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# Dr.

## NAVALAR NEDUNCHEZHIYAN COLLEGE OF

ENGINEERING
Tholudur, Cuddalore (Dt) 606 303.

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

QUESTION BANK
SUBJECT CODE/NAME: EC2252- COMMUNICATION THEORY

NAME: D.A.RAJ DESIGNATION: ASST.PROFESSOR
DEPT : ECE SEMESTER : IV

UNIT 1 AMPLITUDE MODULATION SYSTEMS
Review of spectral characteristics of periodic and non-periodic signals Generation
and demodulation of AM, DSBSC, SSB and VSB signals Comparison of amplitude
modulation systems Frequency translation FDM Non-linear distortion.

PART A (1Mark)

1. An AM signal is represented by x(t) = (20+4sin500t)cos(2x10
5
t)V. The modulation
index is
(A) 20 (B) 4
(C) 0.2 (D) 10
2. An AM signal is represented by x(t) = (20+4sin500t)cos(2x10
5
t)V. The total signal
power is
(A) 208 W (B) 204 W
(C) 408 W (D) 416 W
3. An AM signal is represented by x(t) = (20+4sin500t)cos(2x10
5
t)V. The total sideband
power is
(A) 4 W (B) 8 W
(C) 16 W (D) 2 W
4. A 2 kW carrier is to be modulated to a 90% level. The total transmitted power would
be
(A) 3.62 kW (B) 2.81 kW
(C) 1.4 kW (D) None of the above
5. An AM broadcast station operates at its maximum allowed total output of 50 kW with
80% modulation. The power in the intelligence part is
(A) 12.12 kW (B) 31.12 kW
(C) 6.42 kW (D) None of the above
6. A 2 MHz carrier is amplitude modulated by a 500Hz modulating signal to a depth of
70%. If the unmodulated carrier power is 2 kW, the power of the modulated signal is
(A) 2.23 kW (B) 2.36 kW
(C) 1.18 kW (D) 1.26 kW
7. In a DSB-SC system with 100% modulation, the power saving is
(A) 50% (B) 66%
(C) 75% (D) 100%
8. In amplitude modulation, the modulation envelope has a peak value which is double
the unmodulated carrier value. What is the value of the modulation index?
(A) 25% (B) 50%

(C) 75% (D) 100%
9. If the modulation index of an AM wave is changed from 0 to 1, the transmitted power
(A) increases by 50% (B) increases by 75%
(C) increases by 100% (D) remains unaffected
10. A diode detector has a load of 1k shunted by a 10000 pF capacitor. The diode has a
forward resistance of 1. The maximum permissible depth of modulation, so as to avoid
diagonal clipping, with modulating signal frequency of 10 kHz will be
(A) 0.847 (B) 0.628
(C) 0.734 (D) None of the above
11. An AM signal is detected using an envelope detector. The carrier frequency and
modulating signal frequency are 1 MHz and 2 kHz respectively. An appropriate value for
the time constant of the envelope detector is.
(A) 500 sec (B) 20 sec
(C) 0.2 sec (D) 1 sec
12. For an AM signal, the bandwidth is 10 kHz and the highest frequency component
present is 705 kHz. The carrier frequency used for this AM signal is
(A) 695 kHz (B) 700 kHz
(C) 705 kHz (D) 710 kHz
13. In a broadcast transmitter, the RF output is represented as
e(t) = 50[1+0.89cos5000t+0.30sin9000t]cos(6x10
6
t)V. What are the sidebands of the
signals in radians?
(A) 5x10
3
and 9x10
3
(B) 5.991x10
6
, 5.995x10
6
, 6.005x10
6
&
6.009x10
6

(C) 4x10
3
, 1.4x10
4
(D) 1x10
6
, 1.1x10
7
, 3x10
6
and 1.5x10
7

14. An AM modulator has output x(t) = 40cos400t + 4cos360t + 4cos440t. The
modulation efficiency is
(A) 0.01 (B) 0.02
(C) 0.03 (D) 0.04
15. An AM modulator has output x(t) = Acos400t + Bcos380t + Bcos420t. The carrier
power is 100 W and the efficiency is 40%. The value of A and B are
(A) 14.14, 8.16 (B) 50, 10
(C) 22.36, 13.46 (D) None of the above
16. A super heterodyne receiver is designed to receive transmitted signals between 5 and
10 MHz. High-side tuning is to be used. The tuning range of the local oscillator for IF
frequency 500 kHz would be
(A) 4.5 MHz - 9.5 MHz (B) 5.5 MHz - 10.5 MHz
(C) 4.5 MHz - 10.5 MHz (D) None of the above
17. A super heterodyne receiver uses an IF frequency of 455 kHz. The receiver is tuned
to a transmitter having a carrier frequency of 2400 kHz. High-side tuning is to be used.
The image frequency will be
(A) 2855 kHz (B) 3310 kHz
(C) 1845 kHz (D) 1490 kHz
18. A super heterodyne receiver is to operate in the frequency range 550 kHz-1650 kHz,
with the intermediate frequency of 450 kHz. Let R =
min
max
C
C
denote the required
capacitance ratio of the local oscillator and I denote the image frequency (in kHz) of the
incoming signal. If the receiver is tuned to 700 kHz, then
(A) R = 4.41, I = 1600 (B) R = 2.10, I = 1150
(C) R = 3, I = 1600 (D) R = 9, I = 1150
19. Let x(t) be a signal band-limited to 1 kHz. Amplitude modulation is performed to
produce signal g(t) = x(t) sin2000t. The ideal low pass filter has cutoff frequency1 kHz
and pass band gain 2. The y(t) would be

(A) 2y(t) (B) y(t)
(C) 1/2y(t) (D) 0
20. In an AM signal the received signal power is 10
-10
W with a maximum modulating
signal of 5 kHz. The noise spectral density at the receiver input is 10
-18
W/Hz. If the noise
power is restricted to the message signal bandwidth only, the signals-to-noise ratio at the
input to the receiver is
(A) 43 dB (B) 66 dB
(C) 56 dB (D) 33 dB

Answers:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
C B A B A A B D A A B B B B A B B A D A

PART B (2 Mark)

21. Define modulation?
Modulation is a process by which some characteristics of high frequency carrier signal
is varied in accordance with the instantaneous value of another signal called modulating
signal.
22. What are the types of modulation?
Amplitude modulation
Frequency modulation
Phase modulation
23. Define depth of modulation (or) modulation index.
It is defined as the ratio between message amplitude to that of carrier amplitude.
ma = Vm/Vc
24. What are the degrees of modulation?
Under modulation. m<1
Critical modulation m=1
Over modulation m>1
25. If a 10KW amplitude modulated transmitter is modulated Sinusoidally by 50%, what
is the total RF power delivered? [Nov-05]
ma = 50/100=0.5;Pc=10 kw
Pt = Pc (1+m
2
/2) = 11.25kw
26. Why carrier frequencies are generally selected in HF range than the low frequency
range? (May-05)
The antenna size is very large at low frequencies such antenna is practically not possible
to fabricate. High carrier frequencies require reasonable antenna size for transmission and
reception. High frequencies can be transmitted using trophospheric scatter propagation which
is used to travel long distance
27. SSB is suitable for speech signals and not for video signals. Why? (May-08)
The video signals extend from DC (0Hz to 5MHz). Hence lower and upper side bands
are practically joined at the origin hence with the help of band pass filters it is not possible to
isolate one sideband from other. Hence VSB is suitable rather than SSB.

