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OIL GENERATION IN SUBANDEAN BASINS OF PERU

Part I: A Geochemical Assessment of Genetic Oil-Types, Migration and


Oil-Source Systems in the Greater Maraon Basin, Peru



Report



For:
PERUPETRO, Lima, Peru, and CPI, Edmonton, Canada



November, 2000







By:
H. von der Dick
ChemTerra Intl. Consultants (CTI), Calgary, Canada











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OIL GENERATION IN SUBANDEAN BASINS OF PERU
Part I: A Geochemical Assessment of Genetic Oil-Types, Migration and
Oil-Source Systems in the Greater Maraon Basin, Peru

I. Executive Summary Report Part I & II and Synthesis ____________________________________ 3
A. Oil Classification in the Ucayali Basin: ___________________________________________ 3
B. Oil Classification of the Maraon/Huallaga/Santiago Basins:_________________________ 4
C. Second/Continuous Charge into Reservoirs and Biodegradation: _____________________ 4
D. Source Rocks in the Greater Maraon Basin: _____________________________________ 5
E. Basin Maturity: ______________________________________________________________ 5
F. Oil Source Correlations: _____________________________________________________ 6
G. Migration of Hydrocarbons:____________________________________________________ 7
H. Basin Modeling: Time Temperature Relationship of HC Generation:_________________ 7
I. Future Investigations: ___________________________________________________________ 8
II. Introduction and Scope of Study ___________________________________________________ 9
III. Study Approach, Limitations, and Databases ________________________________________ 12
2. Advantages of a Database ______________________________________________________ 12
IV. Oil Classification in the Ucayali Basin _____________________________________________ 14
B. S/H: Sterane / Hopane ratio Pr/Ph: Pristane / Phytane ratio _____________________________ 16
C. MCH: Methylcyclohexane_______________________________________________________ 16
D. _______________________________________________________________________________ 16
V. Oil-Oil Correlation and Oil Classification in the Santiago / Huallaga / Maraon Basins _____ 17
VI. Biodegradation and Second / Continuous Phase of Migration into Reservoirs______________ 26
A. Biodegradation______________________________________________________________ 26
B. Second and Continuous Migration and Reservoir Filling ___________________________ 26
VII. Source Rocks, Source Rock Potential and Distribution in the Greater Maraon Basin_______ 29
1. Ordovician Contaya and Devonian Cabanillas: ______________________________________ 29
2. Carboniferous Ambo __________________________________________________________ 29
3. Carboniferous Tarma Formation _________________________________________________ 30
4. The Upper Carboniferous/Permian Copacabana/Ene Formation_________________________ 30
5. The Lower Triassic Pucara Formation_____________________________________________ 30
6. Lower Cretaceous Raya and Cushabatay___________________________________________ 31
7. Upper Cretaceous Chonta Formation _____________________________________________ 31
8. The Tertiary Pozo Formation____________________________________________________ 31
VIII. Basin Maturity Based on Measured Data._________________________________________ 33
IX. Oil Source Correlations in the Basins_____________________________________________ 36
X. The Oil-Source / Petroleum Systems of the Basins ____________________________________ 38
A. Migration of HC in the Maraon Basin. _________________________________________ 38
XI. List of Figures_________________________________________________________________ 40
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OIL GENERATION IN SUBANDEAN BASINS OF PERU

Part I: A Geochemical Assessment of Genetic Oil-Types, Migration and
Oil-Source Systems in the Greater Maraon Basin, Peru


I. Executive Summary Report Part I & II and Synthesis

Based on available geochemical and geological data the oil systems and exploration potential of the
Maraon, Huallaga and Santiago Basins in Peru were re-assessed. Ucayali Basin oils and source rock
data were also incorporated and assessed for data comparison and data integration of various reports.
This is the first report on Peruvian oils and source rocks to evaluate and integrate various data sets into a
cohesive study on oil generation, migration, reservoir alteration, and timing of critical events through the
complex tectonic history of these basins.

The first part of this report (Report Part I) is an evaluation of existing data and reports with a prime focus
on the geochemical classification of oil families in the basins, oil- oil correlation, the assessment of source
rocks and their respective maturities, and geochemical evidence for the relationship of source rocks to
discovered oils. Based on this framework conclusions on HC generation, migration and reservoir
biodegradation are made.

The second part of this report (Report Part II) investigates aspects of timing of maturation in the basins
and HC generation events. The BasinMod software package was used to simulate and model HC
generation in a number of wells with measured maturity data as model-constraining parameters.

A. Oil Classification in the Ucayali Basin:
A large number of oils from the Greater Maraon Basin was investigated for their genetic relationship
and their classification into oil families.

Oils in the Ucayali Basin are characterized by their high maturity. Typical oils reflect maturity levels of at
least 0.8% Ro with light oils / condensates such as San Martin, Aquaytia, and Cashiriari reflecting
maturity levels around 1.1 1.4 % Ro in the basin.

A number of basic geochemical parameters and biomarker data identify four genetically distinct oil
families in the Ucayali Basin as displayed in Figure 9 of the Report Part I. These are:
the San Martin/Cashiriari oils,
the unique La Colpa oils,
the Aqua Caliente oils, and
the Maquia oils.
Except for the Maquia-type oils, all these oil families are derived from Kerogen Type II-III source beds,
with the Cashiriari Oil Family clearly indicating a substantial contribution from a (coaly) Kerogen Type
III. The Maquia Oil Family is derived from Kerogen Type II material with typical indications for a
reducing carbonate source environment.

A critical observation for the Maquia Oil Family in the Ucayali Basin is the expressed bimodal n-alkane
envelope in GC traces of these oils. Figure 4.3 of the Report Part I shows an example of this bimodal n-
alkane envelope. Geochemical data provide evidence for a second HC generation/expulsion phase from the
same source at higher maturity into the Maquia structure. In fact, geochemical indications are provided to
suggest that the Aguaytia condensate is the exclusive 2
nd
(late mature) HC phase from the Maquia oil
source. This observation is important because it was previously thought that re-migration had occurred
into the northern Maraon Basin from Equador in order to explain unusual oil compositions.

The geochemical characteristics of the oil families in the Ucayali Basin also define some general
constraints for the search for the source rocks for these oil families: The Maquia oil type source should be
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a pure Kerogen Type II source, possibly from a carbonate environment since the Maquia oils show
Kerogen Type II characteristics and higher S-levels. Carbonate source rocks are generally higher in sulpur
compared to shales because of lack of Fe in carbonate environments. Also, the Maquia oils are low in
Diasteranes and possibly in Diahopanes, a group of rearranged biomarker species that are abundant in
clay and shale environments. The low presence of these source-related tracer indicators in the Maquia oils
further points to a carbonate source environment.

All other oil families in the Ucayali Basin are derived from a Kerogen-Type II-III precursor material. The
lack of the time-critical biomarker, Dinosterane, in these Kerogen Type II-III derived oils points to
Paleozoic source rocks, indicating a pre-Mesozoic source age.

Thus, four source rocks must be present in the Ucayali Basin to explain the geochemical variability of
discovered oils: Three Paleozoic source rocks and one Mesozoic source rock .Also, geochemical analysis
and oil oil correlations with Maraon oils clearly show, that the Ucayali Basin oils are limited to this
basin with the exception of the Maquia Oil Family showing a very wide-spread occurrence in all basins.

B. Oil Classification of the Maraon/Huallaga/Santiago Basins:
Except for the Huallaga Basin, the Santiago and Maraon Basins have numerous oil discoveries. Using a
similar evaluation process as for the Ucayali Basin oils based on basic geochemical parameters in
conjunction with complex biomarker evaluation and cross-checks to solidify interpretations, two basic oil
families are recognized in the basins (Figure 14, Report Part I):
Tambo/Sungachi oils and
Samiria oils.
The oils in the Tambo 1X, Sungachi 1 and Samiria 1S wells are classical reference oils in reservoirs in the
basins that are otherwise characterized by oil degradation or complex migration histories.

Solid geochemical proof is provided to the genetic link of the Samiria oil in the Maraon Basin with the
Ucayali Maquia oils (Figure 13a, Report Part I). Thus,, the Maquia Oil Family has a very wide regional
distribution. Tambo/Sungachi oils are only found in the Santiago Basin and the northern Maraon Basin:
All (partially degraded) NE Maraon oils belong to the Tambo/Sungachi Oil Family. Figure 19 of the
Report Part I shows the regional distribution of these oil families. An important observation here is the
discrete regional distribution of the oil families with little or no reservoir mixing of different oil families.

The Maquia and Tambo/Sungachi Oil Families are the principal two oil families in Santiago and Maraon
Basins, however, they show some compositional variation within themselves: Preliminary biomarker data
evaluation demonstrates a pure carbonate and a shaly carbonate source for the Maquia oils in the
Maraon/Santiago Basins. The Tambo/Sungachi oil family is derived from a Kerogen Type II-III source
rock. The Tambo oil seems to have a slightly higher terrestrial influence compared to the typical Sungachi
oil. However, more in-depth biomarker analysis is required to outline regional trends for the respective
sub-families shown in Figure 14 of the Report Part I.

C. Second/Continuous Charge into Reservoirs and Biodegradation:
A significant observation in the Maraon Basin is the re-occurrence of the bimodal n-alkane distribution in
Maquia-type oils and only in this group of oil. Based on this observation and several other arguments
presented, a previous concept of re-migrating reservoir HC from Equador or re-migration due to late block
tilting can be rejected: the Maquia oil source had, at least locally, two phases of HC generation and
expulsion, although not all Maquia type oil reservoirs display a second, high mature charge. The spotty
occurrence of this 2
nd
charge from the Pucara Formation may be due to local subsidence histories as will
be explained later.

In contrast, all Tambo/Sungachi oils do not display a second, high mature HC charge.

Biodegradation is common in many reservoirs in the Santiago and Maraon Basins, in particular in the NE
Maraon. In some cases, biodegradation is severe, other reservoirs/structures show slight or moderate
biodegradation effects. Both principal oil families are affected, although it appears that Tambo/Sungachi
oils are more affected, probably because of their concentration in the NE Maraon in shallow position with
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meteoric water infiltration. In a number of reservoirs with Tambo/Sungachi oils it seems that recent trap
filling competes with recent degradation processes, pointing to a dynamic system of HC destruction and
HC migration.

D. Source Rocks in the Greater Maraon Basin:
Based on TOC and Rock-Eval data nine formations from Ordovician age to the Tertiary can be identified
as possible or potential source rocks. Table 6 of the Report Part I summarizes the basic nature of these
formations.

The oldest formations with considerable (paleo-) source potential (Type II) are the Ordovician Contaya
and the Devonian Cabanillas Formations. Because of their generally high or extreme maturity the present-
day TOC values are moderate, but were in the range of 2-4% TOC before HC generation exhausted these
shales. These Paleozoic shales probably generated plenty HC in the distant geologic past, however, due to
the Maraon Basin geometry it can be expected that the NE Maraon Basin contains immature Contaya
and Cabanillas. From this it can be inferred that Tertiary or Cretaceous subsidence had matured
previously immature Contaya/Cabanillas in some regions, however, more detailed work and data are
required to reveal or identify a possible role of these formations in oil discoveries.

The Paleozoic Ambo, Tarma and Ene/Copacabana Formations are important TOC rich sections in the
Ucayali Basin. Except for the Ene/Copacabana the Kerogen Type is II-III or III-II. The Ene Formation
appears to be mainly Type II, although some(local) Type II Kerogen was probably developed in the Ambo
Formation, too.

The oldest Mesozoic formation with good and excellent source characteristics is the late Triassic / early
Jurassic Pucara Formation, which occurs in all basins. The Pucara is a bituminous carbonate with
interbedded shaly sections. Two depocenters are described in the literature: one in the western Maraon
Basin and a second in the western Ucayali Basin (Figure 28b, Report Part I). The N-S stretching Pucara
subcrop between 75
o
and 76
o
longitude defines the basinal extension of this source unit.

The Cretaceous Raya and Cushubatay Formation also have source characteristics, but mainly Kerogen
Type III and III-II quality. The basinal extent of the source facies is not known at this point in time.

The Late Cretaceous Chonta Formation has been described in the literature as a prominent source for
Maraon oils. The Chonta Formation contains Type II and Type II-III Kerogens with frequent TOC
concentrations in the range 2-3%. Our data suggest a rich Type II section in the Santiago Basin, the most
western part of the Maraon Basin, and perhaps part of the Huallaga Basin (Figure 30a, Report Part I).
Eastern and southern areas show diminishing source qualities and quantities. The Ucayali Basin does not
contain a Chonta Formation in source quality.

The youngest source section and previously largely unrecognized in the Tertiary Pozo Shale Formation
with Type II Kerogen, locally developing into a Kerogen Type I. The Pozo Shale source facies may be
restricted to the Santiago and (part of?) the Huallaga Basins, because low TOC quantities are recorded in
most parts of the Maraon Basin.

E. Basin Maturity:
Vitrinite reflectance data suggest as a rough guideline some constraints for HC generation depth
intervals and amounts of paleo-erosion: in the Maraon Basin a max. paleo erosion of 3 km is indicated,
however many structures indicate moderate or small last erosion because of low surface Ro data in the
range of 0.2-03%. This is in contrast to the Santiago and Huallaga Basins with surface Ro data
considerably higher, suggesting a significant last erosion and removal of part of the younger sedimentary
sequence.

Average Ro depth plots in the Maraon Basin suggest the onset of HC generation at 3km, fully mature
conditions at 5km and termination of oil generation between 8-9km depth. Furthermore, Ro data suggest
no significant HC generation anywhere in the Maraon Basin before 3.2km of (paleo-) depth was reached.
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Thus, together with max. paleo-overburden data an absolute eastern limit for HC generation in the
Maraon Basin can be outlined.

A new, updated Ro contour map for the Chonta Formation is presented, based on accumulated data. The
Ro contours show as expected increasing Chonta Formation maturities from East to West. The Chonta
Formation is mature or late mature in the Santiago and Huallaga Basins, the northern part of the Maraon
Basin and along a narrow zone parallel to the Santiago and Huallaga Basins (Figure 37, Report Part I). In
essence, the Chonta Formation is immature or marginally mature East of 76
o
Longitude.

The Chonta Ro contour map and general Ro depth trend data were also used to roughly project Cabanillas
maturities in the Maraon Basin. As the oldest and deepest formation with source rock qualities the eastern
edge of fully mature Cabanillas shown in Figure 38 Report Part I also defines the most eastern extension of
hydrocarbon kitchens in the Maraon Basin. All oil discoveries East of this (absolute) generation limit
must be the result of lateral oil migration in the basin. Oil discoveries in wells such as Bretana 1 and
Paiche 1X outside any mature source sections clearly indicate long distance migration of >100 km,
possibly up to 200km.

F. Oil Source Correlations:
Several attempts were made to correlate the oil families in the basins with source rock sequences. The
Pucara Formation is identified as the source for the Maquia Oil Family. The very wide distribution of the
Maquia Oil Family is consistent with the wide distribution of mature Pucara Formation. This source rock
is the most important source rock in the basins.

The Chonta Formation is the source of the Tambo/Sungachi Oil Family as indicated from perfect
correlations of biomarker profiles in rock and oil samples (e.g. Figures 42c and 43c, Report Part I). A
Chonta marl and a Chonta shale actually form two distinct source sections, although further work is
required to clearly separate the two Chonta subgroups.

Oil source correlation is more difficult in the Ucayali Basin, probably due to the more patchy occurrence
of source beds and the high maturity of most of these oils. It appears that the Ene Formation is the source
of the Aqua Caliente Oil Family. Marine or lacustrine Ambo Formation is the most likely source of the La
Colpa Oil Family, possibly with some contribution from surrounding coaly Tarma/Ambo sections. In fact,
the TOC rich, coaly Tarma/Ambo Formations may be the perfect source for the Cashiriari Oil Family with
a significant or dominant Kerogen-Type III contribution.

The Pozo Shale is an excellent oil source in the Santiago Basin, but as of yet no oil discoveries can be
related to this source. The Santiago Basin contains numerous seeps of unknown origin. Future work may be
dedicated the investigate deeply buried Pozo Shale as a source for some of these seeping hydrocarbons.

Besides the prominent source rocks with mainly Kerogen Type II material (with the exception for the
Tarma/Ambo Formations) there are a number of shale formations with lower TOC content and dominantly
Kerogen Type III material. Formations such as the Raya and Cushubatay probably contributed to oil
generation and further enhanced the Kerogen-Type II-III or III-II character of the oils. Source rock logging
in five Maraon wells could identify the two prominent source rock sequences Chonta- and Pucara
Formations, but revealed no additional, major source formation that could be of significance.

Thus, it appears the effective source rocks in the Santiago Basin are the Pucara-, Chonta-, and Pozo Shale
Formations; the latter Tertiary source rock is only mature in deep Neogene sections of the Santiago Basin.
In the Huallaga Basin, the Pucara Formation can be expected to be a major source. Few data are
available for the Chonta Formation and the Pozo Shale. Both formations may have limited source
extension or source quality in this basin. In the Maraon Basin the Pucara Formation is proven to be the
significant source; the Chonta Formation source facies is limited to the northern Maraon Basin. The Pozo
Shale Formation appears to be of non-source quality in the Maraon Basin, and it is also immature in this
basin. The role of the Paleozoic source formations in the Maraon Basin is still not clear.

Table 7 of the Report Part I provides an overview of the oil source systems encountered in the basins.
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G. Migration of Hydrocarbons:
The depot centers of source beds and the regional maturity pattern define areas of HC generation.
Comparing these areas of HC generation with areas of HC discoveries clearly demonstrates lateral
migration distances of up to 200km. Furthermore, the clear distinction of oil families, the identification of
their respective source beds, and specific geochemical observations discussed above provide fundamental
insights into the migration of HC in the basins, in particular the Maraon Basin. The general direction of
migrating HC was NE as shown in Figure 45 of the Report Part I; Structures that trapped oil after long
lateral migration always trapped the same family of oil. Mixing of different oil families is, with one possible
exception in the Ucayali Basin, never observed. This clearly points to discrete migration pathways.

Maquia-Pucara oils were generated in a kitchen area covering large parts of all basins. Subsequent NE
migration explains the wide distribution of Pucara Formation derived oils (the Maquia Oil Family). The
Chonta Formation oils (Tambo/Sungachi Oil Family) were largely generated in the northern and
northwestern part of the Maraon Basin and the Santiago Basin. They followed a strict NE migration
direction, now forming the NE Maraon Basin oil district with discoveries such as Dorissa, Tambo, Bartra.

An important observation is the second, high mature HC pulse from the Pucara Formation. With a possible
exception in the Ucayali Basin in the Aguaytia Field this 2
nd
Pucara HC phase is always associated with
the 1
st
, less mature Pucara HC phase. This observation points to identical migration pathways for both HC
pulses. Also, the lack of a separate, single 2
nd
HC phase (2
nd
phase only) in a reservoir may have some
significance for geological concepts for the timing of trap formation.

Also, based on geochemical observations, it appears that HC migration out of the Chonta Formation is a
rather late event and still active. Detailed geochemical observations from slightly degraded oils in
comparison with heavy degraded oils provide proof for recent, on-going migration of Tambo/Sungachi HC
into reservoirs.

H. Basin Modeling: Time Temperature Relationship of HC Generation:
Basin modeling was used to gain first insights into the timing of HC generation in the Maraon, Santiago,
and Huallaga Basins. Measured Ro data were used and necessary to constrain the model. Major results
of modeling in the Maraon Basin are the observation of several episodes of rapid, deep subsidence as the
cause for HC generation. A first cycle of subsidence about 280 m.y. ago affected the old, Paleozoic source
beds; a second cycle at the end of the Jurassic matured the Pucara Formation, with the Paleozoic sources
now progressing into gas generation. A third, last and deep subsidence event during Neogene times
affected the Chonta Formation and triggered the 2
nd
HC pulse in the now late mature Pucara Formation.
Figure 17 of the Report Part II in the Tanguintza well is a good example to demonstrate and recognize the
staircase maturation progress of the Pucara Formation through geologic times. However, this 2
nd
Pucara
HC phase is only observed in structures where this last Neogene subsidence event formed the maximum
burial/heat exposure before some recent uplift. Other structures in the Maraon Basin have experienced a
maximum burial in the second subsidence event with the Pucara Formation maturing or even progressing
through the oil window in a single phase. Here, the last Neogene subsidence had no effect on Pucara
Formation maturity and no 2
nd
HC pulse was possible. This differential subsidence scenario perfectly
explains the earlier geochemical observation of spotty 2
nd
HC phase Pucara occurrences in the
Maraon Basin.

The Santiago and Huallaga Basins have different burial histories, characterized by moderate subsidence
from early Mesozoic times to the late Paleocene/early Neogene. Then the basins plunged to great depth in
excess of 10km. Here, the Pucara Formation slowly matured during Cretaceous times and generated and
expelled HC during late Cretaceous/Paleogene times, before rapid Neogene subsidence transferred the
Pucara Formation through the oil window into and even out of late (dry) gas generation.

As in the Maraon Basin the Chonta Formation maturity process mimics the Pucara Formation maturation
on a time maturity delayed pattern. The Chonta Formation matured and, in some wells, even passed
through the oil window in the Santiago and Huallaga Basins. It appears, that late- or overmature Chonta
Formation is replaced by mature Pozo Formation, the youngest (Tertiary) source rock formation in the
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basin. HC modeling indicates that this youngest source rock is mature in structures with thick Neogene
basin fill. It can be expected that Pozo Formation HC were generated and that expulsion and migration are
still active.

HC generation modeling in combination with geochemical data also provides some insights into the timing
of biodegradation processes in the reservoirs. The 1
st
Pucara HC phase shows some signs of
biodegradation whereas the 2
nd
Pucara HC phase entering identical reservoir horizons is an original high
mature oil, unaffected from biodegradation. Thus, biodegradation was introduced with the uplift in early
Cretaceous times, but the reservoir systems were re-sealed with continued subsidence. Neogene subsidence
caused the Chonta Formation HC generation and the 2
nd
Pucara HC phase. Subsequent uplift breached
many reservoirs containing Tambo/Sungachi Chonta oils, but the 2
nd
Pucara HC phase was not affected.


I. Future Investigations:
Although considerable progress is achieved in our understanding of HC generation in the basins a number
of problems and questions remain. The fate of gas generation is not known, the role of the Paleozoic source
rocks in parts of the Maraon Basin between super-mature and immature stages is unclear, and, in view of
the massive source beds in Perus basins, the volumes of generated oils is not known. Quantitative basin
modeling could provide some comparison on total generated oil volumes, future oil prospectivity and data
for possible future discoveries. Also, there is presently a specific lack on source rock data for the Huallaga
Basin, making it difficult to assess this basin for its exploration potential. Report data that are available,
but not yet evaluated, may fill this gap.
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II. Introduction and Scope of Study

A main purpose of this comprehensive study is the use and application of geochemical data in order to
genetically classify discovered oils, clarify the oil potential of the Greater Maraon Basin in Peru, relate oil
families to their respective sources, and to reconstruct HC generation and migration histories through
geological times. Both processes, generation and expulsion / migration, and the timing of these events, are
important parameters for the question of locating prospective areas in the Peru basins.

This report is subdivided into two parts: Part I investigates the geochemical characteristics of oil systems in
Perus major hydrocarbon provinces, and Part II evaluates results from hydrocarbon generation modeling.
Figure 1 shows the work area, the basins, and the well control in this area

Although a massive body of geochemical data exits for Peruvian basins in form of several massive studies
and a large number of smaller reports (a combined total estimated to be 12000 pages of scanned text,
figures, and data tables), exploration has made relatively little use of this information. The main reasons for
this appear to be the non-familiarity of many geologists with geochemical data and concepts, and
conflicting, contradictory information in varies reports and studies. Five reasons can be identified for this
conflicting information:
false data (measurements)
mislabeling of compounds in reports (in particular in the GeoMark Research Report)
data that should exist, but were omitted or forgotten to enter in the report (GeoMark Research
Report),
data gaps replaced by speculation
(to some extent) gross over-interpretation of geochemical data.

Some examples may illustrate the confusion, erroneous and speculative nature of data and, consequently,
the need for a re-assessment of this body of geochemical data:

The paper of Sofer et al. (1986) is often referred to as a key paper for understanding the genetic relationship
of Peruvian oils. The large Geomark Research Report covering almost 200 oils, applies the same
procedures and concepts of this Sofer et al. (1986) approach. Figure 2a shows the GC traces of two oils in
the Maraon Basin, the S. Huayuri (1) and S. Huayuri Vivian oils, along with typical biomarker spectra for
terpanes and steranes. As obvious from the visual comparison of these bulk - and tracer component
patterns, the two oils appear to be identical, both in bulk composition (GC traces) and genetic origin
(identical biomarker spectra). Sofer et al.(1986) (and GeoMark Research) routinely and probably
indiscriminately apply factor analysis to these biomarker spectra in order to classify and genetically relate
the Peruvian oils. Unfortunately, the question of biomarker geochemistry applied to highly mature oils is
never addressed, nor is there any attempt to filter or qualify these data to answer specific questions. Figure
2b shows Sofer et al. (1986) statistical factor plot with the two (identical) oils now at opposite factor
clusters, suggesting different origins or environments.

The reasons for this data conflict and other discrepancies are over-interpretation of data, in particular
biomarker data of questionable value in (highly) mature oils, and unfiltered data noise, significantly
contributing to factor scores. The end-result of this oil-typing of Peruvian oils is presented in Figure 3 in
form of a confusing, questionable Principal Component Scores diagram. There is little hope or chance to
assess or incorporate this approach into a geological context. Although this approach and interpretation
may be questionable, the raw base data of this report is probably of considerable value, because it
essentially covers every oil discovered in Peru.

Likewise, Sofer et al. (1986) states on p.386 that certain geochemical parameters, such as TAS 3 and TAS
5, are not applicable to Peruvian oils. Yet the same group of authors (now at GeoMark Research) routinely
calculate, plot, and report these values 10 years later in their comprehensive Peru oil report.

None of the reports available at PeruPetro really addresses a general observation of HC (hydrocarbon) re-
migration in many of the Peruvian oils. Re-charge affected a majority of oil reservoirs in the Maraon
Basin, to some extent also the oils in the Ucayali Basin. Source and circumstances of this re-migration is
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not clear, and a knowledgeable, critical reader is left to speculate to what degree certain geochemical data
(and interpretations) are influenced from a second pulse of migrated oil. On the other side, valuable
information is present in the data, but needs to be properly evaluated: The GeoMark Research Report
presents data of almost 200 oil analysis, of which many contain valuable data on light HC. The work of
Thompson at Arco and Mango at Shell over the last 20 years has clearly proven the enormous information
value contained in C5 to C7 hydrocarbon distributions. Hunt (1995) points out the advantage and value of
inexpensive light HC analysis over expensive biomarker data. GeoMark Research, fixed on the biomarker
approach, ignores this information completely and even does not identify or quantify these light HC that are
part of their routine GC (gas chromatography) analysis. Here, we try to evaluate this missed information
opportunity, in particular because these light HC shed some light on this second HC pulse often observed in
reservoirs.

Furthermore, some biomarker profiles presented in these reports may be of dubious value in highly mature
oils as a result of their limited thermal stability. Many of Perus oils are highly mature, yet all report
evaluations rely heavily on biomarker evaluation, which inevitably leads to erroneous or even contradicting
statements. Therefore, non-biomarker data are essential to cross-check biomarker data and to test various
conclusions derived from geochemical data analysis.

The Corelab Report generally relates interpretations closer to measured rather than statistically processed
data; yet there are a number of inconsistencies derived from over-interpretation of data. In an attempt to
group the few oils investigated, some basic, solid parameters are not honoured in classification attempts
mainly based on biomarkers. Thus, a genetic oil classification scheme presented here for the first time is
based on the entire data body, which was carefully investigated and evaluated. It differs from previous
attempts to define the oil-source system of the Subandean basins in Peru.

In regard to source beds there is some speculation or gaps of data in individual reports. Some reports refer
to virtually every shale as a potential source rock for the oils. Based on speculation (or information of
unknown source), a number of authors, for example, refer to the Ene Formation as a significant source
throughout the Peruvian Subandean basins. Available data question this point of view. The Pucara is
generally considered to be a good source, yet no report specifically identifies and demonstrates Pucara oils.
Furthermore, Salas (1991) limits the Pucara source to specific areas of the Ucayali Basin and southern
Huallaga Basin. Mathalone and Montoya (1993) see the Pucara source as well (and richer!) in the Maraon
and Santiago Basins. These examples demonstrate a lack of consistent and systematic data presentation
despite the presence of large data sets.

Thus, a second key aspect of this ChemTerra Intl. (CTI) report is the critical evaluation of data and
previous interpretations with the goal to provide a geochemical basin assessment based on comprehensive,
but quality-controlled geochemical data sets.

Specifically, in order to achieve these goals, this report tries to answer the following questions:

What geochemical types of oils are present in the basins and how are these oils genetically related?

Where in the basins do we find distinct genetic groups of oils? This information is essential for first
attempts to identify or speculate on source beds and migration avenues involved in the process of
reservoir filling.

Which and how many source beds have to be involved to explain the observed genetic variety of oils?
Where are the hydrocarbon kitchens of these source beds that generated the reservoired oils?

Can we conclusively demonstrate oil oil correlations, which is important for our understanding of
migration avenues and trap filling mechanisms?

Can we conclusively demonstrate source oil correlations that subsequently serve as base information
to decipher migration distances, quantify oil volumes involved, and provide information for subsequent
model reconstruction from source to trap?
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In particular, the Maraon Basin has experienced reservoir oil mixing from (different?) sources or as a
result of re-migration from tilted reservoirs. Did oil types co-mingled and in what quantities? Did
multiple hydrocarbon migration use established, older avenues or were new migration pathways
involved due to basin restructuring? Was a second phase migration a result of block tilting with
subsequent re-distribution of old, but reservoired oil? Or was re-migration a result of a second
generation/expulsion phase?

The basins have late and overmature source sections that must also have generated large quantities of
gas. So far, no major gas discovery is reported. Did the gas migrate into different directions (as, e.g. in
the WCSB) and escaped to surface?

The basins in question evolved in stages throughout their geologic past. This often implies more than
one phase of HC expulsion and migration. Can we provide insights to these geochemical events in time
from thermal modeling and HC generation modeling?

This initial, preliminary report essentially omits any geological framework and rather concentrates on the
geochemical task. The reader may be referred to many reports and publications available at PeruPetro for
the geological basin analysis and basin evaluation

The mandate for this project was to evaluate geochemical data for the Santiago, Huallaga and Maraon
Basins. Because of data problems and overlap of geochemical data from different sources in the Ucayali
Basin, these data are also incorporated here. The Greater Maraon Basin referred to in this report means
the combined Ucayali/Huallaga, Santiago/Maraon Basins, that were part of a large Paleozoic marine basin
complex before individual basins and subbasins evolved at the end of Paleozoic times.


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III. Study Approach, Limitations, and Databases

Since there is a large body of significant information available in a large number of reports and in order to
systematically use and evaluate these data with confidence, it was decided to initiate a user-friendly Excel
database. Most of the basic source rock data for the Greater Maraon Basin were quality checked and
entered into a database. A second database was initiated for the basin oils with almost complete entry of all
Ucayali oils. However, additional future efforts are required to correct data and link these databases.

In this present phase, the Corelab Report and the Geomark Research Report are the essential data entries
and data evaluations. The Corelab data comprise outcrop samples and a number of oil data, mostly from the
Ucayali Basin and the western Maraon Basin. The Geomark Research Report comprises a massive data
set, mostly biomarker data, of virtually every oil discovered in Peru, however, no source rocks were
investigated.

Since these two major reports are of different vintages it is not possible to link and easily compare source
rock data from Corelab with oil data from GeoMark Research. The Ucayali Basin oils had to be added into
this study because of sampling overlap of the two labs with the possibility to cross-check analytical data.
Here, some significant discrepancies evolved when comparing identical samples from different labs: it
appears that GeoMark Research has compounds misidentified. The two databases are only compatible
when these discrepancies are resolved.

