG: I did not eat the cheese, but my mother DID IT or DID THIS
THIS DID IT, DID THIS are WRONG

284 DOUBLE SEE TWICE MGMAT SC Ch9 p153 SC Idioms


285 DO NOT DOUBT THAT NEGATIVE CONSTRUCTIONS have THAT RIGHT: We DO NOT DOUBT THAT the apples are ripe MGMAT SC Ch9 p153 SC Idioms
versus HAVE NO POSITIVE CONSTRUCTIONS have WHETHER or IF RIGHT: We HAVE NO DOUBT THAT the apples are ripe
DOUBT THAT versus RIGHT: She DOUBTS WHETHER Jan will arrive on time
DOUBTS WHETHER RIGHT:
versus DOUBTS THAT DO NOT DOUBT THAT SUSPECT: She DOUBTS THAT Jan will arrive on time
Page

versus DO NOT DOUBT HAVE NO DOUBT THAT


WHETHER versus HAVE DOUBTS WHETHER WRONG: We DO NOT DOUBT WHETHER the apples are ripe
NO DOUBT WHETHER WRONG: We HAVE NO DOUBT WHETHER the apples are ripe
47

SUSPECT:
DOUBTS THAT

WRONG:
DO NOT DOUBT WHETHER
HAVE NO DOUBT WHETHER
286 IS DUE TO [GERUND] RIGHT: RIGHT: MGMAT SC Ch9 p153 SC Idioms
versus DUE TO [NOUN] IS DUE TO [GERUND] = results from The deficit IS DUE TO overspending
verus BECAUSE DUE TO [NOUN] = resulting from Our policy will not cover damage DUE TO fire
[NOUN] [VERB] versus BECAUSE [NOUN] [VERB] BECAUSE politicians SPEND money, we have a deficit
DUE TO [NOUN]
[GERUND] versus DUE WRONG: WRONG:
TO THE FACT THAT DUE TO [NOUN] [GERUND] DUE TO politicians SPENDING money, we have a deficit
[NOUN] [VERB] DUE TO THE FACT THAT [NOUN] [VERB] DUE TO THE FACT THAT politicians SPEND money, we have a deficit

DUE TO [NOUN=cause] that led to [NOUN=effect]


and NOT DUE TO [NOUN=effect] that led to
[NOUN=cause]
287 ECONOMIC versus ECONOMIC = dealing with money RIGHT: The rise in gasoline prices has an ECONOMIC impact on consumers MGMAT SC Ch9 p153 SC Idioms
ECONOMICAL ECONOMICAL = efficient RIGHT: Our new car is more ECONOMICAL than our last

WRONG: The rise in gasoline prices has an ECONOMICAL impact on consumers

288 EFFECT SEE AFFECT MGMAT SC Ch9 p153 SC Idioms


289 EITHER … OR EITHER must be paired with OR RIGHT: I will take EITHER the subway OR the bus MGMAT SC Ch9 p153 SC Idioms
WRONG: I will take EITHER the subway AND the bus
290 ELECT TO VERB versus ELECTED TO VERB is RIGHT RIGHT: She ELECTED TO WITHDRAW the money early MGMAT SC Ch9 p153 SC Idioms
ELECTED NOUN OF
versus ELECTED SUSPECT: ELECTED NOUN OF SUSPECT: She ELECTED early WITHDRAWAL of her money
GERUND
WRONG: ELECTED GERUND WRONG: She ELECTED WITHDRAWING her money early

291 ENOUGH ** ** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE ON GMAT RIGHT: The book was SHORT ENOUGH TO READ MGMAT SC Ch9 p153-4 SC Idioms
[ADJECTIVE] ENOUGH ENOUGH and THAT do NOT MIX RIGHT: The book was SHORT ENOUGH FOR me TO READ
TO [VERB] versus
[ADJECTIVE] ENOUGH SEE SO / THAT SUSPECT: The power plan has found a way to generate energy at an
FOR [NOUN] TO [NON unprecedented scale, ENOUGH FOR powering an entire city
TO BE VERB] versus RIGHT:
ENOUGH FOR [ADJECTIVE] ENOUGH TO [VERB] WRONG:
[GERUND] versus [ADJECTIVE] ENOUGH FOR [NOUN] TO [VERB] The book was SHORT ENOUGH THAT I could read it
SHORT ENOUGH THAT The book was SHORT ENOUGH FOR IT TO BE read in a night
[NOUN] versus SUSPECT: The book was SHORT ENOUGH SO THAT I could read it.
SHORT ENOUGH FOR ENOUGH FOR [GERUND] The book was SHORT ENOUGH AS TO BE read in a night
[NOUN] TO BE versus
SHORT ENOUGH SO WRONG:
THAT [NOUN] versus SHORT ENOUGH THAT [NOUN] versus
SHORT ENOUGH AS TO SHORT ENOUGH FOR [NOUN] TO BE versus
Page

BE SHORT ENOUGH SO THAT [NOUN] versus


SHORT ENOUGH AS TO BE
48

292 ENSURE THAT [NOUN] RIGHT: RIGHT: He ENSURES THAT deadlines ARE met (or WILL BE met) MGMAT SC Ch9 p154 SC Idioms
ARE versus ENSURES ENSURE THAT [NOUN] ARE WRONG: He ENSURES THAT deadlines MUST BE met (or SHOULD BE met)
THAT [NOUN] WILL BE ENSURES THAT [NOUN] WILL BE
versus ENSURES THAT
[NOUN] MUST BE WRONG:
versus ENSURES THAT ENSURES THAT [NOUN] MUST BE
[NOUN] SHOULD BE ENSURES THAT [NOUN] SHOULD BE
293 EQUIPPED TO versus EQUIPPED TO is preferred RIGHT: They are EQUIPPED TO FIGHT on any terrain MGMAT SC Ch9 p154 SC Idioms
EQUIPPED FOR WRONG: They are EQIPPED FOR FIGHTING on any terrain

294 ESTIMATE TO BE ESTIMATED TO BE <X> implies that the object RIGHT: She ESTIMATES the cost TO BE $10 MGMAT SC Ch9 p154 SC Idioms
versus ESTIMATE AT being described is estimated to have a RIGHT: The cost IS ESTIMATED TO BE $10
characteristic of X. ESTIMATED AT pertains to WRONG: She ESTIMATES the cost AT $10
location and is used to describe its nearness to
location X.
295 EVEN [COMPARATIVE RIGHT: RIGHT: I am EVEN RICHER THAN A PRINCE MGMAT SC Ch9 p154 SC Idioms
ADJ] THAN versus EVEN [COMPARATIVE ADJ] THAN RIGHT: I earn AS MUCH money AS EVEN the wealthiest king
AS MUCH [NOUN] AS AS MUCH [NOUN] AS EVEN [NOUN]
EVEN [NOUN] versus WRONG: I am RICHER EVEN THAN a prince
[COMPARATIVE ADJ] WRONG: WRONG: I earn EVEN as MUCH money AS the wealthiest king
EVEN THAN versus [COMPARATIVE ADJ] EVEN THAN versus
EVEN AS MUCH EVEN AS MUCH [NOUN] AS
[NOUN] AS
296 MORE [ADJECTIVE] RIGHT: RIGHT: The economy is MORE fragile THAN EVER (BEFORE) MGMAT SC Ch9 p154 SC Idioms
THAN EVER (BEFORE) MORE [ADJECTIVE] THAN EVER (BEFORE)
versus WRONG:
MORE [ADJECTIVE] WRONG: The economy is MORE fragile THAN NEVER (BEFORE)
THAN NEVER (BEFORE) MORE [ADJECTIVE] THAN NEVER (BEFORE) The economy is MORE fragile AS NEVER (BEFORE)
versus The economy is MORE THAN EVER (BEFORE) fragile
MORE [ADJECTIVE] AS MORE [ADJECTIVE] AS NEVER (BEFORE)
NEVER (BEFORE)
versus MORE THAN EVER (BEFORE) [ADJECTIVE]
MORE THAN EVER
(BEFORE) [ADJECTIVE]

297 EXCEPT FOR [NOUN] EXCEPT FOR is correctly followed by a noun. RIGHT: MGMAT SC Ch9 p154 SC Idioms
versus EXCEPTING [NOUN] is ONLY used in negative EXCEPT FOR a skirmish, the war was over.
BESIDES versus constructions.
EXCEPTING [NOUN] SUSPECT:
versus RIGHT: BESIDES a skirmish, the war was over.
WITH THE EXCEPTION EXCEPT FOR WITH THE EXCEPTION OF a skirmish, the war was over.
OF [NOUN] EXCEPTING a skirmish, the war was over.
SUSPECT:
BESIDES [NOUN]
WITH THE EXCEPTION OF [NOUN]
EXCEPTING [NOUN]
Page
49
298 EXPECT ** ** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE ON GMAT RIGHT: MGMAT SC Ch9 p154-5 SC Idioms
EXPECT [NOUN] TO RIGHT: EXPECT [NOUN] TO [VERB]IS EXPECTED We EXPECT the price TO FALLThe price IS EXPECTED TO FALL We EXPECT THAT
[VERB} versusIS TO [VERB] EXPECT THAT [NOUN] WILL [VERB] IT the price WILL FALL IT IS EXPECTED THAT the price WILL FALL The price FALL
EXPECTED TO [VERB] IS EXPECTED THAT [NOUN] WILL [VERB] [NOUN] MORE THAN EXPECTED There IS an EXPECTATION THAT the price WILL FALL
versusEXPECT THAT [VERB] MORE THAN EXPECTED There IS an SUSPECT:There IS an EXPECTATION the price WILL FALL There IS an
[NOUN] WILL [VERB] EXPECTATION THAT [NOUN] WILL [VERB] EXPECTATION OF the price FALLINGthe price FALL MORE THAN we EXPECTED IT
versusIT IS EXPECTED SUSPECT:There IS an EXPECTATION [NOUN] TO the price FALL MORE THAN we EXPECTED IT WOULDWRONG:the price IS
THAT [NOUN] WILL WILL [VERB] There IS an EXPECTATION OF EXPECTED FOR IT TO FALLIT IS EXPECTED THAT the price SHOULD FALL
[VERB] versus[NOUN] [NOUN] [PRESENT PARTICIPLE] [NOUN] [VERB]
[VERB] MORE THAN MORE THAN we EXPECTED IT TO [NOUN] [VERB]
EXPECTED versusThere MORE THAN we EXPECTED IT WOULDWRONG:
IS an EXPECTATION [NOUN] [TO BE] EXPECTED FOR IT TO [VERB]IT
THAT [NOUN] WILL IS EXPECTED THAT [NOUN] SHOULD [VERB]
[VERB] versusThere IS
an EXPECTATION
[NOUN] WILL [VERB]
versus There IS an
EXPECTATION OF
[NOUN] [PRESENT
PARTICIPLE]
versus[NOUN] [VERB]
MORE THAN we
EXPECTED IT TO
versus[NOUN] [VERB]
MORE THAN we
EXPECTED IT
WOULDversus[NOUN]
[TO BE] EXPECTED
FOR IT TO [VERB]IT IS
EXPECTED THAT
[NOUN] SHOULD
[VERB]

299 EXPEND ON versus EXPEND ON is preferred RIGHT: We EXPEND energy ON neighborhood development MGMAT SC Ch9 p155 SC Idioms
EXPEND FOR WRONG: We EXPEND energy FOR neighborhood development

300 TO (SOME) EXTENT RIGHT: RIGHT: MGMAT SC Ch9 p155 SC Idioms


Page

versus TO (SOME) EXTENT versus We enjoyed the film TO (SOME) EXTENT


EXTENT TO WHICH EXTENT TO WHICH versus Thumbs part up is the EXTENT TO WHICH we enjoyed the film
versus
50

EXTENT THAT WRONG: WRONG:


EXTENT THAT Thumbs part up is the EXTENT THAT we enjoyed the film

301 FACT THAT RIGHT: RIGHT: MGMAT SC Ch9 p155 SC Idioms


[CLAUSE] THAT [CLAUSE] THAT [CLAUSE] versus It is important to recognize THAT our strateg is working
[CLAUSE] versus [CLAUSE] BECAUSE [CLAUSE] versus We have succeeded because we work hard
[CLAUSE] BECAUSE
[CLAUSE] versus SUSPECT: SUSPECT:
[CLAUSE] THE FACT [CLAUSE] THE FACT THAT [CLAUSE] versus It is important to recognize THE FACT THAT our strategy is working
THAT [CLAUSE] versus THE FACT THAT [CLAUSE] IS [CLAUSE] versus THE FACT THAT our strategy is working IS important to recognize
THE FACT THAT
[CLAUSE] IS [CLAUSE] WRONG: WRONG:
versus [CLAUSE] DUE TO THE FACT THAT [CLAUSE] We have succeeded DUE TO THE FACT THAT we work hard
[CLAUSE] DUE TO THE
FACT THAT [CLAUSE]
302 [NOUN] [TO BE] AT RIGHT: RIGHT: MGMAT SC Ch9 p155 SC Idioms
FAULT FOR [VERB] [NOUN] [TO BE] AT FAULT FOR [VERB] The criminals ARE AT FAULT FOR BREAKING the law
versus
[GERUND] [TO BE] SUSPECT: SUSPECT:
THE FAULT OF [NOUN] [GERUND] [TO BE] THE FAULT OF [NOUN] BREAKING the law IS THE FAULT OF criminals
versus
THAT [NOUN] [VERB] WRONG: WRONG:
[T BE] AT FAULT THAT [NOUN] [VERB] [T BE] AT FAULT THAT the criminals BROKE the law IS AT FAULT
versus IT IS THE FAULT OF [NOUN] [VERB] IT IS THE FAULT OF criminals WHO BROKE the law
IT IS THE FAULT OF
[NOUN] [VERB]
303 FIND THAT versus FOUND THAT is preferred RIGHT: The scientist FOUND THAT the reaction was unusual MGMAT SC Ch9 p155 SC Idioms
FIND SUSPECT: The scientist FOUND the reaction TO BE unusual
WRONG: The scientist FOUND the reaction WAS unusual

304 FOR (CONJUNCTION SEE BECAUSE MGMAT SC Ch9 p155 SC Idioms


305 FORBID TO [VERB] FORBID TO [VERB] is CORRECT. RIGHT: The law FORBIDS any citizen TO VOTE twice MGMAT SC Ch9 p155 SC Idioms
versus FORBID FROM
[GERUND] WRONG: FORBID FROM [GERUND] WRONG: The law FORBIDS any citizen FROM VOTING twice

306 FROM … TO versus TO RIGHT: FROM … TO is correct and TO … FROM is RIGHT: The price fell FROM 10 euros TO 3 euros MGMAT SC Ch9 p156 SC Idioms
… FROM correct too The price fell TO 3 euros FROM 10 euros
WRONG: FROM … DOWN TO, FROM … UP TO
The price fell FROM 10 euros DOWN TO 3 euros
The price rose FROM 3 euros UP to 10 euros
307 GOAL RIGHT: GOAL IS TO EXPAND RIGHT: The GOAL IS TO EXPAND the company MGMAT SC Ch9 p156 SC Idioms
WRONG: GOAL IS EXPANSION OF, GOAL IS WRONG: The GOAL IS EXPANSION OF the company
EXPANDING WRONG: The GOAL IS EXPANDING the company
308 HEARD THAT versus RIGHT: HEARD THAT RIGHT: She HEARD THAT her investment HAD PAID off MGMAT SC Ch9 p156 SC Idioms
HEARD OF WRONG: HEARD OF WRONG: She HEARD OF her investment PAYING OFF
309 HELP RIGHT: RIGHT: MGMAT SC Ch9 p156 SC Idioms
HELPS RAKEHELPS TO RAKEHELPS [NOUN] He HELPS RAKE the leavesHe HELPS TO RAKE the leavesHe HELPS me RAKE the
RAKEHELPS [NOUN] TO RAKEHELP IN leavesHe HELPS me TO RAKE the leavesHis HELP IN RAKING the leaves has been
RAKINGWRONG: HELPS [NOUN] IN RAKING, AS welcomeWRONG: He HELPS me IN RAKING the leavesI need him AS HELP TO
HELP TO RAKE RAKE the leaves
Page

310 HOLDS THAT versus RIGHT: HOLDS THAT RIGHT: He HOLDS THAT jaywalking is illegal MGMAT SC Ch9 p156 SC Idioms
HOLDS TO BE versus WRONG: HOLDS TO BE, HOLD WRONG: He HOLDS jaywalking TO BE illegal
HOLDS He HOLDS jaywalking is illegal
51

311 IF SEE WHETHER SEE WHETHER MGMAT SC Ch9 p156 SC Idioms


RIGHT: IF = condition RIGHT: Inflation can hurt profits IF costs increae (IF = condition)
RIGHT: PROVIDED THAT = ONLY IF RIGHT: I can eat ice cream, PROVIDED THAT my doctor approves

SUSPECT: WHEN (= time period) SUSPECT: Inflation can hurt profits WHEN costs increase (= time period)

WRONG: PROVIDED (requires THAT) WRONG: I can eat ice cream, PROVIDED THAT my doctor approves (requires
THAT)
312 IN ORDER TO ** ** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE ON GMAT RIGHT: MGMAT SC Ch9 p156 SC Idioms
RIGHT: IN ORDER TO STAY, TO STAY She drank coffee IN ORDER TO STAY awake.
SUSPECT: IN ORDER THAT, SO THAT [NOUN] She drank coffee TO STAY awake (TO STAY indicates PURPOSE)
[VERB], SO AS TO STAY [VERB]
WRONG: FOR STAYING, IN ORDER TO (not next SUSPECT: She drank coffee IN ORDER THAT or SO THAT she MIGHT stay awake.
to its SUBJECT) She drank coffee SO AS TO STAY awake.

WRONG: She drank coffee FOR STAYING awake.