28. Define demodulation.
Demodulation or detection is the process by which modulating voltage is recovered
from the modulated signal. It is the reverse process of modulation.
29. Define Amplitude modulation. (Nov-05)
Amplitude modulation is the process by which amplitude of the carrier signal is varied
in accordance with the instantaneous value of the modulating signal but frequency and phase
of carrier wave is remains constant.

30. What is the power saving in DSB-SC-AM and SSB-SC AM?
Power saving in DSB-SC-AM is 66.7%.
Power saving in SSB-SC-AM is 83.3%.
31. What are the advantages of VSB-AM?
It has bandwidth greater than SSB but less than DSB system.
Power transmission greater than DSB but less than SSB system.
No low frequency component lost. Hence it avoids phase distortion.
32. What are the types of AM detectors?
1. Nonlinear detectors 2.Linear detectors
33. What are advantages of ring modulator?
Its output is stable.
It requires no external power source to activate the diodes.
Virtually no maintenance.
Long life.
34. Compare linear and non-linear modulators.
Linear modulators Non-linear modulators

Heavy filtering is not required.

Heavy filtering is required
These modulators are used in high level
modulation.
These modulators are used in low level Modulation.
The carrier voltage is very much greater than
modulating signal voltage.
The modulating signal voltage is very much greater
than the carrier signal voltage.
35. What are the advantages of DSB-SC and SSB-SC?
DSB-SC:
Suppression of carrier results in economy of power.
It is commonly used in carrier current telephony system, in which one sideband is
filtered out to reduce the width of the channel required for transmission.<strong>
It offers secrecy.
It increases the efficiency because the carrier is suppressed.
SSB-SC
Bandwidth of SSB is half that of DSB-SC AM. Thus twice the number of channels can
be accommodated at a given frequency spectrum.
No carrier is transmitted, hence possibility of interference with other channels are
avoided.
It eliminates the possibility of fading. Fading occurs due to multipath propagation of
electro-magnetic waves.

36. Give the methods of generating SSB-SC-AM. And mention some applications of SSB-
SC. (Nov-08)
The two methods of generating the SSB-SC waves are
Frequency discrimination or Filter method.
Phase discrimination method.
Applications:
Police Wireless communication.
SSB telegraph system.
Point to point radio telephone communication.
VHF and UHF communication systems.
37. What is image frequency? (May-04)

If some other frequency fsi = fs + 2fi appears at the input of the mixer then it produces
fi at the output of the mixer. This interface with the desired IF since it is same as IF. The
frequency fsi is called image frequency. fo = fs + fi
38. What are the types of AM modulators?
There are two types of AM modulators. They are
Linear modulators
Non-linear modulators
Linear modulators are classified as follows
Transistor modulator
There are three types of transistor modulator.
(i) Collector modulator
(ii) Emitter modulator
(iii) Base modulator
Switching modulators
Non-linear modulators are classified as follows
Square law modulator
Product modulator
Balanced modulator
39. What is the need for modulation?
Needs for modulation:
Ease of transmission
Multiplexing
Reduced noise
Narrow bandwidth
Frequency assignment
Reduce the equipments limitations
40. Compare AM with DSB-SC and SSB-SC.
AM signal DSB-SC SSB-SC
Bandwidth=2fm Bandwidth=2fm Bandwidth=fm
Contains USB, LSB, carrier Contains USB,LSB Contains LSB or USB
More power is required for
transmission
Power required is less than
that of AM.
Power required is less than
AM &DSB-SC

41. What are the types of linear detectors?
Synchronous or coherent detector.
Envelope or non coherent detector.
42. A transmitter supplies 8 Kw to the antenna when modulated. Determine the total
power radiated when modulated to 30%.
ma = 30/100 = 0.3; Pc = 8 kw
Pt = Pc(1+m
2
/2)
= 8.36 kw
43. Compare low level modulation and high level modulation. (Nov-08)
Low level modulation High level modulation
Modulation takes place before final stage of
the transmitter.
Modulation takes place in the final stage of
the transmitter.
Low power modulating circuit. High power modulating circuit.
Amplifier following modulator must be
linear.
No constraint of linear operation on
amplifiers preceding modulator.

44. The antenna current of an AM transmitter is 8A when only carrier is sent. It increases
to 8.93A when the carrier is modulated by a single sine wave. Find the percentage
modulation.
Solution:
Given: Ic =8A It=8.93A m=0.8
Formula: It=Ic (1+m
2
/2)

8.93=8(1+m
2
/2)

m=0.701
It=8 (1+0.8
2
/2)

It=9.1A
45. A 1MHz carrier is amplitude modulated by 400Hz modulating signal to a depth of
50%.The modulated carrier power is 1KW.Calculate the power of the unmodulated
signal.
Solution:-
Pc=1KW, ma=0.5=50%
The increase in power is given by 1.125-1=0.125KW is contained in two side bands.
46. What do you mean by Hilbert transform and inverse Hilbert Transform? Write few
applications of Hilbert transform?
It may be observed that the function xh(t) obtained by providing(-/2) phase shift to
every frequency component present in x(t),actually represents the Hilbert transform of x(t).This
means that xh(t) is the Hilbert transform of x(t) defined as
xh(t) = 1/ x(t)
t
1
= 1/

d
t
x

) (

Few applications of Hilbert transform.
For generation of SSB signals,
For designing of minimum phase type filters,
For representation of band pass signals.
PART C
(16Marks)
47. Explain the generation of AM signals using square law modulator. (May-08)
48. Explain the detection of AM signals using envelope detector.
49. Explain about Balanced modulator to generate DSB-SC signal.
50. Explain about coherent detector to detect SSB-SC signal.
51. Explain the generation of SSB using balanced modulator.
52. Draw the circuit diagram of Ring modulator and explain with its operation?
53. Discus the coherent detection of DSB-SC modulated wave with a block diagram of detector
and Explain.
54. Draw the block diagram for the generation and demodulation of a VSB signal and explain
the principle of operation. (Nov-05)
55. Write short notes on frequency translation and FDM?
56. Explain the VSB modulation with frequency response characteristics. (May-06)

UNIT II ANGLE MODULATION SYSTEMS
Phase and frequency modulation Single tone Narrow band and wideband FM
Transmission bandwidth Generation and demodulation of FM signal.

PART A (1Mark)

57. In frequency division multiplexing each multiplexed signal occupies
(A) the entire transmission bandwidth
(B) a fraction of the transmission bandwidth
(C) a bandwidth equal to the bandwidth of each input signal.