Besides the two mentioned data sets, a number of data from varies reports and summary reports were
entered, mostly data from the DGSI Lab in Houston, USA. Special emphasis was put on maturation data
because these data are key parameters for thermal - and HC generation modeling attempts. At present time
some basin areas show a reasonable data coverage. Additional future inspection of several other large
studies (e.g. the Anardarko Report, a 2
nd
Corelab report etc.) may fill in some data gaps. Table 1 provides
an overview of source rock data entry up to November 30,2000.

Table1: Source Rock Data Entry
Basic
Data
TOC R.E. Ro Ex-
tract
Fractions dC13Sat dC13
Aromatic
IP14-
18
Pr-
Ph
x x x x x x x x x x
DGSIMancheriche x x x x x
Mobil Ponassillo x x
DGSI Pupuntas x x x x x
DGSI Tanguinza x x x x x
DGSI Tamanco x x x x x
CoreLab/Tucunare x x x x x



2. Advantages of a Database
The decision to initiate a computer database was made primarily to properly evaluate geochemical data sets
from different basin areas and different labs. This decision also involved additional time requirements and
thus cost, however, CTI also feels that a computer database provides decisive advantages for later data
evaluations and specific data searches that would be difficult to perform without such a database. Some of
the advantages are:

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After a massive effort of data entry for the Ucayali oils the entire genetic oil classification of this basin
could be profoundly performed in short time.

Exploration is presently evaluating the foothill trend in the Huallaga/Santiago basin area with specific
questions on source rock data and source rock distributions. Some key questions could be addressed
immediately instead of searching report files for hours or days. Thus, searching, finding and retrieving
geochemical data becomes very fast and efficient.

Rather than just assessing previous data or evaluations isolated from individual reports, a database
incorporating all data from various sources allows us now to completely revise and update
geochemical maps with increased confidence. Thus, we will be able to present maps, cross-plots etc.
on more complete data sets.

In the present form, the geochemical data sets are of minor value due to unresolved inconsistencies and
lack of a proper digital, fast retrieval system. A quality controlled, structured and usable database is an
asset for any company with exploration interests in Peru. Exploration companies frequently borrow
geochemical reports located at PeruPetro. A geochemical database is an asset that can be sold, traded,
or offered to attract interest.


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IV. Oil Classification in the Ucayali Basin

The Ucayali Basin, including the Pachitea Subbasin, is structurally separated from surrounding basins by
structural highs and arches.

Ucayali oils are found in the Vivian, Paco, Cashiyacu, Ene, Aqua Caliente, Raya, and Aguanuya
Formations. The reservoired, non-biodegraded oils in this basin have API gravities from around 30
o
to
almost 55
o
and low %S contents between 0.01 and 0.5%. Oils in the Maquia Oil Field consistently show
values between around 0.3 and 0.5 % S. A reported value of 0.07% S in the Maquia 1 well is probably in
error, a high value of 0.55% for a La Colpa oil at 1555m is the result of biodegradation enriching the S-
content of oils. Based on oil groupings discussed later, the original, unaffected La Colpa oil should have
around 0.1 0.2 % S-content.

Figures 4.0 to 4.3 show a number of Whole Oil Chromatograms of reservoired Ucayali Basin oils.

Figure 4.0 is the Aqua Caliente 32 oil in the Raya Formation. The alkane envelope with a maximum around
C
9
-C
10
suggests a very mature oil, possible generated at Ro 1.0 1.2%.

Figure 4.1 shows the Whole Oil GC of a Cashiriari light oil with an n-alkane envelope terminated at about
nC
25
. Isoprenoid hydrocarbons (Ip13-Ip18 and Pr-Ph) are very low in concentration, as are biomarker
concentrations in this light oil. These are indications for a highly mature oil near the bottom of the oil
window.

Figures 4.2a-c show a reservoir depth sequence of La Colpa oils from around 1555m down to 2450m. The
shallow La Colpa 1x oil at 1555m is heavily biodegraded as obvious from the large hump and lack or
reduction of n-alkanes, which are preferentially degraded. The low API gravity of this oil is clearly a result
of biodegradation.

The La Colpa oil at 2001m (Figure 4.2b) is moderately biodegraded, reflected by intermediate API value
and presence of n-alkanes, although at reduced levels.

The La Colpa Whole Oil GC from a depth of 2453m in Figure 4.2c shows the original, unaffected La Colpa
oil. Again, a high maturity seems indicated for this oil.

Figure 4.3 is an example for an oil in the Maquia Oil Field. A peculiar observation is a bimodal alkane
envelope suggesting a second charge into the reservoir at high maturity. The alkane envelope nC
12
-C
40

would suggest a primary charge of a fully mature oil, followed by a 2
nd
later charge.

There are some common features to these Ucayali oils that provide a first indication of source
environments: Except for the Maquia oil in Figure 4.3, all oils exhibit a preference of methylcyclohexane
(MCH) over nC
7
, an indication for a terrestrial, or even significant terrestrial source input (von der Dick et
al., 1989). This dominance of MCH correlates with high Pristane over Phytane ratios (Pr/Ph > 1.0) in all
Ucayali oils, also indicating a terrestrial OM input besides a Kerogen Type II source. The Cashiriari oils
have highest MCH and Pr/Ph dominances, indicating a significant Kerogen Type III source for this oil.

In contrast, the S- richer Maquia oils have n-C
7
dominance associated with Pr/Ph ratios <1.0 as shown in
Figure 4.3. In particular the Pytane dominance in the old(1
st
charge) Maquia oil and the nC
7
dominance in
the young (2
nd
charge) Maquia oil suggest a dual-HC phase input from a single, pure Kerogen Type II
source at times of different source maturity levels. Since we have no indication for a second pure Kerogen
Type II source in the Ucayali Basin, a 2
nd
charge from the identical source is indicated in the Maquia 12
well. The Maquia wells 1, 11, 16, and 30 all display this dual alkane envelope. The Maquia 17 well is the
only exception.

A more in-depth approach of genetic relationship of Ucayali Oils is demonstrated in the following figures,
using some basic, but distinctly characteristic geochemical features to classify Ucayali Basin oils.

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Figure 5 shows a cross-plot of Pr/nC17 versus Ph/nC18. These ratios are both source and maturity
controlled, with a trend of increasing maturity to the origin of the diagram and source variation recognized
across diagonal trends. The plot suggests a majority of the Ucayali Basin oils derived from Type II-III
Kerogens, but it also shows a distinct group of oils related to a Type II Kerogen of a reducing depositional
environment. All Kerogen Type II oils in Figure 5 are from the Huaga and Maquia Oil Fields.

The S-content of the (original, non-biodegraded) oils can be used as an additional parameter to further
classify the oils as illustrated in Figure 6. Both Figures 5 and 6 show the presence of three basic oil groups
in the basin: San Martin / Cashiriari oils with very low S-content, but high Pr/Ph ratios. The Aqua Caliente-
Ganzo Azul-La Colpa sample group with low S-contents and Pr/Ph values >1 (but <2) and the Maquia oil
sample group with higher S-contents and Pr/Ph ratios consistently <1 are identified. An identical, basic
grouping is seen when using isotope data in conjunction with Pr/Ph data (Figure 7). The San Martin /
Cashiriari oils have distinctively heavier C-isotopes compared to other oils.

Sterane and Hopane profiles of oils provide further insights into genetic relationships of oils. Figure 8
displays Sterane/Hopane (S/H) ratios for these Ucayali oils. The ratio is rather homogeneous, and scattered
in oils (condensates) of generally low biomarker content as a result of their high maturity (San Martin,
Aguaytia, Cashiriari); however the La Colpa oils, and to some extent the Sepa oil, clearly deviate from the
general distribution pattern. The unusual S/H ratio of the La Colpa oils suggests a separate, single source
for these oils in the La Colpa Field. The Sepa oil is here tentatively explained as a 60% mixture of an Aqua
Caliente oil and a 40% mixture of a La Colpa contribution. Further data evaluation may be used to assess
these possible mixing processes in the reservoir.

The Aguaytia light oil (condensate?) from the Aqua Caliente Formation is an interesting oil in the basin.
This oil is like most highly mature oils difficult to assess in regard to genetic relationships. However,
the Aquaytia light oil also shows the unique nC
7
dominance over MCH as seen in the less mature Maquia
oils. This suggests the identical source at very high maturity and further corroborates the idea of two HC
phases from this source. Perhaps, the Aguaytia structure is relatively young compared with the Maquia
structure and did not receive a first charge as did the Maquia oil field.

The Aqua Caliente oils share some common features with the Maquia oils: in the Maquia oils, nC
7
is
dominating MCH; in the Agua Caliente oils this ratio is close to one. Also, the C
24
-Tetracyclic Terpane is
prominent relative to C
25
and C
26
Tricyclic Terpanes in both types of oils (this biomarker pair is of
diagnostic value and will be discussed later). However, Aqua Caliente oils are distinctively lower in their S-
content, suggesting a different source environment than from the Maquia oils.

Table 2 is a summary of geochemical parameters relevant to the oil classification and oil families in the
Ucayali Basin; Figure 9 shows the interrelationship of these oil families. Based on the geochemical data
discrimination described before, it appears that at least four distinct, independent oil families are present
in the basin, i.e. four source rock units/environments in the basin are indicated to have generated these oil
families at (apparently various) times and maturities in the geologic past. The Sepa oil is tentatively
explained as a mixture of La Colpa with Aqua Caliente oil.

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Table 2: Geochemical Characteristics of Ucayali Oil Families
San Martin/
Cachiriari

La Colpa
Aqua Caliente/
Ganzo Azul

Maquia
% S 0.0-0.04 0.08 0.05-0.1 0.25-0.4
Pr / Ph 2.3-3.5 1.0-2.0 1.0-2.0 < 1.0
C
13
-26.5

to -25.5 -29.3 to -29.1 -28.7 to -28.6 -29.0 to -28.5
S / H invalid 3.0-5.0 < 1.0 < 1.0
n
C
7
/ MCH << 1.0 < 1.0 ~1 < 1.0
Dinosterane Absent Absent Absent Present
Present Present Present Absent
B. S/H: Sterane / Hopane ratio Pr/Ph: Pristane / Phytane ratio
C. MCH: Methylcyclohexane
D.

Table 2 also provides some geochemical constraints for the search of the source beds for these oil families.
The lack of Dinosterane, a derivative of a sterol in modern dinoflagellates, in the Ucayali Basin oils (with
the exception of the Maquia oils) suggest Paleozoic sources for these oils. The Maquia Oil Family with
presence of Dinosterane suggests a Triassic or younger source age.
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V. Oil-Oil Correlation and Oil Classification in the Santiago / Huallaga /
Maraon Basins

Oil discoveries have been made in a number of wells in the Santiago Basin, for instance in the Puintza 1X
and the Putuime 1X wells, while there is no discovery reported for the Huallaga Basin. However, the
Shanusi Seep located in the Huallaga Basin in the Chonta Formation may serve as an indication for the oil
prospectively of this basin.

The Maraon Basin has numerous oil discoveries in many oil fields as shown and discussed in following
sections.

The API gravities for the oils in these three basins vary widely, from around 15
o
to 35
o
degree. No oil in
these basins shows clear signs of immaturity, and low API gravities are related to varies degrees of
biodegradation. The GC traces of biodegraded oils show reduced or truncated n-alkane distributions and
typical humps of analytically unresolved (complex) branched and cyclic HC. The branched and cyclic
alkanes resist biodegradation to some degree, whereas n-alkanes, in particular the light n-alkanes, are
preferably degraded. Since biodegradation enriches the sulfur content compared with the original oil, the
sulfur content has little value here to decipher genetic relationships. Also, API gravities do not necessarily
correspond with the intensity of biodegradation in many cases, because as will be discussed later many
reservoirs appear to have experienced a second phase of reservoir charge or are experiencing continuous
(recent) charge with some or perhaps no reservoir alteration of this re-charge.

Figures 10a 10d show a series of Whole Oil GC traces for selected oils in these basins. The common
characteristics of these oils are broad n-alkane envelopes; sometimes extending into the nC40 range, with a
maximum in the nC10 nC15 range. The smooth n-alkane distributions suggest mature oils, i.e. an
equivalent Ro level of around 0.8%.

However, there are also distinct differences observed in the GC traces of these oils: Puintza 1, Tambo 1,
and Sungachi 1are oils with MCH > nC7, all other oils display nC7 > MCH. Also, these three oils
consistently show Pr/Ph ratios > 1.0 and the IP patterns (Ip-13 Ip-18) of these three oils appear to be
similar (although this comparison should be based on quantified data rather than a visual comparison). In
contrast, the Samiria, Huasaga, Chambira Este, and Yanayacu oils show nC7 > MCH and Pr/Ph ratios <
1.0. Thus, it appears that two basic oil types are present in the Santiago/Maraon Basins with the following
characteristics when some biomarker data and isotope values are incorporated (Table 3):


Table 3: Geochemical parameters to discriminate and group Santiago/Maraon Basin oils
Parameter for Oil Type Type Tambo - Sungachi Type Samiria
nC7/MCH Ratio < 1 > 1
Pr/Ph Ratio > 1 < 1
Steranes/Hopanes (S/H) 0.6 1.0 0.1 0.4
TET / (T25+T26) low Moderate to high
dC13
sat
(permil) -25.0 -28.5 -28.4 - -29.3
Diasteranes (ppm) Abundant Reduced
Diahopanes (ppm) Generally Present Generally Absent

Some essential information can be derived from this Table 3: Tambo Sungachi oils are of Kerogen II-III
origin and derived from a more open, oxic depositional environment. High MCH levels indicate the
Kerogen Type III contribution, as does often a high Pr/Ph ratio. Abundance of Diasteranes and Diahopanes
indicates a shaly environment.

Samiria oils are derived from an anoxic Kerogen Type II environment with a substantial portion of organic
matter derived from bacteria as a result of high C29-C35 Hopane derivatives (low S/H ratios). The low or
even absent levels of rearranged (=Dia-) biomarker may suggest a carbonate source environment for this oil
type.
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The common origin of the Tambo 1 oil and the Sungachi 1 oil is clearly obvious from Figure 11, showing
identical sterane patterns for both oils. Thus, the Tambo/Sungachi oils are truly a major oil family in the
Santiago/Maraon Basins based on several common geochemical source indicators in Table 3 and Figure
11. Besides these common characteristics of the Tambo/Sungachi Oil Family, some differences are also
noted which ultimately results in two sub-families: The Tambo Oil Family and the Sungachi Oil Family.

As indicated in Figure 10a, the Tambo 1 oil shows an extended n-alkane range into nC
45
, whereas the
Sungachi oil in Figure 10b does not exhibit n-alkanes into this range. This extended n-alkane range is
typical for more waxy oils influenced from higher land plant input. In fact, this is (tentatively) supported by
biomarker data: the Tambo 1 oil has more land plant derived biomarker compounds than the Sungachi oil.
The Puintza 1 oil in the Vivian Formation may be a Sungachi oil type. However, an extended biomarker
database is required to systematically separate Tambo type oils from Sungachi type oils on a consistent,
basin-wide scale. The observed differences in the extended n-alkane range may have limited diagnostic
value for oils with a long migration history.

Similarly, the Samiria oils can apparently be subdivided into two units; the Tiraco Dome Seep is a Samiria
oil type based on basic geochemical criteria and specific biomarker profiles. However, the variation of a
specific biomarker pair, a C
24
-Tetracyclic Terpane (Tet) and the associated C
25
- and C
26
-Tricyclic Terpanes
(T25 and T26), display considerable variation as shown in Figure 12. In Tambo/Sungachi type oils, Tet is
always reduced compared to the two Tricyclic Terpanes T25 and T26, whereas Tet is always dominant in
Samiria type oils, however, with considerable variation. Preliminary thinking is that the extreme Tet
dominance in Maraon Basin oils is related to a Kerogen Type II of a pure marine carbonate environment,
whereas moderate Tet dominance may signal some shaly component within this carbonate. This is also
supported by very reduced Diasterane levels in the Tiraco Dome Seep, which may reflect the reducing, pure
carbonate environment. The Tiraco Dome Seep is certainly not derived from a Cretaceous terrestrial source
as speculated in the Geomark Research Report.

A comparison of the general characteristics of the Maquia oils in the Ucayali Basin with the Samiria 1 oil
in the Maraon Basin reveals some common features which in turn suggest an identical source for these
oils: Both oils share nC
7
/MCH ratios >1 and Pr/Ph ratios consistently <1. No other oil type in the entire
Greater Maraon Basin has these characteristics. Furthermore, Maquia and Samiria oils have S/H ratios
<1.0 and lack (or very reduced) Diahopane levels (see Table 2 and Table 3).

Figure 13a shows the Whole Oil GC of these two oils. Although the Maquia oils are influenced from a 2
nd

charge of light oil the identical Isoprenoid biomarker patterns Ip-13 Ip-18 and Pr Ph relationships in
these two oils are good indications for an identical origin. The Sterane biomarker pattern shows a partial
correlation in Figure 13b, the Triterpanes in Figure 13c do not really correlate. However, this partial
mismatch of very source-specific and source-dependent tracer compounds is not surprising, considering the
fact that the two oils are 300 km apart and situated in different basins separated by the Contaya Arch; thus,
some source variation is expected. Yet, the basic biomarker characteristics for this class of oil are clearly
present: Tet dominating T25 and T26 and Diasteranes substantially reduced compared to all other oils
found so far in the Greater Maraon Basin.

An attempt to correlate other Ucayali oils with Maraon/Santiago/Huallaga oils or seeps failed. It appears,
that Aqua Caliente, La Colpa, and Cashiriari oil types are restricted to the Ucayali Basin.

Thus, in following chapters we will refer to the following oil families: Aqua Caliente, La Colpa, Cashiriari,
Tambo/Sungachi and Maquia, as the Samiria S1 oil is a Maquia oil type. The Maquia oil type may fall into
two sub-groups: Maquia A1, the pure carbonate source, and Maquia A2, the shaly carbonate
environment, as outlined in Figure 12. As discussed, Figure 11 demonstrates the close genetic relationship
of the Sungachi 1 oil and the Tambo 1 oil. Yet, as also outlined, the Tambo 1 oil has a waxy component
added from a slightly higher terrestrial input. This slight facies difference between these two oils is not
readily recognized from visual biomarker profiling. Figure 14 provides an overview of the oil families
recognized in the Santiago/Maraon Basins.

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Oils in the NE Maraon Basin are substantially more difficult to classify due to their sometimes extensive
level of biodegradation and water washing, and due to some data problems. However, a partial second oil
database provides some insight into the nature and origin of these (heavily) biodegraded oils. These data
include samples from screened, partially hand-calculated, corrected Corelab & Geomark Research data, the
critical Bretana 1 oil as the most eastern oil discovery, and control samples from all oils the Ucayali Basin
as shown in Table 4.
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Table 4: Screened data from GeoMark and Corelab reports.

Lab # Sample
ID
Basin Field/Loc. Type Well x y Formation Oil Family Depth
(ft)
nC7 MCH nC7/M
CH
13Csat pr/ph pr/17 ph/18 tet/26 S/H
CoreLab U Agua
Caliente
32 Agua
Caliente
17.65 16.31 1.08 -28.50 1.33 0.31 0.26 0.73 0.35
GeoMark PR-092 U Agua
Caliente
AC-26 74.71 8.83 Paco Agua
Caliente
4.20 4.40 0.95 -28.68 1.47 0.36 0.27 0.61 0.51
CoreLab U Cashiriari 3X Cashiriari 12.81 22.60 0.57 -26.10 2.08 0.23 0.15 1.78 0.69
GeoMark PR-133 U Cashiriari 1X 72.73 11.87 Ene Cashiriari 8490 7.60 7.23 1.05 -25.87 3.10 0.19 0.09 1.59 1.14
GeoMark PR-185 U Cashiriari 72.78 11.86 Agua
Caliente
Cashiriari 7814 5.85 6.30 0.93 -25.81 3.41 0.25 0.10 1.00 0.65
CoreLab U La Colpa 1X La Colpa 1.88 21.25 0.09 -29.00 1.52 1.15 0.80 0.34 1.96
CoreLab U La Colpa 1X La Colpa 11.21 20.58 0.54 -29.10 1.53 0.66 0.46 0.31 1.82
CoreLab U La Colpa 1X La Colpa 9.84 13.55 0.73 -29.20 1.50 0.52 0.40 0.23 4.00
CoreLab M Huasaga 1X Maquia 25.92 19.43 1.33 -29.00 0.86 0.94 1.19 0.66 0.34
CoreLab M Chambira Esta 124 Maquia 28.51 17.79 1.60 -28.90 0.93 0.58 0.67 0.68 0.36
CoreLab M Yanayacu 61XCD Maquia 30.68 21.05 1.46 -28.40 1.05 0.66 0.73 0.78 0.31
CoreLab M Samiria S1 Maquia 42.11 25.86 1.63 -28.70 1.03 0.34 0.38 0.86 0.33
CoreLab U Campo
Maquia
12 Maquia 28.34 8.42 3.37 -28.50 0.70 0.31 0.46 0.71 0.40
CoreLab M Corrientes 6X Maquia 18.93 16.66 1.14 -29.20 0.80 1.13 1.45 0.66 0.33
GeoMark PR-049 M Bretana Maquia -24.80 1.25 1.28 1.10 0.63 0.62
GeoMark PR-132 M Capirona 2X 75.42 3.52 Chonta Maquia 9548 0.22 0.32 0.68 -29.22 1.05 0.57 0.65 0.54 0.54
GeoMark PR-183 M Capirona 2X 75.42 3.52 Chonta Maquia 9557 2.87 1.43 2.01 -29.28 1.15 0.60 0.64 0.52 0.55
GeoMark PR-095 M Corrientes DST 1 28XCD 75.07 3.82 Chonta Maquia 11364 0.02 0.05 0.41 -29.18 0.98 0.89 0.97 0.58 0.50
GeoMark PR-102 M Corrientes DST 3 10XC 75.07 3.82 Chonta Maquia 9824 0.07 0.11 0.65 -29.24 0.96 0.97 1.05 0.52 0.54
GeoMark PR-104 M Corrientes 12XC 75.07 3.82 Chonta Maquia 9892 0.24 0.25 0.96 -29.24 0.91 0.89 1.00 0.52 0.52
GeoMark PR-108 M Corrientes 16XCD 75.07 3.82 Chonta Maquia 10500 0.50 0.51 0.98 -29.19 1.04 0.93 1.01 0.53 0.52
GeoMark PR-114 M Corrientes 6XC 75.07 3.82 Chonta Maquia 9630 0.11 0.11 1.00 -29.16 0.92 1.09 1.16 0.52 0.59
GeoMark PR-135 M Corrientes 8-21-1X 75.06 3.81 Chonta Maquia 9850 0.54 0.44 1.23 -29.20 0.99 1.08 1.14 0.50 0.54
GeoMark PR-182 M Corrientes 45XCD 75.07 3.82 Chonta Maquia 10716 0.47 0.37 1.29 -29.16 0.99 0.90 0.98 0.50 0.58
GeoMark PR-191 M San Juan 77XD 75.21 3.69 Chonta Maquia 10338 0.19 0.18 1.09 -29.22 0.97 1.16 1.31 0.50 0.61
GeoMark PR-039 M Sun 1z 1X Cushabatay Maquia 16549 3.22 2.90 1.11 -29.21 1.33 0.62 0.54 0.59 0.69
GeoMark PR-099 M Yanayacu DST2 32XC 74.94 4.89 Maquia 0.10 0.21 0.48 -29.14 0.94 0.85 0.96 0.49 0.51
Oil Generation In Subandean Basins Of Peru Part I Confidential Report
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GeoMark PR-090 U Campo
Maquia
MA-11 74.95 7.33 Maquia 0.50 0.21 2.38 -28.68 0.92 0.30 0.36 0.48 0.55
GeoMark PR-144 U Campo
Maquia
16 74.96 7.32 Cashiyacu Maquia 2040 2.60 3.30 0.79 -28.59 0.95 0.30 0.37 0.63 0.60
GeoMark PR-072 U Campo
Maquia
16 74.95 7.33 Maquia 2136 0.29 0.11 2.64 -28.65 0.79 0.29 0.38 0.47 0.63
GeoMark PR-139 U Huaya 4X 75.19 7.11 Vivian Maquia 904 0.90 0.20 4.50 -28.67 0.86 0.36 0.43 0.46 0.56
GeoMark PR-145 M Pauayacu 70XC 75.41 3.36 Vivian Maquia? 8335 9.40 4.60 2.04 -28.47 1.33 0.39 0.39 0.52 0.62
GeoMark PR-192 M Valencia 100D 75.74 3.18 Chonta Maquia? 10936 2.60 2.07 1.26 -28.38 1.59 0.30 0.27 0.50 1.13
GeoMark PR-080 M Valencia 25X 75.74 3.18 Vivian Maquia? 1.85 0.82 2.26 -28.52 1.35 0.30 0.29 0.57 0.56
CoreLab Sungachi 1 Tambo/Sun
gachi
13.78 36.00 0.38 -25.30 1.15 1.02 1.02 0.19 0.64
CoreLab Piuntza 1 Tambo/Sun
gachi
14.74 17.36 0.85 -28.10 1.29 0.41 0.37 0.34 0.95
CoreLab Tambo 1 Tambo/Sun
gachi
17.97 26.46 0.68 -28.30 1.27 0.61 0.54 0.30 1.05
GeoMark PR-057 M Bartra 75.64 2.47 Vivian Tambo/Sun
gachi
0.05 0.09 0.60 -26.88 1.10 1.00 0.79 0.25 1.49
GeoMark PR-122 M Bartra 1B-17-5 75.64 2.46 Vivian Tambo/Sun
gachi
8503 0.02 0.07 0.29 -26.74 1.36 0.98 0.65 0.26 1.67
GeoMark PR-123 M Bartra 1B-17-2 75.65 2.48 Vivian Tambo/Sun
gachi
7850 0.02 0.04 0.50 -26.82 1.20 0.96 0.70 0.25 1.29
GeoMark PR-119 M Capahuari 1A-43-14 76.43 2.80 Vivian Tambo/Sun
gachi
12200 0.10 0.80 0.13 -28.10 1.38 0.65 0.54 0.23 2.31
GeoMark PR-121 M Capahuari 1A-43-13 76.43 2.80 Vivian Tambo/Sun
gachi
12551 0.53 1.70 0.31 -27.98 1.41 0.60 0.49 0.16 2.22
GeoMark PR-131 M Capahuari 11 76.50 2.69 Vivian Tambo/Sun
gachi
13339 5.60 7.80 0.72 -28.29 1.37 0.71 0.60 0.21 1.52
GeoMark PR-073 M Capahuari -
54
54 76.43 2.80 Chonta Tambo/Sun
gachi
12877 0.24 0.78 0.31 -24.30 1.43 0.96 0.71 0.20 0.42
GeoMark PR-147 M Capahuari S
V-4
RFT V-4 76.43 2.80 Vivian? Tambo/Sun
gachi
2.05 2.55 0.80 -28.13 1.49 0.60 0.46 0.21 2.00
GeoMark PR-062 M Capahuari S-
27
27 76.43 2.80 Chonta Tambo/Sun
gachi
3.40 5.00 0.68 -24.94 1.39 1.14 0.93 0.17 0.76
GeoMark PR-053 M Dorissa 76.21 2.75 Chonta Tambo/Sun
gachi
11705 1.18 1.36 0.87 -26.82 1.33 0.67 0.66 0.19 0.75
GeoMark PR-054 M Dorissa 76.21 2.75 Vivian Tambo/Sun 2.61 4.18 0.62 -28.54 1.37 0.68 0.57 0.26 1.35
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gachi
GeoMark PR-070 M Dorissa 1 76.21 2.76 Vivian Tambo/Sun
gachi
2.60 6.80 0.38 -28.55 1.41 0.79 0.63 0.24 1.21
GeoMark PR-111 M Dorissa 1A-49-1 76.20 2.77 Vivian Tambo/Sun
gachi
10747 1.34 2.50 0.54 -28.45 1.40 0.65 0.54 0.23 1.24
GeoMark PR-059 M Forestal V 76.23 2.31 Vivian Tambo/Sun
gachi
0.03 0.10 0.33 -27.23 1.44 0.77 0.62 0.24 1.73
GeoMark PR-136 M Forestal CH-10 76.16 2.34 Chonta Tambo/Sun
gachi
4.25 5.90 0.72 -26.33 1.41 0.92 0.79 0.19 0.70
GeoMark PR-137 M Forestal 5 76.16 2.34 Vivian Tambo/Sun
gachi
9760 0.31 0.92 0.34 -27.26 1.40 0.66 0.51 0.22 1.71
GeoMark PR-060 M Huayuri 13 76.23 2.62 Chonta Tambo/Sun
gachi
11641 1.86 2.20 0.85 -26.11 1.35 0.84 0.79 0.20 0.69
GeoMark PR-140 M Huayuri V-3 76.23 2.63 Vivian Tambo/Sun
gachi
0.17 0.57 0.30 -28.02 1.44 0.65 0.51 0.23 1.62
GeoMark PR-141 M Huayuri 2 76.23 2.62 Vivian Tambo/Sun
gachi
10318 3.10 4.30 0.72 -28.19 1.41 0.65 0.54 0.20 1.72
GeoMark PR-190 M Huayuri 1A-48-1 76.23 2.62 Chonta Tambo/Sun
gachi
10783 4.50 5.55 0.81 -26.39 1.41 0.87 0.73 0.18 0.67
GeoMark PR-055 M San Jacinto B 75.88 2.30 Chonta Tambo/Sun
gachi
8510 1.30 2.40 0.54 -26.21 1.28 1.16 1.04 0.19 0.70
GeoMark PR-071 M San Jacinto A 75.87 2.32 Vivian Tambo/Sun
gachi
0.10 0.25 0.40 -26.74 1.31 1.05 0.85 0.26 1.30
GeoMark PR-051 M Shiviyacu 76.14 2.50 Vivian Tambo/Sun
gachi
0.10 0.02 4.00 -27.89 1.28 0.58 0.52 0.21 1.55
GeoMark PR-146 M Shiviyacu V-26 76.14 2.49 Vivian Tambo/Sun
gachi
0.55 1.30 0.42 -27.83 1.47 0.61 0.47 0.25 1.51
GeoMark PR-044 S Dominguza 1 77.82 4.39 Puca Tambo/Sun
gachi
2935 1.10 2.07 0.53 -28.28 1.67 0.65 0.43 0.35 0.90
GeoMark PR-045 S Piuntza DST 1 1 77.79 4.11 Vivian Tambo/Sun
gachi
12811 3.85 4.50 0.86 -28.44 1.48 0.54 0.42 0.36 1.19

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Figure 15 is the identical cross-plot to Figure 5 showing the Ucayali oils. A general separation of the
Greater Maraon Basin oil families is clearly indicated. All Maquia Type oils plot in the Kerogen Type II
field or close to the border of Type II-III. All other oil families plot in the Kerogen Type II-III region, with
Cashiriari oils as the most mature oils and with the highest Kerogen Type III signature. In this plot, all the
NE Maraon Basin oils plot in the field of Tambo/Sungachi oils, suggesting, in fact, a Tambo/Sungachi oil
type. The Bretana 1 oil, indicated here as a Maquia oil type for reasons discussed below, plots close to the
Tambo/Sungachi oils.

Figure 16 is the Pr/Ph versus dC
13
sat cross-plot for all oils investigated here. Some further discrimination of
oil families is recognized from this plot. Cashiriari oils are a distinct group here because of high Pr/Ph
ratios not observed in any other family. Maquia oils and La Colpa oils form distinct clusters due to some
common geochemical characteristics. Tambo/Sungachi oils (including the NE Maraon Basin oils) form a
large, nevertheless distinct cluster. The Aqua Caliente group forms a separate cluster within the
Tambo/Sungachi cluster. The Bretana 1 oil appears to have Tambo/Sungachi characteristics; however, it is
possible that some of the Bretana geochemical characteristics are modified from both extensive reservoir
degradation (see discussion below) and very long distance migration.

Figure 17 is an important biomarker diagram based on Sterane/Hopane (S/H) ratios and the Tet/T26 ratio,
the ratio of C24-Tetracyclic versus the C26-Tricyclic Terpane discussed in Table 3 as an important source
discriminator for the oils. As expected, Maquia oils overlap with Agua Caliente oils with identical Tet/T26
ratios and similar low S/H ratios (see also Figure 8!). However, Tambo/Sungachi oils are clearly separated
from Maquia oils. The NE Maraon Basin oils are again consistent with Tambo/Sungachi signatures.