Coffee was drunk by HER IN ORDER TO stay awake (COFFEE is NOT the subject.
HER is. IN ORDER TO is not next to its SUBJECT)

313 INDICATE ** ** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE ON GMAT RIGHT: MGMAT SC Ch9 p157 SC Idioms
RIGHT: INDICATE THAT A report INDICATES THAT unique bacteria LIVE on our skin

SUSPECT: A report INDICATES the presence of unique bacteria on our skin


SUSPECT: A report IS INDICATIVE OF the presence of unique bacteria on our skin

WRONG: A report INDICATES unique bacteria LIVE on our skin (THAT is needed)
A report IS INDICATIVE THAT unique bacteria LIVE on our skin
A report INDICATES unique bacteria AS present on our skin
A report INDICATES unique bacteria TO LIVE on our skin

314 INFLUENCE RIGHT: INFLUENCED is preferred over WAS RIGHT: His example INFLUENCED me MGMAT SC Ch9 p157 SC Idioms
INFLUENNTIAL TO, AN INFLUENCE ON SUSPECT: His example WAS INFLUENTIAL TO me (or AN INFLUENCE ON me)
WRONG: WAS INFLUENTIAL ON WRONG: His example WAS INFLUENTIAL ON me

315 INSPIRE RIGHT: INSPIRED is preferred over WAS RIGHT: His example INSPIRED me MGMAT SC Ch9 p157 SC Idioms
INSPIRATIONAL TO or AN INSPIRATION TO
SUSPECT: His example WAS INSPIRATIONAL TO OR AN INSPIRATION TO me

316 INSTANCE RIGHT: FOR INSTANCE is right RIGHT: We eat out often; FOR INSTANCE, last week we ate out every night MGMAT SC Ch9 p157 SC Idioms
WRONG: We eat out often, AS AN INSTANCE, last week we ate out every night
Page

317 INSTEAD RIGHT: INSTEAD is correct and RATHER is RIGHT: They avoided the arcade and INSTEAD went to a movie MGMAT SC Ch9 p157 SC Idioms
INCORRECT WRONG: They avoided the arcade and RATHER went to a movie
They avoided the arcade, RATHER going to a movie
52

318 INSTEAD OF SEE RATHER THAN MGMAT SC Ch9 p157 SC Idioms


319 INTENT OF versus RIGHT:: INTENT OF, INTENTION OF, INTENT TO RIGHT: I went with the INTENT or INTENTION OF leaving soon MGMAT SC Ch9 p157 SC Idioms
INTENTION OF versus are preferred over INTENT THAT I went with the INTENT TO LEAVE soon
INTENT TO versus
INTENT THAT SUSPECT: I went with the INTENT THAT I WOULD LEAVE soon

320 INTERACT WITH 1 INTERACT WITH ONE ANOTHER or EACH OTHER RIGHT: These groups often INTERACT WITH ONE AOTHER or EACH OTHER MGMAT SC Ch9 p157 SC Idioms
person versus is correct WRONG: These groups often INTERACT AMONG ONE ANOTHER
INTERACT AMONG These groups often INTERACT WITH THEMSELVES
versus INTERACT WRONG: INTERACT AMONG ONE ANOTHER
WITH 2 or more WRONG: INTERACT WITH THEMSELVES
321 INTERACTION OF INTERACTION OF is preferred over INTERACTION RIGHT: The INTERACTION OF two nuclei COLLIDING releases energy MGMAT SC Ch9 p157 SC Idioms
versus INTERACTION BETWEEN
BETWEEN versus SUSPECT: The INTERACTION BETWEEN two nuclei COLLIDING releases energy
INTERACTION WHERE INTERACTION WHERE is WRONG WRONG: The INTERACTION WHERE two nuclei COLLIDE releases energy

322 INVEST IN X TO INVESTED IN X TO [VERB] is correct RIGHT: She INVESTED funds IN research TO STUDY cancer MGMAT SC Ch9 p157 SC Idioms
[VERB] versus INVEST
INTO X TO [VERB] WRONG: INVESTED INTO X TO [VERB], INVEST WRONG:
versus INVEST INTO X FOR X TO [VERB], INVEST FOR [GERUND] She INVESTED funds INTO or FOR research TO STUDY cancer
FOR [VERB] INVEST She INVESTED funds IN research FOR STUDYING cancer
FOR [GERUND]

323 ISOLATED FROM ISOLATE FROM is preferred over IN ISOLATION RIGHT: The culture was ISOLATED FROM outside CONTACT MGMAT SC Ch9 p157 SC Idioms
versus IN ISOLATION WRONG: IN ISOLATION FROM SUSPECT: The culture was IN ISOLATIONWRONG: The culture was IN ISOLATION
versus IN ISOLATION FROM outside CONTACT
FROM

324 JUST AS … SO SEE AS / SO MGMAT SC Ch9 p157 SC Idioms


325 KNOWN AS versus KNOW AS = NAMED RIGHT: We KNOW her TO BE brilliant. She is KNOWN TO BE brilliant MGMAT SC Ch9 p157 SC Idioms
KNOWN TO BE KNOW TO BE = leads to adjective RIGHT: We KNOW him AS "Reggie". He is KNOWN AS "Reggie"

WRONG: We KNOW her AS brilliant (KNOW AS = NAMED)

326 [TO BE] LACKING IN RIGHT: RIGHT: MGMAT SC Ch9 p157 SC Idioms
[NOUN] versus LACK [BE (bare form)] LACKING IN [NOUN] as an Old gadgets ARE LACKING in features
[NOUN] versus LACK adjective Old gadgets LACK features
OF [NOUN] versus LACK [NOUN] as a verb The LACK OF features is upsetting
LACKING IN [NOUN LACK OF [NOUN] as a noun
CLAUSE] SUSPECT: There is A LACK OF engineers TO BUILD new gadgets
WRONG:
A LACK OF [NOUN] TO [VERB] WRONG: Old gadgets LACK OF features
LACKING [NOUN] (as a clause without a comma WRONG: It is hard to build bridges LACKING engineers
and no bare form
327 LESS THAN SEE THAN RIGHT: Our utilities add up to LESS THAN 10% of our income MGMAT SC Ch9 p157 SC Idioms
LESS THAN is preferred over LOWER THAN WRONG: Our utilities add up to LOWER THAN 10% of our income
Page

328 LET versus LEAVE LET is right. LEAVE is wrong RIGHT: My doctor LETS me SWIM in the ocean MGMAT SC Ch9 p157 SC Idioms
WRONG: My doctor LEAVES me SWIM in the ocean
The surgery WILL LEAVE me TO SWIM in the ocean
53
329 LIE versus LAY LIES IN = resides in RIGHT: Our strength LIES IN numbers (= resides in) MGMAT SC Ch9 p157-8 SC Idioms
LAY in = resided in RIGHT: Yesterday, our strength LAY IN numbers (= resided in)
RIGHT: Tomorrow, our strength WILL LIE IN numbers
lie: lie, lying, lay, (have) lain RIGHT: I lose my books whenever I LAY them down (present tense of different
lay: lay, laying, laid, (have) laid verb)

LAY always HAS AN OBJECT AFTER IT because it WRONG: Tomorrow, our strength WILL LAY IN numbers
is a TRANSITIVE verb
SUBJECT doing action = use LIE lie/lay
OBJECT has action acted upon it = use LAY I lie [not lay] on the floor when I watch television.
I lay my keys on the table when I arrive home from work.
Again, lie can be a verb and a noun.
Lay can only be a verb. lying/laying I am lying [not laying] on the floor watching television. I am laying my
The past tense of lay is laid. The present briefcase on my desk to remind me that I have work to finish.
participle is laying.
The past tense of lie (the verb) is lied.The present lay/laid Yesterday I lay [not laid] in bed all day with a fever. Yesterday I laid my
participle is lying. briefcase on my desk and forgot about it when I left for work.

(have) lain/(have) laid


I have lain [not have laid] in bed all day with a fever.
I have laid my briefcase on my desk to remind me that I have work to finish.

330 DISINTERESTED UNINTERESTED = bored My mom is DISINTERESTED in video games as she neither likes nor hates to play http://richardbowles.tripod.com/gmat/sc/sc_ SC Idioms
versus UNINTERESTED DISINTERESTED = neutral them type1.htm
Akka is UNINTERESTED with the book as it is very dry
331 HANGED versus HUNG HANGED refers to people. HUNG refers to RIGHT http://richardbowles.tripod.com/gmat/sc/sc_ SC Idioms
everything else like pictures, curtains, etc. The criminal was HANGEd type1.htm
The mirror was HUNG
332 HEALTHY versus HEALTHY refers to people. HEALTHFUL refers to RIGHT http://richardbowles.tripod.com/gmat/sc/sc_ SC Idioms
HEALTHFUL foods that make the person eating it healthy. The apple is very healthful as it keeps the doctor away type1.htm
The athlete is very healthy as he is fit
333 LOOK versus APPEAR LOOK is the action performed by eyes = act of How do I LOOK? => Well, you use your eyes, don't you? http://richardbowles.tripod.com/gmat/sc/sc_ SC Idioms
seeing How do I APPEAR? => Very nice type1.htm
APPEAR means SEEM or have an outward
appearnce
334 LIKE ** ** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE ON GMAT RIGHT: LIKE his sister, Matt drives fast cars (= both drive fast cars) MGMAT SC Ch9 p158-9 SC Idioms
SEE ALSO SUCH AS RIGHT: Matt drives fast cars LIKE his sister (= both drive fast cars, or both drive
Page

LIKE refers to NOUNS fast cars in the same way)


AS refers to VERBS Matt drives fast cars LIKE his sister's (= both drive SIMILAR cars; he does NOT
drive his sister's car)
54

WRONG:
Matt drives fast cars LIKE his sister does
LIKE his sister, SO Matt drives fast cars
335 LIKELY ** ** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE ON GMAT RIGHT: MGMAT SC Ch9 p159 SC Idioms
RIGHT: My friend IS LIKELY TO EAT worms
[BE] LIKELY TO [VERB] IT IS LIKELY THAT my friend WILL EAT worms
[BE] LIKELY THAT … WILL [VERB] My friend is MORE LIKELY THAN my enemy [is] TO EAT worms.
MORE LIKELY THAN … TO [VERB] My friend is TWICE AS LIKELY AS my enemy [is] TO EAT worms
TWICE AS LIKELY AS … TO EAT MORE THAN LIKELY, my friend WILL eat worms
MORE THAN LIKELY … WILL [VERB]
WRONG:
WRONG: My friend is LIKELY THAT he WILL EAT worms
IS LIKELY THAT … WILL [VERB] RATHER THAN my enemy, my friend is THE MORE LIKELY to EAT worms
RATHER THAN …. THE MORE LIKELY TO [VERB]

336 LOSS OF versus LOSS LOSS OF means "no longer in possession of" or RIGHT: I have suffered a LOSS OF strength MGMAT SC Ch9 p159 SC Idioms
IN "decline in quality". RIGHT: They have suffered a LOSS IN the euro
LOSS IN means "decline in value of an
investment" WRONG: I have suffered a LOSS IN strength
337 MANDATE [THAT] MANDATE means "command". HAVE A MANDATE The president MANDATED that the bill be passed MGMAT SC Ch9 p159 SC Idioms
[INFINITIVE (without means "have authority from voters" Require also The Congress has a mandate to declare war.
"to" for subjunctive needs [THAT] [INFINITIVE (without "to" for
sentences)] OR subjunctive sentences AKA the unconjugated RIGHT: The general MANDATED THAT a trench be dug (SUBJUNCTIVE)
MANDATE [THAT] [X] verb] as well RIGHT: We HAVE A MANDATE TO CALL an election soon (AUTHORITY)
be [Y] versus HAVE A
MANDATE versus HAVE MANDATE THAT ... BE > MANDATE THAT ... TO WRONG: The genreal MANDATED a trench TO BE dug
A MANDATE TO [VERB] BE WRONG: The genreal MANDATES THAT a trench WILL BE dug
versus HAVE A MANDATED THAT ... BE = SUBJUNCTIVE WRONG: We HAVE A MANDATE FOR an election in the near future
MANDATE FOR [NOUN]
HAVE A MANDATE TO [VERB] > HAVE A
MANDATE FOR [NOUN]
HAVE A MANDATE TO [VERB] = HAVE
AUTHORITY
338 MADE [NOUN] RIGHT: RIGHT: MGMAT SC Ch9 p159 SC Idioms
POSSIBLE versus MADE [NOUN] POSSIBLE The leader MADE the resistance POSSIBLE
MADE IT POSSIBLE TO MADE IT POSSIBLE TO [VERB] The leader MADE IT POSSIBLE TO RESIST oppression
[VERB] versus MADE MADE IT POSSIBLE FOR [NOUN] TO [VERB] (IT = The leader MADE IT POSSIBLE FOR the resistance TO RESIST oppression. (IT =
IT POSSIBLE FOR refers to [VERB]) refers to [VERB])
[NOUN] TO [VERB] ARE MADE [ADJECTIVE] Windshields ARE MADE resistant to impact
versus ARE MADE
[ADJECTIVE] versus SUSPECT: MADE POSSIBLE [NOUN], ARE MADE SUSPECT:
MADE POSSIBLE TO BE [ADJECTIVE] The leader MADE POSSIBLE the resistance
[NOUN] versus ARE Windshields ARE MADE TO BE resistant to impact
MADE TO BE WRONG: MADE POSSIBLE TO [VERB]
Page

[ADJECTIVE] versus WRONG: The leader MADE POSSIBLE TO RESIST oppression


MADE POSSIBLE TO
[VERB]
55

339 IS MASS versus HAS HAS MASS is correct RIGHT: The truck HAS ten TIMES THE MASS of a small car MGMAT SC Ch9 p160 SC Idioms
MASS WRONG: The truck IS ten TIMES THE MASS of a small car

340 MAYBE SEE PROBABLY MGMAT SC Ch9 p160 SC Idioms


341 A MEANS TO versus A A MEANS TO is correct RIGHT: Music education is a MEANS TO improved cognition MGMAT SC Ch9 p160 SC Idioms
MEANS FOR versus A
MEANS OF WRONG: Music education is a MEANS FOR improved cognition
WRONG: Music education is a MEANS OF improved cognition
342 MISTAKEEN FOR MISTAKEN FOR is correct RIGHT: My spouse HAS MISTAKEN me FOR a wealthier person MGMAT SC Ch9 p160 SC Idioms
versus MISTAKEN AS
versus MISTAKEN TO WRONG: My spouse HAS MISTAKEN me AS a wealthier person
WRONG: My spouse HAS MISTAKEN me TO a wealthier person

343 MGMAT SC Ch9 p160 SC Idioms

SEE THAN RIGHT: We observed A 10% INCREASE IN robberies last month


MORE without THAN should NOT refer to RIGHT: MORE AND MORE we have observed violent robberies on weekends
numbers. INCREASE or INCREASINGLY should be RIGHT: INCREASINGLY we have observed violent robberies on weekends
used
MORE MORE AND MORE is correct SUSPECT: We observed 10% MORE robberies last month
344 MGMAT SC Ch9 p160 SC Idioms

RIGHT: The kangaroo is NATIVE TO Australia (said of animals, plants)


RIGHT: My friend is a NATIVE OF Australia (said of people)
NATIVE OF versus NATIVE TO = said of animals and plants
NATIVE TO A NATIVE OF = said of people WRONG: The kangaroo is NATIVE IN Australia
345 MGMAT SC Ch9 p160 SC Idioms

RIGHT
** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE ON GMAT She DID NOT EAT mangoes BUT ATE other kinds of fruits
DID NOT EAT … BUT ATE She DID NOT EAT mangoes BUT LIKED other kinds of fruit AND AND later BEGAN
DID NOT EAT … BUT LIKED … AND BEGAN… to like kiwis, too
NOT [NOUN] BUT [NOUN] A tomato is NOT a vegetable BUT a fruit
NOT [NOUN] BUT RATHER [NOUN] A tomato is NOT a vegetable BUT RATHER a fruit
[VERB] NOT [NOUN] BUT INSTEAD [PARALLEL The agency IS NOT a fully independent entity BUT INSTEAD DERIVES its authority
VERB] [NOUN] from Congress
DID NOT EAT [NOUN]; INSTEAD, [sentence] She DID NOT EAT mangoes; INSTEAD, she ate other kinds of fruit

WRONG: WRONG:
DID NOT EAT [NOUN] BUT [NOUN] She DID NOT EAT mangoes BUT other kinds of fruit
** NOT … BUT DID NOT EAT [NOUN]; RATHER [clause] She DID NOT EAT mangoes; RATHER other kinds of fruit
346 MGMAT SC Ch9 p161 SC Idioms
** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE ON GMAT
NOT ONLY [NOUN] BUT ALSO [NOUN]
NOT ONLY [NOUN], BUT ALSO [NOUN] (COMMA RIGHT:
is OPTIONAL) We wore NOT ONLY boots BUT ALSO sandals
Page

NOT JUST [NOUN] BUT ALSO [NOUN] We wore NOT ONLY boots , BUT ALSO sandals (COMMA is OPTIONAL)
We wore NOT JUST boots BUT ALSO sandals
SUSPECT:
NOT ONLY [NOUN] BUT [NOUN] (COULD be SUSPECT:
56

correct) We wore NOT ONLY boots BUT [NOUN] (COULD be correct)


NOT ONLY [NOUN] BUT [NOUN] AS WELL We wore NOT ONLY boots BUT sandals AS WELL
[NOUN] AND ALSO [NOUN We wore boots AND ALSO sandals

WRONG: WRONG:
** NOT ONLY … BUT NOT ONLY [NOUN] AND ALSO [NOUN] We wore NOT ONLY boots AND ALSO sandals
ALSO NOT ONLY [NOUN] BUT, AS WELL, [NOUN] We wore NOT ONLY boots BUT, AS WELL, sandals
347 MGMAT SC Ch9 p161 SC Idioms

RIGHT:
A NUMBER OF dogs ARE barking
THE NUMBER OF dogs IS large
THE NUMBER OF dogs HAS FALLEN, but THE NUMBER OF cats HAS RISEN

