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TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF CIVIL ENGINEERING BUCHAREST

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING IN FOREIGN LANGUAGES

Diploma Project
Reinforced concrete structure
B+GF+5S

BUCHAREST
2014

Table of Contents
1 Technical report .......................................................................................................................... - 6 1.1 Building description .......................................................................................................... - 6 1.2 Architectural characteristics .............................................................................................. - 6 1.3 Structural characteristics and materials used .................................................................... - 6 1.4 Structural computational aspects ...................................................................................... - 6 1.5 Data regarding the building site ........................................................................................ - 7 2 Load evaluation .......................................................................................................................... - 8 3 Predimensioning ....................................................................................................................... - 10 3.1 Slab.................................................................................................................................. - 10 3.2 Beams .............................................................................................................................. - 10 3.2.1 Longitudinal beams ............................................................................................... - 10 3.2.2 Transversal beams ................................................................................................. - 10 3.3 Columns .......................................................................................................................... - 10 3.3.1 Column 1 - corner column ..................................................................................... - 11 3.3.2 Column 2 - marginal column ................................................................................. - 11 3.3.3 Column 3 - central column .................................................................................... - 11 4 Walls ......................................................................................................................................... - 12 5 Evaluation of the seismic loads and load combination ............................................................ - 14 5.1 Equivalent seismic force ................................................................................................. - 14 5.2 Computational model for lateral and vertical load .......................................................... - 15 5.3 Vibration modes .............................................................................................................. - 16 6 Design of rigidity to lateral forces ............................................................................................ - 20 6.1 Serviceability Limit State Check (SLS) .......................................................................... - 20 6.2 Ultimate Limit State Check (ULS) ................................................................................. - 21 7 Dimensioning of the structural elements .................................................................................. - 23 7.1 Slab.................................................................................................................................. - 23 7.1.1 General computation scheme................................................................................. - 23 7.1.2 Static computation in the elastic-range slabs reinforced on one direction ............ - 23 7.1.3 Static computation in the elastic-range slabs reinforced on two directions .......... - 24 7.1.4 Dimensioning the reinforcement ........................................................................... - 29 7.2 Beams .............................................................................................................................. - 35 7.2.1 Design of the longitudinal reinforcement .............................................................. - 35 7.2.2 Design of the transversal reinforcement of the beams .......................................... - 41 7.3 Columns .......................................................................................................................... - 46 7.3.1 Geometrical characteristics.................................................................................... - 46 7.3.2 Provisions regarding the materials used ................................................................ - 46 7.3.3 Longitudinal reinforcement provisions ................................................................. - 46 -2-

7.3.4 Longitudinal reinforcement design ........................................................................ - 46 7.3.5 Transversal reinforcement provisions ................................................................... - 47 7.3.6 Transversal reinforcement design .......................................................................... - 47 8 Structural Walls ........................................................................................................................ - 51 8.1 General considerations for the computations of the structural walls .............................. - 51 8.2 The values of the design sectional efforts in the walls ................................................... - 51 8.3 The longitudinal and transversal reinforcement.............................................................. - 52 8.4 Material provisions for structural walls .......................................................................... - 59 8.5 Geometric Exigencies ..................................................................................................... - 59 9 Foundation ................................................................................................................................ - 60 9.1 General Information ........................................................................................................ - 60 9.2 Predimensioning.............................................................................................................. - 60 10 Stairs ......................................................................................................................................... - 61 10.1General issues ................................................................................................................. - 61 10.2Loads ............................................................................................................................... - 61 10.3Reinforcement ................................................................................................................. - 61 11 Bibliography ............................................................................................................................. - 65 -

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Table of Tables
Table 1-1 Geotechnical Conditions .......................................................................................... - 7 Table 2-1 Load on current floor ............................................................................................... - 8 Table 2-2 Load from terrace .................................................................................................... - 8 Table 2-3 Load from faade ..................................................................................................... - 8 Table 5-1 Modal Participating Mass Ratios ........................................................................... - 19 Table 6-1 SX drift check ........................................................................................................ - 21 Table 6-2 SY drift check ........................................................................................................ - 21 Table 6-3 SX drift check ........................................................................................................ - 21 Table 6-4 SY drift check ........................................................................................................ - 22 Table 7-1 Moment computation for the current floor slabs ................................................... - 26 Table 7-2 Moment computation for the terrace slabs ............................................................ - 28 Table 7-3 Current floor slab reinforcement ........................................................................... - 31 Table 7-4 Terrace slab reinforcement .................................................................................... - 33 Table 7-5 Field reinforcement for beams in Frame C-C ........................................................ - 37 Table 7-6 Support reinforcement for beams in Frame C-C ................................................... - 38 Table 7-7 Field reinforcement for beams in Frame 6-6 ......................................................... - 39 Table 7-8 Support reinforcement for beams in Frame 6-6 ..................................................... - 40 Table 7-9 Transversal reinforcement for beams in frame C-C .............................................. - 42 Table 7-10 Transversal reinforcement for beams in frame 6-6 .............................................. - 44 Table 7-11 Longitudinal reinforcement for Central Column ................................................. - 49 Table 7-12 Transversal reinforcement for Central Column ................................................... - 49 Table 8-1 Longitudinal reinforcement for the Structural Wall .............................................. - 58 Table 8-2 Transversal reinforcement for the Structural Wall ................................................ - 58 -

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Table of Figures
Figure 1 Ground level snow load - CR-1-1-3-2012 ................................................................. - 9 Figure 2 Peak ground acceleration IMR 225 years - P100-1-2013 ........................................ - 14 Figure 3 Tc response spectrum zoning - P100-1-2013 .......................................................... - 14 Figure 4 Normalized elastic acceleration spectrum - P100-1-2013 ....................................... - 14 Figure 5 First mode of vibration ............................................................................................ - 16 Figure 6 Second mode of vibration ........................................................................................ - 17 Figure 7 third mode of vibration ............................................................................................ - 18 Figure 8 Wall 1 Zone A M-N interaction diagram ............................................................. - 54 Figure 9 Wall 1 Zone B M-N interaction diagram .............................................................. - 56 Figure 10 Stair Etabs Diagram ............................................................................................... - 61 -

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TECHNICAL REPORT

1.1

Building description
The purpose of the current project is to compute, design and detail the structural elements
for a B+GF+5S dual type concrete structure. The structure will be located on Grigore Manolescu
street nr 10-14, District 2, Bucharest.
The building will have a residential function. Moreover the basement will be used for
parking space.
The height regime of the structure is of 18 m. Each story has a height of 3 m, including
the base one. The basement is also 3 m height. The surface of the ground floor is of 274.56 m2
and of the current floors is of 307.17. As a result the construction has a developed area of
1810.41 m2.
In plane the building has a regular shape.
1.2

Architectural characteristics
Partitioning made of vertical hollow brick walls finished with paint or natural stone,
according to the room.
Ceilings are executed from gypsum boards on metallic structure, with a paint cover
over the support layer.
Flooring made from stratified parquet in the living rooms and bedrooms, and natural
stone in kitchens, bathrooms and entrance halls.
Outdoor swimming pool on the top terrace.
Installations have separate meters for water, heating and electricity, better to value the
under floor heating system connected to the buildings common heating system.
Preinstalled phone, internet and TV cable connections mean no cables hanging from
the walls.
The parking access with remote control gate and the video surveillance system add an
extra layer of security to the building.
Defrosting system on the access ramp for the parking lot and on the terraces from
upper floors increase the comfort of the inhabitants during the cold season.

1.3

Structural characteristics and materials used


The superstructure is designed based on a series of functional and architectural
requirements, but also by taking into consideration the seismic behavior. The design solution is
based on the dual structural system: structural system in which the vertical loads are taken over
mainly by spatial frames, while the lateral load is partially carried by the frames and partially by
the structural walls. The floors are reinforced concrete slabs with hp=17cm.
The structural walls, the columns, the beams and the slabs are made from reinforced
monolithic concrete
Concrete used for superstructure: reinforced concrete C20/25 with fcd=13.3 N/mm2
For leveling and cross slope C8/10
Steel: PC52 with fyd=300 N/mm2, OB37 with fyd=210 /mm2
The foundation solution is mat foundation made from reinforced concrete C20/25.
The infrastructure consists of concrete walls and frames. The basement is enclosed by a 30
cm thick reinforced concrete walls. The slab over the basement is 17 cm thick.
1.4

Structural computational aspects


Designing structures with structural walls must satisfy all the exigencies (functional,
structural, esthetics, placement in the urban layout, execution, maintenance and repair
/consolidation) based on the location conditions (geotechnical, climatic, seismic, influences on
neighborhood buildings) and the importance of the building. In this way a favorable behavior can
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be assured during exploitation, at an acceptable safety level. The satisfaction of the structural
exigencies imply taking over the different actions, especially the seismic ones. This is achieved
by applying the structural mechanism of elastic-plastic deformation which incorporates also the
mechanism of dissipating energy.
The adequate modeling with respect to the real behavior and using the proper
computational models for determining the efforts and dimensioning the structural elements is
also essential.
The computations are performed in accordance with the design codes EUROCODE, the
corresponding National Annex, but also National Regulations. The structural modeling is
achieved using software based on finite elements methods: ETABS 9. 7. The design is done in
order to assure a proper seismic behavior. The actions have been considered from the
fundamental combination, but also from the special combinations. The seismic force is
established according to P100-1/2013.
1.5

Data regarding the building site


The building will be located in Bucharest. As a result:
The class of importance and exposure III with 1=1.
The ground acceleration for design MRI 225 years is ag=0.3g.
The control period of vibration is Tc=1.6s.
Ductility class H.
Snow characteristic value so,k=2kN/m2
Reference wind pressure, measured at a mean of 10 min, at 10m above ground level, for a
mean recurrence interval of 50 years, is 0.5kPa; also the building is situated in a urban area
with high density of buildings.