Thus, it is proven that these biodegraded NE Maraon Basin oils belong to the genetic Tambo/Sungachi Oil
Family, and are not derived from Maquia oil related sources. The Bretana 1 oil plots in the center of typical
Maquia oils, strongly suggesting a Maquia type oil origin but with some characteristics that underwent
changes due to long distance migration and degradation. Biomarkers are fairly resistant to degradation, in
particular the Tri- and Tetracyclic Terpanes used in Figure 17, which is the reason for our suggested
classification of the Bretana 1 oil as a Maquia oil. On the other hand, low S/H values for some
Tambo/Sungachi oils may be the result of biodegradation since steranes are degraded before Hopanes.

La Colpa and Cashiriari oils also form their distinct clusters in Figure 17, although the values for the
Cashiriari oils are not reliable due to the high maturity of these oils.

Figure 18 is a cross-plot of Pr/Ph versus nC
7
/MCH. The nC
7
/MCH values of Maquia oils are typically >1,
but extent here into values of 0.5 as a result of biodegradation. Tambo/Sungachi, Cashiriari and Agua
Caliente oils plot in distinct clusters, and La Colpa oils coincide with Tambo/Sungachi oils because of their
common characteristics as Kerogen Type II-III derived oils. Although there are some scattered data points
due to the high mobility of light HC and degradation effects, this Figure 18 confirms the oil classification
scheme derived from a number of geochemical parameters. The main oil families in the Greater Maraon
Basin are:
the Cashiriari, Agua Caliente and La Colpa Oil Families limited to the Ucayali Basin,
the Maquia Oil Family with presence in almost the entire Greater Maraon Basin, and
the Tambo/Sungachi Oil Family in the Santiago/Maraon Basin.

Table 5 provides a listing of oil reservoirs and their respective oil families. Figure 19 is a map of the
regional distribution of these oil families in the Greater Maraon Basin. It is obvious that the Ucayali Basin
oil families are limited to this basin, with the exception of the Maquia Oil Family. Tambo/Sungachi oils are
mainly found in the Santiago Basin and NE part of the Maraon Basin. The oil family distribution map is a
key to recognize and comment on migration directions and distances once the oil sources are identified.
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Table 5: List of oil fields/wells and their associated oil families

Loc. Loc. Bio- Continuous
Basin Field Well X Y Reservoir degraded 2nd charge Oil Family
U Agua Caliente 32 74.6 8.8 Raya - - Agua Caliente
U Agua Caliente AC-26 74.71 8.83 Paco - - Agua Caliente
U Aquaytia 1 75.22 8.38 Agua Caliente - - Maquia
M Bartra 75.64 2.47 Vivian ++ + Tambo/Sungachi
M Bartra 1B-17-5 75.64 2.46 Vivian ++ +'?' Tambo/Sungachi
M Bartra 1B-17-2 75.65 2.48 Vivian ++ +'?' Tambo/Sungachi
M Bretana 1 74.25 5.2 ? ++ - Maquia
U Campo Maquia 11 74.95 7.33 ? - + Maquia
U Campo Maquia 12 74.95 7.33 Vivian - + Maquia
U Campo Maquia 16 74.96 7.32 Cashiyacu - + Maquia
U Campo Maquia 16 74.95 7.33 ? - + Maquia
U Campo Maquia 16 74.95 7.33 Paco - + Maquia
U Campo Maquia 17 74.95 7.33 ? - - Maquia
M Capahuari 1A-43-14 76.43 2.80 Vivian (+) - Tambo/Sungachi
M Capahuari 1A-43-13 76.43 2.80 Vivian - - Tambo/Sungachi
M Capahuari 11 76.50 2.69 Vivian - - Tambo/Sungachi
M Capahuari 54 76.43 2.80 Chonta (+) - Tambo/Sungachi
M Capahuari S V-4 76.43 2.80 Vivian ? - - Tambo/Sungachi
M Capahuari S 27 76.43 2.80 Chonta (+) +'?' Tambo/Sungachi
M Capirona 2X 75.42 3.52 Chonta - - Maquia
M Capirona 2X 75.42 3.52 Chonta - - Maquia
U Cashiriari 1X 72.73 11.87 Ene - - Cashiriari
U Cashiriari 3X 72.73 11.87 Cushubatay - - Cashiriari
U Cashiriari 3X 72.73 11.87 Cushubatay - - Cashiriari
U Cashiriari ? 72.78 11.86 Agua Caliente - - Cashiriari
M Chambira Este 124 75.2 3.8 Chonta + yes Maquia
S Chingana Seep Seep 77.93 4.45 Pozo ++ ? Maquia
M Corrientes 28XCD 75.07 3.82 Chonta + +'?' Maquia
M Corrientes 10XC 75.07 3.82 Chonta + + Maquia
M Corrientes 12XC 75.07 3.82 Chonta + + Maquia
M Corrientes 16XCD 75.07 3.82 Chonta + + Maquia
M Corrientes 6XC 75.07 3.82 Chonta + + Maquia
M Corrientes 8-21-1X 75.06 3.81 Chonta + + Maquia
M Corrientes 45XCD 75.07 3.82 Chonta + + Maquia
M Corrientes 6x 75.35 4 ? + + Maquia
S Dominguza 1 77.82 4.39 La Puca - - Tambo/Sungachi
M Dorissa 76.21 2.75 Chonta - - Tambo/Sungachi
M Dorissa 76.21 2.75 Vivian - - Tambo/Sungachi
M Dorissa 1 76.21 2.76 Vivian (+) - Tambo/Sungachi
M Dorissa 1A-49-1 76.20 2.77 Vivian (+)? -? Tambo/Sungachi
M Forestal V 76.23 2.31 Vivian + - Tambo/Sungachi
M Forestal CH-10 76.16 2.34 Chonta - - Tambo/Sungachi
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M Forestal 5 76.16 2.34 Vivian + - Tambo/Sungachi
M Huasaga 1x 76.66 3.14 Agua Caliente + + Maquia
U Huaya 4X 75.19 7.11 Vivian - ? Maquia
M Huayuri S-13 76.23 2.62 Chonta - - Tambo/Sungachi
M Huayuri V-3 76.23 2.63 Vivian - - Tambo/Sungachi
M Huayuri S-2 76.23 2.62 Vivian - - Tambo/Sungachi
M Huayuri 1A-48-1 76.23 2.62 Chonta - - Tambo/Sungachi
S Ipacuma Seep 77.95 4.95 Pozo ++ - Maquia
U La Colpa 1X 73.47 9.32 Copacabana (+) ? La Colpa
U La Colpa 1x 1X 73.47 9.32 Aqua Caliente ++ - La Colpa
U La Colpa 1x 1X 73.47 9.32 Tarma (+) - La Colpa
M Pauayacu 70XC 75.41 3.36 Vivian - - Maquia ?
S Puintza 1 77.79 4.11 Vivian - - Tambo / Sungachi
S Putuime 1 77.93 4.38 Pozo ++ ? Tambo / Sungachi
M Samiria S1 74.9 5.45 Chonta - - Maquia A2
M San Jacinto B 75.88 2.30 Chonta (+) - Tambo/Sungachi
M San Jacinto A 75.87 2.32 Vivian ++ + Tambo/Sungachi
M San Juan 77XD 75.21 3.69 Chonta + + Maquia
U San Martin 1X 72.77 11.76 Aqua Caliente - - Cashiriari
U Sepa 1X 73.5 11.1 Tarma - - LaColpa/Aqua
Caliente Mix
H Shanusi Seep 76.5 6.2 Chonta ++ - Maquia
M Shiviyacu ? 76.14 2.50 Vivian - - Tambo/Sungachi
M Shiviyacu V-26 76.14 2.49 Vivian - - Tambo/Sungachi
M Sun 1X 76.00 4.65 Cushabatay - - Maquia
M Sungachi 1 76.46 3.61 Vivian ? + + Sungachi
M Tambo 1 76.4 2.95 Vivian - - Tambo
H Tiraco Dome Seep 75.97 6.4 ? ++ ? Maquia A1
M Valencia 100D 75.74 3.18 Chonta - - Maquia
M Valencia 25X 75.74 3.18 Vivian - - Maquia
M Yanayacu 32XC 74.94 4.89 Chonta + +'?' Maquia
M Yanayacu 61XCD 75.95 4.85 Chonta + + Maquia

Biodegraded samples
- No biodegradation, (+) Slight biodegradation, + Biodegraded
,
++ Severe
biodegradation


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VI. Biodegradation and Second / Continuous Phase of Migration into
Reservoirs

A. Biodegradation
Biodegradation is a process of bacterial attack and alteration of oil. Unless located at the surface, source
rocks are seldom affected from biodegradation, however, shallow reservoirs often show signs of
biodegradation. The process of degradation continues as long as molecular oxygen is available and
reservoir temperatures are moderate; usually infiltrating meteoric waters provide the molecular oxygen and
the nutrients required for HC reservoir degradation. Therefore, water washing is often associated with
degradation. Extensive degradation and water washing may lead to severely altered oils or oil residues such
as the tar sands of Western Canada or the extensive tar sands in Maracaibo, Venezuela.

Biodegradation significantly changes a number of oil properties and characteristics: API gravities are
lowered, the sulfur content is increased, oxygen levels are elevated and substantially higher molecular
weights are encountered. Biodegradation preferably attacks n-alkanes, starting with light n-alkanes and
progressing through to the heavier n-alkanes. Branched and cyclic alkanes, including the biomarkers, are
more resistant while aromatic HC are very resistant to microbial degradation.

Among the classical biomarkers, the Steranes are less stable than Hopanes, while the Tricyclic Terpanes
and Diasteranes are highly stable, even at very advanced levels of biodegradation. Therefore, biomarker
geochemistry can often be applied to degraded oils to compare or correlate these with other altered or
unaltered oils in a basin.

Water washing mostly affects the light HC of an oil according to the solubility of these light compounds in
water. Many light HC species that are easily degraded have limited solubility. This differential behavior is
the basis to assess biodegradation versus water washing effects in reservoired oils. Aromatics such as
Benzene and Toluene, e.g., are fairly resistant to degradation, but highly soluble in formation waters.

We have briefly discussed biodegradation in the Ucayali Basin, with the La Colpa oil as the only Ucayali
Basin reservoired oil showing prominent signs of degradation. In the Maraon Basin, and in particular in
the NE and E discoveries, biodegradation is common but occurs at various degrees. Figure 20 shows the
GC traces of the two main oil families in their original, unaltered pattern. GC traces of oils that differ
substantially from this HC distribution indicate multi-phase migration, continuous migration, and / or
biodegradation effects. The Bretana 1 oil in Figure 21 is an example for degraded Maquia-type oil; the
Bartra 1B-17-5 oil is a former Tambo/Sungachi oil, which is now severely degraded. An example for
extreme degradation is shown in the Aecite River Seep of the Santiago Basin. Usually, more complex
biomarker profiling has to be used to try to group these degraded oils.

In many cases reservoir degradation in the Maraon Basin is not as severe as illustrated in Figure 21. In
addition, the observed biodegradation in many reservoirs allows us to decipher and reconstruct migration
and reservoir filling histories, as will be explained in detail in the next chapter.

B. Second and Continuous Migration and Reservoir Filling
Sofer et al. (1986) have speculated about reservoir oil re-distribution from Ecuadorian reservoirs N as a
result of block or basin tilting at Tertiary times. However, there is considerable doubt about this concept, in
view of the data and observations presented here and several conclusions that are discussed below.

A 2
nd
expulsion phase in the Maquia Oil Family of the Ucayali Basin was already briefly addressed above,
where this 2
nd
expulsion phase appears to be associated with substantially higher maturity levels because of
the pronounced dual n-alkane distribution (see Figure 4.3). The Aguatyia condensate is, in all likelihood, a
Maquia oil type at very advanced source maturity. Thus, it appears that a second-generation phase followed
by another expulsion event and migration, is the reason for the dual n-alkane envelope seen in Figure 4.3
for the Maquia oils in the Ucayali Basin. Geological data have to be investigated to estimate the age of the
Aquaytia structure in the Ucayali Basin. If truly a recent structure, this could explain the super-mature
Maquia oil in Aguaytia at last stages of source rock HC expulsion, and into an older Maquia structure with
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earlier (mature) oil. In general terms, the observations made here in the Ucayali Basin are an indication for
a second pulse of oil from late source rock maturation, an event that could also have affected the Maraon
Basin.

Figure 22, showing two Maquia Oil Field samples from the Ucayali Basin, is a further example of this
demonstration for a dual reservoir charge discussed in Figure 4.3. An important finding in Maquia type oils
in the Maraon Basin is the fact, that the same dual n-alkane distribution seen in the Maquia Oil Field
(Ucayali Basin) is also observed in Maquia type oils of the Maraon oils. Figure 23 shows a Maquia oil
from the Yanayacu well in the Maraon Basin, with this dual n-alkane envelope. The oil is moderately
biodegraded, however, this biodegradation only effected the first, early migration phase. The second phase
at high maturity is witnessed in the C
6
-C
12
HC distribution, which appears unaltered. Also, an important
observation is the fact of a consistent nC
7
> MCH dominance preserved in this second HC phase: it clearly
suggests two phases of oils from an identical source at different maturity levels.

An unaltered C
6
-C
12
HC envelope and geochemical evidence for biodegradation effects in the higher
molecular range can only be explained from continuous or second-phase migration. In both the Ucayali and
Maraon Basins, the observation clearly points to a discrete early migration phase and a discrete later,
second migration phase, separated in time by a phase of biodegradation. It appears that the second phase
of Maquia oil related HC migration largely escaped biodegradation, possibly due to reburial of previously
shallow reservoirs.

The observation of this Maquia-oil related dual-expulsion/migration system of early mature (and partially
degraded) and late highly mature oils into the reservoirs is not always very pronounced as seen in such
fields as the Corrientes, Chambira Este, Huasaga and San Juan Fields in Figure 24. The hump and high
Pristane and Phytane levels relative to (reduced) n-alkanes in the nC
15
-nC
20
range demonstrate various
degrees of biodegradation with an unaltered 2
nd
phase always recognized. This 2
nd
HC phase becomes
visually more pronounced in these GC traces, the more 2
nd
phase HC entered the reservoir system, and the
more intense the biodegradation was for the 1
st
HC phase.

Figure 19 suggests that many, but not all Maquia-type oils have recognizable 2
nd
charges. Although
somewhat speculative and a point of later discussions, it could be suggested that the 2
nd
charge pattern in
Figure 19 stretches along a NNW-SSE trend, that could be related to a specific high maturity of the Maquia
source beds at a specific point in geological times.

The obvious next question is, whether the dual, maturity-related Maquia-oil system is limited to Maquia oil
reservoirs or extents into the Tambo/Sungachi oil system in the Santiago-Maraon Basins.

Figure 25a shows a number of selected Tambo/Sungachi oils that have experienced little biodegradation.
The extreme level of MCH in these oils is not related to source facies, but to this mild biodegradation
process, affecting some light ends of the GC traces. An important observation here is the distinct lack of
any signs for dual n-alkane envelopes recognized in many Maquia oils. This clearly indicates a one-phase
HC charge and also suggests a younger source than for the Maquia oils: If, in fact, a younger source is
involved, the main phase of Tambo-Sungachi oil related expulsion could coincide with 2
nd
phase expulsion
from an older (deeper) Maquia oil related source.

However, Figure 25b, showing more severe cases of biodegraded Tambo/Sungachi oils, may, at a first
glance, question the conclusion of a single migration event for the Tambo/Sungachi oils. All oils in this
figure show severe or very severe biodegradation in the reservoir, but they also display significant or even
abundant light HC in the front end GCs, apparent for a dual charge system as discussed before.

However, the fundamental difference between the two oil systems is, that this 2
nd
charge molecular
envelope is only recognized in highly degraded Tambo/Sungachi oils, but never observed in lightly
degraded or unaltered Tambo/Sungachi oils. The reason for this observation (and apparent contradiction) is
a presently ongoing migration and reservoir filling process competing with presently active biodegradation
in many Tambo/Sungachi oil reservoirs. In some fields or field sections (such as Bartra, Figure 21) the
present supply with fresh migrating oil is limited and biodegradation is a rapid process; in other parts
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such as the Bartra V-14, biodegradation may be slower and with increased rates of current HC migration
into the structure.

Four main geochemical observations essentially support this scenario of Tambo/Sungachi oil reservoir
filling from one single source at a common maturity level, starting at one point in the geological past and
presently continuing, and biodegradation that started in the past and is still active:
Unaffected Tambo/Sungachi oils show MCH predominance over nC
7
; this MCH predominance is
always observed; it is sometimes extreme due to preferred degradation of nC
7
. This points to a single
source type involved.
The second observation is the homogeneous n-alkane distribution in original Tambo/Sungachi oils,
indicating one, not two, maturity stages involved.
The third observation is the presence of light HC in highly degraded oils, with the only explanation
from recent migration.
The fourth observation is the often extreme MCH dominance in this recent HC migration, only
explained by recent biodegradation.


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VII. Source Rocks, Source Rock Potential and Distribution in the
Greater Maraon Basin

A basic geochemical database initiated at PetroPeru in Lima and extended in Calgary allows us to quickly
screen the basins for source rock characteristics and to plot relevant data.

The following Table 6 provides an overview of the basic geochemical characteristics of several formations
encountered in the four basins. A brief description and the significance of the formations (from old to
young) in regard to source potential is as follows:

Table 6: Summary of Source Rock Data
Formation Main Data Source
Basin
Max TOC
(%)

Freq. TOC
(%)
Max HI Freq. Kerogen
Type
Contaya Maraon 1.0 1 9.0 Type II (?)
Cabanillas Maraon 3.0 1-2 145 Type II (?)
Ambo Ucayali 35.0 5-25 483 Types II-III & II
Tarma Ucayali 13.1 2-4 165 Type III
Ene/Copacabana Ucayali 21.5 2-6 673 Types II and II-III
Pucara All 12.5 2-5 538 Type II
Raya/Cushubatay All 65.0 2-7 227 Types III & III-II
Chonta Santiago/Maraon 5.8 2-3 642 Types II & II-III
Pozo Santiago 2.4 4-7 491 Type II-I


1. Ordovician Contaya and Devonian Cabanillas:
Few samples are available from these shales of early basin formation, however, the data indicate that both
shale packages are relatively thick and, more important, enriched in TOC. The max. TOC recorded is 1%
for the Contaya and 3% for the Cabanillas; the latter formation averages values around 1-2%; the Hydrogen
Index (HI) for the Cabanillas is max. 300. Although these numbers are not impressive (and perhaps the
reason for neglect), one should consider the presently very high or even extreme maturity of these early
Paleozoic source rocks. It can be expected that at least the Cabanillas had a significant source potential with
(reconstructed) TOC values around 3-4%. Thus, the Cabanillas had significant initial oil source potential
and has realized this potential in the geological past, although there are no geochemical indications pointing
to a survival of these Devonian hydrocarbons. The second part of this report will address the timing of HC
generation from these early source beds and the possible fate of these HC.

2. Carboniferous Ambo
The Ambo Formation of the southern Ucayali Basin has been described as a delta/marine clastic sequence
and is best developed in southern Peru (Mathalone and Montaya, 1993). In northern Peru, the Ambo is
patchy and highly mature.

Available data are limited to the southern Ucayali Basin where the Ambo Formation is shallow enough to
be recorded in wells or outcrops (see Figure 26a). The Ambo Formation exhibits a large range of TOC
values from less than 1% to 35%. The Hydrogen Index values (HI) vary accordingly from < 100 to almost
500, as obvious from Figure 26b. Most samples in this HI TOC diagram, in particular those with very
high TOC, plot in Kerogen Types III and III-II fields, emphasizing the coaly character of this formation.
However, most of the Ambo samples are also very mature and, although of coaly nature, the initial HI at
deposition was certainly somewhat higher and comparable to many coaly sequences in Indonesia and
Australia with proven oil generative capabilities. The reason for the increased HI potential to normal coal
seams is the relative enrichment of oil prone material in these shaly coal sequences during
sedimentary/depositional processes.

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Besides the general character as a Type III-II organic matter, the Ambo apparently also comprises some
(local?) sections of typical Type II Kerogen, as indicated in Figure 26b by HI values around 450 550 for
early mature Ambo samples.

Figure 26c is a HI-OI diagram for Ambo samples with TOC values >25%. The plot indicates mature
samples tracking along the Type I / Type II maturation path, although they are clearly coaly samples that
should actually plot along the Type III or Type III-II path. As pointed out by Peters (1986), many mature
coals show abnormally low OI values, and, unless recognized as coals, can be mistaken for oil prone source
beds.

In our geochemical oil characterization it was mentioned that Ucayali oils with the exception of Maquia
oils appear to be derived from Kerogen Type III-II or Type II-III material. The Ambo Formation is
certainly a formation of interest as an oil source in the Ucayali Basin.

3. Carboniferous Tarma Formation
Again, data for this formation are limited to the Ucayali Basin. TOC values are usually around 2-3 %, but
values can be as high as 13%. The low HI values <200 define the OM in this formation as a coaly/terrestrial
Type III, with little or no oil potential, but gas generation potential at higher maturities.

4. The Upper Carboniferous/Permian Copacabana/Ene Formation
The Copacabana Formation consists of grey platform carbonates with interbedded black shales. This
formation is overlain by the Ene Formation, a marine shale deposited in a hypersaline environment, which
as expected - accumulated significant amounts of oil prone organic matter. The regional extent of these
oil prone formations is not exactly known. The GeoMark Research Report limits the oil prone Ene
Formation to the Ucayali Basin, whereas Mathalone and Mantaya (1993) report patchy, but wide
distribution of the Ene into the Maraon Basin. Furthermore, these authors recognize good correlation of
Ene HC with many oils in the Maraon Basin, although no specific, detailed geochemical data or
comparisons are shown or referred to. Our conclusion here is that the Copacabana/Ene oil prone source
facies is limited to the Ucayali Basin. Recorded data are limited to the shallower southern Ucayali Basin as
shown in Figure 27a; we do not have geochemical indications pointing to a significant source from the few
very deep Maraon Basin wells penetrating these formations.

Copacabana TOC data are as high as 21%, but usually fall into the 3-5% range. Ene samples are as high as
7%, with usual data between 2-5% TOC. However, their HI indices are usually high and the Kerogens for
these formations generally track the Kerogen Type II path, to some degree even extending into Type I
Kerogen (Figure 27b). The Ene is certainly a pure Type II with tendencies to Type I, whereas the
Copacabana is Type II with some layers or local developments of Type II-III mixture. Many of the samples
recorded here are early mature or mature (but not late mature), thus, the HI indices plotted in Figure 27b
represent the oil potential fairly well.

5. The Lower Triassic Pucara Formation
The Pucara Formation is generally described as a major oil source in Peru, however, so far no conclusive
oil-oil or oilsource correlation has been presented. The Pucara is formed by platform carbonates, organic-
rich limestone and some interbedded shales extending from the Maraon Basin into the northern Ucayali
Basin according to Mathalone and Montaya (1993). This carbonate sequence apparently formed a westerly
thickening wedge. The Pucara outcrops in the Cushubatay Mountains where it is 1000m thick with 50m of
organic-rich limestone and shaly limestone.

TOC values for the Pucara Formation vary considerably (probably also a result of field sample selection)
between around 1% and 12%. Most measured HI values are low, however, as indicated by Tmax data in the
TOC HI crossplot in Figure 28a, most of these samples are overmature at HI levels that do not reflect the
initial potential. Furthermore, some Tmax measurements on Pucara samples are suspiciously low, probably
indicating some contamination of outcrop samples from recent plant material (roots etc). Two samples in
Figure 28a may illustrate the potential of the Pucara: the late mature sample at Tmax 448
o
C and a HI value
have about 280 (formerly at around 600-700), and the early mature sample at Tmax 437
o
C at around HI
600. Also, most Pucara TOC values seem to fall into the 2-5% range; considering the high maturity and the
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expected high Kerogen transformation into HC followed by expulsion, the original, typical TOC range is
probably closer to 4-8%.

Figure 28b shows the sample and data points available for the Pucara Formation, together with literature
information on the depocenters and subcrop edges. Depocenters occur in the northern Ucayali Basin and in
the western Maraon Basin, extending into the Santiago Basin. Although somewhat diffuse it appears that
high TOC values may be concentrated along the Santiago-Huallaga Basins.

Thus, in conclusion, it appears that the Pucara is a basin-wide occurring organic-rich formation.
Furthermore, present or (reconstructed) paleo-depths and measured maturity data indicate a late or
overmature stage in the basins with the expectation of significant volumes of HC generated from this
formation in post-Triassic times.

6. Lower Cretaceous Raya and Cushabatay
Both formations have been considered as possible or potential source beds in the basins. Our database does
not indicate significant TOC in these formations in the Ucayali Basin, which is consistent with the
terrestrial coarse grain character of these formations in this basin.

However, north of the Ucayali Basin, both the Cushabatay and Raya Formations display TOC values from
1 to 65%, with the extreme TOC values probably indicating coal stringers or coal seams. Despite
considerable TOC content and wide-spread distribution of shales high in TOC as illustrated in Figure 29a,
the two formations mainly track a Type III Kerogen path (Figure 29b). There may be some (local)
exceptions of Type III-II transitions. Both formations have limited oil generation potential, but excellent
gas generation can be expected in fully or late mature parts of the basins.

7. Upper Cretaceous Chonta Formation
The Chonta Formation is often considered to be a source for Peruvian oils because of its wide-spread
occurrence as a source rock from Trinidad into Venezuela and Columbia and Equador. The Chonta
Formation contains marine organic shales in the northern and western Maraon Basin; in the southern part
it is considered to be lean in TOC due to sediment coarsening.

The TOC values for Chonta samples ranges from 1% to almost 6%. Figure 30a shows the TOC data in a
regional context with the Santiago Basin showing consistently high values around or > 2.0% TOC.
Although the sample base is sparse further into the Maraon Basin, TOC values appear to drop and scatter
around 1%. Comparing TOC values with HI data indicates that high Chonta TOC values are generally the
result of additional preservation of oil prone organic matter. This general relation of TOC with OM quality
allows us to tentatively delineate organic facies trends in the study area. A Type II Kerogen trend appears
to be indicated (and limited!) along the Santiago and perhaps part of the Huallaga Basins. This source
facies is gradually replaced by lower quality Kerogen Type II-III in most of the Maraon Basin, until the
Chonta Formation becomes silty and sandy in central and eastern parts of this basin, where it then forms a
prominent reservoir horizon.

Figure 30b is the HI-OI diagram for Chonta Formation samples. Some samples follow a Kerogen Type III
track, but most samples can be classified as Type II-III or Type III-II Kerogens. In particular in the
Santiago Basin a number of Chonta Kerogen Type II samples are proof for the presence of an excellent oil
source here.

8. The Tertiary Pozo Formation
Summary reports consider the Pozo Shale as a non- or marginal source, however, accumulated data show
the opposite: TOC varies considerably, but reaches values of up to 10% with frequent measurements of 2-
5% TOC. Furthermore, the HI values of these mostly immature or marginally mature samples are
exceptionally high between 500 to >800, indicating a Kerogen Type II-I. Thus, contrary to general opinion,
the Tertiary Pozo shale is an excellent potential source and probably in active stage of HC generation and
expulsion in the Neogene subbasins, where this source facies may be preserved and deeply buried. Figure
31 shows a HI-TOC Plot of Pozo samples. Our source rock database indicates that the rich Pozo facies may
be limited to Santiago and Huallaga Basins; Maraon Basin Pozo samples are TOC lean, although only
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limited data are available. However, even if the Pozo Shale in the Maraon Basin were preserved in oil-
prone facies, maturity data clearly constitute Pozo immaturity in this basin.

We also used the source rock logging method of Passey et al. (1990) to screen five Maraon/Santiago
Basin wells for unrecognized effective source rocks. Both the Chonta and Pucara are easily recognized
from normalized log plots, however, no additional prominent source sections are identified. Future work
using some fine tuning on log-scaling may provide better resolution to recognize smaller, by-passed source
zones.

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VIII. Basin Maturity Based on Measured Data.

Organic maturity of source rocks can be described by a number of parameters. Traditional vitrinite
reflectance values (%Ro) are usually a standard measure. Tmax from Rock-Eval analysis has replaced or
substituted Ro data to some extend. Maturity is, nevertheless, traditionally expressed in %Ro values and
Tmax data are often expressed as %Ro equivalents or Rc (calculated) data. However, the correlation of
Tmax data with measured Ro data usually shows scatter, sometimes even large scatter as a result of
(frequent) Tmax misreading, errors in Ro estimates, or due to problematic samples.

A second way to express maturity is from molecular parameters, either based on light HC data (in
particular C
6
-C
7
distributions) or based on biomarker parameters sensitive to thermal stress. Molecular
based maturity parameters are required when source rock maturities are to be compared with oil maturities.
At this point in time, molecular maturity parameters are not yet evaluated and oil maturities are only gross
estimates.

Figure 32 is a summary Ro depth plot from Mathalone and Montoya (1993) for a number of Subandean
basins. Although this plot is of no specific diagnostic value, some general observations can be drawn from
this depth plot when lower and upper Ro trend boundaries are considered as shown in Figure 33:

As a general rule it appears that a surface Ro value of 0.3% is indicated, suggesting that some, but
limited final uplift and erosion has occurred because this average surface Ro values exceed 0.2%, the
starting Ro level.

However, due to the large spread of Ro values, the lower boundary suggests that some areas (or
structures) had no or insignificant last uplift/erosion because surface Ro data are at or close to Ro
0.2%.

The upper Ro boundary crosses the present day surface at around Ro 0.6%, indicating a missing
section of max. 3000m.

These may be important constraints for HC modeling in the Maraon and Ucayali Basins, assuming here
correct and representative Ro data.

The average Ro trend suggest an onset of HC generation at around 3km depth, fully mature
conditions at around 5 km depths, and the end of the oil window between 8-9 km depth

Furthermore, from the constraining boundaries it can be deduced that fully mature conditions (Ro
0.8%) are nowhere achieved in both the Maraon and Ucayali Basins at depths shallower than 3200m,
i.e. nowhere in these basins do we encounter Ro > 0.8% before a 3200m depth level is reached.

Since all oils appear to be fully or late mature, source rocks must have reached this depth level at one
point in their subsidence history to generate and expel large quantities of oil. We are assuming here,
that these source rocks and the basin histories fall into a normal category, excluding kinetically
exotic Kerogens or very unusual thermal histories.

On the other hand, the lower Ro boundary in Figure 33 can be extrapolated to about 9km before a
definite end of oil generation is reached.

Thus, assuming some normality as described before, oil source rocks that were buried between 3.2
and 9 km depth at one time in their geological past should have generated mature oil. In the case
source rocks are presently deeper than 9 km or were deeper than 9 km in their past, they have spent
their oil potential earlier between this 3.2-9km depth range.


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A number of Ro trends from wells where Ro (measured) or Rc (calculated from Tmax) from the database
fall into the Ro boundaries of Figure 33. The San Martin 1x well in the Ucayali Basin and the Chapuli 1
and Tucunare 1c wells in the Maraon Basins are examples for this regular maturity depth trend (Figures
34a-c).

However, wells in the Santiago and Huallaga Basins consistently deviate from this trend. Situated in the
thrust sheet belt, the measured Ro data are higher compared to comparable depth levels in the Maraon
basin (Figures 35a-e). The extrapolation to present surface indicates significant late erosion, and if some
subsequent re-burial occurred, the last erosion was significantly larger and exposed early mature and
mature rocks to surface.

A third category of depth trends is observed in wells such as Maraon 110, La Frontera 1, Yarina 2x
(Figure 36a-c), where low Ro data are abruptly followed by high Ro values, indicating a significant, major
paleo uplift and erosion. Here, formations once deeply buried experienced uplift and erosion before re-
burial commenced. However, the re-burial never reached a level of the max. paleo burial of the older
sediments.