THE NUMBER OF SUSPECT: There HAS BEEN A DECLINE IN THE NUMBER OF dogs
versus A NUMBER OF A NUMBER = PLURAL
versus ITS NUMBERS / THE NUMBER = SINGULAR WRONG: THE NUMBER OF dogs HAVE fallen
NUMBER ITS NUMBERS / NUMBER = SINGULAR Dogs HAVE FALLEN IN NUMBER, but cats HAVE RISEN IN NUMBER
348 OBJECT TO versus MGMAT SC Ch9 p161 SC Idioms
HAVE AN OBJECTION RIGHT: We OBJECT TO these proceedings
TO OBJECT TO is preferred WRONG: We HAVE AN OBJECTION TO these proceedings
349 ONCE versus AT ONE RIGHT: We might ONCE have seen that band MGMAT SC Ch9 p161 SC Idioms
TIME ONCE is correct over AT ONE TIME WRONG: We might AT ONE TIME have seen that band
350 MGMAT SC Ch9 p161 SC Idioms
RIGHT: Her performance is exceeded ONLY by theirs (modifies BY THEIRS)
** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE ON GMAT WRONG: Her performance is ONLY exceeded by theirs (modifies EXCEEDED and
** ONLY Place ONLY next to APPROPRIATE MODIFIER changes meaning)
351 MGMAT SC Ch9 p161 SC Idioms
OR means separate entities. AND implies RIGHT: I do NOT want water OR milk
OR versus AND combination SUSPECT: I do NOT want water AND milk (implies the combination)
352 MGMAT SC Ch9 p162 SC Idioms

ORDERS THAT … [VERB without BE] RIGHT:


(SUBJUNCTIVE) The state ORDERS THAT the agency COLLECT taxes (SUBJUNCTIVE)
ORDERS X TO [VERB] The state ORDERS the agency TO COLLECT taxes

WRONG: WRONG:
ORDERS THAT …SHOULD COLLECT The state ORDERS THAT the agency SHOULD COLLECT taxes
ORDERS X SHOULD / WOULD [VERB] The state ORDERS the agency SHOULD / WOULD COLLECT taxes
ORDERS X [GERUND] The state ORDERS the agency COLLECTING taxes
ORDERS X the [NOUN] The state ORDERS the agency the COLLECTION of taxes
ORDERS X [NOUN] BY X The state ORDERS the COLLECTION OF taxes BY the agency
** ORDER ORDERS [NOUN] [PAST PARTICIPLE] The state ORDERS taxes collected
353 MGMAT SC Ch9 p162 SC Idioms
OWE X TO Y FOR
Page

versus OWES X TO Y RIGHT: He OWES money TO the government FOR back taxes
BECAUSE OF OWES X TO Y FOR is Correct SUSPECT: He OWES money TO the government BECAUSE OF back taxes
354 MGMAT SC Ch9 p162 SC Idioms
57

PAYS X FOR Y versus RIGHT: The employers PAYS the same FOR this JOB as for that one
PAYS X IN Y PAYS X FOR Y is Correct WRONG: The employer PAYS the same IN this JOB as in that one
355 MGMAT SC Ch9 p162 SC Idioms
PERHAPS SEE PROBABLY
356 PERSUADE [NOUN] TO MGMAT SC Ch9 p162 SC Idioms
[VERB] versus
PERSUADE THAT
[NOUN] [VERB without
TO] versus RIGHT: He PERSUADED her TO GO with him
PERSUADED [NOUN] WRONG: He PERSUADED her IN GOING with him
IN [GERUND] PERSUADED [NOUN] TO [VERB] is correct WRONG: He PERSUADED THAT she GO (or SHOULD GO) with him
357 MGMAT SC Ch9 p162 SC Idioms
IS POTENTIALLY RIGHT: A tornado is POTENTIALLY overwhelming
versus CAN IS POTENTIALLY is correct. CAN POTENTIALLY WRONG: He PERSUADED her IN GOING with him
POTENTIALLY BE BE is redundant WRONG: He PERSUADED THAT she GO (SHOULD GO) with him
358 MGMAT SC Ch9 p162 SC Idioms
[GERUND] PRIVILEGE
versus THE PRIVILEGE
OF [GERUND] versus RIGHT: The academy gave senior cadets DANCING PRIVILEGES
THE PRIVILEGE TO [GERUND] PRIVILEGE is correct and preferred SUSPECT: The academy gave senior cadets THE PRIVILEGE OF DANCING
[VERB] over THE PRIVILEGE OF [GERUND] WRONG: The academy gave senior cadets THE PRIVILEGE TO DANCE
359 MGMAT SC Ch9 p162 SC Idioms
[NOUN] IS PROBABLY RIGHT RIGHT
versus [NOUN] MAY BE [NOUN] IS PROBABLY This situation IS PROBABLY as bad as it can get
versus PERHAPS [NOUN] MAY BE (Less certain than PROBABLY) This situation MAY BE as bad as it can get (Less certain than PROBABLY)
[NOUN] … IS versus PERHAPS [NOUN] … IS PERHAPS This situation IS as bad as it can get
MAYBE [NOUN] … IS MAYBE [NOUN] … IS MAYBE This situation IS as bad as it can get
versus IT MAY BE
THAT [NOUN] IS WRONG WRONG
versus [NOUN] IS IT MAY BE THAT [NOUN] IS IT MAY BE THAT this situation IS as bad as it can get
MAYBE … [NOUN] IS MAYBE … This situation IS MAYBE as bad as it can get
360 MGMAT SC Ch9 p163 SC Idioms

RIGHT: The law PROHIBITS any citizen FROM VOTING twice


PROHIBIT FROM verus WRONG: The law PROHIBITS any citizen TO VOTE twice
PROHIBIT TO PROHIBIT FROM is correct. FORBID TO is correct. WRONG: The law PROHIBITS THAT any person VOTE (or VOTES) twice
361 PRONOUNCE [NOUN] MGMAT SC Ch9 p163 SC Idioms
[NOUN] versus
PRONOUNCE [NOUN] RIGHT: She PRONOUNCED the book a triumph
AS [NOUN] PRONOUNCE [NOUN] [NOUN] is correct WRONG: She PRONOUNCED the book AS a triumph
362 MGMAT SC Ch9 p163 SC Idioms
RIGHT:
PROPOSED THAT X BE PROPOSED THAT X BE Y (SUBJUNCTIVE The attorneys PROPOSED THAT a settlement BE reached (SUBJUNCTIVE)
Y versus PROPOSED X PROPOSED X The attorneys PROPOSED a new venue
PROPOSED TO X for Y PROPOSED TO X for Y The attorneys PROPOSED TO MEET for lunch
versus PROPOSED
THAT X IS Y versus WRONG: WRONG:
PROPOSED X BE Y PROPOSED THAT X IS Y The attorneys PROPOSED THAT a settlement IS reached
versus PROPOSED X IS PROPOSED X BE Y The attorneys PROPOSED a settlement BE reached
TO BE Y PROPOSED X IS TO BE Y The attorneys PROPOSED a settlement IS TO BE reached
363 SEE IF MGMAT SC Ch9 p163 SC Idioms
PROVIDED THAT Equivalent to ONLY IF
364 MGMAT SC Ch9 p163 SC Idioms
RAISE SEE RISE
365 MGMAT SC Ch9 p163 SC Idioms
Page

RIGHT:
RIGHT: His emitions RANGED FROM anger TO joy
RANGED FROM X TO Y RANGED FROM X TO Y His WIDELY RANGING emoions are hard to deal with = changing over time
58

versus WIDELY WIDELY RANGING = changing over time His WIDE RANGE of accomplishments is impressive = a variety
RANGING versus WIDE WIDE RANGE = a variety
RANGE versus RANGED WRONG:
FROM X AND Y versus WRONG: His emotions RANGED FROM anger AND joy
FROM X AND TO Y RANGED FROM X AND Y FROM anger AND TO joy
versus FROM X WITH Y FROM X AND TO Y FROM anger WITH joy
versus FROM X IN FROM X WITH Y FROM anger IN ADDITION TO joy
ADDITION TO Y FROM X IN ADDITION TO Y HIs WIDELY RANGING accomplishments are impressive
366 MGMAT SC Ch9 p163 SC Idioms

RANK AS versus HAS RIGHT: This problem RANKS AS one of the worst we have seen
THE RANK OF RANK AS is correct WRONG: This problem HAS THE RANK OF one of the worst we have seen
367 MGMAT SC Ch9 p163 SC Idioms

RIGHT: The RATES for bus tickets are good for commuters
RIGHT: The RATE OF theft has fallen

RATE FOR versus RATE RATE FOR = prices WRONG: The RATES OF bus tickts are good for commuters
OF RATE OF = frequency or speed WRONG: The RATE FOR theft has fallen
368 RATHER THAN shows preference and CHOICE. MGMAT SC Ch9 p163 SC Idioms
(LOOSE (not always strictly followed) TEST:
George is a dog RATHER THAN a cat DOES NOT
MAKE sense, so INSTEAD OF is needed) RIGHT: He wrote with pencils RATHER THAN with pens
INSTEAD OF suggests that one person, thing or SUSPECT: He wrote with pencils INSTEAD OF pens
RATHER THAN versus action replaces another. SUSPECT: He wrote with pencils, BUT NOT pens
INSTEAD OF RATHER THAN is ALMOST ALWAYS PREFERRED WRONG: He worte with pencils INSTEAD OF with pens
369 MGMAT SC Ch9 p164 SC Idioms
RIGHT RIGHT
REASON TO [VERB] I have a REASON TO DO work today
REASON TO [VERB] REASON FOR [NOUN] She has REASON FOR the lawsuit
versus REASON FOR REASON THAT [clause] This observation indicates a REASON THAT he is here
[NOUN] versus
REASON THAT [clause] SUSPECT SUSPECT
versus REASON WHY REASON WHY [clause] This observation indicates a REASON WHY he is here
[clause] versus
REASON [clause] WRONG WRONG
versus the REASON … REASON [clause] This observation indicates a REASON he is here
IS BECAUSE [clause] the REASON … IS BECAUSE [clause] The REASON he is here IS BECAUSE he wants to be
370 REBEL AGAINST versus MGMAT SC Ch9 p164 SC Idioms
REBELLION WAS RIGHT: The colonists REBELLED AGAINST tyranny
AGAINST REBELLED AGAINST is preferred WRONG: The colonists' REBELLION WAS AGAINST tyranny
371 MGMAT SC Ch9 p164 SC Idioms
RECOGNIZED THAT X RIGHT
WAS Y versus RECOGNIZED THAT X WAS Y RIGHT
RECOGNIZED X TO BE RECOGNIZED X TO BE Y They RECOGNIZED THAT the entrance fee WAS a bargain
Y versus RECOGNIZED RECOGNIZED X AS Y They RECOGNIZED the entrance fee TO BE a bargain
X AS Y versus They RECOGNIZED the entrance fee AS a bargain
RECOGNIZED X AS WRONG
BEING Y RECOGNIZED X AS BEING Y WRONG: They RECOGNIZED the entrance fee AS BEING a bargain
372 RECOMMEND THAT … MGMAT SC Ch9 p164 SC Idioms
BE versus
RECOMMEND THAT … RECOMMEND THAT … BE is correct because the RIGHT: We RECOMMENDED THAT the shelter BE opened
SHOULD BE phrase is SUBJUNCTIVE WRONG: We RECOMMENDED THAT the shelter SHOULD BE opened
373 MGMAT SC Ch9 p164 SC Idioms
RIGHT RIGHT
Page

REDUCE [NOUN] REDUCE [NOUN] The coalition REDUCE prices


versus REDUCTION IN REDUCTION IN [NOUN] The coalition REDUCTION IN prices
[NOUN] versus MADE
59

A REDUCTION IN SUSPECT SUSPECT


[NOUN] versus MADE A REDUCTION IN [NOUN] The coalition MADE A REDUCTION IN prices
CAUSED A REDUCTION CAUSED A REDUCTION in [NOUN] The coalition CAUSED A REDUCTION in prices
in [NOUN] versus
MADE A REDUCTION WRONG: WRONG:
OF [NOUN] MADE A REDUCTION OF [NOUN] The coalition MADE A REDUCTION OF prices
374 MGMAT SC Ch9 p164 SC Idioms

RIGHT RIGHT
REFER TO This term REFERS TO a kind of disease.
REFERRING TO REFERRING TO the controversy, the politican asked for calm

REFER TO versus SUSPECT SUSPECT


REFERRING TO versus IS USED TO REFER TO This term IS USED TO REFER TO a kind of disease
IS USED TO REFER TO
versus IS IN WRONG: WRONG:
REFERENCE TO versus IS IN REFERENCE TO This term IS IN REFERENCE TO a kind of disease
IN REFERENCE TO IN REFERENCE TO IN REFERENCE TO the controversy, the politician asked for calm
375 MGMAT SC Ch9 p164 SC Idioms
REGARDS [NOUN] AS
[ADJECTIVE] versus
[NOUN] IS REGARDED RIGHT RIGHT
AS [ADJECTIVE] REGARDS [NOUN] AS [ADJECTIVE] He REGARDS the gold ring AS costly
versus [NOUN] IS [NOUN] IS REGARDED AS [ADJECTIVE] the gold ring IS REGARDED AS costly
REGARDED AS HAVING [NOUN] IS REGARDED AS HAVING [NOUN] He IS REGARDED AS HAVING good taste
[NOUN] versus [NOUN]
IS REGARDED THAT IT WRONG WRONG
IS [ADJECTIVE] [NOUN] IS REGARDED THAT IT IS [ADJECTIVE] the gold ring IS REGARDED THAT IT IS costly
376 RIGHT RIGHT MGMAT SC Ch9 p165 SC Idioms
RELUCTANT TO [VERB] They were RELUCTANT TO SAY anything
RELUCTANT TO [VERB]
versus RELUCTANT WRONG WRONG
ABOUT [GERUND] RELUCTANT ABOUT [GERUND] They were RELUCTANT ABOUT SAYING anything
377 MGMAT SC Ch9 p165 SC Idioms

HAS REPORTED THAT HAS REPORTED THAT is correct because it is a RIGHT: A study HAS REPORTED THAT bees ARE DISAPPEARING
versus HAS REPORTED reporting verb WRONG: A study HAS REPORTED bees AS DISAPPEARING rapidly
378 REQUEST THAT … BE MGMAT SC Ch9 p165 SC Idioms
versus REQUEST … TO REQUEST THAT … BE (SUBJUNCTIVE) is correct RIGHT: I REQUEST THAT he BE removed (SUBJUNCTIVE)
BE because request is a reporting verb WRONG: I REQUEST him TO BE removed
Page
60
379 REQUIRE ** MGMAT SC Ch9 p165 SC Idioms
REQUIRES X TO
[VERB]
REQUIRES X IN ORDER
TO [VERB] [NOUN]
IS REQUIRED TO DO
[NOUN]
REQUIRES THAT X
[VERB (no TO)]
(SUBJUNCTIVE)
REQUIRES OF X THAT
Y BE done
REQUIREMENT OF
[NOUN] ** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE ON GMAT
REQUIREMENT THAT REQUIRES X TO [VERB]
[NOUN] BE done REQUIRES X IN ORDER TO [VERB] [NOUN]
REQUIRES X DO IS REQUIRED TO DO [NOUN] She REQUIRES time TO WRITE
[NOUN] REQUIRES THAT X [VERB (no TO)] She REQUIRES time IN ORDER TO WRITE
REQUIRES X MUST DO (SUBJUNCTIVE) Her friend IS REQUIRED TO DO work
[NOUN] REQUIRES OF X THAT Y BE done She REQUIRES THAT her friend DO work (SUBJUNCTIVE)
REQUIRES X TO HAVE She REQUIRES OF her friend THAT work BE done
TO [VERB] [NOUN] SUSPECT
REQUIRES OF X TO DO REQUIREMENT OF [NOUN] SUSPECT
[NOUN] REQUIREMENT THAT [NOUN] BE done In this hostel, there is a REQUIREMENT OF work
REQUIRES THAT X She requires REQUIREMENT THAT work BE done
DOES [NOUN] WRONG:
REQUIRES THAT X REQUIRES X DO [NOUN] WRONG:
SHOULD DO [NOUN] REQUIRES X MUST DO [NOUN] She REQUIRES X DO work
REQUIRES THAT X IS REQUIRES X TO HAVE TO [VERB] [NOUN] She REQUIRES her MUST DO work
TO DO [NOUN] REQUIRES OF X TO DO [NOUN] She REQUIRES her friend TO HAVE TO DO work
REQUIRES DOING REQUIRES THAT X DOES [NOUN] She REQUIRES OF her friend TO DO work
[NOUN] (or THE REQUIRES THAT X SHOULD DO [NOUN] She REQUIRES THAT her friend DOES work
DOING of [NOUN]) REQUIRES THAT X IS TO DO [NOUN] She REQUIRES THAT her friend SHOULD DO work
REQUIRES her friend REQUIRES DOING [NOUN] (or THE DOING of She REQUIRES THAT her firned IS TO DO work
DOING [NOUN] [NOUN]) She REQUIRES DOING work (or THE DOING of work)
REQUIREMENT OF REQUIRES her friend DOING [NOUN] She REQUIRES her friend DOING work
[NOUN] BY [NOUN] REQUIREMENT OF [NOUN] BY [NOUN] In this hostel, there is a REQUIREMENT OF work BY guests
380 RIGHT MGMAT SC Ch9 p165 SC Idioms
[NOUN] RESEMBLES A coffee mug RESEMBLES my father
[NOUN] versus [NOUN]
HAS A RESEMBLANCE SUSPECT
TO [NOUN] [NOUN] RESEMBLES [NOUN] is preferred A coffee mug HAS A RESEMBLANCE TO my father
381 MGMAT SC Ch9 p165 SC Idioms
Page