Table 1-1 Geotechnical Conditions


Depth
Type of soil
0 - 0.7m Infill materials (pavements, 50 cm sand bed,
broken and unbroken bricks)
0.7 - 3m Dark brown plastic silt sand
3 - 6.5m Plastic stiff clay
6.5 - 12m Sandy silt
Due to the soil stratification and the building layout
mat foundation.

e=0.5 pconv=300kPa
e=0.8 pconv=300kPa
e=0.5 pconv=350kPa
the chosen foundation solution is a

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LOAD EVALUATION

Table 2-1 Load on current floor


Nominal Coefficient
Load
value
value
Self-weight
4.25
1
Flooring load 1.75
1
Live load
2
0.4
Interior walls 1.5
1

Long term Coefficient Design


value
value
value
4.25
1.35
5.7375
1,75
1.35
2.3625
0.8
1.5
3
1.5
1.35
2.025
qDV=13.125kN

Table 2-2 Load from terrace


Nominal Coefficient
Load
value
value
Self-weight
4.25
1
Terrace insulation 1.5
1
Snow load
1.6
0.4

Table 2-3 Load from faade


Thickness Height
Element
(m)
(m)
Colored plastering
0.01
3
Thermo insulation
0.1
3
Interior plastering
0.01
3

Long term
value
4.25
1.5
0.4

(kN/m3)
18
0.32
18

Coefficient
Design
value
value
1.35
5.7375
1.35
2.025
1.5
2.4
qDV=10.1625 kN

LTV
0.54
0.096
0.54

Coefficient
DV
value
1.35
0.729
1.35
0.1296
1.35
0.73
qDV= 1.5886 kN

Snow load
The snow load on the roof takes into account the quantity of snow depending on the roof shape,
and the variation of snow height due to wind and snow melt.
sk = Isi Ce Ct s0,k

(2.3)

Where:

Is - the exposure-importance coefficient for the snow load


i - the shape coefficient
s0,k - the charcteristic vale of snow load at the ground level [kN/m2], at the
location;
Ce - the exposure coefficient of the locatiom
Ct - the termic coefficient
Due to the importance of the structure, Is=1
Due to the small slope of the terrace roof 00 300, i=0.8
Due to its location, the structure has partial exposure, Ce=1
Due to good insulation of the roof, Ct=1

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The values of the characteristic value of snow at ground level in Romania are presented
on the map:

Figure 1 Ground level snow load - CR-1-1-3-2012

The building is located in Bucharest so s0,k =2.0


sk=1*0.8*1*1*2=1.6kN/m2

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PREDIMENSIONING

3.1

Slab
The slab taken as basis of computation is the most unfavorable one, one way slab with
dimensions of L1 = 5 m and L2 = 14.7 m
The height of the slab: hpl = (/ 30)
hpl = thickness of the slab
Lmin = short length of the slab = 5 m
hpl = 5 m / 30= 0.166 m = 17 cm
3.2 Beams
3.2.1 Longitudinal beams
The dimensions of the longitudinal beams will be Hb.long and Wb.long, where:
Hb.long = the height of the longitudinal beam Hb.long = t / (10..12)
Wb.long = the width of the longitudinal beam Wb.long = Hb.long / (2..3)
Where t represents the bays.
Bay Computed Round up Computed
Round
Beam
length
height
height
width
up width
(m)
(m)
(cm)
(cm)
(cm)
1
4.30
0.43
55
28
30
2
5.20
0.52
55
28
30
3
5.20
0.52
55
28
30
4
3.75
0.38
55
28
30
Same size beams are chosen for ease of execution and symmetry.
3.2.2 Transversal beams
The dimensions of the longitudinal beams will be Hb.trans and Wb.trans, where:
Hb.trans = the height of the longitudinal beam Hb.trans = t / (10..12)
Wb.trans = the width of the longitudinal beam Wb.trans = Hb.long / (2..3)
Where t represents the bays.
Bay Computed Round up Computed
Round
Beam
length
height
height
width
up width
(m)
(m)
(cm)
(cm)
(cm)
1
4.20
0.42
55
28
30
2
3.90
0.39
55
28
30
3
5.00
0.50
55
29
30
Same size beams are chosen for ease of execution and symmetry.
3.3

Columns
Each column will have its axial load computed. For this task we will consider the loads
supported by the slabs, which are carried to the beams, and the beams then transfer the loads to
the column. We will also take into consideration the loads coming from faade, nonstructural
walls, and also self-weight of each column.
qfacade=1.59 kN/m2 - Load from the weight of the facade
qter=10.16 kN/m2 - Load from the terrace
qcl=13.13 kN/m2 - Load from the current level

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3.3.1 Column 1 - corner column


The tributary areas are A1=2.05 m2 and A2=3.02m2, the dimensions of the beams are
Hb=0.55m and Wb=0.3 and dimensions of the slab are L1=4.05m, T1=5m.
The chosen cross section will be a rectangle of 30 cm x 60 cm with Area = 0.18 m2.
(
)
Nter =83.13 kN-the axial load from the terrace
(
)
Ncf =120.32 kN-the axial load from the terrace
N=5*Ncf+Nter N=684.73 KN

3.3.2 Column 2 - marginal column


The tributary areas are A1=1.90 m2, A2=3.46m2, A3=3.75 m2, A4=3.13 m2, the
dimensions of the beams are Hb=0.55m and Wb=0.3 and dimensions of the slab are L1=5.2m,
T1=5m, T2=3.9.
The chosen cross section will be a square of 60 cm x 60 cm with Area = 0.36 m2.
(
)
Nter =162.45 kN-the axial load from the terrace
(
)
Ncf =227.16 kN-the axial load from the terrace
N=5*Ncf+Nter N=1365.76 KN

3.3.3 Column 3 - central column


The tributary areas are A1=2.62 m2, A2=2.59m2, A3=1.9 m2, A4=1.8 m2, A5=1.12 m2,
A6=1.12m2, A7=2.04 m2, A8=2.2 m2, the dimensions of the beams are Hb=0.55m and Wb=0.3
and dimensions of the slab are L1=4.3m, T1=4.05m, L2=3, T2=4.2.
The chosen cross section will be a square of 60 cm x 60 cm with Area = 0.36 m2.
(
)
Nter =191.35 kN-the axial load from the terrace
(
)
Ncf =263.95 kN-the axial load from the terrace
N=5*Ncf+Nter N=1511.08 KN

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WALLS
The total area of the web on one direction will be at least:

Where:
is the sum of the horizontal sections of walls, laid parallel with the direction of the
action of the lateral loads
is the importance factor of the structure according to 4.4.5 from P100-1:2013
ks=ag/g the ratio between the peak value of the acceleration and the gravitational
acceleration
n is the number of slabs of the building
is the area of the slab in m2
The thickness of the walls will be at least 15 cm. For structures that have less than 12
stories it is recommended to keep constant dimensions of the wall sections on the whole height.
On x direction:

On y direction:

The area of the flanges situated at the margins of the walls will respect the rule:

Where, NEd is the axial compression stress.


qfacade=1.59 kN/m2 - Load from the weight of the facade
qter=10.16 kN/m2 - Load from the terrace
qcl=13.13 kN/m2 - Load from the current level
Wall 1:
Dimensions of the slab: L=9.675m, T=2.5m.
The tributary area is A=24.56m2.
The dimensions of the corresponding beams: L1=3.75m, L2=2.6m, T2=5m.

This check is performed to identify the cases in which the sections need strengthening by
means of flanges.
Wall 2:
Dimensions of the slab: L=8.25m, T=2.5m.
The tributary area is A=20.625m2.
The dimensions of the corresponding beams: L2=2.6m, L3=1.4m, T3=5m.

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Wall 3:
Dimensions of the slab: L=4.175m, T=5.825m.
The tributary area is A=24.32m2.
The dimensions of the corresponding beams: L6=2.6m, L7=3m, T7=1.45m.

Wall 4:
Dimensions of the slab: L=8.575m, T=2.1m.
The tributary area is A=18.01m2.
The dimensions of the corresponding beams: L16=1.55m, L17=2.6m, T13=4.05m,
T14=4.05m.

Wall 5:
Dimensions of the slab: L=8.1m, T=2.1m.
The tributary area is A=17.01m2.
The dimensions of the corresponding beams: L17=2.6m, L18=1.4m, T14=4.05m,
T15=4.05m.

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EVALUATION OF THE SEISMIC LOADS AND LOAD COMBINATION

5.1

Equivalent seismic force


The seismic loads are determined with the method of seismic equivalent force according
to P100-1/2013
( )
Where:

is the importance factor of the


building
( ) is the design acceleration

spectrum which takes into account the


characteristics of ground motion and the
dynamic properties of the structural
system.

( )

is the fundamental vibration period


of the structural system
q is the behavior factor
( ) represents the elastic acceleration
spectrum
( )
( )
is the design acceleration of the peak
ground acceleration
( ) is the normalized elastic
acceleration spectrum

takes into account the over strength

Figure 2 Peak ground acceleration IMR 225


years - P100-1-2013

Figure 3 Tc response spectrum zoning - P1001-2013

and redundancy of the structural system


is a correction factor that takes into account the contribution of the fundamental
vibration mode through its modal mass making the equivalence between real
multi degree of freedom(MDOF) and a single degree of freedom system.
=0.85 if
and the building has two levels or =1 otherwise
(

T=0.3331
TB< T <TC

Figure 4 Normalized elastic acceleration


spectrum - P100-1-2013

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5.2

Computational model for lateral and vertical load

The computation of the efforts is done with ETABS. The superstructure is considered
fixed at the level of the slab above the basement.
In order to define the model the following steps are followed:
Choose the units of measurement KN and m and define the geometry of the structure
(axes, spans, bays, story height);
Define the materials and the linear cross sections (beam, columns), the plane elements
(walls, slabs); define the geometrical characteristics, the materials and the rigidity of the
structural elements;
Define the load cases due to gravitational loads: from the self-weight of the structural
elements, terrace layers, floorings, partitioning elements, attic, facade, but also from
variable load: live load and snow;
Define the horizontal load from the design seismic situation. The equivalent seismic
forces are defined as a fraction of the weight of the superstructure. The response
spectrum is defined. The additional eccentricities are considered 5% from the length of
the building on each direction, on one side and the other of the center of the masses.
Define the load combinations which contain the action of the earthquake and the vertical
associated loading.
Define the mass source for computing the basic seismic force.
Position the elements in the structure, define the piers, define the slab diaphragm
Define the location and value of the loads associated to different loading hypothesis
Define the supports
Choose the type of analysis-elastic analysis
After having the spatial model for computation, the structural computation is performed
by determining the first 3 vibration modes (translation on X, translation on Y and rotation
on Rz) and the values of displacements and efforts. The displayed results have the units in
the international units: m, KN, KNm, seconds depending on each case.

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5.3

Vibration modes

Figure 5 First mode of vibration

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Figure 6 Second mode of vibration

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Figure 7 third mode of vibration

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Table 5-1 Modal Participating Mass Ratios


Mode

Period

UX

UY

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

0.333133
0.200045
0.18462
0.08479
0.052368
0.046056
0.040308
0.026245
0.025652
0.02198
0.020003

0.0003 71.1639
0.2923 1.0544
71.5095 0.0006
0.0001 18.2615
0.0086 0.2771
19.2178 0.0161
0.0057 5.5695
0.0001 2.4338
0.0119 0.0038
5.8886 0.0018
0.0015 0.9669

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.0003
0.2926
71.8021
71.8022
71.8107
91.0286
91.0343
91.0344
91.0463
96.9349
96.9364

71.1639
72.2183
72.219
90.4804
90.7576
90.7736
96.3431
98.7769
98.7807
98.7825
99.7494

12

0.01731

0.0035

96.94

99.7689

0.0195

UZ SumUX

SumUY SumUZ

RX

RY

RZ

SumRX

SumRY

SumRZ

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

97.4479
1.5182
0.0057
0.7802
0.009
0.0022
0.1973
0.0266
0.0002
0
0.0112

0.0001
0.3966
98.4545
0.0094
0.0003
0.9207
0.0007
0
0.0008
0.1903
0.0001

1.0634
71.5823
0.3292
0.1851
18.2446
0.0337
0.0949
0.0026
5.6091
0.012
0.0074

97.4479
98.9661
98.9719
99.752
99.761
99.7632
99.9604
99.987
99.9871
99.9872
99.9984

0.0001
0.3967
98.8512
98.8606
98.8609
99.7816
99.7823
99.7824
99.7832
99.9734
99.9735

1.0634
72.6456
72.9749
73.16
91.4046
91.4383
91.5332
91.5357
97.1448
97.1568
97.1643