Since the Chonta Formation is penetrated in many wells across the basins with available Ro data, these data
were loaded into the source rock database to contour revised Ro Chonta data. Figure 37 is the Chonta
Formation Ro contour map with data points, depth level, and Ro values indicated.

As obvious from Figure 37, the Chonta Formation is early or marginally mature in the eastern Maraon, but
approaches fully mature conditions in the most western part of the Maraon basin. This mature belt roughly
coincides with the Kerogen Type II and III-II source facies outlined in Figure 30a.

As a consequence of this Chonta Formation maturity pattern, formations such as the Raya, Cushubatay and
Pucara limestone also must be fully mature or late mature in this western section of the Maraon Basin.

Since the Chonta Ro level is known and some estimate for a general Ro depths is presented in Figure 32, an
attempt was made to map an absolute HC generation edge (limit) for the Maraon Basin. Based on the
observations described above and considering the Cabanillas as the deepest significant source and close to
basement, the basement, 3km depth contour map was used to outline this critical eastern limit for possible
HC generation in the Maraon Basin. However, results are in conflict with measured Ro data for three
reasons:
1. some scatter of maturity data,
2. probably some significant scatter from basement depth estimates (Vitrici, pers. comm.),
3. more important, present basement depths are not reflecting max. paleo basement depth.

Thus, in Figure 38 we can only provide a rough estimate for the Ro 0.8% Cabanillas maturity projection in
the Maraon Basin from Ro Chonta Formation data projected deeper into the Cabanillas Formation.
Formation tops and Maraon wells penetrating the Cabanillas suggest the Cabanillas formation roughly
1000m below the Chonta Formation. Using the general maturity depth trend for the Maraon basin shown
in Figure 32, we can use the 0.6% Chonta Ro contour as a rough guide to outline the 0.8% Ro contour for
the Cabanillas Formation located about 1000m deeper. Thus, any reservoired HC occurrences East of the
0.6% Chonta Ro contour have to originate from lateral migration. This information is significant because
some oils in the eastern basin are difficult to source-correlate, in particular in regard to the possibility of a
second HC expulsion. A more detailed picture of the Cabanillas Formation can be achieved from using a
detailed Cabanillas Chonta differential structure map and Ro gradients from individual wells. Also,
Cabanillas maturity modeling can be used to locate a more precise eastern limit for possible HC generation
in the Maraon Basin.

The Figure 38 clearly implies long distance lateral migration: The Bretana 1 well with producing
reservoired HC is about 100km east of this critical HC border line, implying considerable migration
distances of 100km or more to explain the Bretana 1 oil discovery. The NE oil occurrences such as Paiche
1X require migration distances of up to 200km unless these oils migrated from Equador into the Maraon
Basin. Then again, this would require the presence of a Tambo/Sungachi oil type in nearby Equadorian
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reservoirs. However, as indicated before, the geochemical parameters rather indicate a continuous source
migration. Also, if reservoir redistribution would be involved, some pronounced regional trends would be
expected.


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IX. Oil Source Correlations in the Basins

A number of oil source correlations were addressed and are displayed in this report. However, these
demonstrations are limited to the obvious correlation cases. More insight into source oil relations can be
expected once raw data of different data sets can be correlated. This could be important because some
source variations are observed that limit a straightforward correlation approach on a visual basis. More oil-
source comparisons from a database may correlate sub-families discussed above.

We have already outlined that the Maquia Oil Family is a wide-spread oil type, but there are only limited
sample sites for source rocks of similar maturity. The Pucara Formation is the suspected source rock and
mature Pucara rock samples are recovered from the Gallohuancana and Uchumarca outcrops about 75km
and 200km West of the Tiraco Dome Seep (Figure 39). This Figure 39 shows the locations for rock and oil
samples that show a good degree of correlation among them.

Figure 40a shows the Terpane biomarker patterns of the Tiraco Dome Seep and a Pucara rock sample from
the outcrop West of the seep. Both profiles show the unique, remarkable dominance of Tet and the unusual
(but typical for some carbonate oils and source rocks, Palacas et al., 1984) distribution of C
30
C
35

pentacyclic Hopanes: instead of the usual staircase decline from C
30
Hopane to C
35
extended Hopanes, the
C
34
or C
35
Hopanes have elevated concentrations, leading to the unusual Hopane pattern in Figure 40a. This
Terpane biomarker profile in itself is good evidence for the Pucara as a source, although Ene samples may
show similar characteristics. However, only the Pucara Formation has a very wide source distribution, and
Ene source rock characteristics are not reported from the Maraon Basin where this type of oil also occurs
besides the Ucayali Basin. Thus, the Pucara Formation is the source for the Maquia Oil Family. The wide
distribution of this oil family is consistent with the wide occurrence of this source.

Figure 40b also supports the Pucara as the source, although a good correlation of these Sterane biomarkers
is not achieved. However, both profiles, seep and rock, show low abundance of Diasteranes typical for
carbonate source sequences. Since the Pucara carbonate is one of the few carbonates in the basins
dominated by clastic input, its source identification is relatively easy and safe.

The sequence of Figures 41a-b is another example of a Maquia oil Pucara rock correlation: Despite
different bulk HC distributions between source and oil due to progressed outcrop biodegradation (Figure
41a), the Terpane biomarker profile in Figure 41b clearly displays the characteristics of the carbonate
source environment.

Figures 42a shows HC distributions of the Sungachi 1 oil with a Chonta Shale from the Pongo de
Mancheriche outcrop. Figure 42b displays a Terpane pattern typical for a many clastic source environment
as expected for the Tambo/Sungachi Oil Family. Here, the Sterane biomarker distribution shown in Figure
42c displays a good correlation.

Similarly, Figures 43a-c show a sequence of profiles for the Tambo 1 oil and the Candungos Chonta Shale.
Again, typical characteristics are recognized, and a good correlation is observed in the Sterane profiles
Figure 43c between the basin oil and the outcropping source rock.

A significant observation is that these correlations are successful over distances of up to 200km as obvious
from the sampling locations for these correlations. This does not necessarily postulate extreme long
distance migration (the oils could have derived from closer from their respective sources in the basin), but
the correlations demonstrate some source environment stability in larger areas and, as a consequence,
correlations can be successfully performed at least in the Maraon/Santiago/Huallaga Basins.

Besides the easy source identification for the Maquia Oil Family, oil-source correlations in the Ucayali
Basin are more difficult. This is probably a result of more patchy occurrences of formations associated with
source variations. Also, Ucayali Basin oils are more mature and the applicability of biomarkers is limited
here; in fact, we may consider previous attempts of biomarker correlations for the Ucayali Basins very
high mature oils and condensates as potentially misleading, because of the very low in-situ biomarker level
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and the possibility that these oils picked up or altered their biomarker profiles during their migration in
contact with different formations.

A rigorous oil source correlation approach requires compatible databases for oils and rocks. In regard to
the lack of such a data system we largely follow the Corelab approach to identify most likely sources for
the Ucayali Basin oil families. These must be largely derived from clastic (shale) source rocks with some or
significant terrigenous OM input. This geochemical characterization of the oil families is important
information to locate the sources for these oils.

Based on scaled geochemical parameters, their respective variations, and by contrasting oils with rock data
(Figure 44) it appears that the Ene Formation is the very likely source for the Agua Caliente oils, unless one
assumes a derivation of the Aqua Caliente from a local, modified Pucara. Both Ene and Pucara rocks and
Maquia and Aqua Caliente oils share some common geochemical characteristics. However, the clear
separation of Maquia oils from Agua Caliente oils from some very basic parameters in Figure 5 rather
suggests a different source. Also, preliminary data indicate absence or lack of Diahopanes in Maquia oils,
but their presence in Agua Caliente oils. Last not least, preliminary data show absence of Dinosteranes in
Aqua Caliente oils, indicating a pre-Triassic source. The Maquia oils and the Pucara contain Dinosterane,
again indicating a separate, Paleozoic source for Agua Caliente oils.

As revealed from the biomarker profiles in Figure 8 the La Colpa Oil Family appears to be unique among
Ucayali Basin oils. If the La Colpa is, in fact, a local phenomenon as speculated here, a perfect source
correlation might never be achieved. Marine or lacustrine Ambo may be the best source allocation.
Probably, there was also some co-generation from surrounding coaly Tarma/Ambo.

The Cashiriari Oil Family shows the strongest influence of a coaly, terrestrial source. The Ambo/Tarma
with significant TOC levels and a Type III-II Kerogen may be the perfect source for this type of oil.

The basins also contain significant packages of shales with moderate or lower TOC contents such as the
Raya, Cushubatay, etc. These shales have probably generated and expelled some liquid HCs, contributing
to the typical Kerogen Type II-III character of all basin oils except the Pucara-Maquia oil system. The
Canadian Jeanne dArc Offshore Basin is just one more example where such Kerogen Type III contribution
to Type II oils has been observed (von der Dick et al., 1989).

The Pozo shale is an excellent potential source rock in the Santiago Basin. Outcrop samples are immature
and possible relations of Pozo Shale with some seeps are speculative. A detailed biomarker spectrum may
help to verify this speculation. However, considering rapid burial in Neogene subbasins it can be expected
that the Pozo is generating and expelling oil at depths > 8 9 km. The onset of Pozo HC generation is
probably deeper compared to the older Chonta and Pucara Formations, because a higher generation
temperature has to compensate for shorter deep burial time of the young Pozo shale.


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X. The Oil-Source / Petroleum Systems of the Basins

In summary we can define several proven or suspected oil-source systems, which may translate into
complete petroleum systems based on geological/geochemical information from these basins. The
following chart summarizes these systems:

Table 7: Oil-Source Systems in the Basins
Oil-Source/Petroleum System Basin Oil
discovered
Remarks
? - Contaya M, (U?) NO HC early & lost
? - Cabanillas M, (U?) NO HC early & lost, but new aspects
in Eastern Maraon
Cashiriari coaly Ambo U YES High maturity
La Colpa local Type II Ambo U YES Mature
Aqua Caliente marine Ene/Copacab. U YES Mature
Maquia - Pucara M, U, S,
H
YES Based on detailed analysis:
Pucara A1 & A2
Tambo/Sungachi - Chonta S, M
(H?)
YES Based on detailed analysis:
Tambo and Sungachi Subfamily
? - Pozo S (H?) NO (?) Some seeps related to Pozo?

Future work should be dedicated to correlate the timing of these oil-source systems to the presence and
timing events of seals and structures in the basins.


A. Migration of HC in the Maraon Basin.

Figure 38, showing the mapped most eastern extension of possible HC generation in the Maraon Basin,
suggests long lateral migration of oil. Oil discoveries East of this limit can only be explained by lateral
migration. Discoveries in wells such as Bretana 1 and Paiche 1X suggest migration distances of up to
200km, although some discoveries closer to mature source beds could also be explained by shorter
migration distances.

A direct comparison of the distribution of Tambo-Sungachi oils in the basins in Figure 19 with the location
of source facies in Figure 30a clearly demonstrates extensive lateral migration for this oil family with a
migration direction into the NE as illustrated in Figure 45. The reason for exclusive occurrence of Tambo-
Sungachi oils in the northern/northeastern Maraon Basin is a function of the Chonta source location in the
NW part of the basin and the NE migration direction of these oils.

Likewise, the most eastern Maquia-Pucara oils require substantial migration avenues over long distances
when the distribution of the Maquia Oil Family in Figure 19 is compared with the Pucara source
distribution in Figure 28b. The basin-wide distribution of a proliferous Pucara source corresponds with
basin-wide occurrence of Maquia oils, which migrated E and NE away from their source environments.
The presence of highly mature Maquia oils in many eastern Maquia oil occurrences also demands very long
migration distances from a highly mature Pucara rock in the west.

The geochemical analysis and characteristics of these oils also allow us to make further conclusions on the
migration pathway and history for these oils:

Structures that trapped oil always trapped one type of oil. Stacked reservoir horizons in a structure
never contain different types of oil or mixed oils of different sources. The Maquia-Pucara oil system
apparently never mixes with the Tambo/Sungachi oil system. This points to discrete, well-defined
migration pathways.

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An important observation is the fact, that only Maquia oil reservoirs receive a second, high maturity
HC pulse. High mature Pucara-HC are never observed in Tambo/Sungachi oil type reservoirs. Again,
this points to well-defined and separated migration paths of the two families, with the second, late
Pucara HC phase reactivating identical older migration pathways.

Except for the Aguaytia Oil Field in the Ucayali Basin a 2
nd
late Pucara HC phase is always associated
with a 1
st
, less mature Pucara HC phase. The 2
nd
phase is never recorded as the exclusive reservoir HC.
This observation may trigger geological contemplation on the evolution of structural reservoirs in the
basin. It also re-enforces our suggestion of re-activation of older migration avenues

The western Maquia-Pucara oils do not show this second high mature HC charge, although a late or
over-mature Pucara rock is vertically below. Vertical oil migration was perhaps blocked and forced
these oils along a lateral migration ramp over long distances. However, more details on oil maturities
are required to address the possibility or exclusion of vertical oil migration.

As outlined before, the Maquia-Pucara system probably generated oil at some time in the Mesozoic
before re-structuring breached reservoirs and induced biodegradation. The late 2
nd
HC expulsion from
the Pucara source probably coincided with the then fully mature Chonta shale; however, re-buried
reservoirs containing Maquia-type oil were re-sealed; otherwise, this 2
nd
Pucara HC generation should
display some pronounced signs of biodegradation and /or water washing.

In contrast, the Tambo/Sungachi-Chonta oils are entering breached reservoirs with active reservoir
filling and degradation as simultaneous, competing processes. Older Chonta-sourced reservoir HC
often show severe degradation, whereas the young Chonta-sourced HC (of identical maturity level!)
are in the process of being degraded.

It is not clear at his point in time whether the Bretana 1 structure received or is receiving 2
nd
phase Pucara
HC. The Bretana 1 well is one of the few Maquia-Pucara oils severely degraded; late Pucara HCs may
have entered (or are entering) the reservoir, however, biodegradation/water washing may be highly
effective here.

At present time there is little information available on HC migration within the Santiago Basin. The
Santiago Basin contains both Chonta- and Pucara-Formations derived oils. Assuming both these sources
not extending further west outside the basin, these oils cannot be explained by very long distance
migration. The present databases are too limited for a full assessment, however, a detailed biomarker
approach on the numerous seeps should clarify whether Pozo Shale-derived HC were generated and
migrated updip into shallow strata and towards the surface.

Oil Generation In Subandean Basins Of Peru Part I Confidential Report
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XI. List of Figures

Figure 1 (See Maps Section)
Work area and wells with geological and/or geochemical data.

Figure 2a
GC traces and biomarker spectra of two oils in the Maraon Basin from Sofer et al. (1986), that obviously
share identical compositions and, therefore, identical genetic origin.

Figure 2b
Discriminant factor analysis plot of Maraon Basin oils, mainly based on biomarker data input. Note the
plot of the two (identical) oils in Figure 2a now plotting at opposite quadrants, suggesting completely
different source origins for these two oils. This type of data processing is routinely applied by GeoMark
Research, but is erroneous and highly questionable for low quality data, data with large natural variation,
and data with large analytical errors. This type of statistical evaluation can be very useful in general, but
only when the quality and nature of data are thoroughly assessed. This is apparently not the case in the
GeoMark Research data set, a classical example for abuse of statistical procedures.

Figure 3
Discriminant factor loading crossplot of Peru Basin oils based on biomarker data, from Geomark Research
Report; for comments see Figures 2a and 2b. Note the large number of oil groups and the (unexplained)
overlap of some of these groups. Since the biomarker data were not screened for quality or selected to
answer specific questions, it is not clear which and to what extent loading scores are due to original source
characteristics (desired information), maturity effects (of interest, but should be separated out), and data
noise.

Figure 4.0
Whole Oil GC trace of an Aqua Caliente 32 oil. Numbers refer to n-alkanes, Pr = Pristane, Ph = Phytane,
MCH = Methylcyclohexane. Ip13 to Ip18 are Isoprenoids.

Figure 4.1
Whole Oil GC trace of a Cashiriari 3X oil.

Figure 4.2.a
Whole Oil GC trace of La Colpa 1X, 1547.5 1554.5m, DST 7

Figure 4.2.b
Whole Oil GC trace of La Colpa 1X, 1961.7 2001.3m

Figure 4.2.c
Whole Oil GC trace of La Colpa 1X, 2432.0-2453.1m. This oil is unaltered and represents a reference oil
of a La Colpa oil.

Figure 4.3
Whole Oil GC trace of a Maquia 12 oil, 625 m depth. Note the bimodal n-alkane envelope for this oil.

Figure 5
Pr/nC
17
Ph/nC
18
cross-plot to recognize the two major oil source types (terrestrial marine) for the
Ucayali Basin oils.

Figure 6
Pr/Ph ratio versus S-content in Ucayali Basin oils. Based on this cross-plot several groups of oils can be
recognized. A low sulfur reading for a Huaga oil is probably in error, a high sulfur reading for one of the
La Colpa oils is due to biodegradation, increasing the sulfur contents of oils significantly.

Oil Generation In Subandean Basins Of Peru Part I Confidential Report
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Figure 7
Pr/Ph ratio versus isotope delta C13 data of the saturated HC fraction in Ucayali Basin oils.

Figure 8
Sterane/Hopane (S/H) biomarker ratios of individual Ucayali Basin oils. Note the homogeneously low S/H
ratios for all oils, except the La Colpa oils and, to some extent, the Sepa oil. Ignore the data for San
Martin, Aguaytia, and Cashiriari oils (condensates) with very low biomarker contents (therefore large data
error) due to their high maturity.

Figure 9
Process to derive to a genetic oil classification system for Ucayali Basin oils starting from simple
geochemical analysis to more refined geochemical data analysis. Finally, four distinct genetic families are
identified with confidence, with the Sepa oil tentatively being explained as a mixture of oils.

Figures 10a - 10d
Selected Whole Oil GC traces of Santiago/Maraon Basins oils. For Legend see Figure 4.0

Figure 11
Comparison of sterane biomarker patterns of the Sungachi 1 oil with the Tambo 1 oil. Note the close
correlation of these tracer compounds, indicating a close genetic relationship of these two oils.

Figure 12
Distribution patterns of C
25
- and C
26
-Tricyclic Terpanes (T25 and T26) and C24-Tetracyclic Terpane (Tet)
in Sungachi 1, Samiria S1 oils, and the Tiraco Dome Seep.

Figure 13a 13c
Whole Oil GC trace comparison (Figure 13a) of the Ucayali Maquia 12 with the Maraon Samiria S1 oil.
Note the striking similarity of the Isoprenoid patterns (Ip) in both oils and nC
7
> MCH, which is typical for
Maquia-type oils. Figures 13b and 13c show comparisons of sterane (13b; m/z 217.2) and Triterpane (13c;
m/z 191.2) biomarker profiles of the two oils shown in Figure 13a. Further discussion in text.

Figure 14
Overview of genetic oil families in the Santiago/Maraon Basins, based on differences and similarities of
their geochemical characteristics.

Figure 15
Pr/nC
17
versus Ph/nC
18
cross-plot of Greater Maraon Basin oils. Further discussions in text.

Figure 16
Pr/Ph ratios versus isotope dC
13
sat value for Greater Maraon Basin oils. Note the distinct clustering of
various oil families.

Figure 17
Sterane/Hopane (S/H) ratios versus Tet/T
26
ratios (C
24
-Tetracyclic/C
26
-Tricyclic Terpane) for oil families of
the Greater Maraon Basin.

Figure 18
Pristane / Phytane ratios (Pr/Ph) versus nC
7
/MCH (Methylcyclohexane) ratios for oil families of the
Greater Maraon Basin.

Figure 19 (See Maps Section)
Regional distribution of oil families in the Santiago/Maraon/Ucayali Basins. Also indicated are estimated
degree of biodegradation and geochemical indications for reservoir re-charge (re-migration or continuous
migration).


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Figure 20
Whole Oil GC traces of the reference oils of the two main oil families in the Santiago/Maraon Basins;
Shown above is a Tambo-Sungachi oil type in the Dorissa Oil Field, and below the Maquia Oil Family in
the Samiria S1 well.

Figure 21
Three examples of severe and extreme biodegradation: Maquia oil type in the Bretana 1 well, (the most
eastern oil discovery in the Maraon Basin a Tambo-Sungachi oil type in the Bartra 1B-17-5 well of the
NE Maraon Basin, and the Aceite River Seep sample in the Santiago Basin.

Figure 22
Two examples of dual (bimodal) n-alkane envelopes in oil samples from the Maquia Oil Field in the
Ucayali Basin, indicating a 2
nd
HC migration phase into the structure from the identical source at higher
maturity.

Figure 23
Whole Oil GC trace of a Yanayacu oil sample, Maraon Basin. Note the dual n-alkane envelope and
compare to Figures 4.3 and 22, oil samples from the Maquia Oil Field in the Ucayali Basin.

Figures 24a and 24b
Examples of Whole Oil GC traces of five Maquia oil types in the Maraon Basin with dual n-alkane
envelopes. All five oils show some biodegradation of 1
st
phase HC migration/filling, but virtually unaltered
2
nd
phase HC recognized in the C
6
-C
12
molecular range.

Figures 25a and 25b
Examples of Whole Oil GC traces of six Tambo-Sungachi oil types in the Maraon Basin at different levels
of biodegradation. Figure 25a shows examples of slight/moderate degradation, Figure 25b shows examples
of more severe and very severe degradation. Note the presence of light HC in the very severe degraded
samples from Bartra V-14 and San Jacinto B, indicating continuous migration into the structure. Further
explanation in text.

Figures 26a 26c
Location of known Ambo samples with elevated TOC contents (Figure 26a, See Maps Section)) and cross-plot of
Reconstructed HI values and TOC; with Tmax (
o
C) indicated (Figure 26b). Note the presence of some
Ambo samples plotting in the Kerogen Type II range. Most other samples track Type III and Type III-II
paths. Reconstructed HI refers to (S1+S2)/TOC, which allows for an estimation of the initial HI for
immature to marginally mature Kerogens before major HC volumes are expelled from the source rock
sample. Figure 26c is the HI-OI crossplot of Ambo Formation samples with TOC contents > 20%. Note the
erroneous position of these samples on oil-prone Kerogen types. Further explanation in text.

Figures 27a and 27b
Field location of Ene/Copacabana Formation samples with elevated TOC content (Figure 27a, See Maps Section) and HI-OI
cross-plot of Ene/Copacabana Formation samples (Figure 27b).
.
Figures 28a and 28b
Cross-plot of Reconstructed HI with %TOC, and Tmax values indicated, for Pucara Formation samples
(Figure 28a). Note, that most samples are highly mature as indicated by high Tmax readings > 450
o
C.
Also, numerous Tmax readings are suspicious. Further explanations in text. Figure 28b (See Maps Section) shows the field
locations of known Pucara Formation samples with elevated TOC content. Also shown are subcrop and
depocenters according to literature. Further discussion in text.

Figure 29a and 29b
Field locations of known Raya/Cushubatay Formation samples with elevated TOC content (Figure 29a)
and HI-OI crossplot of Raya/Cushubatay Formation samples (Figure 29b). Note the Kerogen type being
mainly Type III and marginal Type II-III.

Oil Generation In Subandean Basins Of Peru Part I Confidential Report
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Figures 30a and 30b
Regional distribution of Chonta Formation high TOC samples and estimated Kerogen facies distribution in
the basins (Figure 30a, See Maps Section). In the Ucayali Basin the Chonta Formation is mainly or close to a Kerogen Type
III. Also, note high TOC values of Chonta Formation samples in the Santiago Basin. Figure 30b is the
HI-OI crossplot of Chonta Formation samples. Most samples plot between Kerogen Type II and Type III
lines.

Figure 31
Crossplot of Reconstructed HI versus TOC, with Tmax data(
o
C) indicated, for Pozo Formation samples.
Pozo Kerogen Type II-I samples appear to be confined to the Santiago Basin.

Figure 32
Ro depth trends for a number of Subandean Basins. From Mathalone and Montoya (1993).

Figure 33
Ro depth trend boundaries for Ucayali and Maraon Basins. Data from Mathalone and Montaya (1993).

Figures 34a 34c
Ro depth trends for examples of maturity trends falling within the Ro-depth boundaries outlined in Figure
33.

Figures 35a 35e
Ro depth trends for wells in the Santiago/Huallaga Basins.

Figures 36a 36c
Ro depth trends for Maraon Basin wells with pronounced paleo-uplift and erosion and Ro
discontinuities.

Figure 37 (See Maps Section)
Ro contour map of the Cretaceous Chonta Formation. Indicated are sample points, depths (m) of these
points and Ro values (%). This Ro contour map may serve as a maturity reference map for the basins.

Figure 38 (See Maps Section)
Estimated 0.8% Ro projection from Chonta Formation data onto the older Cabanillas Formation. Although
only a rough estimate, the 0.8% Ro Cabanillas contour illustrates the most eastern threshold for any
possible HC generation from the Cabanillas in the Maraon Basin. Any mature reservoired HC east of this
line should be derived from lateral oil migration. Also, the most NE (Paiche 1X) and E(Bretana 1) oil
discoveries are shown.

Figure 39 (See Maps Section)
Field location map for oil source correlations in the basins.

Figures 40a and 40b
Terpane biomarker profiles of the Tiraco Dome Seep and a Pucara Formation outcrop sample from the
Gallohuanacana outcrop. The Terpane spectra in Figure 40a indicates carbonate-derived HC for both the
seep and the rock sample. The low Diasterane content in the sterane profiles of Figure 40b also indicates a
carbonate environment.

Figures 41a and 41b
C
10
+ HC distributions of the Chambira Este 124 oil and an Uchumarca outcrop Pucara Formation sample
(Figure 41a). Figure 41b shows the terpane biomarker profiles with the typical characteristics of a
carbonate source for the HC in both the Pucara Formation and Chambira Este oil. Also, note the Kerogen
Type II character of the outcrop sample.



Oil Generation In Subandean Basins Of Peru Part I Confidential Report
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Figures 42a 42c
C
10
+ HC distribution of the Sungachi 1 oil and a Kerogen Type II Chonta Formation sample from the
Manseriche outcrop (Figure 42a); Figures 42b and 42c are the Terpane and Sterane biomarker traces of
these two samples. Terpane profiles show a good match of source-related parameters between the oil and
the rock, the sterane profiles show very good correspondence.

Figures 43a 43c
C
10
+ HC distribution of the Tambo 1 oil and a Chonta Formation sample from the Candungos outcrop
(Figure 43a); a correlation similar to the Sungachi oil - Chonta rock in Figures 42b and 42c is recognized
from the biomarker profiles in Figures 43b and 43c.

Figure 44
Range of a number of geochemical parameters and comparison of rock samples with oil family data to try
to identify sources for Ucayali Basin oils. Raw Data from Corelab Report.

Figure 45 (See Maps Section)
Illustration of migration direction of oils in the Maraon Basin.


Oil Generation In Subandean Basins Of Peru Part I Confidential Report
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Figures





























Ph/nC18 - Pr/nC17 Relationship, Ucayali Basin
0.1
1.0
10.0
0.1 1 10
Ph/nC18
P
r
/
n
C
1
7
Huaga / Maquia Oils
Figure 5
Pr/nC17 Ph/nC18crossplot torecognize thetwomajor oil source types (terrestrial marine) for theUcayali Basinoils.





Pr/Ph Ratio vs. %S in Oils; Ucayali Basin
0
1
2
3
4
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
%S in Oils
P
r
/
P
h
La Colpa (biodegradaded)
Maquia
Huaga
San Martin
Cashiriari
Aqua Caliente
Ganzo Azul
Figure 6
Pr/Ph ratio versus S-content in Ucayali Basin oils. Based on this crossplot several groups of oils can be recognized. A low sulfur reading for a Huaga oil is probably in
error, a high sulfur reading for one of the La Colpa oils is due to biodegradation, increasing the sulfur contents of oils significantly.





Pr/Ph Ratio vs. d13Csat in Oils Ucayali Basin
0
1
2
3
4
-30 -29 -28 -27 -26 -25
d13Csat
P
r
/
P
h
Figure 7
Pr/Ph ratio versus isotope delta C13 data of the saturated HC fraction in Ucayali Basin oils.
Maquia
La Colpa
Aqua Caliente
Sepa, Ganzo Azul
San Martin
Cashiriari

















































Greater Maraon Area, Oil Families
0.1
1.0
10.0
0.1 1 10
Ph/nC18
P
r
/
n
C
1
7
Agua Caliente
Cashiriari
La Colpa
Maquia
Tambo/Sungachi
Screened CoreLab & GeoMark Data
Bretana
Figure 15
Pr/nC17 versus Ph/nC18 crossplot
of Greater Maran Basin oils.
Further discussions in text.



Greater Maranon Area, All Whole Oils
0
1
2
3
4
-30 -28 -26 -24 -22 -20
d13 Csat
P
r
/
P
h
Agua Caliente
Cashiriari
La Colpa
Maquia
Tambo/Sungachi
Screened CoreLab & GeoMark Data
?
Bretana
Figure 16
Pr/Ph ratios versus isotope dC13 sat value for Greater Maranon Basin oils. Note the distinct clustering of
various oil families.



Greater Maranon Area, Oil Families
0
1
2
3
4
5
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
Tet/26
S
/
H
Agua Caliente
Cashiriari
La Colpa
Maquia
Tambo/Sungachi
Screened CoreLab & GeoMark Data
?
?
?
?
Biodegradation
Effects ?
Bretana
Figure17
Sterane/Hopane(S/H) ratiosversusTet/T26ratios(C24-Tetracyclic/C26-TricyclicTerpane) for oil families of theGreater Maranon
Basin.






Greater Maranon Area, All Whole Oils
0
1
2
3
4
0 1 2 3 4 5 nC7/MCH
P
r
/
P
h
Tambo/Sungachi
Maquia
La Colpa
Cashiriari
Agua Caliente
Screened CoreLab & GeoMark Data
?
?
?
?
?
?
Figure 18
Pristane/ Phytane ratios (Pr/Ph) versus nC7/MCH (Methylcyclohexane) ratios for oil families of the Greater Maranon
Basin.





























Peru Hydrocarbon Potential
449 449 452
448
456
447 451
446
460
456
451
450
454
454
470
442
436
434
435
465
461
n.d.
431
n.d.
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
0 5 10 15 20 25 TOC (%)
R
e
c
o
n
s
t
r
u
c
t
e
d

H
I
Type III
Type II
Type I
Type II-III
Figure 26b
Crossplot of Reconstructed HI values and TOC; with Tmax (oC) indicated (Figure 26b). Note the presence of some Ambo samples plotting in the Kerogen Type II range. Most
other samples track Type III and Type III-II paths. "Reconstructed HI" refers to (S1+S2)/TOC, which allows for an estimation of the initial HI for immature to marginally
mature kerogens before major HC volumes are expelled from the source rock sample.
All Basins - Ambo Formation




Peru Hydrocarbon Potential
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
0 50 100 150 200
OI (Oxygen Index)
H
I

(
H
y
d
r
o
g
e
n

I
n
d
e
x
)
Type III
Type II
Type I
Ambo Formation
Samples with TOC > 20%
Measured
Expected
Figure 26c
HI-OI crossplot of Ambo Formation samples with
TOC contents > 20%. Note the erroneous position
of these samples on oil-prone kerogen types.
Further explanation in text.




Peru Hydrocarbon Potential
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
0 50 100 150 200
OI (Oxygen Index)
H
I

(
H
y
d
r
o
g
e
n

I
n
d
e
x
)
Type III
Type II
Type I
Ene - Copacobana Formation
Figures 27b
Field location of Ene/Copacabana Formation samples with elevated
TOC content (Figure 27a) and HI-OI crossplot of Ene/Copacabana
Formation samples (Figure 27b).