(D) a bandwidth equal to the summation of all the bandwidth of a the input signal.
58. Pre-emphasis and de-emphasis networks are essential in
(A) frequency modulation system (B) amplitude modulation system
(C) pulse amplitude modulation system (D) none of the above
59. A pre-emphasis circuit provides extranoise immunity by
(A boosting the base frequencies (B) amplifying the higher audio frequencies
(C) pre-amplifying the whole audio band (D) converting the phase modulation to FM
60. If the intermediate frequency is very high
(A) image frequency rejection is very good (B) the local oscillator need not be extremely
stable.
(C) the selectivity will be poor. (D) tracking will be improved
61. In wideband FM system, the output signal to noise ratio increases
(A) Linearly as the bandwidth (B) as the square root of the bandwidth
(C) as the square of the bandwidth (D) as the cube of the bandwidth
62. Time division multiplexing is superior to frequency division multiplexing because
(A) interchannel cross talk is avoided (B) circuitary required is digital
(C) noise is absent (D) bandwidth requirement is reduced
63. Audio bandwidth for standard telephone is
(A) 30Hz to 3000Hz (B) 50Hz to 3400Hz
(C) 300Hz to 3400Hz (D) 50Hz to 5000Hz
64. The use of pre-emphasis and de-emphasis in an FM system improves the noise
performance over
(A) the entire frequency range (B) lower frequency modulation
(C) higher frequency range (D) medium range of frequency only
65. A voltage to frequency converter circuit would perform
(A) amplitude modulation (B) frequency modulation
(C) phase modulation (D) angle modulation
66. Power in an FM signal is dependent on
(A) the amplitude of the carrier (B) both amplitude and frequency of the carrier
(C) amplitude and frequency of the carrier (D) none of the above
67. When the modulating frequency is doubled, the modulation index is halved and the
modulating voltage remains constant. The modulation system is
(A) AM (B) PM
(C) FM (D) none of the above

68. An FM wave is 100% modulated by 10KHz signal. The bandwidth required is
(A) 170KHz (B) 20KHz
(C) 7.5KHz (D) 75KHz
69. The modulator stage in a radio transmitter is normally
(A) Class A (B) Class B
(C) Class AB (D) Class C
70. The modulating frequency in frequency modulation is increased from 10KHz to
20KHz the bandwidth
(A) decreases by 20KHz (B) increases by 20KHz
(C) decreases by 10KHz (D) increases by 10KHz
71. An FM signal with modulation index is passed through frequency tripler. The wave
in the output of the tripler will have a modulation index of
(A) mf/3 (B) mf
(C) 3 mf (D) 9 mf
72. A receiver has poor IF selectivity. It will therefore have poor
(A) blocking adjacent channel interference (B) double-spotting
(C) diversity reception (D) sensitivity

73. A carrier is simultaneously modulated by two sine waves with modulation indices of
0.3 and 0.4; the total modulation index will be
(A) 1 (B) cannot be calculated unless the pulse relations
(C) 0.5 (D) 0.7
74. In commercial FM broadcasting, the maximum frequency deviation is
(A) 75KHz (B) 200KHz
(C) 5KHz (D) 15KHz
75. Time division multiplexing is used in
(A) analog circuit (B) digital circuit
(C) modulation circuit (D) multiplier circuit
76. The local oscillator of a broadcast receiver is tuned to a frequency higher than the
incoming frequency
(A) to help the image frequency rejection (B) to permit easier tracking
(C) because otherwise an intermediate frequency could not be produced
(D) to all adequate frequency coverage without switching

Answers:
5
7
5
8
5
9
6
0
6
1
6
2
6
3
6
4
6
5
6
6
6
7
6
8
6
9
7
0
7
1
7
2
7
3
7
4
7
5
7
6
B A B D C D C C B A C A B B C A C D B D

PART B
(2Mark)

77. Define frequency modulation.
Frequency modulation is defined as the process by which the frequency of the carrier
wave is varied in accordance with the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating or message
signal.
78. Define modulation index of frequency modulation.
It is defined as the ratio of maximum frequency deviation to the modulating frequency.
mf = m = KVm /m = d

79. Define frequency Deviation in FM? [April-04]
The instantaneous frequency of FM signal varies with time around the carrier frequency
c. This means that the instantaneous frequency of FM signal varies according to the
modulating signal. The maximum change in instantaneous frequency form the average
frequency c is called frequency deviation.
80. What do you meant by multitone modulation, Percentage modulation?
Modulation done for the message signal with more than one frequency component is
called multitone modulation.
The term percentage modulation as it is used in reference to FM refers to the ratio of
actual frequency deviation to the maximum allowable frequency deviation.
81. Define phase modulation. [Nov-04]
Phase modulation is defined as the process of changing the phase of the carrier signal
in accordance with the instantaneous amplitude of the message signal.
82. What do you mean by angle modulation? Write their types?
Angle modulation may be defined as the process in which the total phase angle of a
carrier wave is varied in accordance with the instantaneous value of the modulating or
message signal while keeping the amplitude of the carrier constant.

Phase modulation (PM) and Frequency modulation (FM) are the types of angle
modulation.
83. Write the expression for the spectrum of a single tone FM Signal. [Nov-04]
VFM(t) =Vccos(ct+mfsim mt)
84. Define phase deviation.
The maximum phase deviation of the total angle from the carrier angle is called phase
deviation.
85. What do you mean by Narrow Band and Wide band?
Based on the modulation index FM can be divided into types. They are Narrow band
FM and Wide band FM. If the modulation index is greater than one then it is wide band FM
and if the modulation index is less than one then it is Narrow band FM
86. Compare FM to PM
FM AM
The FM system having greater Modulation
index results in larger band width.
PM system generally uses a smaller
bandwidth because of smaller modulation
index.
In FM, the modulation index is increased
when the modulating frequency is increased
& vice versa.
In PM, when the modulating frequency is
changed, the modulation index in PM
remains constant.

87. Compare AM to FM
AM FM
In AM system there are three frequency
components and hence the bandwidth is finite.
FM system has infinite number of sidebands in
addition to a single carrier. Hence its Bandwidth is
infinite.
The amplitude of modulated wave in AM is
dependent of modulation index.
The amplitude of frequency modulated wave in FM
is independent of modulation index.
In AM, most of the transmitted Power is wasted In FM, noise is very less.
88. What is the basic difference between an AM signal and a Narrowband FM signal?
In the case of sinusoidal modulation, the basic difference between an AM signal and a
narrowband FM signal is that the algebraic sign of the lower side frequency in the narrow band
FM is reversed.
89. Compare Wideband FM and Narrowband FM. [April-04]
Parameter/Characteristics Wideband FM Narrowband FM
Modulation index Greater than 1 Less than or slightly greater than 1
Maximum Deviation 75KHz 5KHz
Range of Modulating Frequency 30Hz to 15KHz 30 Hz to 3KHz
Maximum Modulation index 5 to 2500 Slightly greater than 1
Bandwidth
Large, about 15 times higher
than BW of narrowband FM
Small, approximately same as that
of AM
Applications Entertainment broadcasting
FM Mobile Communication like
Police wireless, ambulance etc.
90. What are the advantages of Angle Modulation?
Angle modulation has several inherent advantages over Amplitude modulation.
Noise immunity.
Noise performance and signal-to-noise improvement.
Capture effect.
Power utilization and efficiency.
91. What is transmission bandwidth of FM?
For n side bands the bandwidth of FM wave is given by
B.W=2nm radians/sec