RESTRICTION ON
versus RESTRICTIONS RIGHT: The government imposed RESTRICTIONS ON the price of gasoline
FOR RESTRICTIONS ON is correct WRONG: The government imposed RESTRICTIONS FOR the price of gasoline
61
382 RESULT ** MGMAT SC Ch9 p165-6 SC Idioms
[NOUN] RESULTS
FROM [NOUN]
[NOUN] RESULTS IN
[NOUN]
[NOUN] IS A RESULT
OF [NOUN]
[NOUN] [VERB] AS A
RESULT OF [NOUN]
AS A RESULT OF ** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE ON GMAT
[NOUN], [NOUN] RIGHT
[VERB] [NOUN=effect] RESULTS FROM [NOUN=cause]
The RESULT OF [NOUN=cause] RESULTS IN [NOUN=effect]
[NOUN] WAS THAT [NOUN=effect] IS A RESULT OF [NOUN=cause]
[NOUN] [VERB] [NOUN=effect] [VERB] AS A RESULT OF RIGHT
[NOUN] [VERB] WITH [NOUN=cause] Wealth RESULTS FROM Work
THE RESULT OF AS A RESULT OF [NOUN=cause], [NOUN=effect] Work RESULTS IN Wealth
[NOUN] [VERB] Wealth IS A RESULT OF Work
[NOUN] [VERB] WITH The RESULT OF [NOUN==cause] WAS THAT Wealth grows AS A RESULT OF work
A RESULTING [NOUN] [NOUN=effect] [VERB] AS A RESULT OF work, wealth grew
RESULTING FROM The RESULT OF work WAS THAT wealth grew
[NOUN], [NOUN] WRONG
[VERB] [NOUN] [VERB] WITH THE RESULT OF [NOUN] WRONG
BECAUSE OF THE [NOUN] [VERB] WITH A RESULTING [NOUN] We worked WITH THE RESULT OF wealth
RESULT OF [NOUN] , RESULTING FROM [NOUN], [NOUN] [VERB] We worked WITH A RESULTING growth of wealth
[NOUN] [VERB] BECAUSE OF THE RESULT OF [NOUN] , [NOUN] RESULTING FROM work, wealth grew
The RESULT OF [VERB] BECAUSE OF THE RESULT OF work , wealth grew
[NOUN] WAS [NOUN] The RESULT OF [NOUN] WAS [NOUN] The RESULT OF work WAS wealth grew (MISSING THAT)
[NOUN] RESULTS [NOUN] RESULTS Growth of wealth RESULTS
383 MGMAT SC Ch9 p166 SC Idioms

RIGHT
The analysis REVEALED THAT the comet WAS mostly ice

SUSPECT
The analysis REVEALED the comet WAS mostly ice
REVEAL THAT versus
REVEAL versus REVEAL RIGHT
X TO HAVE BEEN REVEAL THAT is preferred over REVEALED … The analysis REVEALED the comet TO HAVE BEEN mostly ice
384 RISING = object going higher MGMAT SC Ch9 p166 SC Idioms
RISE = increase in object's characteristic
WERE RAISED = subject is increasing the object's
Page

characteristics height-wise or similar


RAISE = bet or pay increase

RIGHT:
62

RISE versus RAISE [NOUN] ROSE


[NOUN] ROSE A RISE IN [NOUN] [VERB] RIGHT:
A RISE IN [NOUN] RISING [NOUN] [VERB] Oil prices ROSE sharply last year.
[VERB] The RISING OF the [NOUN] [VERB] A RISE IN oil prices has led to inflation
RISING [NOUN] RISING prices at the gas pump are hurting consumers
[VERB] SUSPECT The RISING OF the sun always lifts my spirits
The RISING OF the [NOUN] WERE RAISED (= implies INTENT and
[NOUN] [VERB] CONTROL) SUSPECT
[NOUN] WERE RAISED Oil prices WERE RAISED sharply last year
A RAISE IN [NOUN] WRONG
[VERB] A RAISE IN [NOUN] [VERB] (= BET or PAY WRONG
A RISING OF [NOUN] INCREASE) A RAISE IN oil prices has led to inflation
[VERB] A RISING OF [NOUN] [VERB] A RISING OF prices at the gas pump is hurting consumers
385 MGMAT SC Ch9 p166 SC Idioms

RIGHT: The judge RULED THAT the plaintiff was in contempt

RULED THAT versus SUSPECT: The judge RULED the plaintiff WAS in contempt
RULED versus RULED
ON versus RULED TO RULED THAT is correct. RULED THAT is preferred WRONG: The judge RULED the plaintiff TO BE in contempt
BE over RULED. WRONG: The judge RULED ON the plaintiff WHO WAS in contempt
386 MGMAT SC Ch9 p166 SC Idioms
SAME
THE SAME TO [NOUN] RIGHT
AS TO [NOUN] THE SAME TO [NOUN] AS TO [NOUN] RIGHT
AT THE SAME TIME AS AT THE SAME TIME AS [NOUN] (VERB) The car looks THE SAME TO me AS TO you
[NOUN] (VERB) I drove to the store AT THE SAME TIME AS you [did]
THE SAME TO [NOUN] WRONG
AS [YOU] THE SAME TO [NOUN] AS [YOU] (AMBIGUITY) WRONG
AT THE SAME TIME AT THE SAME TIME [NOUN] [VERB] (MISSING The car looks THE SAME TO [NOUN] AS [YOU] (AMBIGUITY)
[NOUN] [VERB] AS) I drove to the store AT THE SAME TIME you did (MISSING AS)
387 X IS SECURE versus Y RIGHT: Our authority IS SECURE MGMAT SC Ch9 p166 SC Idioms
ARE SECURE ABOUT X X IS SECURE is correct WRONG: We ARE SECURE ABOUT our authority
388 SEEM ** MGMAT SC Ch9 p166-7 SC Idioms
[NOUN] SEEMS TO
DEMONSTRATE
[NOUN]
IT SEEMS THAT
[NOUN]
DEMONSTRATES
[NOUN]
IT SEEMS AS IF
[NOUN]
DEMONSTRATES
[NOUN] ** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE ON THE GMAT
[NOUN] SEEMS TO BE RIGHT
A DEMONSTRATION OF [NOUN] SEEMS TO DEMONSTRATE [NOUN]
[NOUN] IT SEEMS THAT [NOUN] DEMONSTRATES [NOUN] RIGHT
[NOUN] SEEMS IT SEEMS AS IF [NOUN] DEMONSTRATES [NOUN] This result SEEMS TO DEMONSTRATE the new theory
DEMONSTRATIVE OF IT SEEMS THAT This result DEMONSTRATES the new theory
[NOUN] SUSPECT: IT SEEMS AS IF This result DEMONSTRATES the new theory
[NOUN] SEEMS LIKE A [NOUN] SEEMS TO BE A DEMONSTRATION OF
DEMONSTRATION OF [NOUN] SUSPECT:
[NOUN] [NOUN] SEEMS DEMONSTRATIVE OF [NOUN] This result SEEMS TO BE A DEMONSTRATION OF the new theory
Page

[NOUN] SEEMS AS IF [NOUN] SEEMS LIKE A DEMONSTRATION OF This result SEEMS DEMONSTRATIVE OF the new theory
IT DEMONSTRATES [NOUN] This result SEEMS LIKE A DEMONSTRATION OF the new theory
[NOUN]
63

[NOUN] SEEMS LIKE IT WRONG: WRONG


DEMONSTRATES [NOUN] SEEMS AS IF IT DEMONSTRATES [NOUN] This result SEEMS AS IF IT DEMONSTRATES the new theory
[NOUN] [NOUN] SEEMS LIKE IT DEMONSTRATES [NOUN] This result SEEMS LIKE IT DEMONSTRATES the new theory
389 MGMAT SC Ch9 p167 SC Idioms

SHOULD
SHOULD BE TAKEN RIGHT: SHOULD BE TAKEN (=obligation) RIGHT: A car SHOULD BE TAKEN to the mechanic frequently (=obligation)
versus SHOULD PASS WRONG: WRONG:
versus REQUESTED SHOULD PASS (=probability) A car SHOULD PASS every two hours (=probability)
THAT [NOUN] SHOULD REQUESTED THAT [NOUN] SHOULD BE TAKEN The owner REQUESTED THAT the car SHOULD BE TAKEN to the mechanic
BE TAKEN (=subjunctive should NOT use SHOULD) (=subjunctive should NOT use SHOULD)
390 MGMAT SC Ch9 p167 SC Idioms
RIGHT: RIGHT:
SHOW THAT [NOUN] IS A discovery SHOWS THAT an object IS strange
SHOW SHOW [NOUN] TO BE A discovery SHOWS an object TO BE strange
SHOW THAT [NOUN]
IS SUSPECT: SUSPECT:
SHOW [NOUN] TO BE SHOW [NOUN] IS A discovery SHOWS an object IS strange
SHOW [NOUN] IS
SHOW [NOUN] AS/AS WRONG: WRONG:
BEING SHOW [NOUN] AS/AS BEING A discovery SHOWS an object AS/AS BEING strange
391 MGMAT SC Ch9 p167 SC Idioms
SIGNIFICANT
HAVE SIGNIFICANTLY
IMPROVED versus
HAVE MADE A RIGHT:
SIGNIFICANT HAVE SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVED RIGHT:
IMPROVEMENT IN Your edits HAVE SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVED the book
versus SUSPECT
HAVE BEEN HAVE MADE A SIGNIFICANT IMPROVEMENT IN SUSPECT
SIGNIFICANT IN Your edits HAVE MADE A SIGNIFICANT IMPROVEMENT IN the book
IMPROVING versus WRONG
HAVE BEEN HAVE BEEN SIGNIFICANT IN IMPROVING WRONG
SIGNIFICANT IN AN HAVE BEEN SIGNIFICANT IN AN IMPROVEMENT Your edits HAVE BEEN SIGNIFICANT IN IMPROVING the book
IMPROVEMENT OF OF Your edits HAVE BEEN SIGNIFICANT IN AN IMPROVEMENT OF the book
392 RIGHT RIGHT MGMAT SC Ch9 p167 SC Idioms
SIMILAR ALL X HAVE SIMILAR Y (X and Y have to be ALL companies HAVE SIMILAR issues (X and Y have to be SINGULAR or PLURAL
ALL X HAVE SIMILAR Y SINGULAR or PLURAL together) together)
EACH X HAS SIMILAR
Y WRONG WRONG
EVERY X HAS SIMILAR EACH X HAS SIMILAR Y EACH company HAS SIMILAR issues
Y EVERY X HAS SIMILAR Y EVERY company HAS SIMILAR issues
393 MGMAT SC Ch9 p167 SC Idioms
SINCE RIGHT RIGHT
THE MOST [NOUN] THE MOST [NOUN] SINCE [TIME] (=up to now) Xingo is THE MOST successful new product SINCE 1997 (=up to now)
SINCE [TIME] [NOUN] SINCE [NOUN] It is the best new beverage SINCE Prune Cola
[NOUN] SINCE [NOUN]
THE MOST [NOUN[] WRONG WRONG
AFTER [TIME] THE MOST [NOUN[] AFTER [TIME] Xngo is THE MOST successful new product AFTER 1997
394 SO … AS TO MGMAT SC Ch9 p167 SC Idioms
SO [ADJECTIVE] AS TO RIGHT: RIGHT:
[VERB] versus SO [ADJECTIVE] AS TO [VERB] The sauce was SO hot AS TO burn my mouth
SUCH [{ADJECTIVE]
AS TO [VERB] versus WRONG: WRONG:
Page

SO MUCH [ADJECTIVE] SUCH [{ADJECTIVE] AS TO [VERB] The sauce HAD SUCH heat AS TO burn my mouth
AS TO [VERB] SO MUCH [ADJECTIVE] AS TO [VERB] The sauce had SO MUCH heat AS TO burn my mouth
64
395 MGMAT SC Ch9 p168 SC Idioms
SO … THAT **
SO SHORT THAT
versus
SHORT ENOUGH FOR
[NOUN] TO [VERB]
versus ** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE ON GMAT
SO SHORT [NOUN] RIGHT: RIGHT:
versus SO SHORT THAT The book was SO SHORT THAT I could read it in one night
OF SUCH SHORTNESS SHORT ENOUGH FOR [NOUN] TO [VERB] The book was SHORT ENOUGH FOR me TO read in one night
THAT I versus
SO MUCH SHORTNESS SUSPECT: SUSPECT:
THAT I versus SO SHORT [NOUN] (THAT is preferred) The book was SO SHORT I could read in one night
SUCH was the versus OF SUCH SHORTNESS THAT I The book was OF SUCH SHORTNESS THAT I could read it
SHORTNESS of SO MUCH SHORTNESS THAT I The book had SO MUCH SHORTNESS THAT I could read it
[NOUN] THAT I versus SUCH was the SHORTNESS of [NOUN] THAT I SUCH was the SHORTNESS of the book THAT I could read it
OF SUCH SHORTNESS
versus WRONG: WRONG:
SHORT TO SUCH A OF SUCH SHORTNESS The book was OF SUCH SHORTNESS, I could read it
DEGREE AS TO ALLOW SHORT TO SUCH A DEGREE AS TO ALLOW The book was SHORT TO SUCH A DEGREE AS TO ALLOW me to read it
396 MGMAT SC Ch9 p168 SC Idioms
SO LONG AS SEE AS LONG AS
397 MGMAT SC Ch9 p168 SC Idioms
** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE ON GMAT ** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE ON GMAT
RIGHT: SO THAT (=purpose) RIGHT: She gave money SO THAT the school could offer scholarships (=purpose)

SUSPECT: SUSPECT:
SO THAT ** SO (=result) She gave money, SO the school was grateful (=result)
SO THAT versus
SO WRONG: WRONG:
SO SO (=purpose) She gave money SO the school could offer scholarships
398 MGMAT SC Ch9 p168 SC Idioms
RIGHT:
SO TOO [NOUN] [IS/ARE] , … SO TOO [IS/ARE] [NOUN] RIGHT:
[NOUN] [IS/ARE] , … versus Bellbottoms ARE coming back in style, and SO TOO ARE vests.
SO TOO [IS/ARE]
[NOUN] versus SUSPECT: SUSPECT:
[NOUN] [IS/ARE] , … [NOUN] [IS/ARE] , … ALSO [NOUN] versus Bellbottoms ARE coming back in style, and ALSO vests.
ALSO [NOUN] versus
[NOUN] [IS/ARE] , and WRONG: WRONG:
SO TOO [NOUN] [NOUN] [IS/ARE] , and SO TOO [NOUN] Bellbottoms ARE coming back in style, and SO TOO vests
399 MGMAT SC Ch9 p168 SC Idioms
Page

SUBSTITUTE RIGHT: RIGHT:


SUBSTITUTED X FOR Y SUBSTITUTED X FOR Y We SUBSTITUTED parmesan cheese FOR mozarella
versus SUBSTITUTED WRONG: WRONG:
65

X IN PLACE OF Y SUBSTITUTED X IN PLACE OF Y We SUBSTITUTED parmaesan cheese IN PLACE OF mozarella


400 RIGHT: RIGHT: MGMAT SC Ch9 p168 SC Idioms
SUCCEED IN DOING / REACHING She SUCCEEDED IN REACHING the summit
SUCCEED IN DOING
versus SUCCEED TO WRONG: WRONG:
DO She SUCCEEDED TO DO / REACH She SUCCEEDED TO REACH the summit
401 MGMAT SC Ch9 p168 SC Idioms

RIGHT: RIGHT:
SUCH SUCH [NOUN] (=in general) You may enjoy chemistry and physics, but I hate SUCH subjects (=in general)
SUCH [NOUN] versus THESE [NOUN] (=specifically) You may enjoy chemistry and physics, but I hate THESE subjects (=specifically)
THESE [NOUN] versus
[NOUN] OF THIS KIND WRONG: WRONG:
versus [NOUN] OF THIS KIND You may enjoy chemistry and physics, but I hate subjects OF THIS KIND
[NOUN] LIKE THESE [NOUN] LIKE THESE You may enjoy chemistry and physics, but I hate subjects LIKE THESE
402 SUCH AS or SUCH X MGMAT SC Ch9 p168-9 SC Idioms
AS A AND B versus
LIKE **
SUCH AS [NOUN]
versus
SUCH [NOUN] AS
[NOUN] versus RIGHT:
SUCH AS [GERUND] SUCH AS [NOUN] (=EXAMPLE)
versus SUCH [NOUN] AS [NOUN] RIGHT:
LIKE [NOUN] versus SUCH AS [GERUND] Matt drives fast cars, SUCH AS Ferraris (=EXAMPLE)
AND THE LIKE versus Matt enjoys driving SUCH cars AS Ferraris
AND OTHER [NOUN] WRONG: Matt enjoys intense activities, SUCH AS DRIVING fast cars
SUCH AS THESE LIKE [NOUN] (=SIMILAR TO, but EXAMPLE is WRONG:
versus implied Matt drives fast cars LIKE Ferraris (=SIMILAR TO, but EXAMPLE is implied
SUCH AS BY AND THE LIKE Matth drives Ferraris AND THE LIKE
[GERUND] versus AND OTHER [NOUN] SUCH AS THESE Matt drives Ferraris AND OTHER cars SUCH AS THESE
SUCH AS TO [VERB] SUCH AS BY [GERUND] Matt trains in many ways SUCH AS BY DRIVING on racetracks
versus SUCH AS TO [VERB] Matt enjoys intense activities SUCH AS TO DRIVE fast cars
403 SUGGEST MGMAT SC Ch9 p169 SC Idioms
SUGGEST THAT versus RIGHT:
SUGGEST THAT SUGGEST THAT [NOUN] [VERB] RIGHT:
[NOUN] BE [BARE SUGGEST THAT [NOUN] BE [BARE VERB] A study SUGGEST THAT more work IS/WILL BE needed
VERB] versus (SUBJUNCTIVE) We SUGGEST THAT he BE promoted (SUBJUNCTIVE)
SUGGEST [NOUN] SUGGEST [NOUN] This artwork SUGGESTS great talent
versus
IS SUGGESTIVE OF SUSPECT: SUSPECT:
[NOUN] IS SUGGESTIVE OF [NOUN] This artwork IS SUGGESTIVE OF great talent
404 SURFACE RIGHT: MGMAT SC Ch9 p169 SC Idioms
ON THE SURFACE Craters have been seen ON THE SURFACE OF the moon
versus AT THE SUSPECT
SURFACE ON THE SURFACE is usually preferred Craters have been seen AT THE SURFACE OF the moon
Page

405 MGMAT SC Ch9 p169 SC Idioms


TARGETED
TARGETED AS versus RIGHT: This intervention is TARGETED AT a specific misbehavior
66

TARGETED TO TARGETED AT Is correct WRONG: This intervention is TARGETED TO a specific misbehavior