Peru Hydrocarbon Potential
513
498
489
482
467
464
463
453
448
445
437
437
432 431
427
425
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
0 5 10 15 20 25
TOC (%)
R
e
c
o
n
s
t
r
u
c
t
e
d

H
I
Type III
Type II
Type I
Type II-III
Figure 28a
Crossplot of "Reconstructed HI" with %TOC, and
Tmax values indicated, for Pucara Formation
samples (Figure 28a). Note, that most samples are
highly mature as indicated by high Tmax readings >
450 oC. Also, numerous Tmax readings are
suspicious. Further explanations in text. Figure 28b
shows the field locations of known Pucara Formation
samples with elevated TOC content. Also shown are
subcrop and depocenters according to literature.
Further discussion in text.
Huallaga - Pucara Formation




Peru Hydrocarbon Potential
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
0 50 100 150 200
OI (Oxygen Index)
H
I

(
H
y
d
r
o
g
e
n

I
n
d
e
x
)
Type III
Type II
Type I
Raya - Cushabatay Formation
All Basins
Figure 29b
HI-OI crossplot of Raya/Cushubatay Formation
samples. Note the kerogen type being mainly Type
III and marginal Type II-III.



Peru Hydrocarbon Potential
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
0 50 100 150 200
OI (Oxygen Index)
H
I

(
H
y
d
r
o
g
e
n

I
n
d
e
x
)
Type III
Type II
Type I
All Basins - Chonta Formation
Figure 30b
HI-OI crossplot of Chonta Formation samples. Most
samples plot between Kerogen Type II and Type
III lines.






Peru Hydrocarbon Potential
440
439
437
436
428
438
422
422
436
436
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
0 5 10 15 20 25
TOC (%)
R
e
c
o
n
s
t
r
u
c
t
e
d

H
I
Type III
Type II
Type I
Type II-III
All Basins - Pozo Formation
Figure 31
Crossplot of Reconstructed HI versus TOC, with Tmax data(oC) indicated, for Pozo Formation samples. Pozo Kerogen Type
I-II samples appear to be confined to the Santiago Basin.








Peru Ro (Rc) Data
0.82
0.77
0.78
0.78
0.77
0.7
0.61
0.6
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
0.1 1 10
Ro (%)
D
e
p
t
h

(
m
)
San Martin 1x
Figure 34a
Ro depth trends for examples of maturity trends
falling within the Ro-depth boundaries outlined in





Peru Ro (Rc) Data
0.57
0.62
0.65
0.72
0.78
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
0.1 1 10
Ro(%)
D
e
p
t
h

(
m
)
Chapuli 1
Figure 34b
Ro depth trends for examples of maturity trends
falling within the Ro-depth boundaries outlined
in Figure 33.




Peru Ro (Rc) Data
0.62
0.63
0.83
0.81
0.81
0.86
0.89
0.89
0.91
0.91
0.91
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
0.1 1 10
Ro (%)
D
e
p
t
h

(
m
)
Tucunare 1x
Figure 34c
Ro depth trends for examples of maturity trends falling
within the Ro-depth boundaries outlined in Figure 33.





Peru Ro (Rc) Data
0.72
0.75
0.76
0.59
0.62
0.65
0.74 0.7
0.76
0.82
0.75
0.78
0.77 0.86 0.85
0.76
0.84
0.77
0.81
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
0.1 1 10
Ro (%)
D
e
p
t
h

(
m
)
Figure 35a
Ro depth trends for wells in the
Santiago/Huallaga Basins.
Putuime 1x





Peru Ro (Rc) Data
0.94
0.65
0.67
0.72
0.76
0.62
0.85
1.22
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
0.1 1 10
Ro (%)
D
e
p
t
h

(
m
)
Pupuntas 1x
Figure 35b
Ro depth trends for wells in the
Santiago/Huallaga Basins.




Peru Ro (Rc) Data
0.65 0.66
0.73
0.81 0.79
1
1.04
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
0.1 1 10
Ro (%)
D
e
p
t
h

(
m
)
Manseriche 1x
Figure 35c
Ro depth trends for wells in the
Santiago/Huallaga Basins.




Peru Ro (Rc) Data
0.42
0.49
0.49
0.52
0.5
0.61
0.62
0.7
0.64
0.72
0.74
0.77
0.63
0.73
0.78
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
0.1 1 10
Ro (%)
D
e
p
t
h

(
m
)
Tanguintza 1x
Figure 35d
Ro depth trends for wells in
the Santiago/Huallaga Basins.




Peru Ro (Rc) Data
0.67
0.6
0.65
1.1
1.8
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
0.1 1 10
Ro (%)
D
e
p
t
h

(
m
)
Ponasillo 1x
Figure 35e
Ro depth trends for wells in the
Santiago/Huallaga Basins.




Peru Ro (Rc) Data
0.4
0.58
0.64
0.68
1.1
1.45
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
0.1 1 10 Ro (%)
D
e
p
t
h

(
m
)
Maraon 110
Figures 36a
Ro depth trends for Maranon Basin
wells with pronounced paleo-uplift
and erosion and Ro discontinuities.
erosion / unconformity




Peru Ro (Rc) Data
0.44
0.47
0.56
0.58
0.84
1.13
1.04
1.02
1.07
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
0.1 1 10 Ro (%)
D
e
p
t
h

(
m
)
La Frontera 1
Figures 36b, Ro depth trends
for Maraon Basin well








Peru Ro (Rc) Data
2.16
2.03
2.16
0.49
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
0.1 1 10
Ro (%)
D
e
p
t
h

(
m
)
Yarina 2x
Figures 36c
Ro depth trends for Maraon Basin
wells with pronounced paleo-uplift and
erosion and Ro discontinuities.
erosion / unconformity ?













































OIL GENERATION IN SUBANDEAN BASINS OF PERU


Part II: Hydrocarbon Generation Modeling in the Greater Maraon Basin





Report



For:
PERUPETRO, Lima, PERU, and CPI, Edmonton, Canada



November, 2000


By:
H. von der Dick
ChemTerra Intl. Consultants (CTI), Calgary, Canada










Oil Generation In Subandean Basins Of Peru Part II Confidential Report
ChemTerra Intl. Consultants Ltd., Calgary, Canada
1
OIL GENERATION IN SUBANDEAN BASINS OF PERU

Part II: Hydrocarbon Generation Modeling in the Greater Maraon Basin



Introduction _________________________________________________________________________ 2
Data Input and Modeling Approach ______________________________________________________ 4
HC Modeling in Wells _________________________________________________________________ 6
Maraon 110 ______________________________________________________________________ 6
Forestal 1X________________________________________________________________________ 6
Ponasillo 1X _______________________________________________________________________ 6
Putuime 1X________________________________________________________________________ 7
Tanguintza 1X _____________________________________________________________________ 7
Conclusions__________________________________________________________________________ 8
Unresolved Problems and Future Investigations ___________________________________________ 10
Literature __________________________________________________________________________ 11
List of Figures_______________________________________________________________________ 12




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2
OIL GENERATION IN SUBANDEAN BASINS OF PERU

Part II: Hydrocarbon Generation Modeling in the Greater Maraon Basin



Introduction

Maturity indicators in rocks can be conveniently measured by a number of methods. Usually, these
indicators provide a good estimate of the present-day, actual maturity level gained over geological times
as a function of this time and elevated temperatures during basin subsidence.

However, the present-day maturity level does not provide insights into the process of thermal evolution
through geologic times. Initial attempts to reconstruct the process of thermal maturity along a time axis go
back to the late 1950s and were based on the concept of organic maturity being controlled by both time
and temperature. Time would be a linear function whereas temperature is an exponential function for this
maturity. In essence, a long geologic period of time would compensate for lower temperatures, and vice
versa, to yield identical maturity readings. Figure 1 is an illustration of this concept of high temperature
short time and low temperature long time to give identical maturity readings expressed here in Figure 1
as the conversion of a Kerogen with a initial concentration of B
o
. Kerogen conversion to concentration
(maturity) levels B
1
or B
2
can be achieved from low temperature over long time, or high temperature
associated with a short heating period.

Deciphering the process of maturation and oil generation through geologic time and stages of basin
evolution is a key aspect for the question of timing of HC generation and migration relative to structural
evolution and trap formation. Hydrocarbon generation modeling as used in this study became a predictive
tool once maturity processes could be kinetically described and artificial lab experiments could be projected
into geologic time spans with some confidence.

In principal, two modeling methods can be used for time-temperature relationship of HC generation:

1. Present-day wellbore temperatures and heat flow data are used to calculate and model
maturity in a basin.

2. Present-day maturity data are used to constrain the maturity model. Measured maturity
reflects the time-temperature integral and provides constrains for both time and temperature
conditions.

It is obvious that the first approach may often lack confidence because of the unknown paleo-temperature
record in a basin. Furthermore, relying on wellbore temperatures may be erroneous because of the
frequently inadequate quality of this measurement and the enormous influence of temperature on the
maturation process: e.g. a few degrees difference may translate into overmaturity.

In this study we selected wells with measured maturity data that were then used to constrain the maturity
model and estimated heat flow data. Measured Ro depth trends are particularly useful because the measured
trend can be compared with calculated trends and, if necessary, adjusted to observed data. This approach
was successful and as it turns out necessary, because measured, corrected well bore data appear to be
too high to account for observed maturity and reasonable present-day heat flow (assuming 20
o
C as present
average surface temperature).

This study of HC modeling in the Greater Maraon Basin was carried out on the following wells:
Forestal 1X and Maraon 110 in the Maraon Basin,
the Ponasillo 1X (Huallaga Basin),
the Putuime 1X and Tanguinza 1 wells in the Santiago Basin.
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The approach taken here is a first attempt to get an impression on the timing of oil generation, and in
particular with regard to the geochemical indications for a second phase Pucara HC and continuous
generation of Chonta HC, as discussed in the Phase I of this report. Also, the Pozo Shale is of interest here
with regard to its possible role as a major oil source rock in the western basins.
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Data Input and Modeling Approach

Data input for modeling is based on the most recent information provided by PetroPeru. Key information
tables were the Formation-Top Table, Beicips Chronostratigraphic Chart I for the Subandean Basins, log
cross-sections, various notes and internal reports from C. Monges (PetroPeru) and general information of
the public domain.

Table 1 is an example of the basic data input for the Ponasillo well. The modeling package used here is
BasinMod version 7.0 of PRA, Denver, USA.

Table 1: Ponasillo data input

Formation Type Begin
Age
Top (m) Thick.(m) Miss.Thick. Litho. Kerogen Type
Erosion 1 E 5 -2500
Undiff Ter F 25 0 422 Undiff Ter
PozoShale F 35 422 135 PozoShale
PozoSand F 40 557 54 PozoSand
Hiatus H 57
Yahuarango F 63 611 654 Yahuarango
Hiatus 6 H 74
Vivian F 84 1265 88 Vivian
Chonta F 91 1353 650 Chonta Type II (BMOD-1D LLNL)
AguaCaliente F 97 2003 210 AquaCaliente
Raya F 113 2213 208 Raya
Cushabatay F 120 2421 179 Cushabatay
Hiatus 8 H 127
Erosion 8 E 130 -500
Sarayaquillo F 152 2600 1400 Sarayaquillo
Hiatus 10 H 160
Erosion 10 E 170 -100
Pucara F 215 4000 50 Pucara Type II (BMOD-1D LLNL)

In this first approach of HC generation modeling the measured Ro data and Ro trends formed the most
critical benchmark to constrain thermal modeling. Further refinements and data estimates are necessary for
more precise modeling; here, in this first step, we used a number of default or constant values. For instance,
the surface temperature was set at 20
o
C throughout the geological past. Also, no specifics on Kerogen
composition or Kerogen kinetics were used.

Heat flow values tested and finally used in this study are listed in Table 2. Here, according to literature, we
assume initially high heat flow values in a phase of initial basin stretching and crustal thinning in
Cambrian/Ordovician times. This period of high heat flow (although of little impact on sediments due to
shallow sedimentation) was followed by basin subsidence along with heat flow decay until
Permian/Triassic rifting increased this heat flow sharply to values of 80-90 mW/m
2
. Again, the rifting
phase was followed by exponential thermal decay to present-day heat flow values of 40-42 mW/m
2
,
corresponding to a surface temperature of about 20
o
C.

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Our modeling of five wells, with measured Ro data as control points, indicates a reasonable heat flow
scenario used here. With some exception in the Tanguintza well, the burial histories of all 5 processed wells
in conjunction with these heat flow values resulted in good or perfect match of calculated with measured
Ro trends.

Table 2 Greater Maraon heat flow values

Time (m.y.) HF(mW/m2)
0 42
65 45
140 55
170 60
250 80
255 80
350 44
450 60
500 70
550 80
582 90

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HC Modeling in Wells

Maraon 110
The Maraon 110 well in the Maraon Basin is one of the few wells with drilled and recorded
Contaya/Cabanillas sections as the oldest (Paleozoic) source beds.

Figures 2a and 2b show the burial history curve for formations in this well. Several cycles of subsidence
and uplift are reconstructed and demonstrate the intense tectonic activity during Mesozoic and Cenozoic
times. The Contaya and Cabanillas Formations reached considerable depth > 2000m about 280 m.y. ago at
the Carboniferous/Permian boundary, followed by uplift and some re-burial. The basin literally plunged to
great depth at the end of the Jurassic: the old Paleozoic source beds reached considerable depth > 5000m,
followed by rapid and drastic uplift that eroded large parts of the previous sedimentary fill. Again, a third
cycle of deep burial is indicated in late Neogene times with some more recent uplift (Figure 2b).

Figure 3 shows the computed Ro depth trend with measured data points and the pronounced Ro break at
around 3000m depth, obviously a result of the extreme burial and uplift in early Cretaceous times. It is also
obvious that the Contaya and Cabanillas Formations gained their final maturity at the Jurassic/Cretaceous
boundary when they were exposed to great depth and at times when heat flow was still higher compared to
younger time periods.

Figure 4 depicts the modeled Ro maturity evolution through time: Contaya and Cabanillas Formations were
immature till the first burial event of significant, rapid burial to depth > 2000m. At that time in the late
Carboniferous heat flow was already high and both formations gained maturity into the oil generation
window. HC were certainly generated and probably expelled at that time. Subsequent uplift terminated the
maturity process and re-burial was never important until late Jurassic times when the basin plunged to great
depth. Then, these Paleozoic sources continued the maturation process to late and overmature conditions.
Along with this final maturity advance, late HC were expelled from a second phase of HC generation: Here
in the Maraon Structure the Contaya and Cabanillas Formation maturation illustrates the principal
occurrence of multi-phase HC generation in the basin, although it is possible that no HCs of these 2 HC
phases from the earliest source beds survived later structuring and re-structuring of the basin.

The Pucara source rock in this Maraon 110 structure never matured due to early erosion. Both the Chonta
and Pozo Shale Formations are early mature or immature. This is consistent with field observations.

Forestal 1X
The Forestal 1x wells shows, in principal, a similar burial history as the Maraon 110 well (Figure 5a and
5b). Here, we tried to reconstruct the Contaya / Cabanillas burial curve

Figure 6 displays the calculated Ro trend and some measured data points available for this well.

However, due to different subsidence and uplift rates, the maturity pattern over time is different as
suggested in Figure 7: Contaya and Cabanillas matured rapidly and extensively at the end of the
Carboniferous some 280 m.y. ago. The Paleozoic source beds reached overmature conditions with regard to
oil, and the source beds reached final Ro values between 2-3%.

The second subsidence cycle at the end of the Jurassic matured the Pucara Formation in one phase, the third
subsidence cycle in Neogene times marginally matured the Chonta Formation. Although mature, little or no
HC were generated or expelled due to source quality restrictions (see Figures 28b and 30a, Phase I Report).


Ponasillo 1X
The burial history of the Huallaga Basin is significantly different due to a main subsidence cycle in early
Cretaceous times that lasted into the Neogene. This was followed by substantial uplift (Figures 8a and 8b).
The uplift in post-Neogene times is the reason for high Ro readings in outcrop samples.

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We have calculated a paleo-overburden of 2500m for this Ponasillo well, which is in sharp contrast to
Mobils estimate of 21000 ft (roughly 7000m). Figure 9 shows Mobils measured Ro data in this well and
the computed (modeled) Ro trend from their basin modeling approach. Taking the model Ro trend as a
basis for surface extrapolation, we achieve a max. overburden of 17500 ft, not 21000 ft. If we accept the
measured Ro data points as valid, and construct a best fit line to establish a mean (measured) Ro trend, we
calculate a max. overburden of 2500m. Mobils own Tmax data fully support this measured Ro data for this
well,. Since we used measured data as a benchmark and could successfully model measured Ro data (see
Figure 10) the modeling results are substantially different from Mobils result assuming (for unknown
reasons) a paleo-overburden of 21000 ft.

Figure 10 shows the good agreement of measured Ro data with our modeled maturity in this well. As a
result of the subsiding sediments exposed to increased temperatures, the Pucara Formation matured in 3
phases (Figure 11): it gained marginally mature conditions in Early Cretaceous times and remained on this
level till about mid-Cretaceous before continued subsidence subjected the Pucara Formation to full and late
maturities in Upper Cretaceous times. A third pulse of late gas generation is associated with the Neogene
subsidence to great depth.

The Chonta essentially follows this Pucara maturity pattern time-delayed, only on a lower maturity level.
The Chonta only gained full maturity in the substantial Neogene subsidence, while the Pozo Shale may
reach marginal maturity (Figure 11).


Putuime 1X
Figures 12a and 12b show the burial history of the Putuime well in the Santiago Basin. Again, the time of
major subsidence started in the Early Cretaceous and culminated in the Neogene. Figure 13 displays the Ro
depth trend along with measured data points, and Figure 14 traces the Ro increase over geologic time.

Throughout the Cretaceous remained early or marginally mature before the Neogene subsidence induced a
second, major HC pulse with fully mature and late mature HC. Again, the Chonta tracks the Pucara and
gained full mature status in Neogene times. The Pozo shale is still immature or early mature.


Tanguintza 1X
Figures 15a and 15b display the burial history in the Tanguintza well in the Santiago Basin. Initial rapid
subsidence at the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary was followed by slow subsidence with some uplift episodes
before major subsidence occurred in the Paleocene and culminated in the Neogene before major uplift
exposed rocks to surface.

Figure 16 shows the computed Ro depth trend and measured data points. Here, modeling required slightly
higher heat flow values to accommodate measured data.

The Tanguinza well may serve as the classical example of dual phase Pucara HC generation and expulsion
as obvious from Figure 17. As a result of initial, rapid subsidence, the Pucara matured to Ro 0.8% in early
Cretaceous times and essentially remained on this level throughout the Cretaceous and into early Paleogene
times. A first HC generation phase apparently originates from this subsidence interval. Paleogene/Neogene
rapid subsidence quickly passed the Pucara through the fully mature and late mature oil window into the
gas generation phase. Both Chonta and Pozo Shale Formations follow this maturity pattern time-delayed
with Chonta Formation generating and expelling HC from early Neogene time on. The Pozo Shale is
mature and gained this maturity just before the more recent uplift.


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Conclusions

Maturity modeling carried out in a number of wells in the Greater Maraon Basin demonstrates several
episodes or phases of HC generation. Prime examples in the Maraon Basin show that these episodes are
linked to phases of rapid, deep burial. In the Maraon Basin this first cycle of rapid burial about 280 m.y.
ago could only affect the oldest source beds, the Ordovician Contaya and Devonian Cabanillas Formations.
The burial was not extreme in this cycle, however, it was sufficient for HC generation due to an increased
heat flow regime at the time.

A second episode of extreme and rapid burial at the end of the Jurassic affected both these old Paleozoic
sources and the Triassic Pucara Formation; the old Paleozoic sources underwent further maturation into and
beyond the gas window, whereas the Pucara Formation generated and expelled its first fully mature oils.
These first phases of Pucara HC are geochemically identified in the medium and high molecular range of
Whole Oil GC traces as shown in Figure 22, Part I Report.

A third deep burial event during Neogene times triggered a second pulse of late Pucara oils which is
recognized in the front-end envelope of GC traces in many Pucara-oil reservoirs (e.g. Figure 22, Part I
Report). However, the Part I Report also observed that not all Pucara oils are affected from a second pulse.
The reason for this spotty occurrence of dual phase Pucara oils is revealed from HC modeling results: In
cases where the second deep burial cycle at the end of the Jurassic was very deep, and the last cycle at
Neogene times could not surpass this previous cycle, the Pucara Formation was terminated in its
maturity history in early Cretaceous times. The Forestal 1X well demonstrates this relation very well; The
Pucara Formation was buried very deep at the Jurassic/Cretaceous subsidence episode, and the Neogene
subsidence now in thermal decay never reached this depth (Figure 5a). Consequently, in the Forestal 1X
block, the Pucara was subjected to a single phase maturity path from immature to almost gas generation
maturity in this Jurassic/Cretaceous subsidence episode.

In contrast, the Tanguintza structure in the Santiago Basin is a classical example of episodic Pucara oil
generation (Figure 17). Here, the Pucara generated and expelled oil during the Cretaceous; the last
subsidence episode during the Tertiary subjected this Pucara Formation to maximum depth, resulting in a
second phase of late mature oil and gas during this Tertiary subsidence. It also appears, that the Neogene
subsidence event always corresponds with maximum burial for the Santiago/Huallaga Basins. Since the
Pucara Formation gained maturity from previous burial, second phase HC generation appears to be the rule
here, in contrast to the Maraon Basin, where blocks or structures may or may not have subjected this
Pucara Formation to maximum depth at this last burial event during the Neogene.

In general, the Chonta Formation mimics this Pucara Formation maturity pattern on a maturity time
delayed scale. This late Cretaceous source rock could only participate in oil generation during the Neogene
subsidence when it reached fully mature conditions in western Maraon Basin and the adjacent
Santiago/Huallaga Basins. Because maximum Chonta burial occurred about 5 m.y. ago, the generation
phase is now terminated due to the most recent uplift, however, Chonta HC migration is still an ongoing
process and clearly recognized in severely biodegraded oils containing degraded high molecular HC next to
very young, light HC components that may be subject to future biodegradation. Thus, some Chonta-oil
reservoirs may be in a dynamic equilibrium with continuous charge competing with biodegradation.

The Tertiary Pozo Shale is the youngest rich source interval largely unrecognized in the literature. It was
already speculated in the Part I Report that this organic rich shale could be generating HC in the deep
Neogene subbasins. Our modeling results indicate that, in fact, this Pozo Shale is mature in parts of the
Santiago/Huallaga Basins. Thus, four source systems may contributing to the HC charge in these basins: 1
st

phase Pucara oils during Cretaceous times, and 2
nd
phase Pucara, Chonta and Pozo HC charges during
Neogene recent times.

In summary, the Greater Maraon Basin contains numerous source beds of varies geological ages that have
contributed to the oil charge. The episodic and staircase generation nature of the HC charge is a result of
source rock ages ranging from the Ordovician to the Tertiary in association with episodic deep burial and
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elevated heat flow at times. The earliest oil generation from the Paleozoic source beds can be traced to late
Carboniferous/ early Permian times. These HC may not have survived later structuring and tectonic phases.
A second major pulse affected the Mesozoic Pucara source at the late Jurassic, and a third HC pulse is
associated with Neogene subsidence affecting both Mesozoic and, in part, Tertiary source beds.

The pattern and episodic nature of HC in the Maraon Basin also puts some constrains on the timing for
biodegradation. Maquia-Pucara 1
st
HC phase shows some biodegradation effects (e.g. Figure 19, Report
Part I), whereas the 2
nd
HC phase remained unaffected besides some very subtle effects. Thus, some
biodegradation already occurred in the Early Cretaceous but ceased with re-burial in Tertiary times. The
next burial event in Neogene times generated Tambo/Sungachi Chonta oils and a 2
nd
HC phase from the
Pucara Formation. Uplift in more recent times resulted in significant biodegradation of many
Tambo/Sungachi oils, but (deeper?) 2
nd
phase Pucara oils hardly show any biodegradation effects. Figure
23 of the Report Part I shows the Yanayacu oil with 1
st
and 2
nd
HC charge. Some biodegradation is
recognized in the 1
st
HC charge, but the 2
nd
, later charge is unaffected from biodegradation. This indicates
first occurrence of biodegradation in Early Cretaceous times, formation sealing during Neogene burial, and
re-breaching of shallow reservoirs with the most recent uplift.

In the Santiago / Huallaga Basins the Neogene burial and dramatic uplift may have a substantial effect on
many shallow reservoirs, irrespective of the oil family. Here, both Chonta and Pucara oils are subjected to
degradation, possibly related to the extensive tectonic structuring since Neogene times.


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Unresolved Problems and Future Investigations

Despite a considerable progress in the understanding of Perus oil occurrences a number of questions
remain that are listed below and could be subject of further investigations:

The Santiago Basin contains many seeps of unknown genetic origin. The Pozo Shale could be a
candidate for some of these seeping HC. If correct, this would constitute proof and first occurrence of
Tertiary HC.

Source rocks in all basins have a wide range of maturities from immature to early metamorphic.
Inevitably tremendous amounts of gas have been generated in the basins, yet no major gas discovery is
reported. The fate of the thermal gas is not known.

Some aspects of the Paleozoic source beds have been covered with indications for very early HC
generation and the possibility of loss of these first HC products in the basins. However, parts of the
Maraon Basin have immature Cabanillas Formation with the strong likelihood of Cretaceous and/or
Neogene HC generation in parts of the Maraon Basin between super-mature and immature Cabanillas
conditions. What is the fate of these HC? HC modeling in target areas could provide some basic
answers to this question.

Based on all information available we strongly have to assume a 2
nd
HC Pucara phase in Neogene
times. However, in principal this 2
nd
HC phase observed in many Maquia oil types could also originate
from a 2
nd
Cabanillas HC phase in Early Cretaceous times.

Perus major oil basins show large volumes of mature source beds that should (or must) have generated
enormous quantities of oils. A quantitative basin modeling approach could provide data for additional
and expected oil reserves in comparison to conventionally proven/suspected reserves.

A quantitative basin modeling step should also incorporate geological data such as reservoir and seal
formation, timing of structures, and flow modeling from HC kitchen areas with the result of a well-
founded description of the Petroleum Systems in the Basins.

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Literature

Sofer et al., 1986
Stable carbon isotopes and biomarkers as tools in understanding genetic relationships, maturation,
biodegradation, and migration of crude oils in the Northern Peruvian Oriente (Maraon) Basin
Advances in Organic Geochemistry 1985, Part 1, p. 377-389
Pergamon Press

Mathalone, J.M.P. and Montaya, M., 1993
The petroleum geology of the Peruvian Sub-Andean basins
Internal PeruPetro Report

Peters, K.E., 1986
Guidelines for evaluating petroleum source rock using programmed pyrolysis.
AAPG Bull., Vol.70, p. 318-329

Palacas et al., 1984
South Florida Basin a prime example of carbonate source rocks of petroleum.
AAPG Studies in Geology 18, p.71-96

Salas, 1991
In: Mathalone and Montaya, 1993

von der Dick et al., 1989
Source rock geochemistry and hydrocarbon generation in the Jeanne dArc Basin, Grand Banks, offshore
Eastern Canada.
Journal of Petroleum Geology, Vol.12, p.51-68

Hunt, J.M., 1995
Petroleum geochemistry and geology, 2
nd
edition
W.H. Freeman and Company, New York

Passey et al., 1990
A practical model for organic richness from porosity and resistivity logs.
AAPG Bull., Vol. 74, p.1777-1794

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List of Figures

Figure 1
Illustration of the effect of low temperature (T
1
) and long reaction time t in comparison to high temperature
(T
2
) and short reaction time on the decay of Kerogen. A low reaction temperature can be compensated by
long reaction time to reach identical Kerogen decay levels B
1
or B
2
(conversion to oil) as compared to high
reaction temperature with short reaction time.

Figures 2a and 2b
Burial history curve of the Maraon 110 well in the Maraon Basin.

Figure 3
Comparison of calculated Ro depth trend with measured Ro data points in the Maraon 110 well.

Figure 4
Modeled Ro trends through geologic times for the prominent source beds in the Maraon Basin in the
Maraon 110 well. Note the staircase maturation increase of the Contaya and Cabanillas Formations.

Figures 5a and 5b
Burial history curve in the Forestal 1x well.

Figure 6
Comparison of calculated Ro depth trend with measured Ro data points in the Forestal 1X well.

Figure 7
Modeled Ro trends through geologic times for the prominent source beds in the Maraon Basin in the
Forestal 1X well.

Figures 8a and 8b
Burial history curve of the Ponasillo 1x well in the Huallaga Basin. .

Figure 9
Mobils measured Ro data points and computer-modeled Ro depth trend for the Ponasillo 1X well. Note,
that the computer-modeled Ro trend is not the best fit Ro line of the measured data points. Further
explanation in text.

Figure 10
Comparison of calculated Ro depth trend with measured Ro data points in the Ponasillo 1X well.

Figure 11
Modeled Ro trends through geologic times for the prominent source beds in the Huallaga Basin in the
Ponasillo 1X well.

Figures 12a and 12b
Burial history curve for the Putuime 1X well.

Figure 13
Comparison of calculated Ro depth trend with measured Ro data points in the Putuime 1X well.

Figure 14
Modeled Ro trends through geologic times for the prominent source beds in the Santiago Basin in the
Putuime 1X well.

Figures 15a and 15b
Burial history curve for the Tanguintza 1X well.
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Figure 16
Comparison of calculated Ro depth trend with measured Ro data points in the Tanguintza 1X well.

Figure 17
Modeled Ro trends through geologic times for the prominent source beds in the Santiago Basin in the
Tanguintza 1X well.