B.W=2nfm Hz
92. What are the two methods of producing an FM wave?
Basically there are two methods of producing an FM wave. They are,
i) Direct method
In this method the transmitter originates a wave whose frequency varies as function of the
modulating source. It is used for the generation of NBFM
ii) Indirect method
In this method the transmitter originates a wave whose phase is a function of the modulation.
Normally it is used for the generation of WBFM where WBFM is generated from NBFM

93. What are the disadvantages of FM system?
A much wider channel is required by FM.
FM transmitting and receiving equipments tend to be more complex and hence it is
expensive
94. How will you generate message from frequency-modulated signals?
First the frequency-modulated signals are converted into corresponding amplitude-
modulated signal using frequency dependent circuits. Then the original signal is recovered
from this AM signal.
95. List the properties of the Bessel function.
The properties of the Bessel function is given by,
i) Jn () = (-1)
n
J-n() for all n, both positive and negative.
ii) For small values of the modulation index , we have
J0 () =1
J1 () = /2
Jn() =0,n>2.
iii)

n
J n
2
() = 1

96. Define capture effect. [Nov-05]
With FM and PM, a phenomenon known as the capture effect allows a receiver to
differentiate between two signals received with the same frequency, providing one signal at
least twice as high in amplitude as the other; the receiver will capture the stronger signal and
eliminate the weaker signal.
97. What is FM thresholding?
With the use of limiters, FM and PM demodulators can actually reduce the noise level
and improve the signal to noise ratio during the demodulation process. This is called FM
thresholding.
98. State the Carsons rule.
Carsons rule provides a thumb formula to calculate the bandwidth of a single tone wide
band FM. According to this rule the FM bandwidth is given as twice the sum of the
frequency deviation and the highest modulating frequency. However, it must be
remembered that this rule is just an approximation.
Mathematically B.W=2( + m)
99. What are the disadvantages of FM?
A much wider channel typically 200 KHz is required in FM as against only 10 KHz in
AM broad cast. This forms serious limitation of FM.
FM transmitting and receiving equipments particularly used for modulation and
demodulation tend to be more complex and hence more costly.

PART C (16Marks)

100. Explain the indirect method of generation of FM wave and any one method of
demodulating an FM wave. (Nov-06)
101. Derive the expression for the frequency modulated signal. Explain what is meant by
narrowband FM and wideband FM using the expression. (Nov-05 & May-04)
102. Explain any two techniques of demodulation of FM. (16)
103. Explain the working of the reactance tube modulator and drive an expression to show
how the variation of the amplitude of the input signal changes the frequency of the output signal
of the modulator. (16)
104. Discuss the effects of nonlinearities in FM. (8)
105. Discuss in detail FM stereo multiplexing. (8)
106. Draw the frequency spectrum of FM and explain. Explain how Varactor diode can be
used for frequency modulation. (16)
107. Discuss the indirect method of generating a wide-band FM signal. (8)
108. Draw the circuit diagram of Foster-Seeley discriminator and explain its working.(Nov-05
& May-09)
109. Explain the principle of indirect method of generating a wide-band FM signal with a neat
block diagram. (8)
110. Explain the working of balanced slope detector? (May-07)

UNIT III NOISE THEORY
Review of probability Random variables and random process Gaussian process
Noise Shot noise Thermal noise and white noise Narrow band noise Noise
temperature Noise figure.

PART A (1Mark)
111. In a receiver the input signal is 100V, while the internal noise at the input is 10V.
With amplification the output signal is 2V, while the output noise is 0.4V. The noise figure
of receiver is
(A) 2 (B) 0.5
(C) 0.2 (D) None of the above
112. A receiver is operated at a temperature of 300 K. The transistor used in the receiver
has an average output resistance of 1 k. The Johnson noise voltage for a receiver with a
bandwidth of 200 kHz is
(A) 1.8V (B) 8.4V
(C) 4.3V (D) 12.6V
113. A resistor R = 1 k is maintained at 17
0
C. The rms noise voltage generated in a
bandwidth of 10 kHz is
(A) 16x10
-14
V (B) 0.4V
(C) 4V (D) 16x10
-18
V
114. A mixer stage has a noise figure of 20 dB. This mixer stage is preceded by an
amplifier which has a noise figure of 9 dB and an available power gain of 15 dB. The
overall noise figure referred to the input is
(A) 11.07 (B) 18.23

(C) 56.48 (D) 97.38
115. A system has three stage cascaded amplifier each stage having a power gain of 10 dB
and noise figure of 6dB. The overall noise figure is
(A) 1.38 (B) 6.8
(C) 4.33 (D) 10.43
116. A signal process m(t) is mixed with a channel noise n(t). The power spectral densities
are as follows Sm() = 6/9 +
2
, Sn() = 6. The optimum Wiener-Hopf filter is
(A)
2
+ 9/
2
+ 10 (B) 1/
2
+ 10
(C)
2
+ 10/
2
+ 9 (D) None of the above
117. An amplifier has a standard spot noise figure F0 = 6.31 (8.0 dB). The amplifier that
is used to amplify the output of an antenna have antenna temperature of Ta = 180 K. The
effective input noise temperature of this amplifier is
(A) 2520 K (B) 2120 K
(C) 2710 K (D) 1540 K
118. An amplifier has a standard spot noise figure F0 = 6.31 (8.0 dB). The amplifier that
is used to amplify the output of an antenna have antenna temperature of Ta = 180 K. The
operating spot noise figure is
(A) 3.2 dB (B) 6.4 dB
(C) 9.8 dB (D) 11.9 dB
119. An amplifier has three stages for which Te1 = 200K (first stage), Te2 = 450K and Te3
= 1000K (last stage). If the available power gain of the second stage is 5, what gain must
the first stage have to guarantee an effective input noise temperature of 250 K?
(A) 10 (B) 13
(C) 16 (D) 19

120. An amplifier has an operating spot noise figure of 10 dB when driven by a source of
effective noise temperature 225K. The standard spot noise figure of amplifier is
(A) 4 dB (B) 5 dB
(C) 7 dB (D) 9 dB
121. An amplifier has an operating spot noise figure of 10 dB when driven by a source of
effective noise temperature 225K. If a matched attenuator with a loss of 3.2 dB is placed
between the source and the amplifier's input, what is the operating spot noise figure of
the attenuator amplifier cascade if the attenuator's physical temperature is 290 K?
(A) 9 dB (B) 10.4 dB
(C) 11.3 dB (D) 13.3 dB
122. An amplifier has an operating spot noise figure of 10 dB when driven by a source of
effective noise temperature 225K. What is the standard spot noise figure of the cascade?
(A) 10.3 dB (B) 12.2 dB
(C) 14.9 dB (D) 17.6 dB
123. An amplifier has three stages for which Te1 = 150K (first stage), Te2 = 350K and Te3
= 600K (output stage). Available power gain of the first stage is 10 and overall input
effective noise temperature is 190 K. The available power gain of the second stage is
(A) 12 (B) 14
(C) 16 (D) 18
124. An amplifier has three stages for which Te1 = 150K (first stage), Te2 = 350K and Te3
= 600K (output stage). Available power gain of the first stage is 10 and overall input
effective noise temperature is 190 K. The cascade's standard spot noise figure is
(A) 1.3 dB (B) 2.2 dB
(C) 4.3 dB (D) 5.3 dB
125. An amplifier has three stages for which Te1 = 150K (first stage), Te2 = 350K and Te3
= 600K (output stage). Available power gain of the first stage is 10 and overall input