406 MGMAT SC Ch9 p169 SC Idioms
THAN **
[NOUN] MORE
[adjective] THAN
[NOUN] versus
[NOUN] LESS
[adjective] THAN
[NOUN] versus
[NOUN] NO [adjective]
THAN [NOUN] versus
[NOUN] MORE THAN
[NOUN] versus
MORE THAN [NOUN]
versus
HIGHER [NOUN] THAN
[NOUN] versus
MORE [adjective] AS
[NOUN] versus
MORE [adjective] RIGHT: RIGHT:
RATHER THAN [NOUN] [NOUN] MORE [adjective] THAN [NOUN] His books are MORE impressive THAN those of other writers
versus [NOUN] LESS [adjective] THAN [NOUN] Thsi paper is LESS impressive THAN that one
MORE [adjective] [NOUN] NO [adjective] THAN [NOUN] This paper is NO LESS impressive THAN that one
INSTEAD OF [NOUN] [NOUN] MORE THAN [NOUN] This newspaper cost 50 cents MORE THAN that one
versus MORE THAN [NOUN] MORE THAN 250 newspapers are published here
NO LESS [adjective] HIGHER [NOUN] THAN [NOUN] Sales are HIGHER this year THAN last year
AS [NOUN] versus
NONE THE LESS WRONG WRONG:
[adjective] THAN MORE [adjective] AS [NOUN] His books are MORE impressive AS those of other writers
[NOUN] versus MORE [adjective] RATHER THAN [NOUN] This paper is MORE impressive RATHER THAN that one
[NOUN] AS MUCH AS MORE [adjective] INSTEAD OF [NOUN] This paper is MORE impressive INSTEAD OF that one
[NOUN] versus NO LESS [adjective] AS [NOUN] This paper is NO LESS Iimpressive AS that one
AS MANY AS OR MORE NONE THE LESS [adjective] THAN [NOUN] This paper is NONE THE LESS mpressive THAN that one
THAN [NOUN] versus [NOUN] AS MUCH AS [NOUN] This newspapers cost 50 cents AS MUCH AS that one
HIGHER [NOUN] OVER AS MANY AS OR MORE THAN [NOUN] AS MANY AS OR MORE THAN 250 newspapers are published here
[NOUN] versus HIGHER [NOUN] OVER [NOUN] Sales are HIGHER this year OVER last years
407 MGMAT SC Ch9 p169 SC Idioms
THINK
THINK OF … AS versus RIGHT: RIGHT:
IS THOUGHT TO BE THINK OF … AS She THINK OF them AS heroes
versus IS THOUGHT TO BE She IS THOUGHT TO BE secretly wealthy
ARE THOUGHT OF BY
… AS versus WRONG: WRONG:
THINKS OF … TO BE ARE THOUGHT OF BY … AS They ARE THOUGHT OF BY her AS heroes
versus THINKS OF … TO BE She THINKS OF them TO BE heroes
Page

THINKS OF … BEING THINKS OF … BEING She THINKS OF them BEING heroes


408 ** FREQUENT USAGE ON GMAT MGMAT SC Ch9 p169 SC Idioms
TO [VERB] ** SEE IN ORDER TO
67

409 MGMAT SC Ch9 p170 SC Idioms


RIGHT
TOOL RIGHT We have a TOOL FOR MAKING progress
TOOL FOR [GERUND] TOOL FOR [GERUND] We have a TOOL TO make progress
TOOL TO [VERB] TOOL TO [VERB] GMAT does not seem to require WITH, although one makes progress WITH a tool
410 TRAIN MGMAT SC Ch9 p170 SC Idioms
WAS TRAINED TO
[VERB] versus RIGHT: RIGHT:
WAS TRAINED FOR WAS TRAINED TO [VERB] She WAS TRAINED TO run a division
[GERUND] versus WRONG: WRONG:
WAS TRAINED IN WAS TRAINED FOR [GERUND] She WAS TRAINED FOR RUNNING a division
[GERUND] WAS TRAINED IN [GERUND] She WAS TRAINED IN RUNNING run a division
411 MGMAT SC Ch9 p170 SC Idioms
RIGHT: RIGHT:
TRY TRY TO [VERB] (=intent or purpose) They WILL TRY TO BUILD a company (=intent or purpose)
TRY TO [VERB] versus
TRY TO [GERUND] SUSPECT SUSPECT
versus TRY TO [GERUND] (=experiment) We TRIED BREAKING the door down (=experiment)
TRY AND [VERB]
versus WRONG: WRONG:
TRY THAT [NOUN] TRY AND [VERB] They WILL TRY AND BUILD a company
[VERB] TRY THAT [NOUN] [VERB] They WILL TRY THAT they BUILD a company
412 MGMAT SC Ch9 p170 SC Idioms
TWICE
TWICE AS [adjective]
AS [NOUN] (verb)
versus
TWICE AS [adverb] AS
[NOUN] [VERB] versus
TWICE AS MANY
[NOUN] AS [NOUN]
(verb) versus
DOUBLE THE NUMBER
THAT [NOUN] [VERB]
versus
[NOUN] DOUBLED RIGHT:
versus TWICE AS [adjective] AS [NOUN] (verb) RIGHT:
[NOUN] DOUBLED TWICE AS [adverb] AS [NOUN] [VERB] He is TWICE AS tall AS Alex (is)
[NOUN] versus TWICE AS MANY [NOUN] AS [NOUN] (verb) Leaves fall TWICE AS quickly AS they grow
TWICE AS [adjective] DOUBLE THE NUMBER THAT [NOUN] [VERB] Naomi wrote TWICE AS MANY letters AS Sara (did)
THAN [NOUN] (verb) [NOUN] DOUBLED Naomi wrote ten letters, DOUBLE THE NUMBER THAT Sara wrote
versus [NOUN] DOUBLED [NOUN] Naomi's income DOUBLED in three years
TWICE AS [adverb] AS Naomi DOUBLED her income in three years
[NOUN] versus WRONG
[NOUN] DOUBLE THE TWICE AS [adjective] THAN [NOUN] (verb) WRONG
[NOUNS] THAT TWICE AS [adverb] AS [NOUN] He is TWICE AS tall THAN Alex (is)
[NOUN] [VERB] versus [NOUN] DOUBLE THE [NOUNS] THAT [NOUN] Leaves fall TWICE AS quickly AS their rate of growth
[NOUN] INCREASED [VERB] Naomi wrote DOUBLE THE letters THAT Sara did
BY TWICE [NOUN] INCREASED BY TWICE Naomi's income INCREASED BY TWICE in three years
413 ** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE ON GMAT MGMAT SC Ch9 p170 SC Idioms
See ALSO CONTRAST
UNLIKE **
UNLIKE [NOUN] versus RIGHT: UNLIKE [NOUN] RIGHT: UNLIKE the spiny aneater, the aardvark is docile
UNLIKE WITH [NOUN] WRONG: UNLIKE WITH [NOUN] WRONG: UNLIKE WITH the spiny anteater, the aardvark is docile
414 MGMAT SC Ch9 p170 SC Idioms
Page

USE
USES [NOUN] TO
[VERB] versus
68

[VERB] [NOUN] WITH


[NOUN] versus RIGHT: RIGHT:
[VERB] [NOUN] versus USES [NOUN] TO [VERB] He USES the hammer TO BREAK a board
USES [NOUN] AS [VERB] [NOUN] WITH [NOUN] He BREAKS a board WITH the hammer
[NOUN] versus [VERB] [NOUN] His hammer BREAKS a board
USES [NOUN] FOR USES [NOUN] AS [NOUN] He USES the hammer AS a weapon
[GERUND] versus
USES [NOUN] LIKE WRONG WRONG
[NOUN] versus USES [NOUN] FOR [GERUND] He USES a hammer FOR BREAKING a board
USES [NOUN] TO BE USES [NOUN] LIKE [NOUN] He USES the hammer LIKE a weapon
[NOUN] USES [NOUN] TO BE [NOUN] He USES the hammer TO BE a weapon
415 MGMAT SC Ch9 p171 SC Idioms

RIGHT:
There are VARIATIONS IN sunspot frquency and strength over time.
VARIATION
VARIATIONS IN versus WRONG:
VARIATIONS OF versus There are VARIATIONS OF sunspot frquency and strength over time.
VARIATIONS AMONG VARIATIONS IN is correct There are VARIATIONS AMONG sunspot frquency and strength over time.
416 VIEW RIGHT: RIGHT: MGMAT SC Ch9 p171 SC Idioms
VIEWED [NOUN] AS VIEWED [NOUN] AS I VIEWED this process AS a mistake
versus
VIEWED [NOUN] TO BE WRONG: WRONG:
versus VIEWED [NOUN] TO BE I VIEWED this process TO BE a mistake
VIEWED [NOUN] LIKE VIEWED [NOUN] LIKE I VIEWED this process LIKE a mistake
417 MGMAT SC Ch9 p171 SC Idioms
WAY
[NOUN] [VERB} a WAY
OF [GERUND] versus
WAY IN WHICH RIGHT: RIGHT:
[NOUN] [VERB] versus [NOUN] [VERB} a WAY OF [GERUND] We proposed a WAY OF REACHING the goal
WAY TO [VERB] WAY IN WHICH [NOUN] [VERB] The WAY IN WHICH we discussed the idea was positive
[NOUN] IS TO [VERB] WAY TO [VERB] [NOUN] IS TO [VERB] The best WAY TO REACH the goal IS TO FOCUS one's energy
versus TO [VERB] This process was developed TO ACHIEVE the target
TO [VERB] versus
AS A WAY OF SUSPECT: SUSPECT:
[GERUND] versus AS A WAY OF [GERUND] This processed was develoepd AS A WAY OF ACHIEVING the target
WAY FOR [GERUND]
versus WRONG: WRONG:
WAY TO [VERB] WAY FOR [GERUND] We proposed a WAY FOR REACHING the goal
[NOUN] IS [GERUND] WAY TO [VERB] [NOUN] IS [GERUND] The best WAY TO REACH the goal IS FOCUSING one's energy
418 RIGHT: RIGHT: MGMAT SC Ch9 p171 SC Idioms
WEIGH WEIGH LESS THAN My laptop WEIGHS LESS THAN a suitcase
WEIGH LESS THAN IS LIGHTER THAN My laptop IS LIGHTER THAN a suitcase
IS LIGHTER THAN
WEIGHS LIGHTER WRONG WRONG
THAN WEIGHS LIGHTER THAN My laptop WEIGHS LIGHTER THAN a suitcase
419 MGMAT SC Ch9 p171 SC Idioms

RIGHT: RIGHT:
[PLACE] WHERE Sussex is the only county WHERE fruits grow
WHERE [PLACE] IN WHICH Sussex is the only country IN WHICH fruits grow
Page

[PLACE] WHERE [NOUN] IN WHICH This incident represents a case IN WHICH I would call the police
[PLACE] IN WHICH
[NOUN] IN WHICH WRONG WRONG
69

[NOUN] WHERE [NOUN] WHERE This incident represents a case WHERE I would call the police
420 MGMAT SC Ch9 p171 SC Idioms
RIGHT: RIGHT:
WHETHER [CHOICE] I do not know WHETHER I will go

WHETHER SUSPECT: SUSPECT:


WHETHER [CHOICE] WHETHER OR NOT [CHOICE] I do not know WHETHER OR NOT I will go
WHETHER OR NOT
[CHOICE] WRONG: WRONG:
IF [CHOICE IF [CHOICE] (=IF requires a CONSEQUENCE) I do not know IF I will go (=IF requires a CONSEQUENCE)
421 MGMAT SC Ch9 p171 SC Idioms
WHETHER … OR
WHETHER [CHOICE]
OR [CHOICE]
WHETHER [CHOICE] RIGHT: RIGHT:
OR NOT WHETHER [CHOICE] OR [CHOICE] I decided to eat the food, WHETHER it was tasty OR NOT
WHETHER [CHOICE] WHETHER [CHOICE] OR NOT WHETHER trash OR treasure, the recyclables must be picked up.
OR ALSO [CHOICE]
WHETHER THEY BE WRONG: WRONG:
[CHOICE] OR WHETHER [CHOICE] OR ALSO [CHOICE] WHETHER trash OR ALSO treasure, the recycables must be picked up
[CHOICE] WHETHER THEY BE [CHOICE] OR [CHOICE] WHETHER THEY BE trash OR treasure, the recyclables must be picked up
422 MGMAT SC Ch9 p171 SC Idioms

RIGHT:
The officer WHOSE task was to be here did not show up
The company WHOSE growth leads the industry is XYZ

SUSPECT: The officer ,THE task OF WHOM was to be here, did not show up

He doesn't know WHO the boss of the company is. subject of the indirect question
I don't care WHOM you invite. object of the indirect question
She isn't sure WHOSE car that is. "Whose" shows possession of car.

We knew the actress WHO starred in the movie. subject of adjective clause
They hired the man WHOM we interviewed last week. object of adjective clause
She knew the family WHOSE house we bought. "Whose" shows possession of
house.
TRICK: (Replace WHOM with HIM to see if it
makes sense, Replace WHO with WHO HE SAYS TRICK APPLICATOIN:
to see if it makes sense) We never did meet his teammate WHOM/WHO he said works the room in his
WHO/WHOM do you love? I love HIM so WHOM absence.
do you love should be used. - who he said works the room in his absence.
WHO/WHOM stepped on the bug? HE stepped on - he said works the room in his absence.
the bug. WHO Stepped on the bug should be SO: We never did meet his teammate WHO he said works the room in his absence.
used
WHO = BELIEVED IS
WHOSE for SUBJECT (people OR things) He is the man who they believe is Sir Fragalot. (Who is the subject of is. The
WHO for SUBJECTS (people) answer to the question, "Who do they believe is Sir Fragalot?" is "He is Sir
Page

WHOM for OBJECTS (people) Fragalot." He equals who; they're both subject pronouns.)

WHO is SUBJECT pronoun (I, You, He, She, It, WHOM = BELIEVED TO BE
They, etc.) He is the man whom they believe to be Sir Fragalot. (Whom is the subject of the
70

WHOM is OBJECT pronoun (Me, You, Him, Her, It, infinitive to be, and therefore it has to be in the objective case (2). The answer to
Them, etc.) the question "Whom do they believe Sir Fragalot to be?" is "They believe him to be
WHOSE versus WHOM WHOSE is POSSESSIVE pronoun (my, your, his, Sir Fragalot." Him equals whom; they're both object pronouns. You can't remove
versus WHO her, their, our, etc) they believe to be, it's not parenthetical.)
423 MGMAT SC Ch9 p171 SC Idioms

Give it to WHOEVER/WHOMEVER asks for it first.


Give it to him. He asks for it first.
Therefore, Give it to WHOEVER asks for it first.

We will hire WHOEVER/WHOMEVER you recommend.


We will hire him. You recommend him.
him + him = WHOMEVER

We will hire WHOEVER/WHOMEVER is most qualified.


We will hire him. He is most qualified.
him + he = WHOEVER

When the entire whoever/whomever clause is the subject of the verb that follows
the clause, look inside the clause to determine whether to use whoever or
whomever.

WHOEVER/WHOMEVER is elected will serve a four-year term.


WHOEVER/HE is elected is the subject of will serve.
WHOEVER is the subject of is.

WHOMEVER you elect will serve a four-year term.


WHOMEVER versus HIM + HE = WHOEVER WHOMEVER/HIM you elect is the subject of will serve.
WHOEVER HIM + HIM = WHOMEVER WHOMEVER is the object of you elect.
424 MGMAT SC Ch9 p171 SC Idioms

Example of Construction using With:


with teary eyes, lindsey told her mother about the broken vase. --> 'with teary
eyes' is an ADVERB modifier, describing the action of telling her mother
with 34 million inhabitants, california is by far the most populous state --> 'with
34m inhabitants' is an ADJECTIVE modifier, modifying 'CA'

The last construction is slightly different rhetorically, but the 'with' construction can
still serve as either an adverb modifier or an adjective modifier:
Page

i draw designs with a permanent marker --> 'with a permanent marker' is an


ADVERB phrase, modifying the action of drawing the designs
Serves as an ADJECTIVIAL or ADVERBIAL i adore the girl with the big blue eyes --> 'with the big blue eyes' is an ADJECTIVE
modifier phrase, modifying 'the girl'
71

Transpose the sentence so that WITH appears to


be adjacent to the NOUN that it modifies to RIGHT: The lions growled, WITH their fur STANDING on end
WITH ensure that it makes sense WRONG: WITH only 25% of the student body, seniors get 50% of the resources.
425 MGMAT SC Ch9 p171 SC Idioms
RIGHT: RIGHT:
WORRY ABOUT The committee was WORRIED ABOUT increased prices

WORRY SUSPECT: SUSPECT:


WORRY ABOUT versus WORRY CONCERNING The committee's WORRY CONCERNING increased prices was well-founded
WORRY CONCERNING
versus WRONG: WRONG:
WORRIED OVER WORRIED OVER The committed was WORRIED OVER increased prices
426 MGMAT SC Ch9 p171 SC Idioms
YET See BUT
427 AND, BUT, and OR are common connecting words MGMAT SC Ch10 p188 SC Odds &
FOR, NOR, YET, and SO are called Ends
COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS (with a comma, Strategy
link two main clauses). IN THAT is NO LONGER
used
ALTHOUGH, BECAUSE, BEFORE, AFTER, SINCE,
WHEN, IF, UNLESS< THAT, THOUGH, WHILE =
SUBORDINATORS (makes one clause subordinate
to the main clause)
Words that link two phrases and clauses for the
sentence to make sense. The sentence must
contain AT LEAST ONE main clause, a group of WRONG: I need to relax, I have so many things to do!
words that can stand on its own as a complete RIGHT: I need to relax, BUT I have so many things to do
sentence (subject and verb without because or
if). If the sentence has two clauses without WRONG: She is not interested in sports, AND she likes watching them on TV
connecting verbs, it will become a RUN ON RIGHT: She is not interested in sports, BUT she likes watching them on TV
Connecting Verbs sentence RIGHT: ALTHOUGH she is not interested in sports, she likes watching them on TV
428 http://www.beatthegmat.com/a/2009/08/24 SC Odds &
/seven-short-words-with-score-implications- Ends
fanboys-1-of-7 Strategy