Figures

























































































Maps
Columbia
7
2
7
8

7
7

7
6

7
5

7
4

7
3


1 S
0
3 S
0
5 S
0
7 S
0
9 S
0
11 S
0
Brazil
Andes
Mountains
Lima
Iquitos
Maranon
Basin
Santiago
Basin
Huallaga
Basin
Ucayali
Basin
Coastline
Ecuador
Ene
Basin
September, 2000 Scale 1 : 3,000,000
ChemTerraInternational Consultants Ltd.
CTI
Figure 1
Geochem, Greater Maranon Area
Study Area Well Control
La Colpa 1x
Sepa 1x
Cashiriari
Sungachi 1
Bretana 1
Puintza 1
Agua Caliente 1
Aguaytia 1
Maranon 110
Marquia 1
Tiraco Dome Seep
Shanusi Seep
Chambira Este 123
Bartra 1
Tambo 1
Dorissa 1
Paiche 1x
Shanusi 1
Ponasillo 1x
Columbia
7
2
7
8

7
7

7
6

7
5

7
4

7
3


1 S
0
3 S
0
5 S
0
7 S
0
9 S
0
11 S
0
Brazil
Andes
Mountains
Lima
Iquitos
Maranon
Basin
Santiago
Basin
Huallaga
Basin
Ucayali
Basin
Coastline
Ecuador
Ene
Basin
Geochem, Greater Maranon Area
ChemTerra International Consultants Ltd.
CTI
September, 2000 Scale 1 : 3,000,000 Figure 19
Oil Family
Maquia
Agua Caliente
La Colpa
Cashiriari
Tambo/Sungachi

Biodegraded
- No Biodegradation
(+) Slight Biodegradation
+ Biodegradation
++ Severly Biodegradation
2nd Charge System
++
(+)
(+)
(+)
__
__
__
__
__
++
++
++
++
++
++
++
++
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
__
__
__
__
__
__
__
__
__
__
__
__
__
__
Mix
__
__
La Colpa 1x
Sepa 1x
Cashiriari
Sungachi 1
Puintza 1
Aguaytia 1
Marquia 1
Chambira Este 123
Bartra 1
Tambo 1
Dorissa 1
Shanusi Seep
Columbia
7
2
7
8

7
7

7
6

7
5

7
4

7
3


1 S
0
3 S
0
5 S
0
7 S
0
9 S
0
11 S
0
Brazil
Andes
Mountains
Lima
Iquitos
Maranon
Basin
Santiago
Basin
Huallaga
Basin
Ucayali
Basin
Coastline
Ecuador
Ene
Basin
2.1-35.1
3.5-8.3
2.6
2.6-42.7
Geochem, Greater Maranon Area
September, 2000 Scale 1 : 3,000,000
ChemTerra International Consultants Ltd.
CTI
Figure 26-a
Ambo TOC (%)
Columbia
7
2
7
8

7
7

7
6

7
5

7
4

7
3


1 S
0
3 S
0
5 S
0
7 S
0
9 S
0
11 S
0
Brazil
Andes
Mountains
Lima
Iquitos
Maranon
Basin
Santiago
Basin
Huallaga
Basin
Ucayali
Basin
Coastline
Ecuador
Ene
Basin
1.5-4.8
1.7-2.7
2.4-6.2
2.7-5.6
4.1
2.2
4.7
21.5
3.5-5.3
1.0-2.0
Geochem, Greater Maranon Area
September, 2000 Scale 1 : 3,000,000
ChemTerra International Consultants Ltd.
CTI
Figure 27-a
Copacobana TOC (%)
Ene TOC (%)





Columbia
7
2
7
8

7
7

7
6

7
5

7
4

7
3


1 S
0
3 S
0
5 S
0
7 S
0
9 S
0
11 S
0
Brazil
Andes
Mountains
Lima
Iquitos
Maranon
Basin
Santiago
Basin
Huallaga
Basin
Ucayali
Basin
Coastline
Ecuador
Ene
Basin
1.04
2.3
1.1-5.6
8.2
8.81
1.2-1.8
59.7
2.0-65.0
2.0-2.3
1.0
32.4
1.0-4.3
1.8
1.3
Geochem, Greater Maranon Area
September, 2000 Scale 1 : 3,000,000
ChemTerra International Consultants Ltd.
CTI
Figure 29-a
Cushabatay TOC (%)
Raya TOC (%)





0
.5
0.6
0
.
7
0
.
7
0
.
8
0
.
7
0
.
6
0
.
5
1
.
0
0
.
8
Columbia
7
2
7
8

7
7

7
6

7
5

7
4

7
3


1 S
0
3 S
0
5 S
0
7 S
0
9 S
0
11 S
0
Brazil
Andes
Mountains
Lima
Iquitos
Maranon
Basin
Santiago
Basin
Huallaga
Basin
Ucayali
Basin
Coastline
Ecuador
Ene
Basin
0.49
3038m
0.54
0m
0.53
2680
0.36
0m
0.5
2595m
0.6
2185m
0.52
3594m
0.48
403m
0.48
1006m
0.43
134m
0.57
2409m
0.47
1800m
0.45
2694m
0.49
2551m
0.51
1742m
0.94
393m
0.9
633m
0.76
0m
0.61
0m
0.59
0m
0.7
2976m
0.62
0m 0.71
4697m
0.81
4680m
0.6
2993m
0.5
2549
0.52
2360m
0.55
2891m
0.46
2556m
0.82
4729m
0.81
4445
0.89
4031
0.62
3294m
0.5
2952m
0.49
2414m
0.56
1623m
0.71
4874m
0.83
0m
September, 2000 Scale 1 : 3,000,000
ChemTerra International Consultants Ltd.
CTI
Figure 37
0.71 Ro Value
Well Symbol
4874m Sample Depth
1.1
1719m
1.05
0m
Chonta Type II
Kerogen
Geochem, Greater Maranon Area
Sepa 1x
Sungachi 1
Aguaytia 1
Marquia 1
Tiraco Dome Seep
Shanusi Seep
Bartra 1
Ponasillo 1x
Columbia
7
2
7
8

7
7

7
6

7
5

7
4

7
3


1 S
0
3 S
0
5 S
0
7 S
0
9 S
0
11 S
0
Brazil
Andes
Mountains
Lima
Iquitos
Maranon
Basin
Santiago
Basin
Huallaga
Basin
Ucayali
Basin
Coastline
Ecuador
Ene
Basin
September, 2000 Scale 1 : 3,000,000
ChemTerra International Consultants Ltd.
CTI
Figure 38
Geochem, Greater Maranon Area
Geochem Well Control
Cabanillas Ro (from Chonta Ro 0.6)
0.8
Paiche 1x
Bretana 1
Columbia
7
2
7
8

7
7

7
6

7
5

7
4

7
3


1 S
0
3 S
0
5 S
0
7 S
0
9 S
0
11 S
0
Brazil
Andes
Mountains
Lima
Iquitos
Maranon
Basin
Santiago
Basin
Huallaga
Basin
Ucayali
Basin
Coastline
Ecuador
Ene
Basin
Geochem, Greater Maranon Area
ChemTerra International Consultants Ltd.
CTI
September, 2000 Scale 1 : 3,000,000 Figure 39
Oil Family
Maquia
Tambo/Sungachi
Oil Sample
Rx. Outcrop sample






