effective noise temperature is 190 K. What is the cascade's operating spot noise figure
when used with a source of noise temperature Ts =50K
(A) 1.34 dB (B) 3.96 dB
(C) 6.81 dB (D) None of the above.
126. Three networks are cascaded. Available power gains are G1 = 8, G2 = 6 and G3 = 20.
Respective input effective spot noise temperatures are Te1 = 40K, Te2 = 100K and Te3 =
180K.
(A) 58.33 K (B) 69.41 K
(C) 83.90 K (D) 98.39 K
127. Three identical amplifiers, each having a spot effective input noise temperature of
125 K and available power G are cascaded. The overall spot effective input noise
temperature of the cascade is 155 K. The G is
(A) 3 (B) 5
(C) 7 (D) 9
128. What is the maximum average effective input noise temperature that an amplifier
can have if its average standard noise figure is to not exceed 1.7?
(A) 203 K (B) 215 K
(C) 235 K (D) 255 K
129. An amplifier when used with a source of average noise temperature 60 K, has an
average operating noise figure of 5.If the amplifier is sold to engineering public, the noise
figure that would be quoted in a catalog is
(A) 0.46 (B) 0.94
(C) 1.83 (D) 2.93
130. An amplifier when used with a source of average noise temperature 60 K, has an
average operating noise figure of 5. What average operating noise figure results when the
amplifier is used with an antenna of temperature 30 K?
(A) 9.54 dB (B) 10.96 dB (C) 11.23 dB (D) 12.96 dB

Answers:
111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127
A A B A C B D C B D D B A B C A B
128 129 130
A C A

PART B (2Mark)
131. Define noise.
Noise is defined as any unwanted form of energy, which tends to interfere with proper
reception and reproduction of wanted signal.
132. Give the classification of noise.
Noise is broadly classified into two types. They are External noise and internal noise.
External noise may be defined as that type of noise which is generated external to the
communication system. And it can be classified into
1. Atmospheric noise
2. Extraterrestrial noises
3. Man made noises or industrial noises
Internal noise may be defined as that type of system which is generated internally or within the
communication system or receiver. it can be classified into
1. Thermal noise
2. Shot noise
3. Transit time noise
4. Miscellaneous internal noise

133. Define noise temperature. (May-04)
The available noise power is directly proportional to the temperature and it is independent of
value of resistance. This power specified in terms of temperature is called as noise temperature.
Te = (F 1)T
134. Define Atmospheric noise and industrial noise?
Atmospheric noise, which is also called static, is produced by lightning discharges in
thunderstorms and other natural electrical disturbances which occur in the atmosphere.
The industrial noise or man-made noise is that type of noise which is produced by such
sources as automobiles and aircraft ignition, electrical motors, switch gears and leakage from
high voltage transmission lines and several other heavy electrical equipments.
135. Define shot noise? [Nov-05, Apr-04]
Shot noises arise in active devices due to random behavior of charge carriers. In electron
tubes, shot noise is generated due to random emission of electrons from cathodes, whereas in
semiconductor devices shot noise is generated due to random diffusion of minority carriers or
simply random generation and recombination of electron-hole pairs.
136. Define partition noise?
Partition noise is generated in a circuit when a current has to divide between two or
more paths. This means that partition noise results from the random fluctuations in the division.

137. Define flicker noise (or) Low frequency noise.
Flicker noise is the one appearing in transistors operating at low audio frequencies.
Flicker noise is produced at low frequencies (below few KHz).This noise is also called as
flicker noise (1/f noise).
138. Define transit time of a transistor.
Transit time is defined as the time taken by the electron to travel from emitter to the
collector.
139. Define Transit-Time noise or high frequency noise.
It is generally observed in semiconductor devices, when transit-time of charge carriers
crossing a junction is comparable with time period of the signal. Some charge carriers diffuse
back to the source, this process gives rise to the input admittance and it affects the conductance
with increase in frequency. This conductance produces transit time noise.
140. What are the types of random process? (May-06)
Continuous random process.
Discrete random process.
Deterministic and non deterministic random process
141. Define Avalanche noise?
The reverse bias characteristic of a diode shows a region where the reverse current
increases rapidly with a slight increase in magnitude of the reverse bias voltage. That is voltage
increase current also increases. This is because the holes and electrons in the depletion region
gain sufficient energy from reverse bias to ionize atoms by collision. This collision provides
spikes in current in avalanche region. This noise is called as avalanche noise.
142. Define Thermal noise? (Nov-06, 08)
The thermal noise or white noise or Johnson noise is the random noise which is
generated in a resistor or the resistive component of complex impedance due to rapid and
random motion of the molecules, atoms and electrons.
143. Give the expression for noise voltage in a resistor.
The mean square value of thermal noise voltage is given by
Vn
2
= 4 K T B R
K Boltz man constant; R resistance
T obsolute temperature; B - Bandwidth

144. Explain White Noise. (May-06, 07 & Nov-07)
Many types of noise sources are Gaussian and have flat spectral density over a wide
frequency range. Such spectrum has all frequency components in equal portion, and is
therefore called white noise. The power spectral density of white noise is independent
of the operating frequency.
And it is also defined as noise in idealized form is known as white noise. This means
that in a communication system, the noise analysis is based on an idealized form of
noise, is white noise.
145. Define equivalent noise bandwidth of an ideal band pass system. (May-08)
Equivalent noise band width may be defined as the bandwidth of an ideal band pass
system which produces the same noise power as the actual system does.
146. Define signal to noise ratio.
Signal to noise ratio is the ratio of signal power to the noise power at the same point in
a system.
147. Define noise figure. (Nov-03,May-05 & May-07)
Nose figure F = Signal to Noise ratio at the input/ Signal to Noise ratio at the output

148. What is narrowband noise?
The receiver of a communication system usually includes some provision for
preprocessing the received signal. The preprocessing may take the form of a narrowband filter
whose bandwidth is large enough to pass modulated component of the received signal
essentially undistorted but not so large as to admit excessive noise through the receiver. The
noise process appearing at the output of such filter is called narrow band noise.
149. Define figure of merit?
The figure of merit may be defined as the ratio of o/p signal to noise ration to input
signal to noise ration of a receiver.

PART C (16Marks)

150. Derive the effective noise temperature of a cascade amplifier. Explain how the
various noises are generated in the method of representing them. (May-02)
151. Explain how the various noises are generated and the method of representing them.
152. Write notes on noise temperature and noise figure.
153. Derive the noise figure for cascade stages.
154. What is narrowband noise discuss the properties of the quadrature components of a
narrowband noise. (May-08)
155. What is meant by noise equivalent bandwidth? Illustrate it with a diagram (8)
156. Discuss briefly the characteristics of various noises present in a communication
system and their impact in a typical system. (Nov-06)
157. Discuss the following:
i) Noise equivalent bandwidth ii) Narrow band noise
iii) Noise temperature iv) Noise spectral density
159. How sine wave plus noise is represented? Obtain the joint PDF of such noise
component.