1.9627

99.9984

99.9736

99.127

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DESIGN OF RIGIDITY TO LATERAL FORCES


Is considered the check at two limit states, to the Serviceability Limit State (SLS) and the
Ultimate Limit State (ULS) (Appendix E, P100/2013)
6.1

Serviceability Limit State Check (SLS)


The aim of checking is to limit the degradation of nonstructural elements and equipment
for frequent seismic action (recurrence period of 30 years). This check also aims to reduce the
cost of the post-earthquake repair works.
Considering the criteria of interaction between the structural and nonstructural elements,
the present structure is in the situation where the nonstructural walls interact with the structure,
so the admissible inter story drift is 0.005.
The displacement check is done based on the expression (relation E.1-appendix E, P1001-2013):
d
- inter-story drift associated to the conventional elastic analysis
- reduction factor which considers the shorter recurrence period of the earthquake
- the value of is: 0.5 for the buildings in the importance classes III
q - behavior factor specific to the structures type
- the relative displacement, determined by static computation under the seismic loads
- allowable value of the relative story displacement
Displacement values dr are calculated using calculation assumptions of structural
elements rigidity in accordance with the actual cracking condition, depending on the degree of
interaction between structural elements and the nonstructural elements (partitioning and
closures). At the action of a moderate intensity earthquake is assumed that connections between
closures and partitioning elements and columns and beams will not be compromised and damage
of nonstructural elements to be insignificant as a result of limiting lateral movement. In such
circumstances it is justified the contribution of nonstructural elements in the global stiffness of
the structure. Because it cannot build rigorous models , but sufficiently simple structure elements of partitioning for design practice, it is permitted in a simplified way, the global
evaluation of structural rigidity by considering the deformation properties of not cracked sections
(stage I behavior) of the structural elements and neglect the contribution of non-structural
elements. In the case where the nonstructural elements are not deforming in the same way with
the structure, the rigidity of the structure is evaluated considering the deformation properties of
structural elements in the cracked stage.
So, in my case the values of dr are estimated in the hypothesis of the sectional
stiffness of the structural elements in the not cracked stage:
( )
Where:
Ec Elasticity modulus of the concrete
Ic inertia moment of the cross section
From the table below, the structure with the dimensions of the elements, obtained from
preliminary design, obey the lateral displacement check corresponding to SLS.
The admissible displacement is 0.5% of Hs.

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Level
Story 5
Story 4
Story 3
Story 2
Story 1
Base

Table 6-1 SX drift check


Direction Combination
dre

q
SX
PSXPSY
0.000378 0,5 5,75
SX
PSXPSY
0.000407 0,5 5,75
SX
PSXPSY
0.000422 0,5 5,75
SX
PSXPSY
0.000399 0,5 5,75
SX
PSXPSY
0.000323 0,5 5,75
SX
PSXPSY
0.000165 0,5 5,75

d,r,sls
0.002174
0.00234
0.002427
0.002294
0.001857
0.000949

dadm
0,015
0,015
0,015
0,015
0,015
0,015

OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK

Level
Story 5
Story 4
Story 3
Story 2
Story 1
Base

Table 6-2 SY drift check


Direction Combination
dre

q
SY
PSYNSX
0.001219 0,5 5,75
SY
PSYNSX
0.001219 0,5 5,75
SY
PSYNSX
0.001268 0,5 5,75
SY
PSYNSX
0.00121
0,5 5,75
SY
PSYNSX
0.000986 0,5 5,75
SY
PSYNSX
0.00049
0,5 5,75

d,r,sls
0.007009
0.007009
0.007291
0.006958
0.00567
0.002818

dadm
0,015
0,015
0,015
0,015
0,015
0,015

OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK

6.2

Ultimate Limit State Check (ULS)


The aim is to avoid the loss of human life during a major earthquake (with a long
recurrence period) by preventing the collapse of the closures and partitioning elements, limiting
the structural degradation and the second order effects. The earthquake associated to this limit
state is considered when designing the resistance to lateral forces of the building. All the
horizontal seismic action will be resisted by the reinforced concrete walls and frames, which will
be heavily cracked so their stiffness is equal to 0.5EcIc.
The check is made based on the expression E.2., Appendix E, P100/2013.
- relative story displacement under the seismic action associated to ULS
q - behavior factor specific to the structures type
dr -the relative displacement, determined by static computation under the seismic loads
c- the displacement amplification factor, which takes into account that for T<Tc the
seismic displacements computed in the inelastic domain are larger than those corresponding to
elastic seismic response.

- allowable value of the relative story displacement, equal to 2.5% of Hs

Level
Story 5
Story 4
Story 3
Story 2
Story 1
Base

Table 6-3 SX drift check


Direction Combination
dre

q
SX
PSXPSY
0.000378 0,5 5,75
SX
PSXPSY
0.000407 0,5 5,75
SX
PSXPSY
0.000422 0,5 5,75
SX
PSXPSY
0.000399 0,5 5,75
SX
PSXPSY
0.000323 0,5 5,75
SX
PSXPSY
0.000165 0,5 5,75

d,r,sls
0.008694
0.009361
0.009706
0.009177
0.007429
0.003795

dadm
0,075
0,075
0,075
0,075
0,075
0,075

OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK

- 21 -

Level
Story 5
Story 4
Story 3
Story 2
Story 1
Base

Table 6-4 SY drift check


Direction Combination
dre

q
SY
PSYNSX
0.001219 0,5 5,75
SY
PSYNSX
0.001219 0,5 5,75
SY
PSYNSX
0.001268 0,5 5,75
SY
PSYNSX
0.00121
0,5 5,75
SY
PSYNSX
0.000986 0,5 5,75
SY
PSYNSX
0.00049
0,5 5,75

d,r,sls
0.028037
0.028037
0.029164
0.02783
0.022678
0.01127

dadm
0,075
0,075
0,075
0,075
0,075
0,075

OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK

- 22 -

7
7.1

DIMENSIONING OF THE STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS


Slab

7.1.1 General computation scheme


In the case of continuous beams and slabs the permanent load together with the
temporary load can determine several loading schemes. The efforts are determined for the most
unfavorable loading scheme corresponding to each section.
To determine the maximum positive moment in a field, the permanent load is considered
to be applied in all the spans and the temporary load in the respective opening, and in alternative
spans.
To determine the maximum negative moment in a field, the permanent load is considered
to be applied in all openings and the temporary load in the adjacent openings, but also in
alternate openings.
For determining the maximum negative moment in the support, the permanent load is
considered to be applied in all openings and temporary load in the adjacent openings of the
respective support and in that alternate openings.

7.1.2 Static computation in the elastic-range slabs reinforced on one direction


The slabs are computed on one direction if
where =
The computation of the efforts in the section of the slabs reinforced on one direction due
to permanent or temporary loads, applied uniform, is done like in the case of isolated or
continuous beams, computed in the elastic range for a strip of slab with the width equal to the
unit.
The slab is loaded with the sum of the temporary and permanent loads.
one way slab (which is reinforced on the shorter direction)
Positive moment in field:
Negative moment in support:
Slab 2
Current floor
Terrace

q(kN/m2)
13.13
10.16

l(m)
5
5

M field(KN*m)

M support (KN*m)

13.67708
10.58333

27.35417
21.16667

- 23 -

7.1.3 Static computation in the elastic-range slabs reinforced on two directions


The slabs are computed on two directions if
, where
.
The maximum and minimum moments are computed based on two loading schemes,
based on the support type of the slab.
In the first load scheme the panels are considered fixed supported or simply supported
based on their contour. The load applied is:
, where:
g is the permanent load
p is the variable load
In the second conventional scheme the panels are considered simply supported on all the
sides. On all the panels is applied a conventional load directed up-down and respectively downup in all the possible ways. This load is:

Slab 1

Scheme 1

Scheme 2a

Scheme 2b

Scheme 2c

- 24 -

Example:
Scheme 1

Scheme 2a

Scheme 2b

Scheme 2c

Total moment

- 25 -

Table 7-1 Moment computation for the current floor slabs

Slab
1

Slab
5

q+p/2= 11.63

L1= 4.05

p/2= 1.50

L2= 5.00
2

1.23

0.038

0.017

0.695

0.306

7.31

16.56

4.91

11.10

1.23

0.054

0.024

1.32

0.88

b 1.23

0.850

2.61

0.482

2.26

8.62

19.17

5.79

13.36

a
c

0.81

q+p/2= 11.63

L1= 3.90

p/2= 1.50

L2= 4.60

1.18

0.03
0.05
0.04
-

0.012
0.025
0.04

0.806
0.838
-

0.194
0.434

1.18

0.85

q+p/2= 11.63

L1= 3.00

p/2= 1.50

L2= 3.90

1.30

0.03
0.06
0.05
-

0.008
0.019
0.052

0.761
0.892
-

0.232
0.558

1.30

b 1.30
c

Slab
7

M1'
M2
M2'
(kN*m) (kN*m) (kN*m)

b 1.18

Slab
6

M1
(kN*m)

0.77

q+p/2= 11.63

L1= 3.90

p/2= 1.50

L2= 5.50

1.28

0.03
0.06
0.05
-

0.008
0.019
0.052

0.761
0.892
-

0.232
0.558

1.28

b 1.28
c

0.78

M1
(kN*m)

M1'
M2
M2'
(kN*m) (kN*m) (kN*m)

5.31

17.82

2.93

5.98

1.14

0.79

2.39

1.72

6.45

20.21

3.72

7.70

M1
(kN*m)

M1'
M2
M2'
(kN*m) (kN*m) (kN*m)

3.14

9.96

1.49

5.12

0.81

0.42

1.51

1.59

3.95

11.47

1.91

6.71

M1
(kN*m)

M1'
M2
M2'
(kN*m) (kN*m) (kN*m)

5.31

16.83

2.96

10.18

1.37

0.84

2.54

3.17

6.68

19.38

3.80

13.35

- 26 -

Slab
10

q+p/2= 11.63

L1= 4.20

p/2= 1.50

L2= 4.60

1.10

0.02
0.04
0.03
-

0.02
0.037
0.027

0.667
0.714
-

0.333
0.286

1.10

b 1.10
c

Slab
11

0.91

q+p/2= 11.63

L1= 3.00

p/2= 1.50

L2= 4.20

1.40

0.03
0.06
0.05
-

0.008
0.019
0.052

0.761
0.892
-

0.232
0.558

1.40

b 1.40
c

Slab
12

0.71

q+p/2= 11.63

L1= 2.60

p/2= 1.50

L2= 4.20

1.62

0.05
0.08
0.06
-

0.006
0.01
0.073

0.893
0.954
-

0.107
0.755

1.62

b 1.62
c

Slab
13

0.62

q+p/2= 11.63

L1= 4.20

p/2= 1.50

L2= 5.50

1.31

0.03
0.06
0.05
-

0.008
0.019
0.052

0.761
0.892
-

0.232
0.558

1.31

b 1.31
c

0.76

M1
(kN*m)

M1'
M2
M2'
(kN*m) (kN*m) (kN*m)

4.10

17.10

4.87

10.25

1.06

1.16

2.36

1.13

5.16

19.46

6.03

11.39

M1
(kN*m)