Geochemical Data Base
Master Data Base Source Rx.
Lab # Sample ID LabRemark Sample Type Basin Field/Loca Well xCoordin.W yCoordin.S UTMx UTMy Formation Form.Lith. Age Depth (ft) Depth (m) Form. T(C) Form.Ro TOC > 1% Tmax S1peak S2 Peak S3Peak HI OI ReconstrHI
Maranon Maranon 110 74.09 4.47 600898 9506125 Agua Caliente Cret 2438 0.58
Maranon Maranon 110 74.09 4.47 600898 9506125 Agua Caliente Cret 2774 0.64
Maranon Maranon 110 74.09 4.47 600898 9506125 Ambo Carb 2926 0.68
709-171a 8930-8940 cutting Ucayali La Colpa 1X 73.47 9.32 668037 8969405 Ambo Carb 8935 2725
14HH RF-85-711 handpicked Ucayali Rio Pagorene N Outcrop 73.27 11.82 688476 8692767 Ambo Carb 0 0 20 0.9 24.23 449 4.12 48.92 0.68 202 3 219
01HH RF-85-610 handpicked Ucayali Rio Pagorene N Outcrop 73.27 11.82 688476 8692767 Ambo Carb 0 0 20 0.69 3.31 436 1.63 14.8 0.3 447 9 496
02HH RF-85-611 handpicked Ucayali Rio Pagorene N Outcrop 73.27 11.82 688476 8692767 Ambo Carb 0 0 20 0.63 2.15 431 0.98 8.45 0.5 393 23 439
03HH RF-85-612 handpicked Ucayali Rio Pagorene N Outcrop 73.27 11.82 688476 8692767 Ambo Carb 0 0 20 0.69 3.01 435 1.19 14.53 0.34 483 11 522
04HH RF-85-613 handpicked Ucayali Rio Pagorene N Outcrop 73.27 11.82 688476 8692767 Ambo Carb 0 0 20 0.68 3.04 434 1.08 12.42 0.43 409 14 444
11HH RF-85-708 handpicked Ucayali Rio Pagorene N Outcrop 73.27 11.82 688476 8692767 Ambo Carb 0 0 20 0.91 25.96 450 5.42 47.88 0.67 184 3 205
12HH RF-85-709 handpicked Ucayali Rio Pagorene N Outcrop 73.27 11.82 688476 8692767 Ambo Carb 0 0 20 0.89 19.98 448 3.69 43.53 0.57 218 3 236
13HH RF-85-710 handpicked Ucayali Rio Pagorene N Outcrop 73.27 11.82 688476 8692767 Ambo Carb 0 0 20 0.88 17.88 447 3.71 36.62 0.68 205 4 226
14HH RF-85-711 handpicked Ucayali Rio Pagorene N Outcrop 73.27 11.82 688476 8692767 Ambo Carb 0 0 20 0.9 24.23 449 4.12 48.92 0.68 202 3 219
15HH RF-85-712 handpicked Ucayali Rio Pagorene N Outcrop 73.27 11.82 688476 8692767 Ambo Carb 0 0 20 0.96 7.14 454 1.08 9.24 0.32 129 4 145
16HH RF-85-714 handpicked Ucayali Rio Pagorene N Outcrop 73.27 11.82 688476 8692767 Ambo Carb 0 0 20 0.87 14.08 446 1.64 23.76 0.46 169 3 180
17HH RF-85-715 handpicked Ucayali Rio Pagorene N Outcrop 73.27 11.82 688476 8692767 Ambo Carb 0 0 20 0.94 20.85 452 1.23 44.41 0.67 213 3 219
18HH RF-85-716 handpicked Ucayali Rio Pagorene N Outcrop 73.27 11.82 688476 8692767 Ambo Carb 0 0 20 1.05 13.35 460 1.05 8 5.33 60 40 68
19HH RF-85-717 handpicked Ucayali Rio Pagorene N Outcrop 73.27 11.82 688476 8692767 Ambo Carb 0 0 20 0.92 8.41 451 1.3 20.2 0.29 240 3 256
20HH RF-85-721 handpicked Ucayali Rio Pagorene N Outcrop 73.27 11.82 688476 8692767 Ambo Carb 0 0 20 0.91 35.06 450 5.02 89.4 0.75 255 2 269
21HH RF-85-723 handpicked Ucayali Rio Pagorene N Outcrop 73.27 11.82 688476 8692767 Ambo Carb 0 0 20 0.98 19.48 456 2.19 41.51 0.82 213 4 224
22HH RF-85-724 handpicked Ucayali Rio Pagorene N Outcrop 73.27 11.82 688476 8692767 Ambo Carb 0 0 20 0.9 29.47 449 4.12 45.5 0.91 154 3 168
23HH RF-85-725 handpicked Ucayali Rio Pagorene N Outcrop 73.27 11.82 688476 8692767 Ambo Carb 0 0 20 0.92 14.14 451 1.66 30.52 0.7 216 5 228
24HH RF-85-728 handpicked Ucayali Rio Pagorene N Outcrop 73.27 11.82 688476 8692767 Ambo Carb 0 0 20 0.93 25.36 453 3.55 45.49 0.6 179 2 193
48HH RF-85-921 handpicked Ucayali Rio Pagorene N Outcrop 73.27 11.82 688476 8692767 Ambo Carb 0 0 20 2.05 n.d. 0.05 n.d. 0.2 n.d. 10 #VALOR!
50HH RF-85-923 handpicked Ucayali Rio Pagorene N Outcrop 73.27 11.82 688476 8692767 Ambo Carb 0 0 20 2.29 n.d. 0.05 n.d. 0.13 n.d. 6 #VALOR!
14J 62-211 handpicked Ucayali Rio Camisea Outcrop 72.40 11.92 783206 8680964 Ambo Perm 0 0 20 0.61 2.57 461 0.35 1.02 0.34 40 13 53
10FFF UPM-81-133 handpicked Ucayali Pong.Maini/Urubamba Outcrop 72.88 12.23 730631 8647109 Ambo Carb 0 0 20 0.97 5.34 454 1.21 4.65 0.08 87 1 110
9FFF UPM-81-130 handpicked Ucayali Pong.Maini/Urubamba Outcrop 72.88 12.23 730631 8647109 Ambo Carb 0 0 20 1 34.98 457 6.83 64.79 0.83 185 2 205
8FFF UPM-81-128 handpicked Ucayali Pong.Maini/Urubamba Outcrop 72.88 12.23 730631 8647109 Ambo Carb 0 0 20 1.12 42.7 465 3.89 45.36 0.65 106 2 115
7FFF UPM-81-120 handpicked Ucayali Pong.Maini/Urubamba Outcrop 72.88 12.23 730631 8647109 Ambo Carb 0 0 20 1.12 25.26 465 3.67 27.52 1.31 109 5 123
6FFF UPM-81-117 handpicked Ucayali Pong.Maini/Urubamba Outcrop 72.88 12.23 730631 8647109 Ambo Carb 0 0 20 1.2 3.92 470 0.6 2.84 0.12 72 3 88
5FFF UPM-81-116 handpicked Ucayali Pong.Maini/Urubamba Outcrop 72.88 12.23 730631 8647109 Ambo Carb 0 0 20 1.04 10.93 456 1.49 6.58 0.64 60 6 74
3FFF UPM-81-113 handpicked Ucayali Pong.Maini/Urubamba Outcrop 72.88 12.23 730631 8647109 Ambo Carb 0 0 20 1.12 2.61 465 0.56 1.89 0.07 72 3 94
705-173a Extrac/Contam handpicked Ucayali San Martin1X 72.77 11.76 743025 8699020 Ambo shale Carb 3681 0.78 8.26 450 n.d. 14.08 0.45 170 5 #VALOR!
705-176 cutting Ucayali San Martin1X 72.77 11.76 743025 8699020 Ambo Carb 3731 0.77 3.54 442 0.34 5.19 0.57 147 16 156
2400 CHR-85-100 handpicked Huallaga Rio Chiria./Pob.Pomacho Outcrop 77.87 5.78 182122 9360312 Aqua Caliente Cret 0 0 20 1.69 12.35 519 0.07 0.72 11.48 6 93 6
1SSS CHZT-3-9 handpicked Huallaga Chatuza Outcrop 76.19 6.56 368434 9274735 Aqua Caliente Cret 0 0 20 0.1 3.25 388 17.38 14.51 0.4 446 12 981
728- handpicked Maranon Chapuli 1 77.08 3.55 268425 9607026 Aqua Caliente Cret 15950 4865 0.72 0.84 n.d. 0
718-41 Cuttings Maranon La Frontera 1 74.67 6.30 536237 9304138 Aqua Caliente Cret 6560 2001 0.56 2.38 429 0.47 1.04 1.06 44 45 63
716-170 Core Maranon Yanez 26-14X 76.95 3.06 283468 9661367 Aqua Caliente Cret 15846 4833 0.96 1.89 454 0.52 2.22 0.23 117 12 145
705-178 cutting Ucayali San Martin1X 72.77 11.76 743025 8699020 Aqua Caliente Cret 3813 0.82 2.76 445 0.22 3.25 0.66 118 24 126
724- Cuttings Huallaga Ponasillo 30-28-1X 76.29 7.39 357113 9182488 Boqueron Cret 8975 2737 1.8 1.5 435 0.07 0.68 1.94 45 129 50
718-75 Cuttings Maranon La Frontera 1 74.67 6.30 536237 9304138 Cabanillas Dev 8780 2678 1.13 1.26 n.d. 2.1 1.83 0.82 145 65 312
718-83 Core Maranon La Frontera 1 74.67 6.30 536237 9304138 Cabanillas Dev 8950 2730 1.04 4.7 459 1.22 1.35 0.5 29 11 55
718-86 Cuttings Maranon La Frontera 1 74.67 6.30 536237 9304138 Cabanillas Dev 8970 2736 2.01 n.d. 0.92 0.91 0.41 45 20 91
718-91 Cuttings Maranon La Frontera 1 74.67 6.30 536237 9304138 Cabanillas Dev 9050 2760 1.02 2 n.d. 0.36 0.65 0.45 33 23 51
718-92 Cuttings Maranon La Frontera 1 74.67 6.30 536237 9304138 Cabanillas Dev 9080 2769 2.17 n.d. 0.79 1.09 0.69 50 32 87
718-96 Cuttings Maranon La Frontera 1 74.67 6.30 536237 9304138 Cabanillas Dev 9140 2788 2.08 n.d. 2.32 2.04 1.99 98 96 210
718-100 Cuttings Maranon La Frontera 1 74.67 6.30 536237 9304138 Cabanillas Dev 9230 2815 1.97 n.d. 0.65 1.12 0.75 57 38 90
718-101 Cuttings Maranon La Frontera 1 74.67 6.30 536237 9304138 Cabanillas Dev 9350 2852 1.07 1 0
718-112 Cuttings Maranon La Frontera 1 74.67 6.30 536237 9304138 Cabanillas Dev 9400 2867 1.25 n.d. 0.43 0.56 0.54 45 43 79
718-121 Cuttings Maranon La Frontera 1 74.67 6.30 536237 9304138 Cabanillas Dev 9590 2925 0.97 n.d. n.d n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. #VALOR!
Maranon Maranon 110 74.09 4.47 600898 9506125 Cabanillas Dev 3048 1.1
713-72 Cuttings Maranon Yarina 2X 73.79 5.23 634234 9422140 Cabanillas Dev 11075 3378 1.01 n.d. 0.16 0.14 0.54 14 53 30
713-74 Cuttings Maranon Yarina 2X 73.79 5.23 634234 9422140 Cabanillas Dev 11115 3390 1.47 n.d. 0.16 0.16 0.36 11 24 22
713-80 Cuttings Maranon Yarina 2X 73.79 5.23 634234 9422140 Cabanillas Dev 11235 3427 1.44 n.d. 0.19 0.15 1.44 10 100 24
713-83 Cuttings Maranon Yarina 2X 73.79 5.23 634234 9422140 Cabanillas Dev 11315 3451 2.03 1.43 n.d. 0.12 0.09 1.08 6 76 15
713-85 Cuttings Maranon Yarina 2X 73.79 5.23 634234 9422140 Cabanillas Dev 11355 3463 1.28 n.d. 0.08 0.1 0.62 8 48 14
713-87 Cuttings Maranon Yarina 2X 73.79 5.23 634234 9422140 Cabanillas Dev 11395 3475 1.13 n.d. 0.14 0.15 0.59 13 52 26
713-96 Cuttings Maranon Yarina 2X 73.79 5.23 634234 9422140 Cabanillas Dev 11575 3530 1.13 n.d. 0.08 0.13 0.43 12 38 19
713-111 Cuttings Maranon Yarina 2X 73.79 5.23 634234 9422140 Cabanillas Dev 11935 3640 2.16 1 n.d. 0.13 0.12 0.58 12 58 25
81-073 handpicked Ucayali Pongo de Mainique Outcrop 72.88 12.23 730631 8647109 Cabanillas Dev 0 0 20 1.97 #DIV/0!
3HHH S-17/CHO-8 handpicked Ucayali Rio Chorinashi Outcrop 74.09 10.37 599620 8853536 Cabanillas Dev 0 0 20 1.3 3.88 475 0.04 0.18 2.65 5 68 6
62-104 handpicked Ucayali Rio Camisea Outcrop 72.40 11.92 783206 8680964 Cabanillas Dev 0 0 20 1.27 #DIV/0!
62-107 handpicked Ucayali Rio Camisea Outcrop 72.40 11.92 783206 8680964 Cabanillas Dev 0 0 20 1.19 #DIV/0!
ChemTerra Intl. Confidential 29/10/2002 Page 1
Master Data Base Source Rx.
Lab # Sample ID LabRemark Sample Type Basin Field/Loca Well xCoordin.W yCoordin.S UTMx UTMy Formation Form.Lith. Age Depth (ft) Depth (m) Form. T(C) Form.Ro TOC > 1% Tmax S1peak S2 Peak S3Peak HI OI ReconstrHI
1FFF UPM-81-029 handpicked Ucayali Pong.Maini/Urubamba Outcrop 72.88 12.23 730631 8647109 Cabanillas Dev 0 0 20 1.05 2 460 0.02 0.1 1.65 5 83 6
729-32 Cuttings Maranon Huitoyacu 1X 76.90 3.59 288900 9603407 Cachiyacu Cret 13795 4207 2.72 n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. #VALOR!
729-33 Cuttings Maranon Huitoyacu 1X 76.90 3.59 288900 9603407 Cachiyacu Cret 13845 4223 2.27 n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. #VALOR!
729-35 Cuttings Maranon Huitoyacu 1X 76.90 3.59 288900 9603407 Cachiyacu Cret 13955 4256 0.72 2.2 438 n.d. 2.86 1.28 130 58 #VALOR!
1NN MAN-84-015 handpicked Maranon Pongo de Manseriche1 Outcrop 77.58 4.47 213681 9505417 Cachiyacu Cret 0 0 20 0.8 1.73 443 0.03 1.47 0.3 85 17 87
98/164' CoreLabs Cuttings Maranon Tucunare 1X 76.32 2.98 352763 9670391 Cachiyacu Cret 12065 3680 0.83
98/164' CoreLabs Cuttings Maranon Tucunare 1X 76.32 2.98 352763 9670391 Cachiyacu Cret 12115 3695 0.81
2DD Can-84-16 handpicked Santiago Qda.Candungo1 Outcrop 77.89 3.46 178861 9617072 Cachiyacu Cret 0 0 20 1.08 2.1 464 0.13 0.71 0.04 34 2 40
1DD Can-84-15 handpicked Santiago Qda.Candungo1 Outcrop 77.89 3.46 178861 9617072 Cachiyacu Cret 0 0 20 1.8 4.09 509 0.13 0.98 0.48 24 12
14L 58-371 handpicked Huallaga Rio Cushabatay Outcrop 75.84 6.94 407206 9232801 Chonta Cret 0 0 20 0.57 1.34 427 0.13 0.76 1.02 57 76 66
30A V66-279 handpicked Huallaga Huallaga/Rio Valle Outcrop 76.73 7.54 309119 9166177 Chonta Cret 0 0 20 1.04 2.02 459 0.75 1.66 0.27 82 13 119
33A V66-283A handpicked Huallaga Huallaga/Rio Valle Outcrop 76.73 7.54 309119 9166177 Chonta Cret 0 0 20 1.06 2.03 461 0.69 1.37 0.37 67 18 101
724- Cuttings Huallaga Ponasillo 30-28-1X 76.29 7.39 357113 9182488 Chonta Cret 4905 1496 0.6 1.39 430 0.16 4.64 0.71 334 51 345
724- Cuttings Huallaga Ponasillo 30-28-1X 76.29 7.39 357113 9182488 Chonta Cret 4965 1514 0.65 1.46 433 0.42 5.14 0.92 352 63 381
724- Cuttings Huallaga Ponasillo 30-28-1X 76.29 7.39 357113 9182488 Chonta Cret 5365 1636 2.55 n.d. 0.83 3.51 5.87 138 230 170
724- Cuttings Huallaga Ponasillo 30-28-1X 76.29 7.39 357113 9182488 Chonta Cret 5635 1719 1.1 1.46 432 0.18 2.89 2.29 198 157 210
Mobil Ro Map Maranon Arabela X 75.07 2.08 492534 9770533 Chonta Cret 1623.00 0.56
Mobil Ro Map Maranon Ecuador Balsaura Chonta Cret 0.50
Mobil Ro Map Maranon Bartra 8-17-6CD 75.64 2.47 428506 9727109 Chonta Cret 2414.00 0.49
Mobil Ro Map Maranon Belen 1 74.55 3.66 549638 9595328 Chonta Cret 2380.00 0.52
Mobil Ro Map Maranon Bolognesi 8-18-62x 75.20 3.05 477900 9663167 Chonta Cret 2556.00 0.46
Mobil Ro Map Maranon Capirona 75.42 3.52 453791 9610507 Chonta Cret 2993.00 0.60
728- Cuttings Maranon Chapuli 1 77.08 3.55 268425 9607026 Chonta Cret 14300 4362 0.62 1.04 439 0.13 1.2 0.45 115 43 128
728- handpicked Maranon Chapuli 1 77.08 3.55 268425 9607026 Chonta Cret 15400 4697 0.65 1 441 0.07 0.61 0.21 61 21 68
Mobil Ro Map Maranon Chapuli 1 77.08 3.55 268425 9607026 Chonta Cret 4709.00 0.71
Mobil Ro Map Maranon Ecuador Curaray x-1 Chonta Cret 0.60
Mobil Ro Map Maranon Forestal 1A-50-18X 76.16 2.35 370526 9740453 Chonta Cret 2952.00 0.50
Mobil Ro Map Maranon Huasaga 1 76.66 3.14 315765 9652920 Chonta Cret 4445.00 0.81
Mobil Ro Map Maranon Huayuri Sur 33x 76.23 2.63 363195 9709240 Chonta Cret 3294.00 0.62
Mobil Ro Map Maranon Intuto 1 23x 75.01 3.52 499300 9610953 Chonta Cret 2891.00 0.55
718-30 Cuttings Maranon La Frontera 1 74.67 6.30 536237 9304138 Chonta Cret 5900 1800 0.47 0.98 n.d. 0.56 0.78 0.75 80 77 137
Mobil Ro Map Maranon Loreto 1 75.58 5.91 435537 9346484 Chonta Cret 1742.00 0.51
Mobil Ro Map Maranon Ecuador Maranacu 1 Chonta Cret 0.56
8NN MAN-84-064 handpicked Maranon Pongo de Manseriche1 Outcrop 77.58 4.47 213681 9505417 Chonta Cret 0 0 20 0.81 2.97 444 0.17 4.76 0.9 160 30 166
9NN MAN-84-065 handpicked Maranon Pongo de Manseriche1 Outcrop 77.58 4.47 213681 9505417 Chonta Cret 0 0 20 0.75 3.16 440 0.52 8.12 0.75 257 24 273
22NN MAN-84-167 handpicked Maranon Pongo de Manseriche2 Outcrop 77.58 4.47 213681 9505417 Chonta Cret 0 0 20 0.83 3.23 442 0.43 9.03 0.34 280 11 293
Mobil Ro Map Maranon Pucacuro 1X 75.01 3.26 499005 9639241 Chonta Cret 2549.00 0.50
Mobil Ro Map Maranon Santa Lucia 2x 75.05 6.38 494489 9294470 Chonta Cret 2409.00 0.57
Mobil Ro Map Maranon Sungachi 3-9-2x 76.46 3.61 337512 9600318 Chonta Cret 4680.00 0.81
Mobil Ro Map Maranon Tapiche 1 73.99 5.89 611702 9348960 Chonta Cret 2694.00 0.45
98/164' CoreLabs Cuttings Maranon Tucunare 1X 76.32 2.98 352763 9670391 Chonta Cret 12315 3756 0.81
98/164' CoreLabs Cuttings Maranon Tucunare 1X 76.32 2.98 352763 9670391 Chonta Cret 12545 3826 0.86
98/164' CoreLabs Cuttings Maranon Tucunare 1X 76.32 2.98 352763 9670391 Chonta Cret 12815 3909 0.89
98/164' CoreLabs Cuttings Maranon Tucunare 1X 76.32 2.98 352763 9670391 Chonta Cret 13215 4031 0.89
Mobil Ro Map Maranon Ungamayo 3-34-1x 76.35 4.19 350185 9537067 Chonta Cret 4874.00 0.71
Mobil Ro Map Maranon Yanez 1A-26-14x 76.95 3.06 283468 9661367 Chonta Cret 4729.00 0.82 #DIV/0!
716-64 Cuttings Maranon Yanez 26-14X 76.95 3.06 283468 9661367 Chonta Cret 14635 4464 0.61 1.16 437 0.47 1.15 0.46 99 40 140
716-67 Cuttings Maranon Yanez 26-14X 76.95 3.06 283468 9661367 Chonta Cret 14685 4479 0.75 1.3 440 0.62 1.45 0.61 112 47 159
716-165 Core Maranon Yanez 26-14X 76.95 3.06 283468 9661367 Chonta Cret 15448 4712 0.84 3.56 446 0.58 4.01 0.41 113 12 129
Mobil Ro Map Maranon Yarina 2X 73.79 5.23 634234 9422140 Chonta Cret 2551.00 0.49 #DIV/0!
97/4059' 2 DGSI Cuttings Santiago Manseriche 50-37-1X 77.66 4.60 204461 9490931 Chonta Cret 45 14 0.65 1.25 435 0.37 3.07 0.33 246 26 275
97/4059' 3 DGSI Cuttings Santiago Manseriche 50-37-1X 77.66 4.60 204461 9490931 Chonta Cret 75 23 0.66 1.32 436 0.39 3.38 0.26 256 20 286
97/4059' 26 DGSI Cuttings Santiago Manseriche 50-37-1X 77.66 4.60 204461 9490931 Chonta Cret 1025 313 0.73 #DIV/0!
97/4059' 40 DGSI Cuttings Santiago Manseriche 50-37-1X 77.66 4.60 204461 9490931 Chonta Cret 1445 441 0.81 #DIV/0!
97/4059' 42 DGSI Cuttings Santiago Manseriche 50-37-1X 77.66 4.60 204461 9490931 Chonta Cret 1475 450 0.79 #DIV/0!
97/4059' 57 DGSI Cuttings Santiago Manseriche 50-37-1X 77.66 4.60 204461 9490931 Chonta Cret 1985 605 1 1.07 456 0.22 0.74 0.11 69 10 90
97/4059' 61 DGSI Cuttings Santiago Manseriche 50-37-1X 77.66 4.60 204461 9490931 Chonta Cret 2075 633 1.04 #DIV/0!
3DD Can-84-12 handpicked Santiago Qda.Candungo1 Outcrop 77.89 3.46 178861 9617072 Chonta Cret 0 0 20 0.62 3.02 462 0.74 1.45 0.21 48 7 73
7DD Can-84-119 handpicked Santiago Qda.Candungo2 Outcrop 77.89 3.46 178861 9617072 Chonta Cret 0 0 20 0.65 2.14 434 0.62 6.12 0.37 286 17 315
5DD Can-84-91 handpicked Santiago Qda.Candungo2 Outcrop 77.89 3.46 178861 9617072 Chonta Cret 0 0 20 0.7 1.93 439 0.66 5 0.27 259 22 293
24Xa 86-88 handpicked Santiago Qda.Tatangos Outcrop 78.09 4.00 823165 9557299 Chonta Cret 0 0 20 0.78 2.9 442 0.05 16.98 0.17 586 6 587
24X 86-88 handpicked Santiago Qda.Tatangos Outcrop 78.09 4.00 823165 9557299 Chonta Cret 0 0 20 0.61 2.98 440 0.4 19.12 0.14 642 5 655
3KK YUT-84-30 handpicked Santiago Qda.Yutupiza Outcrop 77.92 4.15 175783 9540693 Chonta Cret 0 0 0.65 1.03 435 0.13 2.2 0.41 214 40 226
4KK YUT-84-33 handpicked Santiago Qda.Yutupiza Outcrop 77.92 4.15 175783 9540693 Chonta Cret 0 0 20 0.59 1.89 431 0.28 5.06 0.38 268 20 283
02JJ AQ-8 handpicked Santiago Qda.Aquinguiza Outcrop 77.77 4.42 192559 9510874 Chonta Cret 0 0 20 0.76 4.53 445 2.98 23.94 0.18 528 4 594
ChemTerra Intl. Confidential 29/10/2002 Page 2
Master Data Base Source Rx.
Lab # Sample ID LabRemark Sample Type Basin Field/Loca Well xCoordin.W yCoordin.S UTMx UTMy Formation Form.Lith. Age Depth (ft) Depth (m) Form. T(C) Form.Ro TOC > 1% Tmax S1peak S2 Peak S3Peak HI OI ReconstrHI
05JJ AQ-94 handpicked Santiago Qda.Aquinguiza Outcrop 77.77 4.42 192559 9510874 Chonta Cret 0 0 20 0.65 3.07 435 1.13 14.73 0.38 480 12 517
07JJ AQ-96 handpicked Santiago Qda.Aquinguiza Outcrop 77.77 4.42 192559 9510874 Chonta Cret 0 0 20 0.64 2.74 433 1.17 14.52 0.28 530 10 573
97/3980' 44 DGSI Cuttings Santiago Pupuntas 50-45-1X 77.73 4.65 196965 9485501 Chonta Cret 1290 393 0.94 #DIV/0!
97/3980' 149 DGSI Cuttings Santiago Pupuntas 50-45-1X 77.73 4.65 196965 9485501 Chonta Cret 4720 1440 0.59 1.1 431 0.31 2.7 0.45 245 41 274
97/3980' 225 DGSI Cuttings Santiago Pupuntas 50-45-1X 77.73 4.65 196965 9485501 Chonta Cret 6985 2130 0.85 #DIV/0!
n.d. Santiago Putuime1X 77.93 4.38 174769 9515233 Chonta Cret 9725 2966 0.74 1.91 439 0.24 4.01 0.41 210 21 223
n.d. Santiago Putuime1X 77.93 4.38 174769 9515233 Chonta Cret 9758 2976 0.7 1.81 441 0.27 2.01 0.72 111 40 126
Mobil Ro Map Ucayali Aguatia 1 75.22 8.38 475304 9073884 Chonta Cret 2185 0.60 #DIV/0!
Mobil Ro Map Ucayali Cashiboya 1 74.78 7.52 524172 9168319 Chonta Cret 403 0.48 #DIV/0!
Mobil Ro Map Ucayali Maquia 74.95 7.33 505518 9189402 Chonta Cret 1006 0.48 #DIV/0!
Mobil Ro Map Ucayali Neshuya 5-1 74.88 8.54 513450 9055510 Chonta Cret 2680 0.53 #DIV/0!
17C AP-076 handpicked Ucayali Qda.Apurucayali Outcrop 75.73 9.10 419782 8994011 Chonta Cret 0 0 20 0.54 5.84 430 0.03 7.53 0.82 129 14 129
16C AP-070 handpicked Ucayali Qda.Apurucayali Outcrop 75.73 9.10 419782 8994011 Chonta Cret 0 0 20 0.7 2.34 439 0.07 4.48 0.2 191 9 194
19C AP-108 handpicked Ucayali Qda.Apurucayali Outcrop 75.73 9.10 419782 8994011 Chonta Cret 0 0 20 0.64 3.74 432 0.03 2.88 0.62 77 17 78
Mobil Ro Map Ucayali Santa Clara 1-A 75.21 6.97 476282 9229470 Chonta Cret 134 0.43 #DIV/0!
Mobil Ro Map Ucayali Sanuya 74.01 9.19 608729 8983519 Chonta Cret 3038 0.49 #DIV/0!
Mobil Ro Map Ucayali Tamaya 2x 74.16 8.81 592562 9026234 Chonta Cret 2595 0.50 #DIV/0!
Mobil Ro Map Ucayali Tiruntan 1x 74.86 7.92 515155 9124911 Chonta Cret 3594 0.52 #DIV/0!
HVM-70-37 handpicked Ucayali Qda.Yanayucu Outcrop 73.49 11.03 664959 8780287 Chonta/Vivian Cret 0 0 20 0.36 #DIV/0!
718-125 Cuttings Maranon La Frontera 1 74.67 6.30 536237 9304138 Contaya Ordo 9650 2943 1 n.d. 0.1 0.02 0.29 2 29 12
718-128 Cuttings Maranon La Frontera 1 74.67 6.30 536237 9304138 Contaya Ordo 9740 2971 1.13 n.d. 0.1 0.1 0.29 9 26 18
718-130 Cuttings Maranon La Frontera 1 74.67 6.30 536237 9304138 Contaya Ordo 9800 2989 0.9 n.d. n.d n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
718-132 Cuttings Maranon La Frontera 1 74.67 6.30 536237 9304138 Contaya Ordo 9860 3007 0.93 n.d. n.d n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
718-133 Cuttings Maranon La Frontera 1 74.67 6.30 536237 9304138 Contaya Ordo 9890 3016 0.96 n.d. n.d n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
718-134 Junk Basket Maranon La Frontera 1 74.67 6.30 536237 9304138 Contaya Ordo 9919 3025 0.96 n.d. n.d n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
718-135 Cuttings Maranon La Frontera 1 74.67 6.30 536237 9304138 Contaya Ordo 9920 3026 0.79 n.d. n.d n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
Maranon Maranon 110 74.09 4.47 600898 9506125 Contaya Orda 3511 1.45
cutting Ucayali Huaya 3X 75.19 7.11 478932 9214263 Contaya Ordo 3397 2.77
708-35 cutting Ucayali Cashiriari C3X 72.73 11.87 747287 8686813 Copacabana Perm 2683 818
705-114 cutting Ucayali San Martin1X 72.77 11.76 743025 8699020 Copacabana shale Perm 3030 0.61 21.53 344 11.64 31.29 27.86 145 129 199
1M 61-274 handpicked Ucayali Qda.Anacayari Outcrop 74.01 10.66 608278 8821441 Copacobana Perm 0 0 20 0.66 2.19 439 1.46 6.39 0.26 292 12 358
1MM 61-158 handpicked Ucayali Rio Puyeme Outcrop 73.53 11.42 660373 8737172 Copacobana Perm 0 0 20 0.58 4.65 437 1.76 22.25 0.3 478 6 516
9J 62-155 handpicked Ucayali Rio Camisea Outcrop 72.40 11.92 783206 8680964 Copacobana Perm 0 0 20 0.55 4.88 437 0.77 26.26 0.64 538 13 554
15J 62-248 handpicked Ucayali Rio Camisea Outcrop 72.40 11.92 783206 8680964 Copacobana Perm 0 0 20 0.56 5.3 428 1.52 22.15 0.78 418 15 447
12E 81-184 handpicked Ucayali Pongo de Mainique Outcrop 72.88 12.23 730631 8647109 Copacobana Perm 0 0 0.75 2.02 441 0.99 4.18 0.26 207 13 256
9E 81-185 handpicked Ucayali Pongo de Mainique Outcrop 72.88 12.23 730631 8647109 Copacobana Perm 0 0 20 0.78 0.96 442 0.52 1.41 0.2 147 21 201
13J 62-205 handpicked Ucayali Rio Camisea Outcrop 72.40 11.92 783206 8680964 Copacobana Perm 0 0 20 0.64 3.51 432 0.67 18.06 0.68 515 19 534
2100 CHR-85-84 handpicked Huallaga Rio Chiria./Pob.Pomacho Outcrop 77.87 5.78 182122 9360312 Cushabatay Cret 0 0 20 1.2 65.03 469 1.95 147.93 1.44 227 2 230
1700 CHR-85-71 handpicked Huallaga Rio Chiria./Pob.Pomacho Outcrop 77.87 5.78 182122 9360312 Cushabatay Cret 0 0 20 1.28 5.12 475 0.18 1.5 0.33 29 6 33
1900 CHR-85-76 handpicked Huallaga Rio Chiria./Pob.Pomacho Outcrop 77.87 5.78 182122 9360312 Cushabatay Cret 0 0 20 0.87 43.28 457 3.96 94.02 0.73 217 2 226
2000 CHR-85-77 handpicked Huallaga Rio Chiria./Pob.Pomacho Outcrop 77.87 5.78 182122 9360312 Cushabatay Cret 0 0 20 1.2 12.66 470 0.35 4.03 0.76 32 6 35
7AA PE-6-G-1 handpicked Huallaga Lake Pomachochas Outcrop 77.27 5.78 248616 9360612 Cushabatay Cret 0 0 20 0.89 2.27 449 1.13 2.03 0.3 89 13 139
8AA PE-6-G-4 handpicked Huallaga Lake Pomachochas Outcrop 77.27 5.78 248616 9360612 Cushabatay Cret 0 0 20 1 1.98 456 0.65 1.74 0.3 88 15 121
5L 58-295 handpicked Huallaga Rio Cushabatay Outcrop 75.84 6.94 407206 9232801 Cushabatay Cret 0 0 20 0.58 1.26 428 0.32 1.29 0.99 102 79 128
728- Cuttings Maranon Chapuli 1 77.08 3.55 268425 9607026 Cushabatay Cret 16700 5094 0.78 0.99 n.d. 0
13NN MAN-84-120 handpicked Maranon Pongo de Mancheriche8 Outcrop 77.58 4.47 213681 9505417 Cushabatay Cret 0 0 20 0.85 32.39 447 0.52 44.59 5.28 138 16 139
97/3980' 238 DGSI Cuttings Santiago Pupuntas 50-45-1X 77.73 4.65 196965 9485501 Cushabatay Cret 7389 2254 1.22 #DIV/0!
n.d. Santiago Putuime1X 77.93 4.38 174769 9515233 Cushabatay Cret 9813 2993 0.76 1.44 441 0.18 1.45 0.54 101 38 113
n.d. Santiago Putuime1X 77.93 4.38 174769 9515233 Cushabatay Cret 9935 3030 0.82 1.02 445 0.22 0.99 0.62 97 61 119
n.d. Santiago Putuime1X 77.93 4.38 174769 9515233 Cushabatay Cret 10583 3228 0.75 1.39 439 0.31 1.83 0.5 132 36 154
n.d. Santiago Putuime1X 77.93 4.38 174769 9515233 Cushabatay Cret 10823 3301 0.78 1.58 443 0.26 2.04 0.41 129 26 146
n.d. Santiago Putuime1X 77.93 4.38 174769 9515233 Cushabatay Cret 10918 3330 0.77 4.33 445 1.31 9.74 0.59 225 14 255
n.d. Santiago Putuime1X 77.93 4.38 174769 9515233 Cushabatay Cret 10945 3338 0.86 2.9 447 0.63 5.9 0.38 203 13 225
n.d. Santiago Putuime1X 77.93 4.38 174769 9515233 Cushabatay Cret 10973 3347 0.85 4.28 446 1.06 9.14 0.37 214 9 238
n.d. Santiago Putuime1X 77.93 4.38 174769 9515233 Cushabatay Cret 11425 3485 0.76 #DIV/0!
n.d. Santiago Putuime1X 77.93 4.38 174769 9515233 Cushabatay Cret 11603 3539 0.84 2.37 445 0.52 3.28 0.69 138 29 160
n.d. Santiago Putuime1X 77.93 4.38 174769 9515233 Cushabatay Cret 11723 3576 0.77 1.87 449 0.31 2.1 0.43 112 23 129
1B BQ81-049 handpicked Ucayali Baqueron del Padre Abad Outcrop 75.73 9.10 419782 8994011 Cushabatay Coal? Cret 0 0 20 59.68 n.d n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d n.d. #VALOR!
705-32a handpicked Ucayali San Martin1X 72.77 11.76 743025 8699020 Cushabatay shale Cret 2231 0.6 #DIV/0!
718-49 Cuttings Maranon La Frontera 1 74.67 6.30 536237 9304138 Cushabatay Cret 8180 2495 0.58 1.77 426 0.76 1.24 1.01 70 57 113
708-31 cutting Ucayali Cashiriari C3X 72.73 11.87 747287 8686813 Ene Perm 2671 815
704-78 cutting Ucayali Mipaya 5X 73.16 11.57 700644 8720347 Ene Perm 2481 757
4M 61-278 handpicked Ucayali Qda.Anacayari Outcrop 74.01 10.66 608278 8821441 Ene Perm 0 0 20 0.63 4.13 439 0.64 21.81 0.21 528 5 544
1YY RF-85-431 handpicked Ucayali Qda.Perro Outcrop 73.76 10.77 635576 8809177 Ene Perm 0 0 20 0.65 1.5 442 0.61 8.76 0.2 584 13 625
3Ka 62-381BLK handpicked Ucayali Qda.Mayapo Outcrop 73.30 11.91 685146 8682831 Ene Perm 0 0 20 0.57 2.66 429 0.92 7.3 0.84 274 32 309
ChemTerra Intl. Confidential 29/10/2002 Page 3
Master Data Base Source Rx.
Lab # Sample ID LabRemark Sample Type Basin Field/Loca Well xCoordin.W yCoordin.S UTMx UTMy Formation Form.Lith. Age Depth (ft) Depth (m) Form. T(C) Form.Ro TOC > 1% Tmax S1peak S2 Peak S3Peak HI OI ReconstrHI
5K 62-389 handpicked Ucayali Qda.Mayapo Outcrop 73.30 11.91 685146 8682831 Ene Perm 0 0 20 0.7 1.76 434 0.59 10 0.35 568 20 602
17E 81-239 handpicked Ucayali Pongo de Mainique Outcrop 72.88 12.23 730631 8647109 Ene Perm 0 0 20 0.65 2.83 435 0.26 6.47 0.87 229 31 238
14E 81-234 handpicked Ucayali Pongo de Mainique Outcrop 72.88 12.23 730631 8647109 Ene Perm 0 0 20 0.67 6.18 437 1.57 31.07 0.39 503 6 528
13E 81-233 handpicked Ucayali Pongo de Mainique Outcrop 72.88 12.23 730631 8647109 Ene Perm 0 0 20 0.66 2.42 436 0.54 10.43 0.41 431 17 453
15E 81-235 handpicked Ucayali Pongo de Mainique Outcrop 72.88 12.23 730631 8647109 Ene Perm 0 0 20 0.74 5.17 440 1.54 25.89 0.31 501 6 531
19E 81-242 handpicked Ucayali Pongo de Mainique Outcrop 72.88 12.23 730631 8647109 Ene Perm 0 0 20 0.64 2.85 434 0.5 18.67 0.31 655 11 673
22E 81-246 handpicked Ucayali Pongo de Mainique Outcrop 72.88 12.23 730631 8647109 Ene Perm 0 0 20 0.63 2.66 442 0.36 15.98 0.18 601 7 614
6M 61-298 handpicked Ucayali Qda.Anacayari Outcrop 74.01 10.66 608278 8821441 Ene Perm 0 0 20 0.68 4.1 439 0.7 21.48 0.45 524 11 541
10M 61-290 handpicked Ucayali Qda.Anacayari Outcrop 74.01 10.66 608278 8821441 Ene Perm 0 0 20 0.66 4.81 436 0.22 26.25 0.12 546 2 550
1PP B67-10 handpicked Ucayali Rio Manu Chico Outcrop 72.25 12.03 799435 8668630 Ene Perm 0 0 20 0.55 7.61 429 2.04 26.26 0.63 345 8 372
2PP B67-46 handpicked Ucayali Rio Manu Chico Outcrop 72.25 12.03 799435 8668630 Ene Perm 0 0 20 0.55 5.57 429 1.27 30.36 0.42 545 8 568
6PP B67-97 handpicked Ucayali Rio Manu Chico Outcrop 72.25 12.03 799435 8668630 Ene Perm 0 0 20 0.5 2.65 426 1.05 10.3 0.63 389 24 428
722-6 8930-8940 Ucayali Platanal 1X 73.72 9.03 640689 9001584 Ene Perm 9405 2869 #DIV/0!
722-6 9400-9410 cutting Ucayali Platanal 1X 73.72 9.03 640689 9001584 Ene Perm 9405 2869 #DIV/0!
1Y BM-64 handpicked Huallaga Rio Chilcayo Outcrop 76.35 6.45 350709 9286853 Esperanza Cret 0 0 20 0.72 2.33 438 0.21 1.39 0.29 60 12 69
6Y BM-87 handpicked Huallaga Rio Chilcayo Outcrop 76.35 6.45 350709 9286853 Huchpayacu Cret 0 0 20 0.67 1.93 435 0.04 1.15 0.68 60 35 62
729-01 Contaminated Cuttings Maranon Huitoyacu 1X 76.90 3.59 288900 9603407 n.d. Tert 315 96 n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. #VALOR!
n.d. Santiago Putuime1X 77.93 4.38 174769 9515233 n.d. Ter 4945 1508 0.72 1.04 438 0.06 2.12 0.61 204 59 210
n.d. Santiago Putuime1X 77.93 4.38 174769 9515233 n.d. Ter 5005 1527 0.75 1.57 440 0.1 5.5 0.7 355 45 357
n.d. Santiago Putuime1X 77.93 4.38 174769 9515233 n.d. Ter 5065 1545 0.76 1.45 441 0.09 4.31 0.47 297 32 303
n.d. Santiago Putuime1X 77.93 4.38 174769 9515233 n.d. Ter 5485 1673 0.59 1.08 439 0.06 2.75 0.64 255 59 260
n.d. Santiago Putuime1X 77.93 4.38 174769 9515233 n.d. Ter 5865 1789 0.62 1.58 440 0.1 6.22 0.64 394 41 400
n.d. Santiago Putuime1X 77.93 4.38 174769 9515233 n.d. Ter 7245 2210 0.65 1.72 443 0.21 6.57 0.65 382 38 394
96/3484' 5 DGSI Cuttings Santiago Tamanco 74.36 5.84 570605 9354578 n.d. 12165 3710 0.32 3.56 425 0.47 4.91 2.62 138 74 151
96/3484' 6 DGSI Cuttings Santiago Tamanco 74.36 5.84 570605 9354578 n.d. 12205 3723 0.35 5.33 420 0.75 8.71 3.58 163 67 177
96/3484' 7 DGSI Cuttings Santiago Tamanco 74.36 5.84 570605 9354578 n.d. 12255 3738 0.32 3.62 422 0.41 4.64 2.74 128 76 140
96/3484' 8 DGSI Cuttings Santiago Tamanco 74.36 5.84 570605 9354578 n.d. 12295 3750 0.29 2.35 428 0.58 3.48 1.67 148 71 173
96/3484' 10 DGSI Cuttings Santiago Tamanco 74.36 5.84 570605 9354578 n.d. 12555 3829 0.27 #DIV/0!
96/3484' 11 DGSI Cuttings Santiago Tamanco 74.36 5.84 570605 9354578 n.d. 12745 3887 0.32 2.25 425 0.26 2.28 1.36 101 60 113
1BBB RF-85-513 handpicked Ucayali Rio Chipani Outcrop 74.07 10.54 601755 8834731 n.d. n.d. 0 0 20 1.16 2.62 468 0.05 0.59 0.11 23 4 24
2BBB RF-85-516 handpicked Ucayali Rio Chipani Outcrop 74.07 10.54 601755 8834731 n.d. n.d. 0 0 20 1.1 6.37 463 0.16 3.4 0.11 53 2 56
3BBB RF-85-519 handpicked Ucayali Rio Chipani Outcrop 74.07 10.54 601755 8834731 n.d. n.d. 0 0 20 1.12 3.24 465 0.08 1.01 0.12 31 4 34
4BBB RF-85-520 handpicked Ucayali Rio Chipani Outcrop 74.07 10.54 601755 8834731 n.d. n.d. 0 0 20 1.35 8.57 481 0.41 5 0.13 58 2 63
5BBB RF-85-521 handpicked Ucayali Rio Chipani Outcrop 74.07 10.54 601755 8834731 n.d. n.d. 0 0 20 0.85 23.17 452 2.99 38.03 0.42 164 2 177
6BBB RF-85-523 handpicked Ucayali Rio Chipani Outcrop 74.07 10.54 601755 8834731 n.d. n.d. 0 0 20 1.3 10.76 474 0.94 6.29 0.23 58 2 67
3RRR SAC-2-98 handpicked Huallaga Qda.Sacanche Outcrop 76.79 7.12 302312 9212602 Pozo Tert 0 0 20 0.68 4.57 436 0.51 37.19 0.29 814 6 825
4RRR SAC-2-102 handpicked Huallaga Qda.Sacanche Outcrop 76.79 7.12 302312 9212602 Pozo Tert 0 0 20 0.68 1.89 436 0.26 11.84 0.36 626 19 640
Outcrop Huallaga Ponasillo 30-28-1X 76.29 7.39 357113 9182488 Pozo 0 0 0.67 #DIV/0!
728- Cuttings Maranon Chapuli 1 77.08 3.55 268425 9607026 Pozo Tert 10180 3105 0.57 1.11 439 0.05 1.52 0.48 137 43 141
Maranon Maranon 110 74.09 4.47 600898 9506125 Pozo Tert 1920 0.4
28NN MAN-84-216 handpicked Maranon Pongo de Manseriche1 Outcrop 77.58 4.47 213681 9505417 Pozo Tert 0 0 20 0.71 4.07 437 0.29 26.85 0.46 660 11 667
27NN MaN-84-215 handpicked Maranon Pongo de Manseriche1 Outcrop 77.58 4.47 213681 9505417 Pozo Tert 0 0 20 0.7 10.13 436 1.74 73.84 0.73 729 7 746
26NN MAN-84-213 handpicked Maranon Pongo de Manseriche1 Outcrop 77.58 4.47 213681 9505417 Pozo Tert 0 0 20 0.75 6.39 440 0.15 44.94 0.56 703 9 706
5BB JJW-162 handpicked Maranon Yanayacu Section Outcrop 76.00 5.68 389262 9372073 Pozo Tert 0 0 20 0.43 3.33 428 0.27 15.69 1.08 471 32 479
98/164' CoreLabs Cuttings Maranon Tucunare 1X 76.32 2.98 352763 9670391 Pozo Tert 9225 2814 0.62
98/164' CoreLabs Cuttings Maranon Tucunare 1X 76.32 2.98 352763 9670391 Pozo Tert 9375 2859 0.63
716-13 Cuttings Maranon Yanez 26-14X 76.95 3.06 283468 9661367 Pozo Tert 10675 3256 0.54 0.9 n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. #VALOR!
1KK YUT-84-2 handpicked Santiago Qda.Yutupiza Outcrop 77.92 4.15 175783 9540693 Pozo Ter 0 0 20 0.61 2.42 438 0.18 11.89 0.32 491 13 499
1GG BA-2 handpicked Ucayali Rio Tapiche Outcrop 73.89 7.34 622517 9188513 Pozo Tert 0 0 20 0.47 1.01 422 0.03 0.33 0.62 33 61 36
2GG BA-9 handpicked Ucayali Rio Tapiche Outcrop 73.89 7.34 622517 9188513 Pozo Tert 0 0 20 0.47 1.06 422 0.12 0.5 1.17 47 110 58
97/3980' 56 DGSI Cuttings Santiago Pupuntas 50-45-1X 77.73 4.65 196965 9485501 Puca Tert 1650 503 0.65 #DIV/0!
97/3980' 66 DGSI Cuttings Santiago Pupuntas 50-45-1X 77.73 4.65 196965 9485501 Puca Tert 1950 595 0.67 #DIV/0!
97/3980' 99 DGSI Cuttings Santiago Pupuntas 50-45-1X 77.73 4.65 196965 9485501 Puca Tert 3140 958 0.72 #DIV/0!
97/3807' 194 DGSI outcrop Santiago Tanguintza 50-43-1X 77.95 4.72 172782 9477125 Puca Tert 0 0.42 12.26 384 1.04 7.14 4.28 58 35 67
97/3807' DGSI Santiago Tanguintza 50-43-1X 77.95 4.72 172782 9477125 Puca Tert 335 0.49 #DIV/0!
97/3807' DGSI Santiago Tanguintza 50-43-1X 77.95 4.72 172782 9477125 Puca Tert 457 0.49 #DIV/0!
97/3807' DGSI Santiago Tanguintza 50-43-1X 77.95 4.72 172782 9477125 Puca Tert 640 0.52 #DIV/0!