UNIT IV PERFORMANCE OF CW MODULATION SYSTEMS
Superheterodyne radio receiver and its characteristic SNR Noise in DSBSC systems
using coherent detection Noise in AM system using envelope detection FM system
FM threshold effect Pre-emphasis and de-emphasis in FM Comparison of
performances.

PART A (1Mark)

160. Threshold noise power of a resistor depends on
(A) its resistance value (B) noise temperature
(C) bandwidth (D) ambient temperature
161. Threshold for detection of FM signals using discriminator is about
(A) 100 dB (B) 30 dB
(C) 200 dB (D) 1 dB
162. In communication system, noise is most likely to affect the signal
(A) at the transmitter (B) in the channel
(C) in the information source (D) at the destination
163. One of the following types of noise becomes of great importance at high frequencies.
It is
(A) short noise (B) random noise
(C) impulse noise (D) transit time noise
164. The value of a transistor creating thermal noise is doubled. The noise power
generated is therefore
(A) halved (B) quadrupled
(C) double (D) unchanged
165. A narrow band noise in time domain represents
(A) unmodulated continuous sine wave (B) amplitude modulated sinusoidal waveform
(C) frequency modulated sinusoidal waveform (D) amplitude & frequency modulated sine
wave
166. Noise figure of merit is unity for
(A) AM (B) FM
(C) PCM (D) SSB-SC
167. Noise figure of merit is 1/3 with m = 1 for
(A) DSB-SC (B) SSB
(C) DSB with sinusoidal modulation (D) FM
168. The noise voltage is
(A) directly proportional to bandwidth (B) directly proportional to bandwidth
(C) inversely proportional to noise resistance (D) inversely proportional to bandwidth
169. In a communication system, noise is most likely to affect the signal
(A) at the transmitter (B) in the channel
(C) in the information source (D) at the destination
170. The power spectral density of thermal noise is given by
(A) kT watts per Hz (B) kTB watts per Hz
(C) 2kT watts per Hz (D) 2kTB watts per Hz
171. The available noise power from a resistor depends
(A) its resistance value (B) its operating temperature
(C) its resistance value & operating temp (D) neither its resistance and not its temp
172. Noise figure of a communication receiver depends largely on
(A) noise figure of last stage and its gain (B) noise figure of first stage
(C) noise figure and the gain of the intermediate stages (D) none of the above
173. Equalization network is used to
(A) eliminate non-linear distortion (B) eliminate quantization distortion
(C) compensate transmission loss (D) none of the above
174. Threshold effect is not present in
(A) synchronous detector (B) envelope detector
(C) ratio detector (D) square wave detector
175. Threshold effect is exhibited in the modulation of

(A) AM (B) DSB-SC
(C) SSB (D) PPM
176. Entropy gives
(A) amount of information (B) rate of information
(C) measure of uncertainity (D) probability of message
177. A given source will have maximum entropy if the messages produced are
(A) equiprobable (B) mutually exclusive
(C) statistically independent (D) none
178. The ideal value of noise figure is
(A) 0 (B) 0 dB
(C) (D) none of the above
179. The information rate is defined to be
(A) avg no. of bits of information/sec (B) avg information per message interval
(C) total no. of bits/sec (D) none of the above

Answer:
160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176
C C B D C B D C A B A C B D A C C
177 178 179
A B B

PART B (2Mark)

180. Compare the noise performance of an AM and FM system?
The figure of merit of AM system is 1/3 when the modulation is 100 percent and that
of FM is (3/2) mf
2
.The use of FM offers improved noise performance over AM when (3/2) mf
2
> 1/3.mf modulation index in FM.
181. What is threshold effect in AM receivers?
The loss of the message signal x (t) in an envelope detector due to the presence of the
large noise is known as the Threshold effect.
The threshold effect is also defined as when a noise is large compared to the signal at
the input of the envelope detector, the detected output has a message signal completely
mingled with noise. It means that if the i/p signal to noise ratio (Si/Ni) is below a certain
level called threshold level.
182. What are the extended threshold demodulators? (Nov-06)
Threshold extension is also called threshold reduction. It is achieved with the help of
FMFB demodulator.

183. What is threshold effect with respect to noise? (May-07)
When the carrier to noise ratio reduces below certain value, the message information is
lost. The performance of the envelope detector deteriorates rapidly and it has no proportion
with carrier to noise ratio. This is called as threshold effect.
184. What is the purpose of pre-emphasis and de-emphasis in FM? (Nov-06 & May-07)
The psd of noise at the output of FM receiver usually increases rapidly at high
frequencies but the psd of message signal falls off at higher frequencies. This means the
message signal does not utilize the frequency band in efficient manner. Such more efficient use
of frequency band and improved noise performance can be obtained with the help of pre-
emphasis and de-emphasis in FM
185. Write the advantages of Super heterodyne receiver over TRF Receivers? [April-04,
Nov-04]
The super heterodyne receiver has the following advantages over TRF receivers.

Improved selectivity in terms of adjacent channels.
More uniform selectivity in terms of adjacent channels.
Improved receiver stability.
Higher gain per stage because IF amplifiers are operated at a lower frequency.
Uniform band width because of fixed intermediate frequency.
186. Define fidelity.
It is the ability of a radio receiver to reproduce correctly different modulating frequency
in an input signal.
187. Define sensitivity of receiver. (Nov-07)
It is the measure of its ability to receive weak signals.
188. Define selectivity of receiver. (Nov-06)
It is defined as the capacity to pick up a desired signal and rejecting all other signals.
189. Define Noise-Quieting effect?
Noise power of FM detector varies inversely with carrier power. The decrease in noise
power with an increase in carrier power is called noise-quieting effect.
190. Define capture effect in FM? [Nov-05]
When the interference is stronger then it will suppress the desired FM input. When the
interference signal and FM input are of equal strength, the receiver fluctuates back and forth
between them .This phenomenon is known as the capture effect.
We may also define as in low noise case; the distortion produced by the noise at the o/p
of FM detector is negligible in comparison to the desired modulating signal. And noise almost
suppressed by the signal. This phenomenon is called as capture effect.
191. Define FM threshold effect? [April-04]
As the input noise power is increased the carrier to noise ratio is decreased the receiver
breaks and as the carrier to noise ratio is reduced further crackling sound is heard and the output
SNR cannot be predicted by the equation. This phenomenon is known as threshold effect.
It is also defined as when the SNR becomes even slightly less than unity, an impulse of
noise is generated. This noise impulse appears at the output of the detector in the form of click
sound. If the SNR ratio is further decreased so that the ratio is moderately less than unity, the
impulses are generated rapidly and clicks merge in to spluttering sound. This phenomenon is
known as threshold effect.
192. How is threshold reduction achieved in FM systems? [Nov-03, 04]
Threshold reduction is achieved in FM system by using an FM demodulator with
negative feedback or by using a phase locked loop demodulator. Such devices are referred to
as extended-threshold demodulators.
193. What is Pre-emphasis? (Nov-07, May-07)
The pre modulation filtering in the transistor, to raise the power spectral density of the
base band signal in its upper-frequency range is called pre emphasis (or pre distortion) Pre
emphasis is particularly effective in FM systems which are used for Transmission of audio
signals.
194. Define de-emphasis.
A de-emphasis in the receiver used to restore relative magnitude of different
improvement in AF signal and to suppress noise is called de-emphasis.
195. What is the figure of merit of a AM system with 100 percent Modulation?
The figure of merit of an AM system with 100 percent modulation is 1/3.This means
that other factors being equal an AM system must transmit three times as much average power
as a suppressed system in order to achieve the same quality of noise performance.
196. What is Nyquist rate?
The sampling rate of 2fm samples per second for a signal bandwidth of fm Hertz is called
the Nyquist rate. Its reciprocal 1/fm is called the Nyquist interval.
197. What is TRF receiver?