1. These words can join single words (Would you like a cup of coffee or tea?);
Denoted by acronym FANBOYS 2. whole phrases (He plans to clean his closet today and keep his kitchen clean
7 short words themselves that show up very for the rest of the week);
frequently in the GMAT Sentence Correction 3. or entire independent clauses -- things that would stand alone as complete
questions. Learning them can save you time, sentences without the conjunction (I would love to try the peaches, but the fuzz
allowing you to eliminate wrong answer choices gives me the chills).
quickly and confidently; understanding them will
of course also help add style and clarity to your The things these conjunctions connect must be the same type of thing -- an
AWA and admissions applications. These adverb and another adverb, a noun and a noun, an independent clause with
coordinating conjunctions are often remembered another independent clause. Just as you can only add fractions when they have
by the acronym FANBOYS (For, And, Nor, But, Or, the same denominator, you can only use parallel parts with coordinating
Coordinating Yet, So); their job in a sentence is joining two or conjunctions. All of these coordinating conjunctions also have at least one other
Conjunctions more parallel . . . well, things in a sentence. job in English.
429 http://www.beatthegmat.com/a/2009/08/24
Coordinating /seven-short-words-with-score-implications-
Conjunctions 1/7: FOR fanboys-1-of-7
430 http://www.beatthegmat.com/a/2009/08/24
Coordinating /seven-short-words-with-score-implications-
Conjunctions 2/7: AND fanboys-2-of-7
431 http://www.beatthegmat.com/a/2009/08/24
Coordinating /seven-short-words-with-score-implications-
Page

Conjunctions 3/7: NOR fanboys-3-of-7


432 http://www.beatthegmat.com/a/2009/08/24
Coordinating /seven-short-words-with-score-implications-
72

Conjunctions 4/7: BUT fanboys-47


433 Coordinating
Conjunctions 5/7: OR
434 Coordinating
Conjunctions 6/7: YET
435 Coordinating
Conjunctions 7/7: SO
436 COMMA is the most common. GMAT will never MGMAT SC Ch10 p190 SC Odds &
differ from incorrect answer SOLELY on comma Ends
placement. Commas are important signals and Strategy
separators, modifiers, items in a list, and other WRONG: Earl walked to school, AND later ate his lunch
sentence elements. NON-essential modifiers are RIGHT: Earl walked to school AND later ate his lunch
Comma Connecting set off by commas but essential modifiers are RIGHT: Earl walked to school, AND he later ate his lunch
Punctuation not. WRONG: Earl walked to school, he later ate his lunch
437 MGMAT SC Ch10 p191 SC Odds &
Ends
Strategy

Semicolon connects closely related statements,


but each statement must be able to stand alone
as an independent sentence
It should not be used when subordinating clauses
are used
The semi colon is often followed by a RIGHT: Earl walked to school; he later ate his lunch
CONJUNCTIVE ADVERB or other transition WRONG: Andrew and Lisa are inseparable; doing everything together
express such as HOWEVER, THEREFORE, or IN RIGHT: Andrew and Lisa are in separable; they do everything together
ADDITION. It can modify the equal relationship RIGHT: The dam has created dead zones, WHERE fish have disappeared
that a bare semicolon implies and these WRONG: The dam has created dead zones; fish have disappeared
transitional elements are not true conjunctions WRONG: Andrew and Lisa are inseparable, THEREFORE, we never see them apart
like AND. Hence, semicolons are required RIGHT: Anadrew and Lisa are inseparable; THEREFORE, we never see them apart
Semicolon Connecting It can also delimit a list of items that contain WRONG: I listen to Earth, Wind & Fire, Wow, Owls, and Blood, Sweat & Tears
Punctuation commas RIGHT: I listen to Earth, Wind & Fire, Wow, Owls; and Blood, Sweat & Tears
438 MGMAT SC Ch10 p192 SC Odds &
Ends
The colon provides further explanation for what Strategy
comes before it
Equate a list with its components by inserting the WRONG: I love listening to: classical, rock, rap, and pop music
word NAMELY or the phrase THAT IS after the RIGHT: I love listening to many kinds of music: classical, rock, and pop
colon RIGHT: I love listening to many kinds of music: namely, classical, rock, rap, and
The words preceding the colon should be able to pop
form its own sentence without the words
succeeding the oclon Worse: THREE FACTORS affect the rate of a reaction: concentration, surface area,
The object of the sentence that equates to the and temperature
words after the colon must be close to each Better: The rate of a reaction is affected by THREE FACTORS: concentration,
other. This may require the use of passive voice surface area, and temperature
Semicolon connects two relaed independent
clauses, but the second DOES NOT necessarily RIGHT: On January 1, 2000, the national mood was completely different from what
explain the first it would become just a few years later: at the turn of the century, given a
Colon Connecting Colon ALWAYS connects a sentence WITH further seemingly unstoppable stock market and a seemingly peaceful world, the country
Punctuation explanation was content
439 MGMAT SC Ch10 p193 SC Odds &
Ends
Strategy

Right with COMMA or DASH


RIGHT: By January 2, 2000, the so-called "Y2K problem" was already widely
considered a joke - although the reason for the non-event was the huge corporate
Page

and governmental investment in prior countermeasures

RIGHT: My three best friends - Danny, Jimmy, and Joey - and I went skiing
The dash (-) is a flexible punctuation mark. It is If COMMA was used, SEVEN people were skiing. DASH implies only FOUR people
73

an EMPHATIC comma, semicolon, or colon went.


Dashes are ALMOST ALWAYS correct
DASHES can RESTATE or EXPLAIN an earlier part RIGHT: Post-MBA compensation for investment bankers tends to surge far ahead
of the sentence. UNLIKE COLONS, dashes do not of that for management consultants - by tens, if not hundreds, of thousands of
Dash Connecting need to be immediately preceded by the part dollars a year
Punctuation needing explanation COLONS will NOT WORK above, unlike DASHES
440 MGMAT SC Ch10 p194 SC Odds &
Ends
Strategy
Perform COUNTING TEST when unsure:
For hat: ONE hat, TWO hats, THREE hats. This works. Hat is COUNTABLE
For patience: ONE patience, TWO patiences (?), THREE patiences (?). STOP. This
QUANTITY RULE 1/4: does not work. Patience is UNCOUNTABLE
Words used for Words used for COUNTABLE things versus words
COUNTABLE things used for UNCOUNTABLE things RIGHT: DIOXINS is PLURAL AND (hence) COUNTABLE so MANY should be used and
versus words used for COUNTABLE: hats, feelings, person/people NOT MUCH. MUCH OF THE DIOXIN (SINGULAR) is correct, and NOT MUCH OF THE
UNCOUNTABLE things UNCOUNTABLE: patience, water, and furniture DIOXINS (PLURAL)
441 MORE, MOST, ENOUGH and ALL work with BOTH MGMAT SC Ch10 p194 SC Odds &
COUNTABLE (plural) and UNCOUNTABLE Ends
(singular) nouns: MORE hats, MORE patience, Strategy
MOST people, Most furniture; Enough hats,
Enough patience, All people, All furniture

Do NOT use LESS with COUNTABLE items. 10


ITEMS or FEWER is correct and NOT 10 ITEMS or
LESS.

DOLLARS or GALLONS are UNIT NOUNs, which


you must be CAREFUL WITH. UNIT NOUNS are
COUNTABLE (ONE dollar, TWO dollar, THREE
dollars) so they work with countable modifiers.
However, UNIT NOUNS are ALSO UNCOUNTABLE
quantities: MONEY, VOLUME (ONE money, TWO
money?, THREE Moneys ?). Use LESS when
wanting to specify UNDERLYING QUANTITY

Use GREATER THAN for NUMBERS and NOT MORE


THAN (which might imply that the quantity of
numbers is greater, not the numbers themselves)

COUNTABLE MODIFIERS
UNCOUNTABLE MODIFIERS
MANY hats
MUCH patience

NOT MANY hats


NOT MUCH patience
Page

FEW hats
LITTLE patience WRONG: There were LESS Numidian kings than Roman emperors
RIGHT: There were FEWER Numidian kings than Roman emperors
FEWER hats KINGS, EMPERORS are COUNTABLE
74

LESS patience
RIGHT: We have LESS THAN twenty dollars
FEWEST hats This means that the amount of money we have, in whatever form, totals LESS
LEAST patience than $20. If we write We have FEWER THAN twenty dollars, we mean the actual
pieces of paper
NUMBER of hats (You wouldprobably say FEWER THAN TWENTY DOLLAR BILLS to illustrate the
AMOUNT of patience point clearly)

FEWER THAN 10 hats WRONG: The rare Montauk beaked griffin is not extinct; its NUMBERS are now
LESS THAN a certain AMOUNT of patience suspected to be much MORE than before
RIGHT: The rare Montauk beaked griffin is not extinct; its NUMBERS are now
NUMEROUS hats suspected to be much GREATER than before
GREAT patience
RIGHT: DIOXINS is PLURAL AND (hence) COUNTABLE so MANY should be used and
UNCOUNTABLE versus MORE NUMEROUS hats NOT MUCH. MUCH OF THE DIOXIN (SINGULAR) is correct, and NOT MUCH OF THE
COUNTABLE modifiers GREATER patience DIOXINS (PLURAL)
442 Use COMPARATIVE forms of adjectives or verbs MGMAT SC Ch10 p194-5 SC Odds &
to compare TWO things (better, worse, more, Ends
less) for 2 Strategy
Use SUPERLATIVE forms of adjectives or verbs to
compare THREE things (best, worst, most, least)
QUANTITY RULE 2/4: for 3 or more
Relate TWO things
versus RELATE THREE BETWEEN = two people WRONG: I mediated a dispute BETWEEN Maya, Logan, and Kalen
OR MORE things AMONG = three or more people WRONG: I mediated a dispute AMONG Maya, Logan, and Kalen
443 MGMAT SC Ch10 p195 SC Odds &
Ends
Strategy

NUMBER is tricky
THE NUMBER = SINGULAR
A NUMBER = PLURAL RIGHT: The NUMBER OF dogs IS greater than the number of cats
RIGHT: A NUMBER OF dogs ARE chasing away the cats
THE NUMBERS OF = ALMOST ALWAYS incorrect.
Use THE NUMBER OF WRONG: THE NUMBERS OF DOGS in Montana ARE steadily increasing
RIGHT: THE NUMBER OF DOGS in Montana IS steadily increasing
QUANTITY RULE 3/4: NUMBERS is possible. When making
THE NUMBER or comparisons, use GREATER THAN and NOT MORE WRONG: The rare Montauk beaked griffin is not extinct; its NUMBERS are now
NUMBER OF versus A THAN (which implies quantity of numbers is suspected to be much MORE than before
NUMBER or THE larger, and NOT the number themselves). See RIGHT: The rare Montauk beaked griffin is not extinct; its NUMBERS are now
NUMBERS OF IDIOM LIST for details suspected to be much GREATER than before
444 MGMAT SC Ch10 p195 SC Odds &
Ends
Strategy
RIGHT: The price of silver INCREASED by 10 dollars
RIGHT: The price of silver is five dollars GREATER than the price of copper
INCREASE and DECREASE are not the same as
the words GREATER and LESS. Watch out for REDUNDANCIES
QUANTITY RULE 4/4: INCREASE and DECREASE = change of one thing WRONG: The price of silver FELL by more than 35% DECREASE
INCREASE and OVER TIME RIGHT: The price of silver DECREASED by more than 35%.
DECREASE versus GREATER and LESS = signal comparison RIGHT: The price of silver FELL by more than 35%.
GREATER and LESS BETWEEN two things RISE or GROWTH with INCREASE is REDUNDANT
445 TO THINK OF X AS Y SC Idioms
versus TO THINK OF X TO THINK OF X AS Y is correct. NOT TO THINK RIGHT: He thought of her AS his crush
TO BE Y OF X TO BE Y RIGHT: He though of her TO BE his crush OG Verbal SC 20
446 BETTER SERVED BY X SC Idioms
THAN BY Y vesus BETTER SERVED BY X THAN BY Y is an IDIOM.
BETTER SERVED BY X BETTER SREVED BY X RATHER THAN Y is NOT RIGHT: He was BETTER SERVED BY his work ethic THAN BY his luck
Page

RATHER THAN BY Y preferred RIGHT: He was BETTER SERVED BY his work ethic RATHER THAN BY his luck OG Verbal SC 89
447 1) Find the DIFFERENCE between EACH TERM
AND the MEAN of set
2) Average the SQUARED DIFFERENCES
75

STANDARD DEVIATION 3) SQUARE ROOT the AVERAGE SQRT(SUM(xm - xi)/n) MGMAT CAT #1 WT Statistics
448 0^0 versus 0^n where Exponential
n>0 0^0 = 1, 0^n=1 where n>1 By convention MGMAT CAT #1 EIV Equations
449 MULTIPLES and SUMS For any consecutive integers with an ODD 1+2+3=6 MGMAT CAT #1 NP Consecutive
of CONSECUTIVE NUMBER OF TERMS, the sum of the integers is Length = 3 Integer
INTEGERS ALWAYS a multiple of the number of terms. 6 is a multiple of 3. Average is an INTEGER since average of ODD lenth is an
(1+2+3 = 6, which is a multiple of 3=length of INTEGER
series).
In other words, THE AVERAGE OF ODD 1+2+3+4=10
CONSECUTIVE INTEGERS is ALWAYS an integer. Length = 4
10 is NOT a multiple of 4. Average is NOT an INTEGER since average of ODD lenth
For any consecutive integers with an EVEN is NEVER an INTEGER
NUMBER OF TERMS, the sum of the integers is
NEVER a multiple of the number of terms. For
example, 1+2+3+4 = 10, which is NOT a
multiple of 4 (length of series).
In other words, THE AVERAGE OF EVEN
CONSECUTIVE INTEGERS is ALWAYS NOT an
integer.
450 Calculate W / T where W = Number of ways to
choose teams that have A women and T = Total
number of teams that can be made given P
people
Let X+Y = total number of people = N
T = N! / (P! * (N-P)!)
Given N people, choose P members who WILL be
on the team and choose (N-P) members who
WILL NOT be on the team
W = Number of ways F women chosen * Number
of ways (P-F) men chosen

Number of ways F women chosen = Y! / (F! * (Y-


F)!)
Given Y women, choose F women who WILL be A small com[pany employs 3 men and 5 women. If a team of 4 employees is to be
on the team and choose (Y-F) women who WILL randomly selected to organize the company retreat, what is the probability that the
NOT be on the team team will have ONLY 2 WOMEN?

Number of ways P-F men chosen = X! / ((X-F)! * T = 8! / (4! * (8-4)!) = 70


(X-(X-F))!) 4 people chosen and 4 people NOT chosen from a total of 8 people
Given X men, choose X-F men who WILL be on
the team to fill in the remaining spots and choose W = number of 2 women chosen * number of remaining (2) men chosen
the remaining men who WILL NOT be on the
team W(women) = 5! / (2! * (5-2)! = 10
2 women CHOSEN and 3 women NOT CHOSEN from a team of 5 women
W = Number of ways F women chosen * Number
of ways (P-F) men chosen W(men) = 3! / (2! * (3-2)! = 3
COMBINATIONS: How W = [Y! / (F! * (Y-F)!) ] * [X! / ((X-F)! * (X-(X- 3 men CHOSEN and 3 men NOT CHOSEN from a team of 3 men
many ways to make F))!) ]
teams of P people with W = 10*3 = number of ways to choose 2 women and 2 men
F women from X men W/T = [[Y! / (F! * (Y-F)!) ] * [X! / ((X-F)! * (X- Combinator
Page

and Y women ? (X-F))!) ]] / [N! / (P! * (N-P)!)] W/T = 30/70 = 3/7 = probability MGMAT CAT #1 WT ics
76
451

Ignoring Frankie's requirement for a moment, observe that the six mobsters can
be arranged 6! or 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 = 720 different ways in the concession
stand line. In each of those 720 arrangements, Frankie must be either ahead of or
behind Joey. Logically, since the combinations favor neither Frankie nor Joey,
each would be behind the other in precisely half of the arrangements. Therefore,
in order to satisfy Frankie's requirement, the six mobsters could be arranged in
720/2 = 360 different ways.

st Case: J _ _ _ _ _
2nd Case: _ J _ _ _ _
3rd Case: _ _ J _ _ _
4th Case: _ _ _ J _ _
5th Case: _ _ _ _ J _
6th Case: _ _ _ _ _ J

In all the above cases Frankie can take all the positions of '-'. In the grid above,I
calculated the cases that satisifies the criteria Frankie behind Joe in all the possible
cases: -

1st column 5! = 120 ways


2nd column, Frankie can't be ahead of Joe, so possible cases, 5! - 4! = 120 -24 =
96
Six mobsters have arrived at the theater for the
3rd column, Frankie can't take be at the first two positions, so 5! - 2X4! = 120 -48
premiere of the film “Goodbuddies.” One of the
= 72
mobsters, Frankie, is an informer, and he's afraid
4th column, Frankie can't take the at the first three, so 5! - 3X4! = 120 - 72 = 48
that another member of his crew, Joey, is on to
5th column, Frankie can't take be at first 4, so 5! - 4X4! = 120-96 = 24
him. Frankie, wanting to keep Joey in his sights,
6th column, won't satisfy the criteria.
insists upon standing behind Joey in line at the
COMBINATORICS with concession stand. How many ways can the six
Hence total possible ways = 120+96+72+48+24 = 360
ORDER or arrange themselves in line such that Frankie’s Combinator
PRECEDENCES requirement is satisfied? MGMAT CAT #1 WT ics
452

An investment of d dollars at k percent simple annual interest yields $600 interest


over a 2 yr period. In terms of d, what dollar amount invested at the same rate will
yield $2,400 interest over a 3 yr period?

a. 2d/3
b. 3d/4
Page

c. 4d/3
d. 3d/2
e. 8d/3
77

SI = 600 = d*2*k/100 => 300 = dk/100 => 300/d = k/100


We need to solve for X:
SI = P*N*R /100 New_SI = 2400 = 3*X*k/100
where P=Principal 800 = X*k/100
N = Number of Years Substitute: Algebraic
N = Rate or % 800 = X*(300/d) GPREP http://www.beatthegmat.com/gmat- Translation
SIMPLE INTEREST SI = SIMPLE INTEREST total for N 8d/3 = X prep-interest-problem-t9813.html WT s
453

Pumps A, B, and C operate at their respective constant rates. Pumps A and B,


operating simultaneously, can fill a certain tank in 6/5 hours; pumps A and C,
operating simultaneously, can fill the tank in 3/2 hours; and pumps B and C,
operating simultaneously, can fill the tank in 2 hours. How many hours does it take
pumps A, B, and C, operating simultaneously, to fill the tank?

