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1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5

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1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.10

(Air Pollution Control Engineering)


2.1 ()
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8 VOC()
2.9
2.10
2.11
2.12
2.13
2.14
2.15
2.16
2.17
2.18


3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7

()

3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
3.12
3.13
3.14
3.15

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1.1

1.2 ()

22.4 ppm C H mg/Nm 0 C, 1atm


7

101
500Nm3/minSO2 150ppm
SO2 g/sec SO2
40ppb 30 SO2
g/m3SO2 =64(99 )
SO2 500 mg/m3 ppm
601 (99 )

1.3

100

1.4

COSO2NOx
(99 )

101

(102 )

97

NOx NOx

102

VOCs
(102)
101

98
O3 PM10 (99 )
PM10 PM2.5
10 2.5 ?
20 (102 )

10 mPM10
14 (101 )

4 12(101)

1.5 ()

1
(a)(b)
(93)
100

100

100


(100)
155020790
mmHg30 lpmNO2800 ppm
200730 mmHgNO2ppm98

SOxNOxNOx

SOx98

200 /
5A /A %7
27200 /

0.015 /106 1%1 1000


97
50km1atm500
6m3/minCO 0.3%
COR=0.082 L-atm/gmol-KC=12O=16(102)
0.5%500

60%10%SOx
NOxTSPPM VOC15
10
3

SOx19S kg/m fuel


3

NOx8.027 kg/m fuel


3

TSP1.102S0.386 kg/m fuel


3

PM 0.793S0.202 kg/m fuel


10

VOC0.1248 kg/m fuel

(101)

7%200
50%fly ash
99%1atm15080m3/sec
N272%CO210%H2O12%O25.96%
SO20.01%NO0.01%CO0.02%:
g/sec?
wet basis
mg/Nm3
dry basis
mg/Nm3

6%mg/Nm3
(102)

600 MW 27 kJ/g
39%72%1.5%
CO2SO2
MJSO20.25 g0.25 g SO2 /MJ input

SO2
SO2 S = 32
kgCO2 /kWh 96
550 MW 1100 Btu/lbm
35%SO2 19 lbm/ton
1.2 lbm SO2/106 Btu1 Watt 3.412 Btu/hour1 ton 2000 lbm
SO2 95
10 Nm3/sec 8%
60 mg/Nm3 100 ppm NMHCas CH4
1000 ppm /
100 mg/Nm3 50 ppm 150 ppm
(93
)

5
5 10 (102
)
Iso-kinetic Sampling
97

(99
)

(101)
(96)

(96)

(96)
NIEA A405.72A
(97)
1.2 m
126
14 mm Hg
0.85
2 mm H2O
8
CO2 O2 138
(A)kg/Nm3 kg/m3(B)m/sec
(92)
isokinetic sampling

(A) (B)
3

48.14 Nm /min

g g

NL

1.6119

1.6828

922.13

1.6082

1.6798

922.20

1.6118

1.6864

922.17

(100)

SO2290 ppm O2
12 %10 %6% SO2

500 ppm ? (94)



10 m3/sec, 57, 5%,10%,
200ppm, 300ppm
(A)g/secB
ppmas CH46%
97
CEMs

(A)
B
(101)
(Extractive)
(Dilution)(In-Situ)
92

102

1.6

PM2.52.5m (A)
PM2.5 B
97
PM2.5NIEA A205.11C (A)PM2.5


BPM2.5
101

PM2.5
NIEA A205.11C

Field blankLaboratory blank


Trip blank102

(101)

NIEA A102.12A
98

TSPg/m 4.56789

P9.9 inches H2O4.56989


P10.1 inches H2OQ(L/min) = 100P + 500
Pinches H2O98

24 3.885 g 4.108 g
3

P 60 mmHg 65 mmHg PM10 g/m


Q0.02P
3

Qm /minPmmHg(99 )
1.5 ft/s
6 30% 2
80%COH
COH/1000ft
critical
orifice95

(a) PM2.5 (b)