Tuned Radio Frequency is also called straight receiver. Here the receiver operates in
straight forward manner without frequency conversion.
198. What is meant by figure of merit of a receiver? (Nov-06)
The ratio of output signal to noise ratio to channel signal to noise ratio

PART C (16 Mark)

199. Explain the working of super heterodyne receiver with its parameters.
200. Discuss the noise performance of AM system using envelope detection.
201. Compare the noise performance of AM and FM systems.
202. Calculate the noise power of a DSB-SC system using coherent detection. (Nov-05)
203. Discuss in detail the noise performance in SSB-SC receiver.
204. Explain the significance of pre-emphasis and de-emphasis in FM system. (May-04)
205. Derive the noise power spectral density of the FM demodulation and explain its
performance with diagram.
206. a. Draw the block diagram of FM demodulator and explain the effect of noise in detail.
b. Explain the FM threshold effect and capture effect in FM.
207. Describe the characteristics of super heterodyne receiver. (Nov-06)

UNIT V INFORMATION THEORY
Discrete messages and information content Concept of amount of information
Average information Entropy Information rate Source coding to increase average
information per bit Shannon-fano coding Huffman coding Lempel-Ziv (LZ) coding
Shannons theorem Channel capacity Bandwidth S/N trade-off Mutual
information and channel capacity Rate distortion theory Lossy source coding.

PART A (1Mark)

208. A direct sequence spread binary phase-shift-keying system uses a feedback shift
register of Length 19 for the generation of PN sequence. The system is required to have
an average probability of symbol error due to externally generated interfering signals
that does not exceed 10
-5
. The Antijam margin is
(A) 47.5 dB (B) 93.8 dB
(C) 86.9 dB (D) 12.6 dB
209. A slow FH/MFSK system has the following parameters. Number of bits per MFSK
symbol = 4; Number of MFSK symbol per hop = 5. The processing gain of the system is
(A) 13.4 dB (B) 37.8 dB
(C) 6 dB (D) 26 dB
210. A fast FH/MFSK system has the following parameters. Number of bits per MFSK
symbol = 4; Number of pops per MFSK symbol = 4. The processing gain of the system is
(A) 0 dB (B) 7 dB
(C) 9 dB (D) 12 dB
211. A rate 1/2 convolution code with dfrec = 10 is used to encode a data sequence
occurring at a rate of 1 kbps. The modulation is binary PSK. The DS spread spectrum
sequence has a chip rate of 10 MHz. The coding gain is
(A) 7 dB (B) 12 dB
(C) 14 dB (D) 24 dB
212. A rate 1/2 convolution code with dfrec = 10 is used to encode a data sequence
occurring at a rate of 1 kbps. The modulation is binary PSK. The DS spread spectrum
sequence has a chip rate of 10 MHz. The processing gain is
(A) 14 dB (B) 37 dB
(C) 58 dB (D) 104 dB

213. A total of 30 equal-power users are to share a common communication channel by
CDM. Each user transmit information at a rate of 10 kbps via DS spread spectrum and
binary PSK. The minimum chip rate to obtain a bit error probability of 10
-5
.
(A) 1.3x10
6
chips/sec (B) 2.9x10
5
chips/sec
(C) 1.9x10
6
chips/sec (D) 1.3x10
5
chips/sec
214. A CDMA system is designed based on DS spread spectrum with a processing gain of
1000 and BPSK modulation scheme. If user has equal power and the desired level of
performance of an error probability of 10
-6
, the number of user will be
(A) 89 (B) 117
(C) 147 (D) 216
215. A CDMA system is designed based on DS spread spectrum with a processing gain of
500 and BPSK modulation scheme. If user has equal power and the desired level of
performance of an error probability of 10
-6
, the number of user will be
(A) 27 users (B) 38 users
(C) 42 users (D) 45 users
216. A DS spread spectrum system transmits at a rate of 1kbps in the presets of a tone
jammer. The jammer power is 20 dB greater than the desired signal, and the required
b/Jo to achieve satisfactory performance is 10 dB. The spreading bandwidth required to
meet the specifications is
(A) 10
7
Hz (B) 10
3
Hz
(C) 10
5
Hz (D) 10
6
Hz
217. A DS spread spectrum system transmits at a rate of 1kbps in the presets of a tone
jammer. The jammer power is 20 dB greater than the desired signal, and the required
b/Jo to achieve satisfactory performance is 10 dB. If the jammer is a pulse jammer, then
pulse duty cycle that results in worst case jamming is
(A) 0.14 (B) 0.05
(C) 0.07 (D) 0.10
218. A DS spread spectrum system transmits at a rate of 1kbps in the presets of a tone
jammer. The jammer power is 20 dB greater than the desired signal, and the required
b/Jo to achieve satisfactory performance is 10 dB. The correspond probability of error
is
(A) 4.9x10
-3
(B) 6.3x10
-3

(C) 9.4x10
-4
(D) 8.3x10
-3

219. A CDMA system consist of 15 equal power user that transmit information at a rate
of 10 kbps, each using a DS spread spectrum signal operating at chip rate of 1MHz. The
modulation scheme is BPSK. The Processing gain is
(A) 0.01 (B) 100
(C) 0.1 (D) 10
220. A CDMA system consist of 15 equal power user that transmit information at a rate
of 10 kbps, each using a DS spread spectrum signal operating at chip rate of 1MHz. The
modulation scheme is BPSK. The value of b/Jo is
(A) 8.54 dB (B) 7.14 dB
(C) 17.08 dB (D) 14.28 dB
221. A CDMA system consist of 15 equal power user that transmit information at a rate
of 10 kbps, each using a DS spread spectrum signal operating at chip rate of 1MHz. The
modulation scheme is BPSK. How much the processing gain should be increased to allow
for doubling the number of users with affecting the auto pad SNR?
(A) 1.46 MHz (B) 2.07 MHz
(C) 4.93 MHz (D) 2.92 MHz
222. A DS/BPSK spread spectrum signal has a processing gain of 500. If the desired error
probability is 10
-5
and (b/Jo) required to obtain an error probability of 10
-5
for binary
PSK is 9.5 dB, and then the Jamming margin against a containers tone jammer is