A. 1/3
Given multiple workers and a job, their combined B. 1/2
rate of completing a job is as follows: C. 2/3
1/A + 1/B + 1/C = 1/T where 1/T = 1 job / (T D. 5/6
units of time), A = (a units of time), B = (b units E. 1
of time), C = c units of time
1/A = 1/B = 1/(6/5) = 5/6
Combining yields: 1/B + 1/C = 1/2
AB / (A+B) = T 1/A + 1/C = 1/(3/2) = 2/3
T = (combined T units of time), A = (a units of
time), B = (b units of time) Sum all equations:
ABC / (AB + BC + AC) = T 2(1/A + 1/B + 1/C) = 2
T = (combined T units of time), A = (a units of 1/A + 1/B = 1/C = 1 GPREP http://www.beatthegmat.com/gmat- Rates &
JOBS and RATES time), B = (b units of time), C = c units of time So combined 3 yields 1 job / 1 hour prep-interest-problem-t9813.html WT Work
454
MATH
TIME, QUESTION TO BE ON
1 hour 15 min, 1
60 min, 7-8
45 min, 14-15 WRITE DOWN ON SCRAP:
30 min, 21-22 CHOICE GRID
15 min, 28-29 TIME GRID

MATH TIMING AND Total = 69.375 min / 37 Questions Every 4 questions, make sure you finish questions sooner than 7.5 minutes. This
PACING Metric = 7.5 mins / 4 Questions is equivalent to less than 2 minutes (1.875 mins per question0 MGMAT Lab #4 Timing Lab MGMAT Strategy
455 VERBAL
TIME, QUESTION TO BE ON
1 hour 15 min, 1
60 min, 8-10
45 min, 16-18
30 min, 24-26
15 min, 32-34

Total = 68.347 min / 41 Questions


Page

Metric = 5 mins / 3 Questions

RECOMMENDED
78

SC: 1 minute * 14 Q = 14 minutes WRITE DOWN ON SCRAP:


RC = 2:15 min * 14 Q = 31.5 minutes VERBAL TIME GRID
CR = 2:15 min * 13 Q = 29.25 minutes PROGRESS GRID
Note: 13-15 Questions per type CHOICE GRID
Make Progress
Every 3 questions, make sure you finish questions sooner than 5 minutes. This is
Create PROGRESS GRID on paper to keep count equivalent to about 1.5 minutes (1.67 mins per question0
of each type to expect what kind of questilons
might appear SC: 1 minute
SC: CR: 2:15 min
VERBAL TIMING AND CR RC: 2:15 each on average(3 questions DOUBLES to 6 minutes total for Questions
PACING RC AND Reading), each question should take MAX 1:30 minutes MGMAT Lab #4 Timing Lab MGMAT Strategy
456 1) Brainstorm = 3 minutes (3-4 ideas)
2) Outline = 2 minutes (examples, points)
3) Write = 20 minutes
4) Review = 5 minutes
AWA TIMING AND OUTLINE on paper
PACING ALWAYS Revise ALWAYS REVISE MGMAT Lab #4 Timing Lab MGMAT Strategy
457 SHORT PASSAGES
Make HEADLINE LIST by doing the following for
each paragraph:
1) Make TOPIC SENTENCE from para
2) LIST keywords, ideas, examples

LONG PASSAGES
Make SKELETAL STRUCTURE by doing the
following:
1) SUMMARIZE EVERY sentence in FIRST para
2) LIMBS: one sentence summarizes each para
and do NOT list details

Time spent on RC follows the DOUBLING RULE


3 questions = 6 minutes
READING 4 questions = 8 minutes SHORT = HEADLINES
COMPREHENSION LONG = SKELETAL
STRATEGY 2-3 minutes to read, 60-90 seconds per question DOUBLING RULE MGMAT Lab #4 Timing Lab MGMAT Strategy
458
READ QUESTION FIRST
MAKE T STRUCTURE
1) IDENTIFY CONCLUSION and PREMISES
2) WRITE down SUSPICIONS and QUESTIONS for
possible ASSUMPTIONS UNDER the T structure
3) DETERMINE which SIDE (PRO or CON of
conclusion) ANSWER APPEARS ON
4) NOTE important KEYWORDS, NUMBERS,
PERCENTAGES, and EXTREME words
CRITICAL REASONING
STRATEGY 2:15 PER QUESTION 2:15 MAX per question MGMAT Lab #4 Timing Lab MGMAT Strategy
459

RIGHT: During the twentieth century, the study of the large-scale structure of the
universe evolved from the theoretical to the practical; the field of physical
Page

cosmology was made possible BY Einstein's theory of relavitiy AND BY ALSO better
ability to observe extremely distant astronomical objects.
BY X AND ALSO BY Y is CORRECT WRONG: During the twentieth century, the study of the large-scale structure of the
universe evolved from the theoretical to the practical; the field of physical
79

WRONG: cosmology was made possible BY Einstein's theory of relavitiy AND ALSO better
BOTH BY X AND ALSO BY Y ability to observe extremely distant astronomical objects.
BY X AND ALSO BY Y because of both Einstein's theory of relativity and MGMAT CAT #1 SC Idioms
460
RIGHT: THOUGH he had had success, Howard Stern opted out of broadcasting
EVEN THOUGH versus THOUGH is preferred over EVEN THOUGH WRONG: EVEN THOUGH he had had success, Howard Stern opted out of
THOUGH because of its conciseness broadcasting MGMAT CAT #1 SC Idioms
461 1) READ THE STIMULUS PART FIRST
CRITICAL REASONING 2) Read QUESTION AFTER STIMULUS
PROCESS 3) ANSWER MIX UP of ORDER will confuse people PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch2 p15 CR Strategy
462 STIMULUS are either:
ARGUMENTS: contains PREMISES=reasons and
CONCLUSION=final point = 75%
or
CR STIMULUS FACT SETS=contains facts and NEUTRAL = 25% FACT SET lacks arguments PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch2 p18 CR Strategy
463
BECAUSE
SINCE
FOR
FOR EXAMPLE
FOR THE REASON THAT
IN THAT
GIVEN THAT
AS INDICATED BY
DUE TO
OWING TO
THIS CAN BE SEEN FROM
WE KNOW THIS BY

Additional Indicators
FURTHERMORE
MOREOVER
BESIDES
IN ADDITION
PREMISE INDICATORS WHAT'S MORE MEMORIZE PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch2 p19 CR Strategy
464
THUS
THEREFORE
HENCE
CONSEQUENTLY
AS A RESULT
SO
ACCORDINGLY
CLEARLY
MUST BE THAT
SHOWS THAT
CONCLUDE THAT
CONCLUSION FOLLOWS THAT
INDICATORS FOR THIS REASON MEMORIZE PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch2 CR Strategy
465 OBJECTIVE #1: Identify whether STIMULUS is a
FACT or ARGUMENT
OBJECTIVE #2: If ARGUMENT is present,
IDENTIFY CONCLUSION. If STIMULUS is present,
EXAMINE each FACT
OBJECTIVE #3: If Stimulus has Arguments,
determine whether CONCLUSION IS WEAK OR
STRONG
OBJECTIVE #4: Do NOT GENERALIZE. Know
Page

what the author EXACTLY SAID


OBJECTIVE #5: IDENTIFY the question stem and
do NOT ASSUME certain words are associated
with certain types
80

OBJECTIVE #6: PREPHRASE after reading


QUESTION to MENTALLY FORMULATE answer
OBJECTIVE #7: ALWAYS READ EACH of the FIVE
ANSWER CHOICES
OBJECTIVE #8: SEPARATE ANSWER CHOICES
into CONTENDERS and LOSERS. After
separating, DECIDE ON ONE. (15-20 seconds per
choice)
OBJECTIVE #9: IF ALL FIVE ANSWERS are
LOSERS, then RETURN to STIMULUS and RE-
CR OBJECTIVES EVALUATE ARGUMENT MEMORIZE PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch2 CR Strategy
466 Therefore, since higher debt has forced consumers to lower their savings, banks
now have less money to loan
CONCLUSION / THEREFORE, SINCE
PREMISE INDICATOR THUS, BECAUSE CONC = banks now have less money to loan
FORM HENCE, DUE TO PREMISE = other stuff PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch2 CR Strategy
467
BUT
YET
HOWEVER
ON THE OTHER HAND
ADMITTEDLY
IN CONTRAST
ALTHOUGH
EVEN THOUGH
STILL
WHEREAS
COUNTER-PREMISES IN SPITE OF
or ADVERSATIVES DESPITE
INDICATORS AFTER ALL MEMORIZE PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch2 CR Strategy
468 SIMPLE: PREMISE => CONCLUSION where
hidden are ASSUMPTIONS

COMPLEX: PREMISE =>SUBSIDIARY/SUB-


CONCLUSIONS / PREMISE 1 =>
CR STIMULUS SUBSIDIARY/SUB-CONCLUSIONS / PREMISE 2
STRUCTURE => … => CONCLUSION MEMORIZE. Typically 3-4 LEVELS AT MOST on GMAT PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch2 CR Strategy
469 A NUMBER (SOME, MANY, etc.) of PEOPLE
(critics, students, teachers, etc.) BELIEVE
(CLAIM, PROPOSE, ARGUE, etc.) THAT

EXCEPTIONS:
ALTHOUGH SOME PEOPLE CLAIM, (ALTHOUGH
present)
IT has been CLAIMED THAT (No Number and
People)
COMMON CR CIGARETTE COMPANIES CLAIM THAT (no
CONSTRUCTION NUMBER) MEMORIZE. Typically 3-4 LEVELS AT MOST on GMAT PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch2 CR Strategy
470 INFERENCES MUST BE TRUE (not LIKELY TO BE
TRUE)
ASSUMPTION = UNSTATED premise
CR INFERENCES
versus CR INFERECE = FOLLOWS conclusion
ASSUMPTION ASSUMPTION = BEFORE argument PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch2 CR Strategy
471
ALL
EVERY
MOST
MANY
SOME
Page

SEVERAL
FEW
SOLE
81

ONLY
QUANTITY NOT ALL
INDICATORS NONE PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch2 CR Strategy
472
MUST
WILL
ALWAYS
NOT ALWAYS
PROBABLY
LIKELY
WOULD
NOT NECESSARILY
COULD
PROBABILITY RARELY
INDICATORS NEVER PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch2 CR Strategy
473 1) MUST BE TRUE / MOST SUPPORTED = identify
answer choice best proven given by info ("If
above are true, what must be true OR which one
can be properly INFERRED from the info?)
2) MAIN POINT = find PRIMARY CONCLUSION
(the main point of argument is that)
3) ASSUMPTION = identify assumptions (Which
one is an assumption required by above
argument)
4) STRENGTHEN / SUPPORT = support argument
or strengthens ins ome way (Which one of the
following if true most strengthens, Which one
most strongly supports the statement above?)
5) RESOLVE THE PARADOX = contains a
discrepancy or contradiction and find choice that
resolves it (Which one would resolve paradox said
above?)
6) WEAKEN = attack or undermine argument
(Which one weakens argument?)
7) METHOD OF REASONING = describes
abstractly how author made argument (Which
one describes technique of above reasoning?)
8) FLAW IN THE REASONING = describe
abstractly the error of reeasoning (The reasoning
in author's argument is flawed because this
argument ...)
9) PARALLEL REASONING = identify choice that
contains reasoning most similar to that of the
stimulus (Which is most similar in its pattern of
reasoning)
10) EVALUATE THE ARGUMENT = decide which
choice determines logical validity of argument
(The answer to which one of the following MOST COMMON are Weaken, Must be True, Assumption, Strengthen, and Resolve
questions would contribute most to an evaluation
of the argument) LEAST COMMON are Main Point, Method of Reasoning, Flaw in the Reasoning,
CR QUESTION TYPES 11) OTHERS = variants, argument part questions Parallel reasoning, and Evaluate the argument PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch2 CR Strategy
474 MUST BE TRUE FAMILY or PROVE FAMILY
STIMULUS => ANSWER CHOICES
OUTSIDE INFO is NOT ALLOWED
1) MUST BE TRUE / MOST SUPPORTED
2) MAIN POINT
7) METHOD OF REASONING
CR QUESTION FAMILY 8) FLAW IN THE REASONING
Page

1 9) PARALLEL REASONING PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch3 CR Strategy


475 HELP FAMILY
ANSWER CHOICES => STIMULUS
82

OUTISDE INFO is ALLOWED


3) ASSUMPTION
CR QUESTION FAMILY 4) STRENGTHEN / SUPPORT
2 5) RESOLVE THE PARADOX PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch3 CR Strategy
476 HURT FAMILY
ANSWER CHOICES (NOT =>) STIMULUS
CR QUESTION FAMILY OUTISDE INFO is ALLOWED
2 6) WEAKEN PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch3 CR Strategy
477 EXCEPT = stem is turned around and LOGICALLY
NEGATE the question stemm
LEAST is EQUIVALENT to EXCEPT
LOGICAL NEGATION is often used with
CR LEAST = EXCEPT ASSUMPTIONS WEAKEN EXCEPT = STRENGTHEN or NEITHER = DOES NOT WEAKEN PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch3 CR Strategy
478 CR MANY MANY can include SOME, MORE THAN ONE, ALL PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch3 CR Strategy
or MOST
SOME, MOST does not INCLUDE ALL so it cannot
be MANY
479 1) COULD BE TRUE or LIKELY TO BE TRUE
(Sometimes or Neutral)
2) EXAGGERATIONS (ALL or extreme)
3) NEW INFO answers (no outisde info is allowed
4) SHELL game (similar but slightly different
answer)
5) OPPOSITE answer (punishes carelessness,
appears in WEAKENS and STRENGTHENS)
CR INCORRECT 6) REVERSE answer (If A=>B, the following is
ANSWERS in (1) MUST NOT always true If B => A. But If NOT B =>
BE TRUE Questions NOT A is ALWAYS true) PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch3 CR Strategy
480 OFTEN <> MOST
OFTEN = FREQUENTLY

CR OFTEN versus (OFTEN = FREQUENTLY) <> MOST


MOST MOST = MORE OFTEN THAN NOT PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch4 CR Strategy
481 1) Answers that are TRUE BUT DO NOT
CR INCORRECT ESCAPSULATE THE AUTHOR'S POINT
ANSWERS in (2) MAIN 2) Answers that REPEAT PREMISES of the
POINT Questions argument PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch5 CR Strategy
482
WEAKEN
ATTACK
UNDERMIND
REFUTE
ARGUE AGAINST
CALL INTO QUESTION
CAST DOUBT
CHALLENGE
CR WEAKEN Question DAMAGE
KEYWORDS COUNTER PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch6 CR Strategy
483 1) Incomplete info
2) Improper comparison
3) Qualified conclusion (limits the conclusion to
CR INCORRECT leave it open to attack)
ANSWERS AND TRAPS
IN (6) WEAKEN AND 1) OPPOSITE ANSWERS
STRENGTHEN 2) SHELL Game
Questions 3) OUT OF SCOPE PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch6 CR Strategy
484
Page

1) CAUSED BY
2) BECAUSE OF
3) RESPONSIBLE FOR
3) REASON FOR
83

4) LEADS TO
5) INDUCED BY
6) PROMOTED BY
7) DETERMINED BY
8) PRODUCED BY
9) PRODUCT OF
10) PLAYED A ROLE IN
CR CAUSE & EFFECT 11) WAS A FACTOR IN
KEYWORDS 12) IS AN EFFECT OF PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch7 CR Strategy
485 1) One event occurs before the other doesn't
imply causation (rooster crowing before sun
doesn't imply rooster making the sun rise)
2) Two (or more) events occur at the same time:
CR CAUSE & EFFECT Doesn't have t imply causation or it could be
COMMON ERRORS correlation PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch7 CR Strategy
486 1) Find an ALTERNATE CAUSE for the stated
effect (identifying another weakens conclusion)
2) Show that the EFFECT DOES NOT OCCUR when
the CAUSE occurs
3) Show ALTHOUGH EFFECT OCCURS, CAUSE
DID NOT OCCUR
4) Show relationship is REVERSED (A=>B is
CR ATTACKING really B=>A)
CAUSAL 5) Reveal a STATISTICAL PROBLEM with the
CONCLUSIONS DATA USED to make causal conclusion PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch7 CR Strategy
487 Strengthen asks you to support the argument
from 1% to 100%

CR DIFFERENCE Assumption asks you to identify a statement that


BETWEEN the argument supposes or assumes (unstated
STRENGTHEN & premise) for it to be true. WITHOUT the
ASSUMPTION assumption, the argument would fall apart PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch8 CR Strategy
488 1) Identify CONCLUSION
2) PERSONALIZE the argument
3) Look for WEAKNESSES to look for choices that
will eliminate them
4) Arguments that contain analogies or use
surveys rely upon the their VALIDITIES. Choices
CR HOW TO that CONFIRM VALIDITIY STRENGTHENS
STRENGTHEN 5) STRENGTHENING CAN BE SLIGHT OR LITTLE PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch9 CR Strategy
489 1) ELIMINATE ALTERNATIVE CAUSES
2) When CAUSE OCCURS, EFFECT MUST OCCUR
3) When CAUSE DOES NOT OCCUR, EFFECT
CR STRENGTHEN AND DOES NOT OCCUR
ASSUMPTOIN CAUSAL 4) REVERSE RELATIONSHIP is FALSE
RELATIONSHIPS 5) DATA for CAUSALITY is ACCURATE PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch9 CR Strategy
490 ASSUM PTIONS ARE NECESSARY BUT UNSTATED