PM2.5Federal Equivalent Method, FEM(100 )
(100
)

(a)(b)(c)94

100

(102 )

102

1.7

99

1.8

(100 )
(a)
(b)
(100

100


(99 )

99
(a) (b) (c) (d)
(e)Bubble (95)
(A)(B)(C)

101
(1)(2)(3)(4)
(102)
101 5 14
PM2.510

10 (102)

1.9

Command and Control


Economic
Incentive
97

97

97

100 ppm
50 ppm
(96)
94

carbon footprint
98

102

1.10

(100 )

(101)
25 C6H6
2.5 g/min1.0 ppmby volume
g/m3
1.0 ppmby volumem3/hr102


(Air Pollution Control Engineering)

2.1 ()

(96)
(96
)
C10H8

T = 25P = 1 atm100
C H 150

18

(i)(ii)equivalent ratio(101)
15% 1 0.01

98
C8H14S0.1 S SO2
AFR 20%
1 kg SO2 ppm

99
CH4 90%C2H6 10%

O23.76N2 30%
100 g/sec Nm3/sec
%(99 )
26%4%23%4%1%20%22%
5%100%
100
1500 kcal/kg8000 kcal/kg
580 kcal/kg
100 kcal95

CH0.82N0.02S0.02O0.06
% v/v
N2O23.761N14.0S32.1(95)
6040S100ppm
2020
SO2 ppm(95)
Pittsburgh seam 75.0%6.0%
8.2%1.5%1.8%7.5%18%
0.0135 mol mol -1dry air
SO2CO2H2O(94)
C7H15
air to fuel ratio0.1%

C7H15ppm(94)

60%80%
(94)
8000 m3/min50 mg/m3,

93

2.2

drag forceFd
dpgpg
vgvp
particle Reynolds number
Stokes law

(96)
dpa50, cutoff aerodynamic diameter
dp50p
(96)
25 1.2 kg/m3 1.8510-5
kg/m-s 1500 kg/m35 m
m/s
102

100
(99 )
15 kg

-3

2300 kg m (a)
(b)
5.5 mbreakthrough5.5 m
99

98
5 m
SOx NOx

97
CycloneESP
Fabric FilterWet Scrubber
Typical Inlet Gas Velocity Ranges
Typical Superficial Gas Velocity RangesTypical P
98

3E
(96 )
(A)PM B
2.5

(C)

101

2.3

3 m8 m
5000m3/hour2.2 g/cm3
1.8110-4 g/cms0~10 m
35%10~30 m 40%

25%30~50 m 95

24 m3/s
0.00002 kg/m.s55 m
1.5 g/cm30.25 m/s
493%
vgd2/18102

2.4

Cyclone TSP
Cyclone(98 )
(a)
(b)
94
10
cutoff diameter102

(96 )
60%

98

94

2.5

10(101)
99.6%
100

99
(96 )

(96 )
electrostatic precipitator
95%
migration velocity 10% 40%
Deutsch-Anderson
eq.
(100 )
ESPDeutsch-Andersen
equation

dust re-entrainment 0.05


(94 )
ESP
99%

98
3

0.5 m 120 mg/m 5 m /s


3

10 mg/m
-5

4 8 m 5 m viscosity = 1.8010 kg/ms


5

810 V/m

99
(Deutsch-Anderson
Eq.)
95% 98%
m2 2000 m2 240 m3/min
(97 )
100 m3/s0.01-10 m
2000 mg/m31501 atm
95 mg/Nm3plate-plate type
1501 atm 3000 m2
average migration velocity10 cm/sec

(a)(b)
?(c)
(93)

2.6

94
Baghouse
20
(101)

98
20 compartment
360 8m30cm
30000m3/minnet air-to-cloth ratio
102
17025 sm3 s-1
1atm, 08 g m-3
Bag House0.8 m min-1
reverse-flow25 cm
4.5 m350 Pa min m-1
specific cake resistance8 104 s-11 atm = 105 Pa1 N =
1 kg m s-2(i)actual flow rate
(ii) (iii)cm H2O(94)