M1'
M2
M2'
(kN*m) (kN*m) (kN*m)

3.14

9.96

1.72

5.94

0.81

0.49

1.51

1.85

3.95

11.47

2.22

7.78

M1
(kN*m)

M1'
M2
M2'
(kN*m) (kN*m) (kN*m)

3.93

8.78

1.31

2.74

0.81

0.26

1.21

2.50

4.74

9.99

1.57

5.24

M1
(kN*m)

M1'
M2
M2'
(kN*m) (kN*m) (kN*m)

6.15

19.52

2.96

10.18

1.59

0.84

2.95

3.17

7.74

22.47

3.80

13.35

- 27 -

Table 7-2 Moment computation for the terrace slabs

Slab
5

Slab
6

Slab
7

q+p/2= 7.76

L1= 3.90

p/2= 1.20

L2= 4.60
M1'
M2
M2'
(kN*m) (kN*m) (kN*m)

1.18

0.03

0.012

0.806

0.194

3.54

11.89

1.97

3.98

1.18

0.05

0.025

0.91

0.63

b 1.18

0.04

0.838

1.91

0.04

0.434

1.38

4.45

13.80

2.61

5.36

0.85

q+p/2= 7.76

L1= 3.00

p/2= 1.20

L2= 3.90
M1
(kN*m)

M1'
M2
M2'
(kN*m) (kN*m) (kN*m)

1.30

0.03

0.008

0.761

0.232

2.10

6.64

0.94

3.42

1.30

0.06

0.019

0.65

0.35

b 1.30

0.05

0.892

1.20

0.052

0.558

1.27

2.74

7.85

1.29

4.70

0.77

q+p/2= 7.76

L1= 3.90

p/2= 1.20

L2= 5.00

1.28

0.03
0.06
0.05
-

0.008
0.019
0.052

0.761
0.892
-

0.232
0.558

1.28

b 1.28
c

Slab
10

M1
(kN*m)

0.78

q+p/2= 7.76

L1= 4.20

p/2= 1.20

L2= 4.60

1.10

0.02
0.04
0.03
-

0.02
0.037
0.027

0.667
0.714
-

0.333
0.286

1.10

b 1.10
c

0.91

q+p/2= 7.76

M1
(kN*m)

M1'
M2
M2'
(kN*m) (kN*m) (kN*m)

3.54

11.23

1.55

5.63

1.10

0.57

2.04

2.09

4.64

13.26

2.12

7.72

M1
(kN*m)

M1'
M2
M2'
(kN*m) (kN*m) (kN*m)

2.74

11.41

3.28

6.83

0.85

0.94

1.89

0.91

3.58

13.30

4.22

7.74

L1= 3.00

- 28 -

p/2= 1.20

Slab
11

1.40

0.03
0.06
0.05
-

0.008
0.019
0.052

0.761
0.892
-

0.232
0.558

1.40

b 1.40
c

Slab
12

0.71

q+p/2= 7.76

L1= 2.60

p/2= 1.20

L2= 4.20

1.62

0.05
0.08
0.06
-

0.006
0.01
0.073

0.893
0.954
-

0.107
0.755

1.62

b 1.62
c

Slab
13

0.62

q+p/2= 7.76

L1= 4.20

p/2= 1.20

L2= 5.50

1.31

0.05
0.08
0.06
-

0.006
0.01
0.073

0.893
0.954
-

0.107
0.755

1.31

b 1.31
c

L2= 4.20

0.76

M1
(kN*m)

M1'
M2
M2'
(kN*m) (kN*m) (kN*m)

2.10

6.64

1.10

3.97

0.65

0.40

1.20

1.48

2.74

7.85

1.50

5.45

M1
(kN*m)

M1'
M2
M2'
(kN*m) (kN*m) (kN*m)

2.62

5.86

0.82

1.83

0.65

0.21

0.97

2.00

3.27

6.82

1.03

3.83

M1
(kN*m)

M1'
M2
M2'
(kN*m) (kN*m) (kN*m)

6.84

15.28

1.41

3.14

1.69

0.36

2.52

3.43

8.54

17.80

1.77

6.57

7.1.4 Dimensioning the reinforcement


Based on the mean of the maximum values of the bending moment in each support the
reinforcement can be determined for each slab.
The computation is performed by considering a rectangular cross section with the length
equal to unit. If the length of the strip is considered 1 m, the resulting reinforcement will be laid
on 1 m of slab. On the drawing the representation of the reinforcement is done by the number of
bars on meter.
The necessary reinforcement is:
Where: b=1000 mm - the unitary strip
x - the depth of the neutral axis
(

Where: d - the width without the concrete covering


fcd - the strength of concrete in compression
fyd - the yielding strength of steel
The constructive rules which have to be respected are:
- 29 -

The minimum diameter of the bars is 6 mm for the bottom part and 8 mm(OB37)
or 6 mm(PC52) for the upper part and for the inclined bars.
For hp<30, the minimum number of bars per meter is 5 and the maximum number
is 12.
The minimum reinforcement area (SR-EN-1992-1-1-2004).
, is equal to 443.3 mm2 for the computed slab.
From the Romanian codes, the minimum reinforcement percentage should be
>0.20%.
Perpendicular on the direction of the strength reinforcement, found by
computations, repartition reinforcement has to be placed. This reinforcement has
the following purposes: constructive because it takes over bending moments from
the lower part, from the vicinity of the support and serves to ensure a good
behavior in case of concentrated loads; for mounting the reinforcement nets
because it holds the reinforcement bars from migrating before and during the
pouring and the vibrating of concrete.
For the regular slabs the repartition reinforcement should be at least 15%of the
load strengthening reinforcement, but minimum 46.
The number of bars should be multiple of 2.5 and 3.
The length of the bars on one support is the minimum between l1/4, l2/4.

- 30 -

Table 7-3 Current floor slab reinforcement


SLAB TYPE
Mid-span
1
Support
Mid-span
2

Support
Mid-span

5
Support

Mid-span
6
Support

Mid-span
7
Support

x direction
y direction
x direction
y direction
y direction
y direction up
y direction down
x direction
y direction
x direction left
x direction right
y direction up
y direction down
x direction
y direction
x direction left
x direction right
y direction up
y direction down
x direction
y direction
x direction left
x direction right
y direction up
y direction down

M
[kN
m]
8.62
5.79
19.17
13.36
13.68
27.35
27.35
3.72
6.45
7.70
7.70
20.21
20.21
3.95
1.91
11.47
11.47
6.71
6.71
3.80
6.68
13.35
13.35
19.38
19.38

hs
[mm]

fcd
[N/mm2]

d
[mm]

x
[mm]

fyd
[N/mm]

Anec
[mm]

Reinforcement

Aeff
[mm]

170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170

13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33

165
155
165
155
155
155
155
165
155
165
165
155
155
165
155
165
165
155
155
165
155
165
165
155
155

3.97
2.83
8.96
6.61
6.77
13.86
13.86
1.70
3.15
3.54
3.54
10.11
10.11
1.81
0.93
5.30
5.30
3.28
3.28
1.74
3.27
6.19
6.19
9.68
9.68

300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300

176
126
398
294
301
616
616
76
140
157
157
449
449
80
41
235
235
146
146
77
145
275
275
430
430

38+212/m
38+212/m
48+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
612/m
612/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
512/m
512/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
512/m
512/m

377.00
377.00
427.26
377.00
377.00
678.58
678.58
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
565.49
565.49
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
565.49
565.49

Steel
percentage
[%)
0.23
0.24
0.26
0.24
0.24
0.44
0.44
0.23
0.24
0.23
0.23
0.36
0.36
0.23
0.24
0.23
0.23
0.24
0.24
0.23
0.24
0.23
0.23
0.36
0.36
- 31 -

Mid-span
10
Support

Mid-span
11
Support

Mid-span
12
Support

Mid-span
13
Support

x direction

5.16

170

13.33

165

2.36

300

105

38+212/m

377.00

0.23

y direction
x direction left
x direction right
y direction up
y direction down
x direction
y direction
x direction left
x direction right
y direction up
y direction down
x direction
y direction
x direction left
x direction right
y direction up
y direction down
x direction
y direction
x direction left
x direction right
y direction up
y direction down

6.03
11.39
11.39
19.46
19.46
3.95
2.22
11.47
11.47
7.78
7.78
4.74
1.57
9.99
9.99
5.24
5.24
3.80
7.74
13.35
13.35
22.47
22.47

170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170

13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33

155
165
165
155
155
165
155
165
165
155
155
165
155
165
165
155
155
165
155
165
165
155
155

2.95
5.26
5.26
9.72
9.72
1.81
1.08
5.30
5.30
3.81
3.81
2.17
0.76
4.61
4.61
2.56
2.56
1.74
3.79
6.19
6.19
11.29
11.29

300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300

131
234
234
432
432
80
48
235
235
169
169
96
34
205
205
114
114
77
169
275
275
501
501

38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
512/m
512/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
512/m
512/m

377.00
377.00
377.00
565.49
565.49
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
565.49
565.49

0.24
0.23
0.23
0.36
0.36
0.23
0.24
0.23
0.23
0.24
0.24
0.23
0.24
0.23
0.23
0.24
0.24
0.23
0.24
0.23
0.23
0.36
0.36

- 32 -

Table 7-4 Terrace slab reinforcement


SLAB TYPE
Mid-span
2

Support
Mid-span

5
Support

Mid-span
6
Support

Mid-span
7
Support

Mid-span
10
Support

y direction
y direction up
y direction down
x direction
y direction
x direction left
x direction right
y direction up
y direction down
x direction
y direction
x direction left
x direction right
y direction up
y direction down
x direction
y direction
x direction left
x direction right
y direction up
y direction down
x direction
y direction
x direction left
x direction right
y direction up

M
[kNm]

hs
[mm]

fcd
[N/mm2]

d
[mm]

x
[mm]

fyd
[N/mm]

Anec
[mm]

Reinforcement

Aeff
[mm]

1.58
21.17
21.17
2.61
4.45
5.36
5.35
13.80
13.80
2.74
1.29
7.85
7.85
4.70
4.70
2.12
4.64
7.72
7.72
13.26
13.26
3.58
4.22
7.74
7.74
13.30

170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170

13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33

155
155
155
165
155
165
165
155
155
165
155
165
165
155
155
165
155
165
165
155
155
165
155
165
165
155

0.77
10.61
10.61
1.19
2.17
2.46
2.45
6.83
6.83
1.25
0.63
3.61
3.61
2.29
2.29
0.97
2.26
3.55
3.55
6.56
6.56
1.64
2.06
3.56
3.56
6.58

300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300

34
471
471
53
96
109
109
303
303
56
28
160
160
102
102
43
101
158
158
291
291
73
91
158
158
292

38+212/m
512/m
512/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m

377.00
565.49
565.49
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00

Steel
percentage
[%)
0.24
0.36
0.36
0.23
0.24
0.23
0.23
0.24
0.24
0.23
0.24
0.23
0.23
0.24
0.24
0.23
0.24
0.23
0.23
0.24
0.24
0.23
0.24
0.23
0.23
0.24
- 33 -

Mid-span
11
Support

Mid-span
12
Support

Mid-span
13
Support

y direction down
x direction
y direction

13.30
2.74
1.50

170
170
170

13.33
13.33
13.33

155
165
155

6.58
1.25
0.73

300
300
300

292
56
32

38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m

377.00
377.00
377.00

0.24
0.23
0.24

x direction left

7.85

170

13.33

165

3.61

300

160

38+212/m

377.00

0.23

x direction right
y direction up
y direction down
x direction
y direction
x direction left
x direction right
y direction up
y direction down
x direction
y direction
x direction left
x direction right
y direction up
y direction down

7.85
5.45
5.45
3.27
1.03
6.82
6.82
3.83
3.83
1.77
8.54
6.57
6.57
17.80
17.80

170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170

13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33

165
155
155
165
155
165
165
155
155
165
155
165
165
155
155

3.61
2.66
2.66
1.49
0.50
3.13
3.13
1.86
1.86
0.81
4.19
3.01
3.01
8.87
8.87

300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300

160
118
118
66
22
139
139
83
83
36
186
134
134
394
394

38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
38+212/m
512/m
512/m

377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
377.00
565.49
565.49

0.23
0.24
0.24
0.23
0.24
0.23
0.23
0.24
0.24
0.23
0.24
0.23
0.23
0.36
0.36

- 34 -

7.2

Beams
The bending moments were obtained through automatic computation in ETABS. To
obtain the needed moments, the building was loaded with the envelope of the load combinations.
The results displayed the maximum value of the bending moment as shown in the figure below:

7.2.1 Design of the longitudinal reinforcement


MEd = Mdesign the effective bending moment from the envelope.
In the present project the beams were declared as T-shape but in computation the cross
|>|
section is considered rectangular because |
| so
. As a result beff is
involved in the computations for the beams which are done on a rectangular section.