BECAUSE OF ITS NECESSITY, NEGATION TEST


WORKS ON CHOICES (BUT ELIMINATE CHOICES
FIRST THEN NEGATE due to its time consuming
nature)

1) NEGATE by creating LOGICAL OPPOSITE (NOT


POLAR OPPOSITE)
2) IF NEGATED STATEMENT WEAKENS OR I went to the beach everyday last week
CR NEGATION TEST ATTACKS ARGUMENT, then IT IS AN LOGICAL OPPOSITE: I DID NOT go to the beach every day last week
FOR ASSUMPTIONS ASSUMPTION POLAR OPPOSITE: I DID NOT go to the beach ANY day last week PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch9 CR Strategy
Page

491 LOGICAL OPPOSITES NEGATION for QUANTITY


ALL=100 <=> NOT ALL (0 to 99)
SOME (1 to 100= everything but nothing) <=>
84

NONE = 0

NOT ALL is equivalent to SOME ARE NOT

LOGICAL OPPOSITE NEGATION for TIME / SPACE


ALWAYS <=> NOT ALWAYS
SOMETIMES <=> NEVER
EVERYWHERE <=> NOT EVERYWHERE
SOMEWHERE <=> NOWHERE

COULD <=> CANNOT


CR NEGATION TEST: EITHER .. OR <=> NEITHER ... NOR
LOGICAL OPPOSITE WILL <=> MIGHT NOT PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch9 CR Strategy
492 1) AT LEAST ONE and AT LEAST SOME are
USUALLY RIGHT. Confirm with Negation Test
with NONE
2) AVOID answers that CLAIM IDEA was MOST
CR ASSUMPTION IMPORTANT
QUIRKS 3) Watch for NOT or NEGATIVES in ANSWERS PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch9 CR Strategy
493 1) SUPPORTER = link new or rogue elements in
stimulus with premises
CR ASSUMPTIONS 2) DEFENDER: eliminate ideas or assertions that
TYPES would undermine conclusion PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch9 CR Strategy
494 USUALLY FILL IN THE BLANKS ARE:
CR FILL IN THE 1) ASSUMPTION QUESTIONS
BLANKS 2) MUST BE TRUE/MAIN POINT (rare) PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch9 CR Strategy
495 WHEN STUCK between TWO ANSWER CHOICES:
1) ALWAYS, ONLY, ALL
Negate with NOT NECESSARILY
Negate with SOMETIMES …. NOT 1) Tomatoes are ALWAYS red
LEN1: Tomatoes are NOT NECESSARILY red
2) NEVER, NONE, NOT ONE, NOT ONCE LEN2: Tomatoes are SOMETIMES NOT red
Negate with AT LEAST ONE or AT LEAST ONCE
2) NOT ONE player was late for practice
3) SOME, A FEW, SEVERAL LEN: AT LEAST ONE player was late for practice
Negate with NO or NONE
3) SOME cats purr when you pet them
4) SOMETIMES, ON OCCASION, OFTEN LEN: NO cats purr when you pet them
Negate with NEVER
4) Cats SOMETIMES purr when you pet them
5) AT LEAST, MOST, MORE THAN, LESS THAN LEN: Cats NEVER purr when you pet them
Negate by changing to the MATHEMATICALLY
OPPOSITE item 5) She has AT LEAST THREE different job offers
LEN: She has LESS THAN THREE different job offers
6) BEST, WORST, GREATEST, SMALLEST,
CR LEAST NEGATION HIGHEST 6) Beth is the BEST tennis player in the world
TECHNIQUE Negate with NOT NECESSARILY LEN: Beth is NOT NECESSARILY the best tennis player in the world MGMAT CR Ch4 CR Strategy
Page
85
496 SEE EXAMPLES

What is the value of x?


(1) root(x^4)= 9
(2) root(x^2)= -x

How is the ans


C

HARD AND FAST RULE: Whenever an absolute


value equation has variables on both sides, you
have to check your answer(s). Even if you do all
the math perfectly, your answer(s) may not work.
1) If |x-k|<=n, then -n<=x-k<=n
EXAMPLE 3: Absolute Value Equation with 2) If |x-k|>=n, then x-k>=n and -(x-k)>=n
Variables on Both Sides 3) |x|>=0
∣2x+3∣=−11x+42 4) If x<>0, then |x|>0
Problem One 5) If x=0, then |x|=0
2x+3=-11x+42(6) 6) If |x|=-x, then x<=0
13x+3=42(7) 7) |x*y|=|x||y|
13x=39(8) 8) -|x|<=x and x<=|x|
x=3(9) 9) -y<=x<=y IFF |x|<=y
Problem Two 10) |x+y| <= |x| + |y|
2x+3=−(−11x+42)(10) 11) Given x<>0, then |x|/|1/x| = 1
2x+3=11x−42(11) 12) |1/x| = 1/|x|
-9x+3=-42(12) 13) |x/y|=|x|/|y|
-9x=-45(13) 14) |x|=|-x|
x=5(14) 15) |x|-|y| <= |x-y|
So we have two solutions: x=3 and x=5. Do they 16) |x-y| <= |x| + |y|
both work? Let’s try them both. 17) If a<=x<=b, then |x-((a+b)/2)|<=b-((a+b)/2)
Problem One 18) If |x|<=z, |y|<=t, then |x+y| <= z+t
∣2(3)+3∣=−11(3)+42. 19) If |(|x|-|y|)| <= |x-y|
∣9∣=9. ✓ 20) xy>=0 IFF |x+y|=|x|+|y|
Problem Two 21) If |x+y| = |x| + |y|
ABSOLUTE VALUE ∣2(5)+3∣=−11(5)+42. 22) |x+y|/(1+|x+y|) <= |x|/(1+|x|) + |y|/(1+|y|)
EQUATIONS ∣13∣=−13. ✗ 23) SQRT(x^2) = |x| MGMAT EIV EIV Strategy
497
1) sgn(x) = -1 if x<0; 0 if x=0; 1 if x>0
2) x = |x|*sgn(x)
3) sgn(xy) = sgn(x) * sgn(y)
4) sgn(sgn(x)) = sgn(x)
5) sgn(x+y) <= sgn(x) + sgn(y) + 1
Page

6) If x<>0, then sgn(x)*sgn(1/x) = 1


7) 1/(sgn x) = sgn(1/x)
8) sgn(x) + sgn(y) - 1 <= sgn(x+y)
9) sgn(x) = sgn(1/x)
86

SIGN EQUATIONS SEE EXAMPLES 10) sgn(x/y) = sgn(x)/sgn(y) MGMAT EIV EIV Strategy
SIMULTANEOUS RATE EQUALIZE the TWO RATES by HAVING THEM Bob starts reading War and Peace, a 1000 page book, at 9:00 a.m., at a rate of 50 MGMAT WT WT Strategy
EQUATIONS START AT THE SAME POINT (DISTANCE). THEN pages per hour. Fred starts reading an identical copy of War and Peace at 11:00
USE THE RELATIVE RATES TO COMPUTE THE a.m., at a rate of 70 pages per hour. At what time will Bob and Fred be starting to
REMAINING TIME OR DISTANCE read the same page of the book?

First, we need to figure out where Bob is when Fred starts reading. Bob has a 2
hour head start and is reading 50 pages per hour, so after 2 hours Bob will be 100
pages into the book. Therefore, Fred is 100 pages behind.

Fred reads at 70 pages per hour and Bob reads at 50 pages per hour. To find the
relative page/hour rate, we SUBTRACT the individual rates. 70-50=20. Therefore,
each hour Fred reads an additional 20 pages.

The distance that Fred needs to catch up is 100 pages and each hour Fred reads an
extra 20 pages.

Time = distance/rate = 100/20 = 5 hours.

So, Bob and Fred will be on the same page 5 hours after Fred starts reading. 11:00
a.m. + 5 hours = 4:00 p.m.
===================
In general, we're faced with 2 different situations in these mulitple body rate
problems.

(1) 2 objects moving in opposite directions (either directly toward or directly away
from each other). To find the total rate, we ADD the rates.

(2) 2 objects moving in the same direction. To find the relative rate, we SUBTRACT
the rates.

The question above falls into category (1). To find the total distance covered in one
hour by the two trains, we need to add their rates together.

The question has an additional twist - the trains start moving at different times.
Therefore, the first thing we need to do is equalize the times. We do so by figuring
out where the earlier train will be when the latter train leaves the station. Since
train #2 leaves at 3:20, we move train #1 ahead 20 minutes in time. We basically
rewrite the question as:

Quote:
If two trains, 80 miles apart and traveling directly toward each other at a
combined rate of 40mph, leave their stations at 3:20, at what time do they meet?
Page

Now we just apply the distance formula:


d=r*t
80 = 40t
t=2
87

So, 3:20 plus 2 hours = 5:20 meeting time.


==================
Car B begins moving at 2 mph around a circular track with a radius of 10 miles.
Ten hours later, Car A leaves from the same point in the opposite direction,
traveling at 3 mph. For how many hours will Car B have been traveling when car A
has passed and moved 12 miles beyond Car B?
(Pie = p)
4P - 1.6
4P + 8.4
4P + 10.4
2P - 1.6
2P - 0.8

in 10 hrs car B will cover 20 miles at a speed of 2mph


tot dis is 20pi miles
when A will start dis left for passing each other is 20pi-20 miles
relative speed is 3+2=5
Page

time taken to cross is (20pi-20)/5=4pi-4


time taken for another 12 miles is 12/5=2.4
tot time= 4pi-4+2.4=4pi-1.6
88

now we need to add 10 hrs for tot time of B


4pi-1.6+10=4pi+8.4
AREA of EQUILATERAL
TRIANGLE A = s^2 *SQRT(3) / 4 SPLIT TRIANGLE INTO 30-60-90 of side S and derive MGMAT Geometry Geometry Strategy
If m and n are positive integers such that m/n = 13.24, which of the following
could NOT be the remainder when m is divided by n?
12
16
30
48
120

This question is about remainders. Whenever we have a remainder problem, it


might be useful to think in terms of the following framework. Assume that x and y
are integers, I is the quotient, and R is the remainder:
X / Y = I + R/Y

It should be noted that R and I will always be integers, and R will always be
greater than or equal to zero, and always less than y. For example:
13/5 = 2 + 3/5

When we divide 13 by 5, we get a quotient of 2 and a remainder of 3. Note that in


this case, the remainder is indeed larger than (or equal to) zero, and less than 5.

Also note that if R = 0, then x is divisible by y, and vice versa.


Let’s apply this formula to the problem at hand. We know that
M/N = 13 + 24/100 = 13.24 where R/N = 24/100 so 6N = 25R

What does that tell us about n and R? Well, we know that 6, n, 25, and R are all
integers. Thus both sides of the equation will be integers (the same integer). For
that to be true, both sides of the equation must have IDENTICAL prime
factorizations.

We know that the left side of the equation has a 2 and a 3 in its prime factorization
(6 = 2 × 3). Therefore, R must have at least a 2 and a 3 in its prime factorization.
So R is divisible by 6. Furthermore, we know that the right side of the equation has
two 5’s in its prime factorization (25 = 5 × 5). Therefore, n must have at least a 5
and a 5 in its prime factorization. So n is divisible by 25.

The question asks about R. We know that R must be divisible by 6. Only answer
choice B, 16, is not divisible by 6.

The correct answer is B


================
Given p = 2^a*3^b and q = 2^c*3^d^5^e, is P/Q a terminating decimal?
Note that 1,2,4,5,8 are non-terminating decimals. But 3,6,7,9 are NOT.
So we have to ensure that the degree of 3 is HIGHER on top than on bottom,
Page

which means b>d


1) a>c
2) b>d
89

X/Y=I+R/Y where I, R, X, Y are integers > 1 is insufficient since we don't care about 2 or 5
REMAINDER Problems 0. Y > R >= 0 2 is sufficient since 3 will always be on top after cancellations so answer is B MGMAT CAT #2
A family consisting of one mother, one father, two daughters and a son is taking a
road trip in a sedan. The sedan has two front seats and three back seats. If one of
the parents must drive and the two daughters refuse to sit next to each other, how
many possible seating arrangements are there?

A) 28
B) 32
C) 48
D) 60
E) 120

The driver seat can be filled in 2 ways (Mother or Father). The remaining 4 seats
can be filled in 4! ways. Total arrangement is 2 * 4! = 48 ways.

We are not done yet.

We need to eliminate the number of arrangements in which the two daughters sit
next to each other in the back seat.

After we filled the driver seat, we have the navigator seat, and the remaining 3
back seats vacant. The navigator seat can be filled by either one of the parent and
by the son, i.e., 2 * 1 = 2 ways.

The front seat arrangement comes to 2 * 2 = 4 ways.

Assuming the daughters sit next to each other, can be considered as "1" instead of
2, we have 2 consolidated elements to jumble. That leads to 2! ways, and the two
daughters collapsed to one can be arranged in 2! ways - D1D2 or D2D1.

So, there are 2! * 2! ways to arrange the back seat with two daughters sitting next
to each other.

Overall, there 4 * 4 = 16 ways in which the two daughters sit next to each other.

Remove this from the actual 48 ways. So the answer is (B) 32.
===============
In a room filled with 7 people, 4 people have exactly 1 sibling in the room and 3
people have exactly 2 siblings in the room. If two individuals are selected from the
room at random, what is the probability that those two individuals are NOT
siblings?
5/21
3/7
4/7
Page

5/7
16/21 http://www.beatthegmat.co
m/family-seating-
I divide 7 people into 2 groups: Group 1 including 4 people have exactly 1 sibling
90

and Group 2 including 3 people have exactly 2 siblings t25413.html


First person: http://gmatclub.com/forum/p
If he is from G1 (probability: 4/7), the probability that the second one is not his
sibling: 5/6 so 4/7*5/6=10/21 robability-siblings-in-the-
TRICKY If he is from G2 (probability: 3/7), the probability that the second one is not his room-80722.html
COMBINATORICS Use the basics of Combinatorics and combine sibling: 4/6 so 3/7*4/6=6/21
Problem different cases togeterh 10/21+6/21=16/21
Wes works at a science lab that conducts experiments on bacteria. The population
of the bacteria multiplies at a constant rate, and his job is to notate the population
of a certain group of bacteria each hour. At 1 p.m. on a certain day, he noted that
the population was 2,000 and then he left the lab. He returned in time to take a
reading at 4 p.m., by which point the population had grown to 250,000. Now he
has to fill in the missing data for 2 p.m. and 3 p.m. What was the population at 3
p.m.?
50,000
62,500
65,000
86,666
125,000

Assume : r as multiplication factor for that constant period (who knows the
bacteria may be double, triple etc.)
Let the constant period be t hrs (could be 1/2 hr , one hour etc.)

Then in 1 hour the bacteria population will be:


2000 x r^(1/t)

Similarly in 3 hrs:

2000 x r^(3/t) = 250000


r^(3/t) = 125

Since r should be an integer, the only way you could represent the equation is by
writing:
r^(3/t) = 5^3
Hence r is 5 and consequently t is 1.
==========
A scientist is studying bacteria whose cell population doubles at constant intervals,
at which times each cell in the population divides simultaneously. Four hours from
now, immediately after the population doubles, the scientist will destroy the entire
sample. How many cells will the population contain when the bacteria is
destroyed?

(1) Since the population divided two hours ago, the population has quadrupled,
increasing by 3,750 cells.

(2) The population will double to 40,000 cells with one hour remaining until the
scientist destroys the sample.

The reason statement #1 is insufficient is that we are not told that another division
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has JUST occurred. So there is a range of possibilities:


* One possibility: The population JUST divided again NOW, meaning that the
population divides every two hours. Therefore there will be 2 more divisions before
the sample is destroyed.
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* Another possibility: The population divided again a half-hour ago (every 1.5
hours). Therefore, there will be three more divisions before the sample is http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/a-
Formula is: Pn = P0 * (growth rate) ^ (Time of destroyed. scientist-is-studying-bacteria-t1561.html
EXPONENTIAL or Growth / Rate of growth) * Another possibility: The population divided again 48 minutes ago (every 1.2 http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/ma
GEOMETRIC Growth Pn = P0 * (G)^(T / r) hours). Therefore, there will be four more divisions before the sample is destroyed. nhattan-cat-population-chart-t3705.html
#33, CAT #3 GCF:
http://www.manhattangmat.com/OnlineExams/CAT_rev_Qview.cfm?
ssQID=14106038
The greatest common factor of 16 and the positive integer n is 4, and the greatest
common factor of nand 45 is 3. Which of the following could be the greatest
common factor of n and 210?

16= 2*2*2*2
n=2*2
GCD = 4
45=3*3*5
n=3
GCD = 3
therefore n definitely consists of following
n=2*2*3 = 12
210 = 2*5*3*7
GCD = 2*3 = 6
In the answer options there are only 2 multiples of 6 i.e. 30 and 42
30 cannot be the GCD because n does not consists of 5 otherwise GCD of n and 45
should have one 5 as GCD.
DIVISIBILITY and 42 can be GCD because n may consist of 7 as prime number.
PRIME Problem Draw GRIDS to keep track of PRIMES Hence D. MGMAT CAT #3, #33

Bob bikes to school every day at a steady rate of x miles per hour. On a particular
day, Bob had a flat tire exactly halfway to school. He immediately started walking
to school at a steady pace of y miles per hour. He arrived at school exactly t hours
after leaving his home. How many miles is it from the school to Bob's home?
A. (x + y) / t
B. 2(x + t) / xy
C. 2xyt / (x + y)
D. 2(x + y + t) / xy
E. x(y + t) + y(x + t)

d/2 covered wiht speed x miles/hr


d/2 covered with speed y miles per hour
distance/speed = time
Keep track of rates and variables. So t = d/2 /x + d/2 / y
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When a person/object travels the same distance t = d/2x + d/2y


at two different speeds say a and b then the t = dy+dx / 2xy
average speed is t = d(x+y) / 2xy
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RATES Problem 2ab/(a+b) d = 2xyt/(x+y)