(96 )
10
3

g/m filtration velocity1.0 m/min

SSE

kW80
Pa(94)

5.0 g/m31
Filter Drag ModelKe
Pa-min/m KsPa-min-m/g40 Pa
(95)

(97)

K1= 5104 N-s/m3

K2= 8104 N-s/m39,600 m2180 m3/s


0.03 kg/m3SI
3 hr SI 2,000 Pa
102

2.7

Co-flow Wet Scrubber


Cross-flow and Counter-flow Wet Scrubbers
101
Spray Tower
50% 30%
40%(99 )
spray particulate scrubberQL/QG
3

2.0 L/m 90%30%

2.8

20 (98 )
Venturi Scrubber

97

(96)
30
dry bulb8252
4500 kg/hr825280.5 g
H2O/g (a)(b)
93
Wet scrubber6
Wet scrubber9
5 (102)

VOC()

(a)(b)(c)

(d) (95)
VOC
(99)
101
(101)
VOCs
(i) (ii) (100)
VOCsVOCsWorking Losses
101
Breathing loss98

(a)(b)
combustion efficiency94
VOCs
VOCs (96)
/VOC(101
)
VOC
(100 )
VOCs
(a)(b)(c)
VOCs
97
SCRSNCR (96 )
IPA, C3H3O200
251 atm 800 CMMm3/min
10 ppmv90 %50
IPA
kg/hr
365 24
kg/hrH1.0C12.0O
16.0(95)

2.9

2.10

(i)Physical Adsorption and


Chemisorption (ii)Breakthrough Curve and
Equilibrium Line(iii) adsorption isotherm
VOCs
VOCs

VOCs VOCs
(96)
3

80 m /min

0.15 g/m 40
70 25
98
C0

CV
Vfm

VOCs
(94)
25VOCs 200 CMM100
ppmvCH3-CO-CH3
Freundlich
a p kg/kg Pa
4m3600 kg/m3
30%
(93)
0.5298k101.3 kpa1000
mole10 kg

Freundlich equilibriumn 0.1109293

100Nm3/minCCl4 700ppm
1atm
5045%0.45kg CCl4 / 1kg C
0.3150kg/m3
4
8
20m/min8
4
1atm0R=0.082 L-atm/gmol-K C=12Cl=35.5
(102 )

2.11

94

(96)
SO2
SO2 2,000 ppm
SO2 95% SO2 Y100X

0.61.3L/G(99
)
2030 m3 s-10.5%H2S
H2S 4 ppm100 atm20
kg s-1H2S 20483 atm
H2S y*=0.8yiyi H2S (94
)
C : 70% H : 2.0% O6.0% N1.4%
S1.5% Cl0.1% 7.8% 11.2%27000 KJ/kg
20%SO2HCl ppm
SO2SO2 y = 12.5 x x, y
SO2
kg/min
93
NOX
(96 )

2.12

(i) POPs (ii)


Combustion Efficiency and Destruction Efficiency (iii)
biofiltration
VOCs
(95)

Regenerative Thermal Oxidation

(100 )
Flare(100
)
VOC(101
)

93

97
(97 )

VOCS Thermal Oxidation


Q5000 cfm90
950 BTU/ft3130099.99

(96)

100 m /min80

3
3

1.2 kg/m 700

50040 kJ/kg20%25
Cp(1.0 kJ/kg K)10%
(A)AFR(kg-air/kg-CH )(B)
4

(kg/min)C(m)
7 m/secR =0.082 L atm/mol K101
u

2,000 ppm
10 ppm1,000 K
7.6101046 kcal/moleR=
1.987 cal/mole-K10
residence time10 (102)