The necessary area of reinforcement is:


(

Where:
is the maximum value of the effective bending moment from ETABS.
c is the concrete cover
Based on the chosen diameters of reinforcement the area given by the actual reinforce
layout is computed: As1
The reinforcement percentage is:
The capable moment of the section is:
For the top reinforcement we assume that x<2*c
As a result:
(

Then x is computed for the effective reinforcement:


(

If x<2a the area of reinforcement is computed correctly, otherwise the section is


computed as a double reinforced section.
.
/
(
)
Provisions for the longitudinal reinforcement:
- 35 -

The minimum diameter is 12.


At least 2 bars 14 should be placed in the bottom and top parts of the beams.
The compressed reinforcement at the ends of the beams should be at least 50% of
the tensioned reinforcement.
At the upper part of the beam at least one quarter of the top reinforcement should
be continuous.

The reinforcement ratio

Only 2 or maximum 3 nonconsecutive diameters are used.


The minimum clear distance between rebars is 30 mm, and at least one space of
50 mm for the top rebars. For the bottom rebars the distance should be 25mm.
The maximum clear distance is 200 mm.

(for C20/25

0. 32%)

Example for beam 4 frame C-C


(

The chosen diameter is 112 and 216 so the


The reinforcement percentage is

The chosen diameter is 412 + 216 so the


(

=25.45 <2*c
.

- 36 -

Table 7-5 Field reinforcement for beams in Frame C-C


Story Field

GF

1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
2
3
4

MEd+
fyd
as
bb
hb
[kNm] [N/mm2] [mm] [mm] [mm]
4.75
63.76
12.01
58.81
4.68
7.88
63.67
14.30
58.76
17.68
10.89
64.06
17.02
58.98
17.21
12.70
64.42
18.49
59.17
20.20
12.54
64.03
19.88
59.09
20.56
53.36
14.71
48.60

300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300

35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35

300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300

550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550

hs=hb
As2nec
-2as
[mm2]
[mm]
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480

33
443
83
408
33
55
442
99
408
123
76
445
118
410
120
88
447
128
411
140
87
445
138
410
143
371
102
338

Diameter
[mm]

Aeff =
n2/4
[mm2]

MRd+
[kNm]

112+216
112+216
112+216
112+216
112+216
112+216
112+216
112+216
112+216
112+216
112+216
112+216
112+216
112+216
112+216
112+216
112+216
112+216
112+216
112+216
112+216
112+216
112+216
112+216
112+216
112+216
112+216
112+216

515.22
515.22
515.22
515.22
515.22
515.22
515.22
515.22
515.22
515.22
515.22
515.22
515.22
515.22
515.22
515.22
515.22
515.22
515.22
515.22
515.22
515.22
515.22
515.22
515.22
515.22
515.22
515.22

0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033

74.19
74.19
74.19
74.19
74.19
74.19
74.19
74.19
74.19
74.19
74.19
74.19
74.19
74.19
74.19
74.19
74.19
74.19
74.19
74.19
74.19
74.19
74.19
74.19
74.19
74.19
74.19
74.19

- 37 -

Story

GF

Table 7-6 Support reinforcement for beams in Frame C-C


hs=hb Aeff=n
MEdfyd
as
bb
hb
As2nec Diameter
xn
Sup
2as
2/4
2
2
[kNm] [N/mm ] [mm] [mm] [mm]
[mm ] [mm]
[mm]
2
[mm]
[mm ]
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
2
3
4

12.67
60.31
32.94
110.47
11.03
14.88
60.31
44.52
114.15
17.68
17.60
61.14
51.02
117.35
21.60
20.23
61.73
53.64
119.68
25.51
14.91
62.35
54.70
120.92
19.70
49.06
46.89
101.90

300

35

300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300

35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35

300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300

550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550

480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480

88 112+216
419 112+216
229 112+216
767 412+216
77 112+216
103 112+216
419 112+216
309 112+216
793 412+216
123 112+216
122 112+216
425 112+216
354 112+216
815 412+216
150 112+216
140 112+216
429 112+216
373 112+216
831 412+216
177 112+216
104 112+216
433 112+216
380 112+216
840 412+216
137 112+216
341 112+216
326 112+216
708 412+216

515.22
515.22
515.22
854.51
515.22
515.22
515.22
515.22
854.51
515.22
515.22
515.22
515.22
854.51
515.22
515.22
515.22
515.22
854.51
515.22
515.22
515.22
515.22
854.51
515.22
515.22
515.22
854.51

0
0
0
25
0
0
0
0
25
0
0
0
0
25
0
0
0
0
25
0
0
0
0
25
0
0
0
25

0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0055
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0055
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0055
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0055
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0055
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0055

MRd[kNm]
74.19
74.19
74.19
123.05
74.19
74.19
74.19
74.19
123.05
74.19
74.19
74.19
74.19
123.05
74.19
74.19
74.19
74.19
123.05
74.19
74.19
74.19
74.19
123.05
74.19
74.19
74.19
123.05

- 38 -

Table 7-7 Field reinforcement for beams in Frame 6-6


Story Field

GF

1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3

MEd+
fyd
as
bb
hb
[kNm] [N/mm2] [mm] [mm] [mm]
55.65
69.06
34.59
54.59
69.22
34.8
54.67
69.4
35.1
54.46
69.68
35.19
54.64
69.3
35.64
32.88
51.11
20.08

300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300

35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35

300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300

550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550

hs=hb
As2nec
-2as
[mm2]
[mm]
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480

386
480
240
379
481
242
380
482
244
378
484
244
379
481
248
228
355
139

Diameter
[mm]

Aeff =
n2/4
[mm2]

MRd+
[kNm]

112+216
112+216
112+216
112+216
112+216
112+216
112+216
112+216
112+216
112+216
112+216
112+216
112+216
112+216
112+216
112+216
112+216
112+216

515.22
515.22
515.22
515.22
515.22
515.22
515.22
515.22
515.22
515.22
515.22
515.22
515.22
515.22
515.22
515.22
515.22
515.22

0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033

74.19
74.19
74.19
74.19
74.19
74.19
74.19
74.19
74.19
74.19
74.19
74.19
74.19
74.19
74.19
74.19
74.19
74.19

- 39 -

Story

GF

Table 7-8 Support reinforcement for beams in Frame 6-6


hs=hb Aeff=n
MEdfyd
as
bb
hb
As2nec Diameter
xn
Sup
2as
2/4
2
2
[kNm] [N/mm ] [mm] [mm] [mm]
[mm ] [mm]
[mm]
2
[mm]
[mm ]
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
2
3
4

85.03
69.23
62.02
91.84
70.14
75.32
94.44
73.25
82.39
96.87
73.16
84.96
98.26
72.66
85.11
57.33
46.81
60.49

300

35

300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300

35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35

300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300

550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550

480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480

590 112+316
481 112+316
431 112+316
638 112+316
487 112+316
523 112+316
656 112+316
509 112+216
572 112+316
673 112+316
508 112+216
590 112+316
682 112+316
505 112+216
591 112+316
398 112+216
325 112+216
420 112+216

716.28
716.28
716.28
716.28
716.28
716.28
716.28
515.22
716.28
716.28
515.22
716.28
716.28
515.22
716.28
515.22
515.22
515.22

15
15
15
15
15
15
15
0
15
15
0
15
15
0
15
0
0
0

MRd[kNm]

0.0046 81.52
0.0046 103.14
0.0046 103.14
0.0046 103.14
0.0046 103.14
0.0046 103.14
0.0046 103.14
0.0033 74.19
0.0046 103.14
0.0046 103.14
0.0033 74.19
0.0046 103.14
0.0046 103.14
0.0033 74.19
0.0046 103.14
0.0033 74.19
0.0033 74.19
0.0033 74.19

- 40 -

7.2.2 Design of the transversal reinforcement of the beams


The shearing forces for computations were found using equilibrium of the beam under the
action of the transversal loading due to earthquake and the moments acting on the ends of the
beam. The design is performed in order to place the plastic hinges at the ends of the beam.
The principle of computation is based on computing two values of the shear force
corresponding to the maximum and minimum positive moments developing in the two ends of
the beams. Since the shear failure is brittle we have to amplify the shear force produced by the
earthquake with a safety coefficient and finally the design shear forces will be computed with the
following equation
|
|

| |
| |

|
|

(
)
coefficient which takes into account a possible over resistance due to increased
rigidity of the steel to deformation = 1. 2
Provisions for computing the transversal reinforcement:
wmin= 6 mm for h 800mm
0
1 ,
Choose w and the spacing s which can have values between 75. . . 200mm with a 25 mm
modulus
For =

or

because =45 and cot =1

The diameter and the bars are chosen in order to comply with the conditions 1 and 2.
For =

and |

are needed inclined

reinforcement in two orthogonal directions and half of the design shear force should be resisted
by stirrups and half by the inclined reinforcement.
Example beam 1 frame C-C

(
=

)
=45o

=
Are chosen 210 at s=100mm
=1.57 so it verifies

- 41 -

Table 7-9 Transversal reinforcement for beams in frame C-C


Story Field

GF

1-2
2-3
3-4
5-6
6-7
1-2
2-3
3-4
5-6
6-7
1-2
2-3
3-4
5-6
6-7
1-2
2-3
3-4
5-6
6-7
1-2
2-3
3-4
5-6
6-7
2-3
3-4
5-6

