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You are on page 1of 5

Debangshu Mukherjee

BS.c Physics,1st year

Chennai Mathematical Institute

19.09.2008

1 Aim of experiment

We are going to determine the value of an unknown resistance using a meter-

bridge and then make furthur accurate measurements using Carey Foster

bridge to take into account the specic resistivity () of the bridge wire.

Finally measuring the radius and length of the unknown resistance we can

determine the specic resistivity of the material given.

2 Apparatus required

a)An unknown resistance

b)A known resistance(variable)

c)A galvanometer

d)A very high resistance of the order of 15000 to protect the galvanometer.

e)A dry cell

f)A plug key

g)A meter bridge with jockey

h)A sorting plate

i)A copper strip

3 Theory of Experiment

Brief discussion and relevant formulae:

The Meter Bridge is a device for measurement of resistance

using the principle of Wheatstone Network.AB is a uniform wire 100 cm(1m)

long, stretched in two segments of 50 cms.AA

,BB

,CC

strips which have zero resiatance A

to be compared are connected. The dry cell is connected through a plug

key between A

and B

1

central terminal (F) and sliding contact J through a high resiatance. With

a standard resiatance in R the position of jockey is found for which the

current in the galvanometer is zero. Then,

X

R

=

ResistanceofAJ

ResistanceofJB

=

l

100 l

(1)

Using the bridge one can calculate the resistance of the wire from which the

specic resistance of the material of wire can be obtained.

The Carey-Foster Bridge is a modied form of meter bridge. The shorting

plate DE is removed so that we get four gaps AD, DC, CE, EB in which

resistances can be connected. Two equal resistances P and Q can be con-

nected in gaps DC and CE suppose an unknown resistance and a known

resistance are connected in gaps AD and EB. Let the balane point be founf

at J(AJ = l)

Let the resistance per cm of the bridge wire be .The contact resistance in

DJ and JE be and . Then

P

Q

=

X + +l

R + + (100 l)

(2)

If, X and R are interchanged the balance point shifts to J

,(AJ = l

)

P

Q

=

R + +l

X + + (100 l

)

(3)

then,

P +Q

Q

=

X +R + ( +) + 100

X + + (100 l

)

=

X +R + ( +) + 100

X + + (100 l)

(4)

Hence,

X = R + (l l

)

To determine , connect a thick copper strip (of zero resistance) in place of

the unknown resistance X. Determine l and l

as before. So,

=

R

l l

(5)

2

4 Procedure

We rst construct the circuit as shown in gure

Now, we try to nd a spot such that the Galvanometer shows no deec-

tion. We note the length at that point. We take a number of such readings

by varying the rheostat (R). Now, we reverse the position of the variable

and unknown resistance and again take readings. Thus, we get two seta of

readings. We can get a crude measure of the unknown resistance using the

readings. However, it must be kept in mind that during the experiment, the

bridge wire also had contributed to the resistance which we had not taken

into account. To take care of that, we now take help of the Carey Fosters

bridge. We remove the sorting plate and thus obtain two more gaps where

we put two more variable resistances, namely P and Q.

The circuit looks as follows:

We set P = Q and nd the balance point. We again take two sets of

readings of the balance point. Finally, to determine the specic resistivity

of the wire, we use a copper strip by making the assumption that copper has

innite resistance. In this case also, we take two sets of reading, one with

3

resistances in proper positions and one in reversed position. From these two

sets, we can calculate . Using this value of we can determine from the

formula a roughly accurate value of X i.e the unknown resistance.

5 Calculations

5.1 Mesurement of approx. resistance using Meter Bridge

S.No. Resis. Null pointcm Resis.

1 1.2 40.6 0.820

2 1.1 42.3 0.806

3 1 45.2 0.825

4 0.9 47 0.798

5 0.8 50.2 0.802

6 0.7 53.2 0.796

7 0.6 57.5 0.812

So, the mean resistance R is = 0.808

Also, the length of the wire is = 24 cm

Diameter of wire = 0.52 mm

Thus, the specic resistivity of the material comes out to be

= 7.14 10

6

/cm

5.2 Determination of of bridge wire using Carey-Fosters

bridge

S.No. R l l

l-l

/cm

1 0.1 51.5 48.3 3.2 0.031

2 0.09 51.2 48.6 2.6 0.035

3 0.07 50.9 48.5 2.4 0.029

4 0.05 50.1 48.6 1.5 0.033

So, the mean is = 0.032 /cm

5.3 Determination of unknown resistance using Carey Fos-

ters bridge

S.No. R l cm l

cm (l

l)cm X

1 0.5 47 52.9 5.9 0.688

2 0.6 47.9 51.3 3.4 0.709

3 0.7 49.4 49.8 0.4 0.713

4 0.8 51.1 48 -3.1 0.700

5 0.9 52.9 46.4 -6.5 0.692

So, the mean resistance is = 0.700

4

6 Result

So, the mean resistance = 0.700

7 Discussions

1)During the experiment, due to Joule heating, temperature of the wire

increases. Hence, the resistance doesnot remain constant, it changes. So,

to get more accurate readings, the circuit should be broken and the wire

should be given time to cool down.

2)For, minimum error, the ratio

l

100l

1. Hence, for this condition,

l 50. So, we should take readings near 50cm in order to reduce the error.

8 Error Analysis

5

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