(A) 23.6 dB (B) 17.5 dB
(C) 117.4 dB (D) 109.0 dB
223. An FH binary orthogonal FSK system employs an m = 15stage liner feedback shift
register that generates an ML sequence. Each state of the shift register selects one of L
non over lapping frequency bands in the hopping pattern. The bit rate is 100 bits/s. The
demodulator employs non coherent detection. If the hop rate is one per bit, the hopping
bandwidth for this channel is
(A) 6.5534 MHz (B) 9.4369 MHz
(C) 2.6943 MHz (D) None of the above
224. An FH binary orthogonal FSK system employs an m = 15stage liner feedback shift
register that generates an ML sequence. Each state of the shift register selects one of L
non over lapping frequency bands in the hopping pattern. The bit rate is 100 bits/s. The
demodulator employs non coherent detection. Suppose the hop rate is increased to
2hops/bit and the receiver uses square law combining the signal over two hops. The
hopping bandwidth for this channel is
(A) 3.2767 MHz (B) 13.1068 MHz
(C) 26.2136 MHz (D) 1.6384 MHz
225. A slow FH binary FSK system with non coherent detection operates at b/Jo = 10,
with hopping bandwidth of 2 GHz, and a bit rate of 10 kbps. The processing gain of this
system is
(A) 23 dB (B) 43 dB
(C) 43 dB (D) 53 dB
226. A slow FH binary FSK system with non coherent detection operates at b/Jo = 10,
with hopping bandwidth of 2 GHz, and a bit rate of 10 kbps. If the jammer operates as a
partial band jammer, the bandwidth occupancy for worst case jamming is
(A) 0.4 GHz (B) 0.6 GHz
(C) 0.7 GHz (D) 0.9 GHz
227. A slow FH binary FSK system with non coherent detection operates at b/Jo = 10,
with hopping bandwidth of 2 GHz, and a bit rate of 10 kbps. The probability of error for
the worst-case partial band jammer is
(A) 0.2996 (B) 0.1496 (C) 0.0368 (D) 0.0298

Answer:
208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224
A D D A B C D D D C D B A B B A B
225 226 227
D A C

PART B (2Mark)

228. What is prefix coding? (Nov-03)
Prefix coding is variable length coding algorithm. It assigns binary digits to the
messages as per their probabilities of occurrence. Prefix of the codeword means any sequence
which is initial part of the codeword. In prefix code, no codeword is the prefix of any other
codeword.

229. State the channel coding thermo for a discrete memory less channel. (Nov-03, 08 &
May-07,08,09)
Given a source of M equally likely messages, with M >> 1, which is generating
information at a rate R. Given channel with capacity C. Then if,
R C

there exists a coding technique such that the output of the source may be transmitted over the
channel with a probability of error in the received message which may made arbitrarily small.
230. What is entropy? (May-04,07 & Nov-06)
The average information per source symbol in a particular interval is called entropy. It
is denoted by H and given as,
H = Total information / Number of message =

M
k
P
1
k log2(1/Pk)
231. Name the two source coding techniques. (Nov-04)
Prefix coding or instantaneous coding
Shannon fano coding
Huffman coding.
232. What is memory less source? Give an example. (May-06)
The alphabets emitted by memory less source do not depend upon previous alphabets.
Every alphabet is independent. For example characters generated by keyboard represent
memory less source.
233. What is prefix code? (Nov-06)
In prefix code, no codeword is the prefix of any other codeword. It is variable length
code. The binary digits are assigned to the messages as per their probabilities of occurrence.
234. What is amount of information?
The amount of information gained after observing the event S=SK, which occurs with
probability PK, as the logarithmic function.
Amount of information I(SK) = Log(1/PK)
Unit of information is bit.
235. What is mean by one bit?
One bit is the amount of information that use we gain, when one of two possible and
equally likely (equal-probability) events occurs.
236. What is meant by Source encoding?
The efficient representation of data generated by a discrete source. This process is
called Source coding. The device that performs the representation is called a source encoder.
237. Write about data compaction?
For efficient signal transmission, the redundant information should be removed from
the signal prior to transmission. This operation with no loss of information is ordinarily
performed on a signal in digital form. This refers to Data compaction (or)Lossless data.
238. Define lossless channel.
The channel described by a channel matrix with only one nonzero element in each
column is called a lossless channel. In the lossless channel no sources information is lost in
transmission.
239. Define Deterministic channel.
A channel described by a channel matrix with only one nonzero element in each row is
called a deterministic channel and this element must be unity.
240. Define noiseless channel.
A channel is called noiseless if it is both lossless and deterministic. The channel matrix
has only one element in each row and in each column and this element is unity. The input and
output alphabets are of the same size.
241. Explain Shannon-Fano coding.
An efficient code can be obtained by the following simple procedure, known as
Shannon- Fano algorithm.
1. List the source symbols in order of decreasing probability.
2. Partition the set into two sets that are as close to equiprobable as possible,
and sign 0 to the upper set and 1 to the lower set.

3. Continue this process, each time partitioning the sets with as nearly equal
probabilities as possible until further partitioning is not possible.

242. What is source coding and entropy coding?
A conversion of the output of a DMS into a sequence of binary symbols is called source
coding. The design of a variable length code such that its average code word length approaches
the entropy of the DMS is often referred to as entropy coding.
243. What is information theory?
Information theory deals with the mathematical modeling and analysis of a
communication system rather than with physical sources and physical channels.
244. What happens when the number of coding alphabet increases?
When the number of coding alphabet increases the efficiency of the coding technique
decreases.

245. What is channel diagram and channel matrix?
The transition probability diagram of the channel is called the channel diagram and its
matrix representation is called the channel matrix.

PART C (16Mark)

246. Explain the significance of the entropy H(X/Y) of a communication system where X
is the transmitter and Y is the receiver.
247. An event has six possible outcomes with probabilities 1/2.1/4,1/8,1/16,1/32,1/32. Find
the entropy of the system.
248. Discuss Source coding theorem, give the advantage and disadvantage of channel
coding in detail, and discuss the data compaction.
249. Explain the properties of entropy and with suitable example, explain the entropy of
binary memory less source.
250. Five symbols of the alphabet of discrete memory less source and their probabilities
are given below. S=[S0,S1,S2,S3]; P[S]=[.4,.2,.2,.1,.1].Encode the symbols using Huffman
coding.
251. Write short notes on Differential entropy, derive the channel capacity theorem and
discuss the implications of the information capacity theorem.
252. What do you mean by binary symmetric channel? Derive channel capacity formula
for symmetric channel.
253. Construct binary optical code for the following probability symbols using Huffman
procedure and calculate entropy of the source, average code Length, efficiency,
redundancy and variance? 0.2, 0.18, 0.12, 0.1, 0.1, 0.08, 0.06, 0.06, 0.06, 0.04.
254. State and prove continuous channel capacity theorem.
255. Encode the following source using Shannon-Fano and Huffman coding procedures.
Compare the results.
X X1 X2 X3 X4 X5
P(X) 0.3 0.1 0.4 0.08 0.12

256. Encode the following source using Shannon-Fano coding
X X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7
P(X) 0.4 0.2 0.12 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.04