(|MRd+|+|MRd-|)
*1.2/ L [KN]
111.29
41.41
62.48
44.24
142.45
111.29
41.41
62.48
44.24
142.45
111.29
41.41
62.48
44.24
142.45
111.29
41.41
62.48
44.24
142.45
111.29
41.41
62.48
44.24
142.45
41.41
62.48
44.24

max

qltv*L/ VEd
2 [KN] [kN]
23.04
91.60
39.59
94.98
21.29
26.39
91.10
42.80
96.19
31.86
29.66
90.63
45.76
97.33
37.79
32.21
90.26
47.22
98.16
45.65
30.62
90.17
48.05
98.55
43.80
71.64
39.31
81.90

VEdmin
[kN]

134.33 -88.25
133.01 50.19
102.07 -22.89
139.22 50.74
163.74 -121.16
137.68 -84.90
132.51 49.69
105.28 -19.68
140.43 51.95
174.31 -110.59
140.95 -81.63
132.04 49.22
108.24 -16.72
141.57 53.09
180.24 -104.66
143.50 -79.08
131.67 48.85
109.70 -15.26
142.40 53.92
188.10 -96.80
141.91 -80.67
131.58 48.76
110.53 -14.43
142.79 54.31
186.25 -98.65
113.05 30.23
101.79 -23.17
126.14 37.66

=VEdmin/VEdma
x

-0.66
0.38
-0.22
0.36
-0.74
-0.62
0.37
-0.19
0.37
-0.63
-0.58
0.37
-0.15
0.37
-0.58
-0.55
0.37
-0.14
0.38
-0.51
-0.57
0.37
-0.13
0.38
-0.53
0.27
-0.23
0.30

>-0.5
>-0.5
>-0.5
>-0.5
>-0.5
>-0.5
>-0.5
>-0.5
>-0.5
>-0.5
>-0.5
>-0.5
>-0.5
>-0.5
>-0.5
>-0.5
>-0.5
>-0.5
>-0.5
>-0.5
>-0.5
>-0.5
>-0.5
>-0.5
>-0.5
>-0.5
>-0.5
>-0.5

Incline
d Bars

d=hb-as
[mm]

bb
[mm]

=0.6(1fck/250)

fcd
[N/mm2]

|VEdmax
| [kN]

No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No

515
515
515
515
515
515
515
515
515
515
515
515
515
515
515
515
515
515
515
515
515
515
515
515
515
515
515
515

300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300

0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55

13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33

134.33
133.01
102.07
139.22
163.74
137.68
132.51
105.28
140.43
174.31
140.95
132.04
108.24
141.57
180.24
143.50
131.67
109.70
142.40
188.10
141.91
131.58
110.53
142.79
186.25
113.05
101.79
126.14

0.5bbd
fcd[kN]
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<

566.36
566.36
566.36
566.36
566.36
566.36
566.36
566.36
566.36
566.36
566.36
566.36
566.36
566.36
566.36
566.36
566.36
566.36
566.36
566.36
566.36
566.36
566.36
566.36
566.36
566.36
566.36
566.36

z
[mm]
464
464
464
464
464
464
464
464
464
464
464
464
464
464
464
464
464
464
464
464
464
464
464
464
464
464
464
464

- 42 -

fywd
[N/mm2]

smax
[mm]

smin
[mm]

210
210
210
210
210
210
210
210
210
210
210
210
210
210
210
210
210
210
210
210
210
210
210
210
210
210
210
210

137.5
137.5
137.5
137.5
137.5
137.5
137.5
137.5
137.5
137.5
137.5
137.5
137.5
137.5
137.5
137.5
137.5
137.5
137.5
137.5
137.5
137.5
137.5
137.5
137.5
137.5
137.5
137.5

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

cot
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Choosen
stirrups

S
[mm]

Choosen
S [mm]

114
115
150
110
134
111
115
145
109
126
108
116
141
108
122
107
116
139
107
117
108
116
138
107
118
135
150
121

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

10
10
10
10
12
10
10
10
10
12
10
10
10
10
12
10
10
10
10
12
10
10
10
10
12
10
10
10

pw [%]
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.8
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.8
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.8
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.8
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.8
0.5
0.5
0.5

>0.2%
>0.2%
>0.2%
>0.2%
>0.2%
>0.2%
>0.2%
>0.2%
>0.2%
>0.2%
>0.2%
>0.2%
>0.2%
>0.2%
>0.2%
>0.2%
>0.2%
>0.2%
>0.2%
>0.2%
>0.2%
>0.2%
>0.2%
>0.2%
>0.2%
>0.2%
>0.2%
>0.2%

- 43 -

Table 7-10 Transversal reinforcement for beams in frame 6-6


Story Field

GF

1-2
2-3
3-4
1-2
2-3
3-4
1-2
2-3
3-4
1-2
2-3
3-4
1-2
2-3
3-4
1-2
2-3
3-4

(|MRd+|+|MRd-|)

max

*1.2/ L [KN]

qltv*L/2
[KN]

VEd
[kN]

VEdmin
Inclined
=VEdmin/VEdmax
[kN]
Bars

46.14
59.11
43.88
52.54
59.11
43.88
52.54
49.46
43.88
52.54
49.46
43.88
52.54
49.46
43.88
43.97
49.46
36.71

87.65
135.67
68.62
89.92
135.76
71.52
90.99
135.54
73.22
91.89
135.41
74.55
92.51
135.40
75.57
52.90
89.53
44.03

133.79
194.78
112.50
142.46
194.87
115.40
143.53
185.00
117.10
144.43
184.87
118.43
145.05
184.86
119.45
96.87
138.99
80.74

41.51
76.56
24.74
37.38
76.65
27.64
38.45
86.08
29.34
39.35
85.95
30.67
39.97
85.94
31.69
8.93
40.07
7.32

0.31
0.39
0.22
0.26
0.39
0.24
0.27
0.47
0.25
0.27
0.46
0.26
0.28
0.46
0.27
0.09
0.29
0.09

>-0.5
>-0.5
>-0.5
>-0.5
>-0.5
>-0.5
>-0.5
>-0.5
>-0.5
>-0.5
>-0.5
>-0.5
>-0.5
>-0.5
>-0.5
>-0.5
>-0.5
>-0.5

No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No

d=hb-as
[mm]

bb
[mm]

515
515
515
515
515
515
515
515
515
515
515
515
515
515
515
515
515
515

300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300

=0.6(1fcd
|VEdmax|
2
fck/250) [N/mm ]
[kN]
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55

13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33

133.79
194.78
112.50
142.46
194.87
115.40
143.53
185.00
117.10
144.43
184.87
118.43
145.05
184.86
119.45
96.87
138.99
80.74

0.5bbd
fcd[kN]
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<

566.36
566.36
566.36
566.36
566.36
566.36
566.36
566.36
566.36
566.36
566.36
566.36
566.36
566.36
566.36
566.36
566.36
566.36

z
[mm]
464
464
464
464
464
464
464
464
464
464
464
464
464
464
464
464
464
464

- 44 -

fywd
[N/mm2]

smax
[mm]

smin
[mm]

210
210
210
210
210
210
210
210
210
210
210
210
210
210
210
210
210
210

137.5
137.5
137.5
137.5
137.5
137.5
137.5
137.5
137.5
137.5
137.5
137.5
137.5
137.5
137.5
137.5
137.5
137.5

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

cot
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Choosen
stirrups

S
[mm]

Choosen
S [mm]

114
113
136
107
113
132
107
119
131
106
119
129
105
119
128
158
110
189

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

10
12
10
10
12
10
10
12
10
10
12
10
10
12
10
10
10
10

pw [%]
0.5
0.8
0.5
0.5
0.8
0.5
0.5
0.8
0.5
0.5
0.8
0.5
0.5
0.8
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5

>0.2%
>0.2%
>0.2%
>0.2%
>0.2%
>0.2%
>0.2%
>0.2%
>0.2%
>0.2%
>0.2%
>0.2%
>0.2%
>0.2%
>0.2%
>0.2%
>0.2%
>0.2%

- 45 -

7.3

Columns

The columns were dimensioned taking into account that the beams were of medium
ductility M, so the behavior of the columns will be in the class of ductility M. The rules and
principles for design are found in P 100-2013.
7.3.1 Geometrical characteristics
The minimum dimension of the section is 350 mm.
The dimensions of the cross-section must be a multiple of 50 mm.
The ratio between hc and bc 2. 5, where hc is the height of the column and bc is the
width of the column.
7.3.2 Provisions regarding the materials used
The minimum concrete class used for the main structural elements is C16/20 for medium
ductility buildings.
The structural elements will be reinforced only with profiled steel type PC52, PC60. The
closed stirrups and the hooks are be made of plain steel type OB37. Non ductile steel, like STNB
can be used, only if, by design, an elastic behavior can be assured.
In the critical zones of the main structural elements, steel types with a minimum strain of
7. 5% corresponding to the maximum stress will be used.
7.3.3 Longitudinal reinforcement provisions
The total reinforcement coefficient will be at least 0.01 and maximum 0.04.
The minimum reinforcement percentage on each side is pmin,side 0 . 20 %.
Between the corner reinforcement bars, at least 1 intermediate bar will be placed.
For circular columns, the minimum number of reinforcement bars is 6.
The maximum distance between the axes of the reinforcement bars is 250 mm.
The length of the critical zones at the ends of the column lcr is:
*
+
Where, hc is the largest dimension of the column and lcl is the story clear height.
If
, the entire column section is considered critical and will be reinforced
accordingly.
The minimum diameter of the reinforcement bars is 12 mm.
The maximum diameter of the reinforcement bars is 28mm.
For good adherence under normal conditions of solicitation the anchorage length will be
40 diameters.
Splicing will usually be placed in zones of minimum effort in reinforcement bars; for the
vertical bearing elements, the splicing is admitted above the level of each floor plate. For the
reinforcement bars spliced by overlapping, overlapping length will be 30d for elements with
concrete class < C20/25 and 20d in case of elements with concrete class > C20/25.
7.3.4 Longitudinal reinforcement design
The equation below will be computed on the two main directions of the seismic action.
Always consider both directions of the actions of the moments in the beams in the joints. The
values of the design shear force are obtained from the column equilibrium at each level.
Where:
is the design bending moment in the considered section of the column.
is the bending moment taken from ETABS by applying the envelope combination.

- 46 -

is the sum of the capable bending moments in the beams from all the spans of the
considered level associated to the direction of the seismic action.
is the effective bending moment in the beam resulted after the computation of the
reinforcement
is a factor taking into consideration the effect of steel and concrete consolidation in
the compressed areas and is considered 1.3 at the base of the building and 1.2 for the rest of the
levels.
The depth of the active zone is computed using the value of the axial loading given by the
LTV loading,

If

then

)
(

If

then

Based on the necessary area of reinforcement the reinforcement layout is chosen and the
capable bending moment can be computed:
(
)
(
)
If
(
)
(
)
If
(
)
(

7.3.5 Transversal reinforcement provisions


The minimum transversal reinforcement coefficient must be at least:
- 0.005 in the critical zone situated at the bottom part of the ground story.
- 0.0035 for the other critical zones.
- 0.0015 for the rest of the column.
The minimum diameter of stirrups is:
- d/4, where d is the maximum diameter of the longitudinal reinforcement;
- 6 mm;
- 8 mm, for perimetral stirrups.
The distance in section between consecutive bars situated at a stirrup corner or tied with
hooks will not be greater than 200 mm.
For the first 2 stories of buildings with more than 5 stories and for the first storey of
buildings with fewer stories, the stirrups will be placed beyond the critical zone on a length equal
to 0. 5lcr.
The minimum distance between stirrups is:
For the plastic zones: ae { b0/3; 7 dmin (6 dmin for the bottom part of the ground
column); 125 mm}, where b0 is the minimum dimension of the stirrup and dmin is the minimum
diameter of the longitudinal reinforcement.
Outside the plastic zones: ae { 3hc/4; 15 dmin; 200 mm}.
7.3.6 Transversal reinforcement design
The design values of the shear forces are obtained from the equilibrium of the column at
each story, considering the action of the bending moments at each end, corresponding, for each
sense of the seismic action, to the formation of plastic hinges which can occur either in the
beams or in the columns connected to the nodes.
(
)
- 47 -

Where:
-value of the capable bending moment at the end i
-sum of the capable moments of the beams entering the joint
-sum of the capable moments of the columns entering the joint
The design value of the shear force is:

The reinforcement is chosen and the area of reinforcement is computed taking into
account ne which refers to the number of stirrups in one section, but also their position.