2.13

101
SOx
SOx (98 )
SO Spray Dryer98

CO2 FGD98

SO2 CO2
95
800 ppm
3

1 atm, 160 500 m /min

S = 32
300 ppm
99

SO NOx(101)
2

2.14

101
Prompt NOx98

NOx
SCR, SNCR, NSCR(100 )
SCR(102 )
thermal NOxfuel NOx

SCR
SNCR96
SCR
98
SCR
SNCR
(95 )
Selective Catalytic Reduction, SCR
Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction, SNCR
(101 )

10
10 (102)
SOxNOx
SOxNOx
97
N2 78%O2 3% T=2,000 KP=1atm 0.5sec
[NO]e 2,000 K 3,530ppm NO
13

kb=4.110 exp(-91,600/RT) T:KR:cal/mol/K


3

mol/cm Zeldovich Thermal Mechanism [NO]


101

100ppmNO573K2000m /s

75NOkg/hr

R0.082 Latm/kmol (101)


50000 Nm3/hr600 ppmv NOx
NOSCR3501 atm
12000 hr-1(a)
m3(b)85%NH3
kg/hr
(c)250 ppmv
SNCR(93)
SCRNOxNH3
150-350
102

2.15

98
CO2
CO2 capture
(94)
CaO CO2 98

2.16

V m/s
VP Pa
1.2 kg/m3(96)
carrying velocity
(96)
0.6 m
120k80 cm
m3/sec1.5 m
m3/sec93
20 cm0.5 m/sec
0.3 m
m3/secm3/sec
93

(95)

Slot Hood
500fpm
(96)

5
15
10 (102)

2.17

99
CO, HC, NOx
(96)
Reid Vapor Pressure
98

99

99

97
97

Air-fuel ratio
97
characteristic
97
three-way catalyst
air to fuel
ratio
96

(95)
four-stroke cycle

HCCONOX

(94)

2.18 ()

101

98

(100

(a)(b)
(93)

94
2,3,7,8-TCDD
de novo synthesis

99
Dioxins
(98 )

97

93

97

97

(a)
(b) 93

101

(102)


3.1 ()

3.2

97

3.3

3.4

dry adiabatic lapse rate


wet adiabatic lapse rate
environmental lapse rate

(100 )
Stable
NeutralUnstable98

97

97

mixing height
102
16 27
300 21 maximum
mixing depth, MMDmaximum mixing
depth, MMD102
dry adiabatic lapse rate
28 500 m 20
13 1000 m 11 102

3.5

3.6

3.7

3.8

101

99

PrincipleRule of Thumb(96
)

(98 )
-1

500 g s SO2 100 m


-1

u 5 m s
Gaussian distributiony z

500 mx10 mz
-3

g m 98
(97)

50 5m/sec240
m3/min501atm SO2 100ppm g/sec
A500 g/m3
CX1000 Y100 ppb
(95)
SO2100 g/sec50
5 m/sec
500 m g/m3
variancesy = 36 m z = 19 m
(93)

3.9

3.10

97

(101)

3.11

O3 O3 98

98
(102
)
5 5

10 (102)
NOx
NMHC
10 ppb

100 ppb 1.2 ppm


60 ppb

(100 )

O3
99

NONO2O3
[O3][NO2]/[NO](94)

NOxNMHC
ABC

(93)

3.12

PM2.5
PM2.5 PM2.5

(100
PM2.5 PM2.5
PM2.5 (99 )
(PM )(A)
2.5

PM 4(B)PM
2.5

2.5

(C)PM
2.5

4101
Aitken nuclei modeaccumulation mode coarse
particles
(102)

102

3.13

99

3.14

Kyoto
Protocol101
101

(94 )
1997
Clean Development Mechanism
98

99

(96)

GWPGWP

(101)

3.15

Receptor Model
Cij=XikfkjCij j i
Xik i k
fkj k j

99
97
Box model
Gaussian plume model
Rollback model
Receptor model

(101