In order to assure a ductile behavior, plastic and elastic zones have to be decided. The
plastic zone is found at the extremities of the column, and the elastic zone in the middle part.
Example for column 4 - intersection of axes C and 6 - the first level
=562. 348kN*m
so the Asteel=-1713.84 mm2
The chosen reinforcement is 1016 so the effective area of steel is 2009.6.
The computations are performed also on the perpendicular direction and the results show
that the same amount of reinforcement is needed.
(

For the transversal reinforcement

Chosen bars of 10 OB 37 spaced at 100mm:


Both conditions are fulfilled.

- 48 -

Table 7-11 Longitudinal reinforcement for Central Column


Frame 6-6
Story Support
GF

Bottom
Top

Bottom
Top

Bottom
Top

Bottom
Top

Bottom
Top

Bottom
Top

fyd
fcd
[N/mm2] [N/mm2]
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300

13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33

as
[mm]

b
[mm]

h
[mm]

h0=h-as
[mm]

hs=h-2as
[mm]

xb
[mm]

35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35

600
600
600
600
600
600
600
600
600
600
600
600

600
600
600
600
600
600
600
600
600
600
600
600

565
565
565
565
565
565
565
565
565
565
565
565

530
530
530
530
530
530
530
530
530
530
530
530

311
311
311
311
311
311
311
311
311
311
311
311

pTOTAL%
1.19
1.19
1.19
1.19
1.19
1.19

|ME'|
[kNm]

|NE'|
[kN]

Rd

|Med|
[kNm]

|Ned|
[kN]

50.26
8.13
55.63
23.13
57.94
31.53
58.03
36.89
53.76
33.95
59.56
55.24

1852.88
1823.11
1504.75
1474.98
1172.51
1142.74
851.14
821.37
540.00
510.23
228.44
198.67

1.023
1.023
1.023
1.007
1.007
1.052
1.052
1.030
1.030
1.057
1.057
1.046

1.3
1.3
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2

66.84
10.81
68.29
27.96
70.03
39.81
73.28
45.58
66.43
43.05
75.53
69.32

1852.88
1823.11
1504.75
1474.98
1172.51
1142.74
851.14
821.37
540.00
510.23
228.44
198.67

Table 7-12 Transversal reinforcement for Central Column


Story

Mcap
[kNm]

HS
[m]

VEd

GF
1
2
3
4
5

498.99
466.33
421.03
364.08
295.06
212.49

3
3
3
3
3
3

1.3
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2

432.46
373.06
336.82
291.26
236.04
169.99

[kN]
<
<
<
<
<
<

0.5bd
h [mm]
fcd [kN]
1242.69
1242.69
1242.69
1242.69
1242.69
1242.69

600
600
600
600
600
600

b [mm]

d=h-as
[mm]

=0.6(1fck/250)

fcd
[N/mm2]

z [mm]

fywd
[N/mm2]

600
600
600
600
600
600

565
565
565
565
565
565

0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55

13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33
13.33

509
509
509
509
509
509

210
210
210
210
210
210

cot
45
45
45
45
45
45

1
1
1
1
1
1

smin
[mm]
100
100
100
100
100
100

- 49 -

Frame 6-6

Frame C-C

x
As
Nr of
A =n /4
MRd
|ME'|
[mm] eff
p%
[mm] [mm2] bars
[mm2]
[kNm] [kNm]
nec

7.38
17.93
32.15
20.87
30.74
21.43
33.78
22.71
34.82
21.34
37.77
28.28

228 -1713

16

1005.31

0.30 498.99

184 -1498

16

1005.31

0.30 466.33

143 -1202

16

1005.31

0.30 421.03

103

-824

16

1005.31

0.30 364.08

64

-580

16

1005.31

0.30 295.06

25

105

16

1005.31

0.30 212.49

s [mm]

S
[mm]

lppz

pw
[%]

105
121
134
155
192
266

100
100
100
150
150
200

900
600
600
600
600
600

0.71
0.71
0.71
0.47
0.47
0.35

smax
[mm]
125
125
125
125
125
125

Chosen stirrups
nsl
5.4
5.4
5.4
5.4
5.4
5.4

10
10
10
10
10
10

|NE'|
[kN]

|Med|
[kNm]

|Ned|
[kN]

1852.88
1823.11
1504.75
1474.98
1172.51
1142.74
851.14
821.37
540.00
510.23
228.44
198.67

1.072
1.072
1.072
1.052
1.052
1.107
1.107
1.103
1.103
1.162
1.162
1.219

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

10.29
25.00
44.82
28.55
42.05
30.73
48.63
34.29
49.93
32.22
57.03
44.82

1852.88
1823.11
1504.75
1474.98
1172.51
1142.74
851.14
821.37
540.00
510.23
228.44
198.67

x
Asnec Nr of
Aeff=n2/4
MRd
p%
2
[mm] [mm ] bars [mm]
[mm2]
[kNm]
228

-2068

16

1005.31

0.30 498.99

184

-1646

16

1005.31

0.30 466.33

143

-1378

16

1005.31

0.30 421.03

103

-979

16

1005.31

0.30 364.08

64

-536

16

1005.31

0.30 295.06

25

28

16

1005.31

0.30 212.49

>0.5%
>0.35%
>0.35%
>0.35%
>0.35%
>0.35%

- 50 -

STRUCTURAL WALLS

8.1

General considerations for the computations of the structural walls


The main idea is to design the structural walls in order to favor the development of a
structural mechanism for dissipating energy in a favorable manner for the structure as a whole and
to assure enough ductility to the structural elements.
The dimensioning is done according to P-100-1-2013 for the class of high ductility H, and
according to the Romanian Code for designing buildings with structural reinforced concrete walls
CR 2 1 1. 1 : 2011 .
The critical zone is at the base of the wall having the length:
(
)
because the building has 6 levels.
Where:
-the height of the wall
-the clear height of the story
-the length of the wall

In the case of multistory buildings this height is rounded up to a full number of stories if the
limit of the computed plastic zone is bigger or smaller with 0.2 . In this way the base becomes
Area A with specific design performances, and the rest of the wall becomes Area B, with smaller
efforts.
Wall 1
(
(

)
)
- the height of Area A is 3m

8.2

The values of the design sectional efforts in the walls


The values of the design bending moments MEd in the horizontal sections of the wall for the
structures which are in the classes of ductility DCH:
MEd=MEd,o for the zone A
MEd=km**MEd'< *MEd,o' for the zone B
Where:
MEd' is the bending moment due to seismic loading
MEd,o' is the value of MEd' at the base

- 51 -

km is the correction coefficient of the bending moments in the walls which is km=1 in zone
A and km=1.30 in zone B for the ductility class DCH
is the ratio between the capable moment and the design moment in each section
Where:
is the capable moment at the base of the wall
q is the behavior factor considered for designing the structure

8.3

The longitudinal and transversal reinforcement


In the case of longitudinal reinforcement the overlapping is in zone A:
45d in the case of horizontal bars PC52
45d in the case of vertical bars PC52 with d<20mm
Bars with d>20mm need welding
In the case of longitudinal reinforcement the overlapping in zone B is: the minimum
overlapping lengths are with 10d less than those from the table. Also, in the zone B it is not
necessary the overlapping by welding of the reinforcement with d 16(20) mm.
For the flexural reinforcement for the web the minimum web reinforcement are given in the
table below. For zone B the minimum web percentages are the ones for as<0. 12g.
Minimum reinforcement percentage
Seismic zone
Horizontal bars
Vertical bars
OB 37
PC 52, PC 60 OB 37
PC 52, PC 60
ag0.12g
0,30%
0,25%
0,35%
0,30%
ag<0.12g
0,25%
0,20%
0,25%
0,20%
The minimum bar diameter is 8 mm for horizontal bars and 10 mm for vertical bars. The
maximum distance between bars is 350 mm for horizontal bars and 250 mm for vertical bars.

For the local reinforcement at the ends on each wall one has to take into account the
following:
The reinforcement is realized as for the columns
- 52 -

If the wall has no flanges the portions with the length 0. 1*lw at the ends of the beams are
considered flanges
The minimum vertical percentage is:
Minimum reinforcement percentage
OB 37
PC 52, PC 60
Seismic zone
zone A
zone B
zone A zone B
ag0. 12g
0,7%
0. 5%
0,6%
0. 5%
ag<0. 12g
0. 4%
0,4%
The minimum diameter is 12 mm
The layout rules are the ones in the pictures below:

stirrup

stirrup

0.1h

overlapping length

stirrup

stirrup

b
a) welded mesh reinforcement

b
b) reinforcement with independent bars

The anchorage of the vertical reinforcement of the flanges can be done by overlapping and
the length is 50dBL for the DHL class in zone A, and in zone B the lengths are smaller with 10 dbl.
In the area A should be avoided if possible the anchorage of the bars situated at the extremities. The
horizontal reinforcement should be overlapped for at least 50dBT for the class DCH.
The maximum distances between stirrups for class DCH with ag>0. 12g are:
Zone A 8dbl<125mm
Zone B 10dbl<200mm
For computing the longitudinal reinforcement the section was modeled in Response 2000.
The value of the effective bending moment was taken from the envelope of load combinations from
ETABS.
Based on the results is computed for the wall.

- 53 -

Wall 1 - zone A

Figure 8 Wall 1 Zone A M-N interaction diagram

- 54 -

From response were taken the values of the bending moments corresponding the axial range
and interpolation is performed in MathCAD.

M1 13510 .69
M2 11439 .61
N1 7025.288
N2 4711.667
N 5018

x M2 ( N N2 )

( M1 M2)
( N1 N2 )

x 1.171 10
MRd x
Medb 1137 9
MRd

Medb
1.029

- 55 -

Wall 1 - zone B

Figure 9 Wall 1 Zone B M-N interaction diagram

- 56 -

Dimensioning of the Transversal Reinforcement for Structural Walls


Three checks are needed:
Check the web of the concrete section to resist to compression
Check the horizontal reinforcement from the web
Check the joints
For the horizontal reinforcement:
Where:
is the design shear force
is the shear force from ETABS
is the correction factor
>
Where:
is the shear due to the participation of steel
is the shear due to the participation of concrete
for zone A
for zone B
Where:
is the width of the section
is the length of the section

If

then

Where:
is the sum of the vertival reinforcement from the web
is the sum of the horizontal reinforcement from the web
is the design value of the yielding limit of the vertical reinforcement

- 57 -

zone A

zone B

Ms
11379,01
7579,5
5057,7
3406,01
2253,78
1533,52
1206,44

1,03
1,03
1,03
1,03
1,03
1,03
1,03

kM
1
1,3
1,3
1,3
1,3
1,3
1,3

Table 8-1 Longitudinal reinforcement for the Structural Wall


M
N
b
h
Flange
Aefffl flange
11379,01 5018,57 400 3300 325+225+325 3924,96 2,4531
10139,1 4311,34 400 3300 325+225+325 3924,96 2,23009
5209,431 3594,13 400 3300 312+312+312 904,32 0,68509
3508,19 2873,2 400 3300 312+312+312 904,32 0,68509
2321,393 2149,41 400 3300 312+312+312 904,32 0,68509
1579,526 1424,32 400 3300 312+312+312 904,32 0,68509
1242,633 398,52 400 3300 312+312+312 904,32 0,68509

Field Aefffield field


2416 4823,04 0,4823
1212 2712,96 0,25691
1212 2712,96 0,25275
1212 2712,96 0,25275
1212 2712,96 0,25275
1212 2712,96 0,25275
1212 2712,96 0,25275

Mcap
14180
10320
5897
5897
5897
5897
5897

Table 8-2 Transversal reinforcement for the Structural Wall


Ved'

kq

Ved

1569,66

1,2

2354,49

1345,98
1160,61
1052,66
949,93
812,56
638,23

1,2
1,2
1,2
1,2
1,2
1,2

2018,97
1740,915
1578,99
1424,895
1218,84
957,345

Diameter

Asteel

1,5*Ved'<Ved<5*Ved'

18/10

7630,2

1,92682

1,5*Ved'<Ved<5*Ved'
1,5*Ved'<Ved<5*Ved'
1,5*Ved'<Ved<5*Ved'
1,5*Ved'<Ved<5*Ved'
1,5*Ved'<Ved<5*Ved'
1,5*Ved'<Ved<5*Ved'

10/20
10/20
10/20
10/20
10/20
10/20

1334,5
1334,5
1334,5
1334,5
1334,5
1334,5

0,33699
0,33699
0,33699
0,33699
0,33699
0,33699

Vrd,s

bw hw

Nltv

1831,248 0,4 3,3 2476,8


320,28
320,28
320,28
320,28
320,28
320,28

0,4
0,4
0,4
0,4
0,4
0,4

3,3
3,3
3,3
3,3
3,3
3,3

2476,8
1771,8
1417,3
1061,8
705,72
348,5

743,034

0,6*bw*
hw*fcdt
1425,6

2574,282

1881,356
1740,36
1669,468
1598,368
1527,144
1455,7

0
0
0
0
0
0

2201,636
2060,64
1989,748
1918,648
1847,424
1775,98

Vrd,c

1876,348
1876,348
1342,273
1073,742
804,4242
534,6364
264,0152

VRd

- 58 -

8.4

Material provisions for structural walls


The minimum concrete class used for the main structural elements is C20/25 for high
ductility class buildings and C16/20 for medium ductility buildings.
The structural elements will be reinforced only with profiled steel type PC52, PC60. The
closed stirrups and the hooks can be made of plain steel type OB37. Non ductile steel, like STNB
can only be used as constructive reinforcement.
In the critical zones of the main structural elements, steel types with a minimum strain of
7. 5% corresponding to the maximum stress will be used.
The ratio between the strength of the steel and its yielding limit must not be excessively
large (<1. 4).
8.5

Geometric Exigencies
The minimum thickness of the wall bw0 max {150 mm, hs/20}, where hs is the story
clear height. For buildings up to 10-12 stories it is recommended to keep the same wall section
on the entire height.
The height of the compressed wall section will not be greater than:

xu 0.10 2lw
the ratio between capable bending moment at the base, associated to the
plastification of the walls and the bending moment obtained from structural analysis in the
seismic combination; the capable bending moments must be computed for Rd=1.1.
lw is the length of the wall cross-section.
In the potentially plastic zone, when the height of the compressed zone xu exceeds the
smallest of the values 5bw0 and 0.4lw, it is necessary to make the check for loss of stability.
The same check must be made at the edges of the flanges, in the parts which exceed 4hp
on each part of the wall web. If the check cant be fulfilled, bulbs will be added.
It is recommended that for seismic zones I-IV, or for buildings with more than 6 stories,
the walls should have at their edges either bulbs or flanges.
The minimum bulb thickness is 250mm and the minimum bulb width is
bp 2 bw0.
The coupling beams for the walls with doors will have the same thickness as the rest of
the wall. If by computation this thickness is not enough, the beams will be thickened on a length
sufficient to allow the reinforcement anchorage.

- 59 -

FOUNDATION

9.1

General Information
The purpose of the foundation is to transmit the loads from the superstructure to the
supporting ground. From the seismic point of view the foundation should have an elastic
behavior.
The chosen foundation solution is mat foundation. This is a type of direct foundation
which ensures a large support surface. The use of mat foundation is done in the following
situations:
the foundation terrain has a small bearing capacity and the raft foundation can
spread the loads on a larger area
very large loading which implies great surfaces for foundation so the loads have
to be spread on a large area, usually the whole area of the structure
non-homogenous terrain where the risk of differential settlement appears because
concrete slabs resist differential movement between loading positions
the presence of ground water above the level of the foundation
closely spaced vertical elements for which the individual pad foundation would
interact
in the case of high rise buildings
The chosen solution is raft foundation with constant width.
For design of the raft foundation should be taken into consideration the compatibility
between the deformability of the terrain with the deformability of the structural elements. The
sectional efforts are obtained in ETABS by modeling the interaction between the foundation and
the terrain. In order to perform this task the whole structure has to be modeled including the
basements. The maximum efforts obtained are used for designing the raft foundation. The
ground is modeled as an elastic environment, a Winkler model and the efforts in each spring in
computed. Based on these results the reinforcement can be computed.
The reinforcement is made with horizontal nets of horizontal reinforcement, laid at the
upper and lower part of the element to resist the positive and negative moments. In addition to
this it is necessary an additional reinforcement on the central area of the raft for preventing
contraction phenomena. The minimum reinforcement percentage is 0.15% on each face.
9.2

Predimensioning
The height of the raft foundation:
.
/
The length of the cantilever
(
)
The dimensions in plan of the raft foundation:
m so is chosen
0.2m

- 60 -

10 STAIRS
10.1 General issues
Stairs should be designed in order to not influence the rigidity of the structure or to
interfere with the elements which assure the rigidity.
The design of the stairs must assure the following performance conditions:
Stability-avoid buckling or local deflection
Resistance: limit the damage in case of severe actions and avoid collapse
Ductility: no interference with the ductility of the adjacent vertical structural
elements which can be assured by avoiding uncontrolled links with the horizontal
sub-ensembles
Rigidity: limit the displacements and deflection of the stairs and of the
neighboring sub-ensembles; limit the cracking
Durability: assure a normal behavior during the lifetime of the structure under
normal exploitation conditions and limit the premature deterioration of materials
and elements
10.2 Loads
Landing
plastering qplast=plast*hplast=19*0. 015=0. 285kN/m2
flooring qflooring=flooring*hflooring=22*0. 05=1. 1kN/m2
live load qlanding=3kN/m2
Flight
For the structural elements a projection of loads has to be performed.
For the steps Atriangle=Arectangle

The height of a stair is computed considering the needed number of stairs, which is 18 in
this case and the height of the level which is 3m.

The finishing
A1=b*0. 05=0. 26*0. 05=0. 013m2
A2=0. 05*0. 05=0. 0025m2
A3=h*0. 05=0. 1676*0. 05=0. 00838m2
A1+A2+A3=0. 02388m2
so

qfinishing=hp*p=0. 015*19=. 0285kN/m2


The variable load :qu=qu*cos =0. 43kN/m2
where is the angle of the slope of the ramp.
tg=

Figure 10 Stair Etabs Diagram

10.3 Reinforcement
Landing

- 61 -

L 2.5m
l 1m
L
2.5
l

Due to the L/l ratio the landing will be reinforced on one direction
For computation we consider one strip with the length of 1 m.
b 1000mm

N
fcd 13.33
2
mm

For concrete C20/25


N

fyd 300

mm

For steel PC52 which will be used for reinforcement


Mfield 0.9kN m
Msupp 2.63kN m
d1 150mm

1 2 Mfield

2
b d1 fcd

x d1 1

x 4.508 10
x

d1

3.005 10
b
b 0.55
fcd
As1 b x
fyd

5 2

As1 2.003 10 m
0.2
min
100
Asmin min b d1
4 2

Asmin 3 10

The chosen reinforcement is 6 8 with


Ast eel 6 3.14

( 8mm)

4
4 2

Ast eel 3.014 10


Ast eel 100

b d1
0.201
OK

d1 150mm

1 2 Msupp

2
b d1 fcd

x d1 1

x 1.321 10
x

d1

8.808 10

- 62 -

b
b 0.55

As1 b x

fcd
fyd
5 2

As1 5.87 10 m
0.2
min
100
Asmin min b d1

4 2

Asmin 3 10

Ast eel 6 3.14

( 8mm)

4
4 2

Ast eel 3.014 10

The chosen reinforcement is 6 8 with


Ast eel 100

b d1
0.201
OK

On the long direction will be used repartition reinforcement computed from the minimum
reinforcement percentage: 6 8
Flight
L 2.55m
l 1m
L
2.55
l

Due to the L/l ratio the landing will be reinforced on one direction
For computation we consider one strip with the length of 1 m.
b 1000mm

N
fcd 13.33
2
mm

For concrete C20/25


N

fyd 300

mm

For steel PC52 which will be used for reinforcement


Mfield 2.11kN m
Msupp 2.90kN m
d1 130mm

1 2 Mfield

2
b d1 fcd

x d1 1

x 1.223 10
x

d1

9.411 10
b
b 0.55
fcd
As1 b x
fyd

5 2

As1 5.436 10

- 63 -

min

0.2

100
Asmin min b d1
4 2

Asmin 2.6 10

The chosen reinforcement is 6 8 with


Ast eel 6 3.14

( 8mm)

4
4 2

Ast eel 3.014 10


Ast eel 100

b d1
0.232
OK
d1 150mm

1 2 Msupp

2
b d1 fcd

x d1 1

x 1.457 10
x

d1

9.716 10
b
b 0.55
fcd
As1 b x
fyd

5 2

As1 6.476 10
0.2
min
100

4 2

Asmin 2.6 10 m
Asmin min b d1

Ast eel 6 3.14

( 8mm)

4
4 2

Ast eel 3.014 10

The chosen reinforcement is 6 8 with


Ast eel 100

b d1
0.201
OK

On the long direction will be used repartition reinforcement computed from the minimum
reinforcement percentage: 6 8

- 64 -

11 BIBLIOGRAPHY

P100-1-2013
SREN1992-1-1-2004
CR-1-1-3-2012-ZAPADA
CR2-2006-Cod-de-Proiectare-Pereti-Structurali-Beton-Armat

- 65 -