97/3807' DGSI Santiago Tanguintza 50-43-1X 77.95 4.72 172782 9477125 Puca Tert 793 0.5 #DIV/0!
97/3807' DGSI Santiago Tanguintza 50-43-1X 77.95 4.72 172782 9477125 Puca Tert 884 0.61 #DIV/0!
97/3807' DGSI Santiago Tanguintza 50-43-1X 77.95 4.72 172782 9477125 Puca Tert 1006 0.62 #DIV/0!
97/3807' DGSI Santiago Tanguintza 50-43-1X 77.95 4.72 172782 9477125 Puca Tert 1189 0.7 #DIV/0!
97/3807' DGSI Santiago Tanguintza 50-43-1X 77.95 4.72 172782 9477125 Puca Tert 1372 0.64 #DIV/0!
97/3807' DGSI Santiago Tanguintza 50-43-1X 77.95 4.72 172782 9477125 Puca Tert 1524 0.72 #DIV/0!
97/3807' DGSI Santiago Tanguintza 50-43-1X 77.95 4.72 172782 9477125 Puca Tert 1615 0.74 #DIV/0!
97/3807' DGSI Santiago Tanguintza 50-43-1X 77.95 4.72 172782 9477125 Puca Tert 1828 0.77 #DIV/0!
ChemTerra Intl. Confidential 29/10/2002 Page 4
Master Data Base Source Rx.
Lab # Sample ID LabRemark Sample Type Basin Field/Loca Well xCoordin.W yCoordin.S UTMx UTMy Formation Form.Lith. Age Depth (ft) Depth (m) Form. T(C) Form.Ro TOC > 1% Tmax S1peak S2 Peak S3Peak HI OI ReconstrHI
97/3807' DGSI Santiago Tanguintza 50-43-1X 77.95 4.72 172782 9477125 Puca Tert 2042 0.63 #DIV/0!
97/3807' DGSI Santiago Tanguintza 50-43-1X 77.95 4.72 172782 9477125 Puca Tert 2225 0.73 #DIV/0!
97/3807' DGSI Santiago Tanguintza 50-43-1X 77.95 4.72 172782 9477125 Puca Tert 2286 0.78 #DIV/0!
1600 CHR-85-56 handpicked Huallaga Rio Chiria./Pob.Pomacho Outcrop 77.87 5.78 182122 9360312 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 0.5 2.78 425 0.21 0.35 0.39 13 14 20
100 CHR-85-4 handpicked Huallaga Rio Chiria./Pob.Pomacho Outcrop 77.87 5.78 182122 9360312 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 1.75 2.44 513 0.21 0.34 0.89 14 36 23
1500 CHR-85-49 handpicked Huallaga Rio Chiria./Pob.Pomacho Outcrop 77.87 5.78 182122 9360312 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 0.61 5.65 431 0.06 0.17 3.99 3 71 4
1400 CHR-85-46 handpicked Huallaga Rio Chiria./Pob.Pomacho Outcrop 77.87 5.78 182122 9360312 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 0.62 3.7 432 0.07 0.2 4.15 5 112 7
1300 CHR-85-44 handpicked Huallaga Rio Chiria./Pob.Pomacho Outcrop 77.87 5.78 182122 9360312 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 7.56 n.d. 0.13 0.35 6.66 5 88 6
1200 CHR-85-43 handpicked Huallaga Rio Chiria./Pob.Pomacho Outcrop 77.87 5.78 182122 9360312 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 1.64 5.69 498 0.13 0.38 5.36 7 94 9
1100 CHR-85-42 handpicked Huallaga Rio Chiria./Pob.Pomacho Outcrop 77.87 5.78 182122 9360312 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 1.1 8.92 463 0.08 0.37 8.6 4 96 5
1000 CHR-85-37 handpicked Huallaga Rio Chiria./Pob.Pomacho Outcrop 77.87 5.78 182122 9360312 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 2.91 n.d. 0.4 0.22 0.32 8 11 21
900 CHR-85-34 handpicked Huallaga Rio Chiria./Pob.Pomacho Outcrop 77.87 5.78 182122 9360312 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 2.91 n.d. 0.08 0.17 0.31 6 11 9
800 CHR-85-32 handpicked Huallaga Rio Chiria./Pob.Pomacho Outcrop 77.87 5.78 182122 9360312 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 1.5 4.99 n.d. 0.34 0.33 0.27 7 5 13
700 CHR-85-31 handpicked Huallaga Rio Chiria./Pob.Pomacho Outcrop 77.87 5.78 182122 9360312 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 5.03 n.d. 0.25 0.17 0.45 3 9 8
600 CHR-85-30 handpicked Huallaga Rio Chiria./Pob.Pomacho Outcrop 77.87 5.78 182122 9360312 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 2.97 n.d. 0.1 0.04 0.69 1 23 5
300 CHR-85-7 handpicked Huallaga Rio Chiria./Pob.Pomacho Outcrop 77.87 5.78 182122 9360312 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 1.66 n.d. 0.06 0.07 0.74 4 45 8
500 CHR-85-27 handpicked Huallaga Rio Chiria./Pob.Pomacho Outcrop 77.87 5.78 182122 9360312 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 1.34 n.d. 0.15 0.12 0.19 9 14 20
43EEE PRO-85-112 handpicked Huallaga Rio Nieva Caserio Esper Outcrop 77.77 5.77 193201 9361474 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 1.11 2.77 464 1.21 1.88 0.22 68 8 112
6EEE PrO-85-17 handpicked Huallaga Rio Nieva Caserio Esper Outcrop 77.77 5.77 193201 9361474 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 2.69 n.d. 0.37 0.23 2.05 9 76 22
5EEE PRO-85-016 handpicked Huallaga Rio Nieva Caserio Esper Outcrop 77.77 5.77 193201 9361474 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 3.37 n.d. 0.12 0.15 2.75 4 82 8
42EEE PRO-85-109 handpicked Huallaga Rio Nieva Caserio Esper Outcrop 77.77 5.77 193201 9361474 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 1.37 8.47 482 0.6 2.42 2.22 29 26 36
41EEE PRO-85-106 handpicked Huallaga Rio Nieva Caserio Esper Outcrop 77.77 5.77 193201 9361474 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 6.37 n.d. 0.07 0.25 5.42 4 85 5
40EEE Pro-85-104 handpicked Huallaga Rio Nieva Caserio Esper Outcrop 77.77 5.77 193201 9361474 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 6.82 n.d. 0.1 0.3 7.01 4 103 6
39EEE PRO-85-101 handpicked Huallaga Rio Nieva Caserio Esper Outcrop 77.77 5.77 193201 9361474 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 3.08 n.d. 0.06 0.22 1.93 7 63 9
38EEE PRO-85-097 handpicked Huallaga Rio Nieva Caserio Esper Outcrop 77.77 5.77 193201 9361474 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 2.4 n.d. 0.15 0.33 4.21 14 175 20
37EEE PRO-85-094 handpicked Huallaga Rio Nieva Caserio Esper Outcrop 77.77 5.77 193201 9361474 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 3.08 n.d. 0.09 0.17 3.34 6 108 8
36EEE PRO-85-091 handpicked Huallaga Rio Nieva Caserio Esper Outcrop 77.77 5.77 193201 9361474 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 4.64 n.d. 0.08 0.14 3.61 3 78 5
35EEE PRO-85-089 handpicked Huallaga Rio Nieva Caserio Esper Outcrop 77.77 5.77 193201 9361474 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 2.56 n.d. 0.05 0.25 3.91 10 153 12
34EEE PRO-85-087 handpicked Huallaga Rio Nieva Caserio Esper Outcrop 77.77 5.77 193201 9361474 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 3.23 n.d. 0.06 0.17 3.44 5 107 7
33EEE PRO-85-084 handpicked Huallaga Rio Nieva Caserio Esper Outcrop 77.77 5.77 193201 9361474 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 2.31 n.d. 0.09 0.22 2.89 10 125 13
32EEE PRO-85-081 handpicked Huallaga Rio Nieva Caserio Esper Outcrop 77.77 5.77 193201 9361474 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 2.39 n.d. 0.11 0.25 2.98 10 125 15
31EEE PRO-85-076 handpicked Huallaga Rio Nieva Caserio Esper Outcrop 77.77 5.77 193201 9361474 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 1.98 n.d. 0.45 0.23 0.21 12 11 34
30EEE PRO-85-072 handpicked Huallaga Rio Nieva Caserio Esper Outcrop 77.77 5.77 193201 9361474 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 3.8 n.d. 0.32 0.85 6.27 22 165 31
29EEE PRO-85-070 handpicked Huallaga Rio Nieva Caserio Esper Outcrop 77.77 5.77 193201 9361474 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 2.1 n.d. 0.04 0.09 2.34 4 111 6
28EEE PRO-85-067 handpicked Huallaga Rio Nieva Caserio Esper Outcrop 77.77 5.77 193201 9361474 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 2.59 n.d. 0.1 0.17 3.03 7 117 10
20EEE PRO-85-047 handpicked Huallaga Rio Nieva Caserio Esper Outcrop 77.77 5.77 193201 9361474 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 2.81 n.d. 0.11 0.44 6.6 16 235 20
27EEE PRO-85-064 handpicked Huallaga Rio Nieva Caserio Esper Outcrop 77.77 5.77 193201 9361474 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 2.2 n.d. 0.09 0.18 2.65 8 120 12
26EEE PRO-85-061 handpicked Huallaga Rio Nieva Caserio Esper Outcrop 77.77 5.77 193201 9361474 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 3.03 n.d. 0.11 0.37 3.38 12 112 16
25EEE PRO-85-058 handpicked Huallaga Rio Nieva Caserio Esper Outcrop 77.77 5.77 193201 9361474 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 2.92 n.d. 0.15 0.24 4.25 8 146 13
24EEE PRO-85-056 handpicked Huallaga Rio Nieva Caserio Esper Outcrop 77.77 5.77 193201 9361474 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 2.7 n.d. 0.18 0.16 3.1 6 115 13
23EEE PRO-85-054 handpicked Huallaga Rio Nieva Caserio Esper Outcrop 77.77 5.77 193201 9361474 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 4.5 n.d. 0.38 0.26 9.74 6 216 14
22EEE PRO-85-051 handpicked Huallaga Rio Nieva Caserio Esper Outcrop 77.77 5.77 193201 9361474 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 4.28 n.d. 0.19 0.09 3.42 2 80 7
21EEE PRO-85-049 handpicked Huallaga Rio Nieva Caserio Esper Outcrop 77.77 5.77 193201 9361474 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 4.91 n.d. 0.28 0.23 5.25 5 107 10
14EEE PRO-85-32 handpicked Huallaga Rio Nieva Caserio Esper Outcrop 77.77 5.77 193201 9361474 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 1.4 n.d. 0.03 0.09 1.69 6 121 9
13EEE PRO-85-030 handpicked Huallaga Rio Nieva Caserio Esper Outcrop 77.77 5.77 193201 9361474 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 1.53 n.d. 0.01 0.11 1.46 7 95 8
3EEE PRO-85-010 handpicked Huallaga Rio Nieva Caserio Esper Outcrop 77.77 5.77 193201 9361474 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 4.34 n.d. 0.24 0.22 0.97 5 22 11
12EEE PR)-85-29 handpicked Huallaga Rio Nieva Caserio Esper Outcrop 77.77 5.77 193201 9361474 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 2 n.d. 0.03 0.09 2.97 5 149 6
11EEE PRO-85-28 handpicked Huallaga Rio Nieva Caserio Esper Outcrop 77.77 5.77 193201 9361474 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 3.42 n.d. 0.09 0.12 3.41 4 100 6
10EEE PRO-85-27 handpicked Huallaga Rio Nieva Caserio Esper Outcrop 77.77 5.77 193201 9361474 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 3.63 n.d. 0.09 0.07 3.14 2 87 4
9EEE PRO-85-025 handpicked Huallaga Rio Nieva Caserio Esper Outcrop 77.77 5.77 193201 9361474 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 2.13 n.d. 0.17 0.13 2.01 6 94 14
2EEE PRO-85-009 handpicked Huallaga Rio Nieva Caserio Esper Outcrop 77.77 5.77 193201 9361474 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 3.76 n.d. 0.05 0.12 3.76 3 100 5
1EEE PRO-85-008 handpicked Huallaga Rio Nieva Caserio Esper Outcrop 77.77 5.77 193201 9361474 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 4.27 n.d. 0.62 0.84 0.77 20 18 34
8EEE PRO-85-024 handpicked Huallaga Rio Nieva Caserio Esper Outcrop 77.77 5.77 193201 9361474 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 3.4 n.d. 0.22 0.22 4.53 6 133 13
19EEE PRO-85-044 handpicked Huallaga Rio Nieva Caserio Esper Outcrop 77.77 5.77 193201 9361474 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 3.88 n.d. 0.18 1.1 12.04 28 310 33
18EEE PRO-85-041 handpicked Huallaga Rio Nieva Caserio Esper Outcrop 77.77 5.77 193201 9361474 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 2.07 n.d. 0.08 0.19 3.06 9 148 13
9AA PE-6A-P-2 handpicked Huallaga Lake Pomachochas Outcrop 77.27 5.78 248616 9360612 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 0.82 8.1 445 0.44 1.76 14.89 22 184 27
10AA PE6A-P-3 handpicked Huallaga Lake Pomachochas Outcrop 77.27 5.78 248616 9360612 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 1.18 12.52 467 0.77 2.98 19.17 24 153 30
5AA PE-5-P-20 handpicked Huallaga Uxcombamba Valley Outcrop 77.24 5.92 252002 9345138 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 0.95 0.95 453 0.49 0.64 0.24 67 25 119
6AA PE-5-P-28 handpicked Huallaga Uxcombamba Valley Outcrop 77.24 5.92 252002 9345138 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 0.7 1.43 437 0.25 0.57 0.62 40 43 57
1PPP Uchu-91-69 handpicked Huallaga Qda.Uchumarca Outcrop 77.93 6.71 176044 9257340 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 0.69 1.47 437 1.06 7.91 0.41 538 28 610
4L 58-273 handpicked Huallaga Rio Cushabatay Outcrop 75.84 6.94 407206 9232801 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 0.78 6.06 427 1.49 5.21 3.24 86 53 111
1RR B66-115 handpicked Huallaga Abiseo-Huayabamba Outcrop 76.83 7.38 298009 9183828 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 1.48 1.02 489 0.13 0.27 0.28 26 27 39
5ll GA-85-11 handpicked Huallaga Gallohuancana Outcrop 75.89 6.49 401591 9282542 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 0.89 1.27 448 1.22 2.33 0.25 183 20 280
14D CH-72 handpicked Huallaga Rio Chinchao Outcrop 76.00 9.49 390232 8950816 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 1.15 n.d. 0.03 0.11 0.19 10 17 12
1D M-23 handpicked Huallaga Rio Chinchao Outcrop 76.00 9.49 390232 8950816 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 1.12 n.d. 0.01 0 0.19 0 17 1
ChemTerra Intl. Confidential 29/10/2002 Page 5
Master Data Base Source Rx.
Lab # Sample ID LabRemark Sample Type Basin Field/Loca Well xCoordin.W yCoordin.S UTMx UTMy Formation Form.Lith. Age Depth (ft) Depth (m) Form. T(C) Form.Ro TOC > 1% Tmax S1peak S2 Peak S3Peak HI OI ReconstrHI
12D CH-69 handpicked Huallaga Rio Chinchao Outcrop 76.00 9.49 390232 8950816 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 2.35 n.d. 0.03 0.05 0.23 2 10 3
11D CH-68 handpicked Huallaga Rio Chinchao Outcrop 76.00 9.49 390232 8950816 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 5.01 n.d. 0.04 0.03 0.21 1 4 1
6D CH-39 handpicked Huallaga Rio Chinchao Outcrop 76.00 9.49 390232 8950816 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 1.03 n.d. 0.05 0.03 0.49 3 48 8
20D CH-46 handpicked Huallaga Rio Chinchao Outcrop 76.00 9.49 390232 8950816 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 1.05 n.d. 0.74 0.25 0.24 24 23 94
19D CH-25 handpicked Huallaga Rio Chinchao Outcrop 76.00 9.49 390232 8950816 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 2.81 n.d. 0.65 0.58 0.21 21 7 44
18D Ch-19 handpicked Huallaga Rio Chinchao Outcrop 76.00 9.49 390232 8950816 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 1.12 n.d. 0.17 0.21 0.15 19 13 34
17D CH-14 handpicked Huallaga Rio Chinchao Outcrop 76.00 9.49 390232 8950816 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 n.d. 2.12 n.d. 0.95 0.54 0.21 25 10 70
16D CH-12 handpicked Huallaga Rio Chinchao Outcrop 76.00 9.49 390232 8950816 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 1.44 n.d. 0.27 0.26 0.12 18 8 37
15D CH-10 handpicked Huallaga Rio Chinchao Outcrop 76.00 9.49 390232 8950816 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 2.31 n.d. 0.54 0.44 0.28 19 12 42
2300 CHR-85-96 handpicked Huallaga Rio Chiria./Pob.Pomacho Outcrop 77.87 5.78 182122 9360312 Raya Cret 0 0 20 1.06 2.78 461 0.38 2.06 0.42 74 15 88
2200 CHR-85-95 handpicked Huallaga Rio Chiria./Pob.Pomacho Outcrop 77.87 5.78 182122 9360312 Raya Cret 0 0 20 1.06 1.21 461 0.22 0.65 0.33 54 27 72
2QQQ KM-108-1 handpicked Huallaga Tarapota Road Outcrop 76.30 6.47 356245 9284656 Raya Cret 0 0 20 0.1 8.81 386 0.93 2.44 1.84 28 21 38
8L 58-315 handpicked Huallaga Rio Cushabatay Outcrop 75.84 6.94 407206 9232801 Raya Cret 0 0 20 0.4 8.23 422 0.18 1.32 2.44 16 30 18
11NN MAN-84-086 handpicked Maranon Pongo de Manseriche1 Outcrop 77.58 4.47 213681 9505417 Raya Cret 0 0 20 0.87 1.12 448 0.09 0.66 0.45 59 40 67
19NN MAN-84-142 handpicked Maranon Pongo de Mancheriche2 Outcrop 77.58 4.47 213681 9505417 Raya Cret 0 0 20 0.79 5.6 442 0.74 10.22 0.46 183 8 196
18NN MAN-84-128 handpicked Maranon Pongo de Mancheriche3 Outcrop 77.58 4.47 213681 9505417 Raya Cret 0 0 20 0.85 1.8 447 0.68 1.93 0.53 107 29 145
17NN MAN-84-127 handpicked Maranon Pongo de Mancheriche4 Outcrop 77.58 4.47 213681 9505417 Raya Cret 0 0 20 0.92 2.1 451 0.45 2.43 0.65 116 31 137
16NN MAN-84-126 handpicked Maranon Pongo de Mancheriche5 Outcrop 77.58 4.47 213681 9505417 Raya Cret 0 0 20 0.88 2.52 449 0.55 3.16 0.64 125 25 147
15NN MAN-84-125 handpicked Maranon Pongo de Mancheriche6 Outcrop 77.58 4.47 213681 9505417 Raya Cret 0 0 20 0.78 2.34 442 1.13 3.98 0.68 170 29 218
14NN MAN-84-120 handpicked Maranon Pongo de Mancheriche7 Outcrop 77.58 4.47 213681 9505417 Raya Cret 0 0 20 0.79 2.11 444 0.84 3.19 0.49 151 23 191
98/164' CoreLabs Cuttings Maranon Tucunare 1X 76.32 2.98 352763 9670391 Raya Cret 13685 4174 0.91
98/164' CoreLabs Cuttings Maranon Tucunare 1X 76.32 2.98 352763 9670391 Raya Cret 13750 4194 0.91
98/164' CoreLabs Cuttings Maranon Tucunare 1X 76.32 2.98 352763 9670391 Raya Cret 13825 4217 0.91
716-153 Cuttings Maranon Yanez 26-14X 76.95 3.06 283468 9661367 Raya Cret 16305 4973 0.76 1.04 441 0.4 0.75 0.89 72 86 111
4DD Can-84-83 handpicked Santiago Qda.Candungo2 Outcrop 77.89 3.46 178861 9617072 Raya Cret 0 0 20 0.83 2.3 449 0.87 2.36 0.2 103 9 140
cutting Ucayali Huaya 3X 75.19 7.11 478932 9214263 Raya Cret 1060 0.56
n.d. Santiago Putuime1X 77.93 4.38 174769 9515233 Saraquillo Jur 12025 3668 0.81 1.18 448 0.21 1.06 1.11 90 94 108
718-57 Cuttings Maranon La Frontera 1 74.67 6.30 536237 9304138 Tarma Carb 8450 2577 0.84 1.05 n.d. 1.98 1.56 0.73 149 70 337
713-46 Cuttings Maranon Yarina 2X 73.79 5.23 634234 9422140 Tarma Carb 10175 3103 2.16 0.21 n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. #VALOR!
705-127 cutting Ucayali San Martin1X 72.77 11.76 743025 8699020 Tarma Carb 3162 0.7 13.08 350 7 21.6 16.06 165 123 219
705-159 cutting Ucayali San Martin1X 72.77 11.76 743025 8699020 Tarma Carb 3539 0.77 12.02 443 1.03 19.88 1.44 165 12 174
705-169 cutting Ucayali San Martin1X 72.77 11.76 743025 8699020 Tarma Carb 3641 0.78 2.81 446 0.27 3.6 0.39 128 14 138
729-39 Cuttings Maranon Huitoyacu 1X 76.90 3.59 288900 9603407 Vivian Cret 14145 4314 0.67 1.11 435 n.d. 4.69 1.48 423 133 #VALOR!
97/3980' 116 DGSI Cuttings Santiago Pupuntas 50-45-1X 77.73 4.65 196965 9485501 Vivian Cret 3750 1144 0.76 #DIV/0!
729-28 Cuttings Maranon Huitoyacu 1X 76.90 3.59 288900 9603407 Yahuarango Tert 13155 4012 0.56 2.17 427 n.d. 2.06 2.11 95 97 #VALOR!
729-31 Cuttings Maranon Huitoyacu 1X 76.90 3.59 288900 9603407 Yahuarango Tert 13725 4186 0.72 1.55 438 n.d. 2.11 2.51 136 162 #VALOR!
718-20 Handpicked Maranon La Frontera 1 74.67 6.30 536237 9304138 Yahuarango Tert 5120 1562 0.44 19.69 433 2.42 94.57 3.5 480 18 493
39B BQ81-202 handpicked Ucayali Baqueron del Padre Abad Outcrop 75.73 9.10 419782 8994011 Yahuarango Tert 0 0 20 1.8 5.3 511 0.07 0.95 1.79 18 34 19
Question? Calculated Question?
ChemTerra Intl. Confidential 29/10/2002 Page 6
Maraon Basin Master Data Base
Lab # Sample ID Lab
Remark
Sample
Type
Basin Field/ Location Well xCoordin.W yCoordin.S UTMx UTMy Formation Form.
Lith.
Age Depth (ft) Depth (m) Form.
T(C)
Form.
Ro
TOC
> 1%
Tmax S1 peak S2 Peak S3
Peak
HI OI Reconstr
HI
1SSS CHZT-3-9 handpicked Huallaga Chazuta Outcrop 76.19 6.56 368434 9274735 Aqua Caliente Cret 0 0 20 0.1 3.25 388 17.38 14.51 0.4 446 12 981
5ll GA-85-11 handpicked Huallaga Gallohuancana Outcrop 75.89 6.49 401591 9282542 Pucara Jura 0 0 20 0.89 1.27 448 1.22 2.33 0.25 183 20 280
Mobil Ro Map Maranon Arabela X 75.07 2.08 492534 9770533 Chonta Cret 1623 0.56
Mobil Ro Map Maranon Bartra 8-17-6CD 75.64 2.47 428506 9727109 Chonta Cret 2414 0.49
Mobil Ro Map Maranon Belen 1 74.55 3.66 549638 9595328 Chonta Cret 2380 0.52
Mobil Ro Map Maranon Bolognesi 8-18-62x 75.20 3.05 477900 9663167 Chonta Cret 2556 0.46
Mobil Ro Map Maranon Capirona 75.42 3.52 453791 9610507 Chonta Cret 2993 0.60
728- handpicked Maranon Chapuli 1 77.08 3.55 268425 9607026 Aqua Caliente Cret 15950 4865 0.72 0.84 n.d. 0
728- Cuttings Maranon Chapuli 1 77.08 3.55 268425 9607026 Chonta Cret 14300 4362 0.62 1.04 439 0.13 1.2 0.45 115 43 128
728- handpicked Maranon Chapuli 1 77.08 3.55 268425 9607026 Chonta Cret 15400 4697 0.65 1 441 0.07 0.61 0.21 61 21 68
Mobil Ro Map Maranon Chapuli 1 77.08 3.55 268425 9607026 Chonta Cret 4709 0.71
728- Cuttings Maranon Chapuli 1 77.08 3.55 268425 9607026 Cushabatay Cret 16700 5094 0.78 0.99 n.d. 0
728- Cuttings Maranon Chapuli 1 77.08 3.55 268425 9607026 Pozo Tert 10180 3105 0.57 1.11 439 0.05 1.52 0.48 137 43 141
Mobil Ro Map Maranon Ecuador Curaray x-1 Chonta Cret 0.60
Mobil Ro Map Maranon Forestal 1A-50-18X 76.16 2.35 370526 9740453 Chonta Cret 2952 0.50
Mobil Ro Map Maranon Huasaga 1 76.66 3.14 315765 9652920 Chonta Cret 4445 0.81
Mobil Ro Map Maranon Huayuri Sur 33x 76.23 2.63 363195 9709240 Chonta Cret 3294 0.62
729-32 Cuttings Maranon Huitoyacu 1X 76.90 3.59 288900 9603407 Cachiyacu Cret 13795 4207 2.72 n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
729-33 Cuttings Maranon Huitoyacu 1X 76.90 3.59 288900 9603407 Cachiyacu Cret 13845 4223 2.27 n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
729-35 Cuttings Maranon Huitoyacu 1X 76.90 3.59 288900 9603407 Cachiyacu Cret 13955 4256 0.72 2.2 438 n.d. 2.86 1.28 130 58
729-01 Contaminated Cuttings Maranon Huitoyacu 1X 76.90 3.59 288900 9603407 n.d. Tert 315 96 n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
729-39 Cuttings Maranon Huitoyacu 1X 76.90 3.59 288900 9603407 Vivian Cret 14145 4314 0.67 1.11 435 n.d. 4.69 1.48 423 133
729-28 Cuttings Maranon Huitoyacu 1X 76.90 3.59 288900 9603407 Yahuarango Tert 13155 4012 0.56 2.17 427 n.d. 2.06 2.11 95 97
729-31 Cuttings Maranon Huitoyacu 1X 76.90 3.59 288900 9603407 Yahuarango Tert 13725 4186 0.72 1.55 438 n.d. 2.11 2.51 136 162
Mobil Ro Map Maranon Intuto 1 23x 75.01 3.52 499300 9610953 Chonta Cret 2891 0.55
718-41 Cuttings Maranon La Frontera 1 74.67 6.30 536237 9304138 Aqua Caliente Cret 6560 2001 0.56 2.38 429 0.47 1.04 1.06 44 45 63
718-75 Cuttings Maranon La Frontera 1 74.67 6.30 536237 9304138 Cabanillas Dev 8780 2678 1.13 1.26 n.d. 2.1 1.83 0.82 145 65 312
718-83 Core Maranon La Frontera 1 74.67 6.30 536237 9304138 Cabanillas Dev 8950 2730 1.04 4.7 459 1.22 1.35 0.5 29 11 55
718-86 Cuttings Maranon La Frontera 1 74.67 6.30 536237 9304138 Cabanillas Dev 8970 2736 2.01 n.d. 0.92 0.91 0.41 45 20 91
718-91 Cuttings Maranon La Frontera 1 74.67 6.30 536237 9304138 Cabanillas Dev 9050 2760 1.02 2 n.d. 0.36 0.65 0.45 33 23 51
718-92 Cuttings Maranon La Frontera 1 74.67 6.30 536237 9304138 Cabanillas Dev 9080 2769 2.17 n.d. 0.79 1.09 0.69 50 32 87
718-96 Cuttings Maranon La Frontera 1 74.67 6.30 536237 9304138 Cabanillas Dev 9140 2788 2.08 n.d. 2.32 2.04 1.99 98 96 210
718-100 Cuttings Maranon La Frontera 1 74.67 6.30 536237 9304138 Cabanillas Dev 9230 2815 1.97 n.d. 0.65 1.12 0.75 57 38 90
718-101 Cuttings Maranon La Frontera 1 74.67 6.30 536237 9304138 Cabanillas Dev 9350 2852 1.07 1 0
718-112 Cuttings Maranon La Frontera 1 74.67 6.30 536237 9304138 Cabanillas Dev 9400 2867 1.25 n.d. 0.43 0.56 0.54 45 43 79
718-121 Cuttings Maranon La Frontera 1 74.67 6.30 536237 9304138 Cabanillas Dev 9590 2925 0.97 n.d. n.d n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
718-30 Cuttings Maranon La Frontera 1 74.67 6.30 536237 9304138 Chonta Cret 5900 1800 0.47 0.98 n.d. 0.56 0.78 0.75 80 77 137
718-125 Cuttings Maranon La Frontera 1 74.67 6.30 536237 9304138 Contaya Ordo 9650 2943 1 n.d. 0.1 0.02 0.29 2 29 12
718-128 Cuttings Maranon La Frontera 1 74.67 6.30 536237 9304138 Contaya Ordo 9740 2971 1.13 n.d. 0.1 0.1 0.29 9 26 18
718-130 Cuttings Maranon La Frontera 1 74.67 6.30 536237 9304138 Contaya Ordo 9800 2989 0.9 n.d. n.d n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
718-132 Cuttings Maranon La Frontera 1 74.67 6.30 536237 9304138 Contaya Ordo 9860 3007 0.93 n.d. n.d n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
718-133 Cuttings Maranon La Frontera 1 74.67 6.30 536237 9304138 Contaya Ordo 9890 3016 0.96 n.d. n.d n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
718-134 Junk Basket Maranon La Frontera 1 74.67 6.30 536237 9304138 Contaya Ordo 9919 3025 0.96 n.d. n.d n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
718-135 Cuttings Maranon La Frontera 1 74.67 6.30 536237 9304138 Contaya Ordo 9920 3026 0.79 n.d. n.d n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
718-49 Cuttings Maranon La Frontera 1 74.67 6.30 536237 9304138 Cushabatay Cret 8180 2495 0.58 1.77 426 0.76 1.24 1.01 70 57 113
718-57 Cuttings Maranon La Frontera 1 74.67 6.30 536237 9304138 Tarma Carb 8450 2577 0.84 1.05 n.d. 1.98 1.56 0.73 149 70 337
718-20 Handpicked Maranon La Frontera 1 74.67 6.30 536237 9304138 Yahuarango Tert 5120 1562 0.44 19.69 433 2.42 94.57 3.5 480 18 493
Mobil Ro Map Maranon Loreto 1 75.58 5.91 435537 9346484 Chonta Cret 1742 0.51
Mobil Ro Map Maranon Ecuador Maranacu 1 Chonta Cret 0.56
Maranon Maranon 110 74.09 4.47 600898 9506125 Agua Caliente Cret 2438 0.58
Maranon Maranon 110 74.09 4.47 600898 9506125 Agua Caliente Cret 2774 0.64
Maranon Maranon 110 74.09 4.47 600898 9506125 Ambo Carb 2926 0.68
Maranon Maranon 110 74.09 4.47 600898 9506125 Cabanillas Dev 3048 1.1
Maranon Maranon 110 74.09 4.47 600898 9506125 Contaya Orda 3511 1.45
Maranon Maranon 110 74.09 4.47 600898 9506125 Pozo Tert 1920 0.4
Maraon Basin Master Data Base
Lab # Sample ID Lab
Remark
Sample
Type
Basin Field/ Location Well xCoordin.W yCoordin.S UTMx UTMy Formation Form.
Lith.
Age Depth (ft) Depth (m) Form.
T(C)
Form.
Ro
TOC
> 1%
Tmax S1 peak S2 Peak S3
Peak
HI OI Reconstr
HI
19NN MAN-84-142 handpicked Maranon Pongo de Manseriche Outcrop 77.58 4.47 213681 9505417 Raya Cret 0 0 20 0.79 5.6 442 0.74 10.22 0.46 183 8 196
18NN MAN-84-128 handpicked Maranon Pongo de Manseriche Outcrop 77.58 4.47 213681 9505417 Raya Cret 0 0 20 0.85 1.8 447 0.68 1.93 0.53 107 29 145
17NN MAN-84-127 handpicked Maranon Pongo de Manseriche Outcrop 77.58 4.47 213681 9505417 Raya Cret 0 0 20 0.92 2.1 451 0.45 2.43 0.65 116 31 137
16NN MAN-84-126 handpicked Maranon Pongo de Manseriche Outcrop 77.58 4.47 213681 9505417 Raya Cret 0 0 20 0.88 2.52 449 0.55 3.16 0.64 125 25 147
15NN MAN-84-125 handpicked Maranon Pongo de Manseriche Outcrop 77.58 4.47 213681 9505417 Raya Cret 0 0 20 0.78 2.34 442 1.13 3.98 0.68 170 29 218
14NN MAN-84-120 handpicked Maranon Pongo de Manseriche Outcrop 77.58 4.47 213681 9505417 Raya Cret 0 0 20 0.79 2.11 444 0.84 3.19 0.49 151 23 191
13NN MAN-84-120 handpicked Maranon Pongo de Manseriche Outcrop 77.58 4.47 213681 9505417 Cushabatay Cret 0 0 20 0.85 32.39 447 0.52 44.59 5.28 138 16 139
1NN MAN-84-015 handpicked Maranon Pongo de Manseriche Outcrop 77.58 4.47 213681 9505417 Cachiyacu Cret 0 0 20 0.8 1.73 443 0.03 1.47 0.3 85 17 87
8NN MAN-84-064 handpicked Maranon Pongo de Manseriche Outcrop 77.58 4.47 213681 9505417 Chonta Cret 0 0 20 0.81 2.97 444 0.17 4.76 0.9 160 30 166
9NN MAN-84-065 handpicked Maranon Pongo de Manseriche Outcrop 77.58 4.47 213681 9505417 Chonta Cret 0 0 20 0.75 3.16 440 0.52 8.12 0.75 257 24 273
28NN MAN-84-216 handpicked Maranon Pongo de Manseriche Outcrop 77.58 4.47 213681 9505417 Pozo Tert 0 0 20 0.71 4.07 437 0.29 26.85 0.46 660 11 667
27NN MaN-84-215 handpicked Maranon Pongo de Manseriche Outcrop 77.58 4.47 213681 9505417 Pozo Tert 0 0 20 0.7 10.13 436 1.74 73.84 0.73 729 7 746
26NN MAN-84-213 handpicked Maranon Pongo de Manseriche Outcrop 77.58 4.47 213681 9505417 Pozo Tert 0 0 20 0.75 6.39 440 0.15 44.94 0.56 703 9 706
11NN MAN-84-086 handpicked Maranon Pongo de Manseriche Outcrop 77.58 4.47 213681 9505417 Raya Cret 0 0 20 0.87 1.12 448 0.09 0.66 0.45 59 40 67
22NN MAN-84-167 handpicked Maranon Pongo de Manseriche Outcrop 77.58 4.47 213681 9505417 Chonta Cret 0 0 20 0.83 3.23 442 0.43 9.03 0.34 280 11 293
5BB JJW-162 handpicked Maranon Yanayacu Section Outcrop 76.00 5.68 389262 9372073 Pozo Tert 0 0 20 0.43 3.33 428 0.27 15.69 1.08 471 32 479
Mobil Ro Map Maranon Pucacuro 1X 75.01 3.26 499005 9639241 Chonta Cret 2549 0.50
Mobil Ro Map Maranon Santa Lucia 2x 75.05 6.38 494489 9294470 Chonta Cret 2409 0.57
Mobil Ro Map Maranon Sungachi 3-9-2x 76.46 3.61 337512 9600318 Chonta Cret 4680 0.81
Mobil Ro Map Maranon Tapiche 1 73.99 5.89 611702 9348960 Chonta Cret 2694 0.45
98/164' CoreLabs Cuttings Maranon Tucunare 1X 76.32 2.98 352763 9670391 Cachiyacu Cret 12065 3680 0.83
98/164' CoreLabs Cuttings Maranon Tucunare 1X 76.32 2.98 352763 9670391 Cachiyacu Cret 12115 3695 0.81
98/164' CoreLabs Cuttings Maranon Tucunare 1X 76.32 2.98 352763 9670391 Chonta Cret 12315 3756 0.81
98/164' CoreLabs Cuttings Maranon Tucunare 1X 76.32 2.98 352763 9670391 Chonta Cret 12545 3826 0.86
98/164' CoreLabs Cuttings Maranon Tucunare 1X 76.32 2.98 352763 9670391 Chonta Cret 12815 3909 0.89
98/164' CoreLabs Cuttings Maranon Tucunare 1X 76.32 2.98 352763 9670391 Chonta Cret 13215 4031 0.89
98/164' CoreLabs Cuttings Maranon Tucunare 1X 76.32 2.98 352763 9670391 Pozo Tert 9225 2814 0.62
98/164' CoreLabs Cuttings Maranon Tucunare 1X 76.32 2.98 352763 9670391 Pozo Tert 9375 2859 0.63
98/164' CoreLabs Cuttings Maranon Tucunare 1X 76.32 2.98 352763 9670391 Raya Cret 13685 4174 0.91
98/164' CoreLabs Cuttings Maranon Tucunare 1X 76.32 2.98 352763 9670391 Raya Cret 13750 4194 0.91
98/164' CoreLabs Cuttings Maranon Tucunare 1X 76.32 2.98 352763 9670391 Raya Cret 13825 4217 0.91
Mobil Ro Map Maranon Ungamayo 3-34-1x 76.35 4.19 350185 9537067 Chonta Cret 4874 0.71
Mobil Ro Map Maranon Yanez 1A-26-14x 76.95 3.06 283468 9661367 Chonta Cret 4729 0.82
716-170 Core Maranon Yanez 26-14X 76.95 3.06 283468 9661367 Aqua Caliente Cret 15846 4833 0.96 1.89 454 0.52 2.22 0.23 117 12 145
716-64 Cuttings Maranon Yanez 26-14X 76.95 3.06 283468 9661367 Chonta Cret 14635 4464 0.61 1.16 437 0.47 1.15 0.46 99 40 140
716-67 Cuttings Maranon Yanez 26-14X 76.95 3.06 283468 9661367 Chonta Cret 14685 4479 0.75 1.3 440 0.62 1.45 0.61 112 47 159
716-165 Core Maranon Yanez 26-14X 76.95 3.06 283468 9661367 Chonta Cret 15448 4712 0.84 3.56 446 0.58 4.01 0.41 113 12 129
716-13 Cuttings Maranon Yanez 26-14X 76.95 3.06 283468 9661367 Pozo Tert 10675 3256 0.54 0.9 n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
716-153 Cuttings Maranon Yanez 26-14X 76.95 3.06 283468 9661367 Raya Cret 16305 4973 0.76 1.04 441 0.4 0.75 0.89 72 86 111
713-72 Cuttings Maranon Yarina 2X 73.79 5.23 634234 9422140 Cabanillas Dev 11075 3378 1.01 n.d. 0.16 0.14 0.54 14 53 30
713-74 Cuttings Maranon Yarina 2X 73.79 5.23 634234 9422140 Cabanillas Dev 11115 3390 1.47 n.d. 0.16 0.16 0.36 11 24 22
713-80 Cuttings Maranon Yarina 2X 73.79 5.23 634234 9422140 Cabanillas Dev 11235 3427 1.44 n.d. 0.19 0.15 1.44 10 100 24
713-83 Cuttings Maranon Yarina 2X 73.79 5.23 634234 9422140 Cabanillas Dev 11315 3451 2.03 1.43 n.d. 0.12 0.09 1.08 6 76 15
713-85 Cuttings Maranon Yarina 2X 73.79 5.23 634234 9422140 Cabanillas Dev 11355 3463 1.28 n.d. 0.08 0.1 0.62 8 48 14
713-87 Cuttings Maranon Yarina 2X 73.79 5.23 634234 9422140 Cabanillas Dev 11395 3475 1.13 n.d. 0.14 0.15 0.59 13 52 26
713-96 Cuttings Maranon Yarina 2X 73.79 5.23 634234 9422140 Cabanillas Dev 11575 3530 1.13 n.d. 0.08 0.13 0.43 12 38 19
713-111 Cuttings Maranon Yarina 2X 73.79 5.23 634234 9422140 Cabanillas Dev 11935 3640 2.16 1 n.d. 0.13 0.12 0.58 12 58 25
Mobil Ro Map Maranon Yarina 2X 73.79 5.23 634234 9422140 Chonta Cret 2551 0.49
713-46 Cuttings Maranon Yarina 2X 73.79 5.23 634234 9422140 Tarma Carb 10175 3103 2.16 0.21 n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
1GG BA-2 handpicked Ucayali Rio Tapiche Outcrop 73.89 7.34 622517 9188513 Pozo Tert 0 0 20 0.47 1.01 422 0.03 0.33 0.62 33 61 36
2GG BA-9 handpicked Ucayali Rio Tapiche Outcrop 73.89 7.34 622517 9188513 Pozo Tert 0 0 20 0.47 1.06 422 0.12 0.5 1.17 47 110 58
Calculated
Question? Question?
CoreLab & GeoMark WholeOils
Lab # Sample ID Basin Field/Loca Sample Type Well xCoordin.W yCoordin.S Formation Oil Family Form.Lith. Age Depth (ft) nC7 MCH nC7/MCH 13Csat pr/ph pr/17 ph/18 tet/26 S/H
CoreLab U Agua Caliente 32 Agua Caliente AC 17.65 16.31 1.08 -28.5 1.33 0.31 0.26 0.73 0.35
GeoMark PR-092 U Agua Caliente AC-26 74.71 8.83 Paco Agua Caliente AC 4.2 4.4 0.954545455 -28.68 1.47 0.36 0.27 0.61 0.51
CoreLab U Cashiriari 3X Cashiriari Ca 12.81 22.6 0.57 -26.1 2.08 0.23 0.15 1.78 0.69
GeoMark PR-133 U Cashirari 1X 72.73 11.87 Ene Cashiriari Ca 8490 7.6 7.23 1.051175657 -25.87 3.1 0.19 0.09 1.59 1.14
GeoMark PR-185 U Cashiriari 72.78 11.86 Agua Caliente Cashiriari Ca 7814 5.85 6.3 0.928571429 -25.81 3.41 0.25 0.1 1 0.65
CoreLab U La Colpa 1X La Colpa LC 1.88 21.25 0.09 -29 1.52 1.15 0.8 0.34 1.96
CoreLab U La Colpa 1X La Colpa LC 11.21 20.58 0.54 -29.1 1.53 0.66 0.46 0.31 1.82
CoreLab U La Colpa 1X La Colpa LC 9.84 13.55 0.73 -29.2 1.5 0.52 0.4 0.23 4.00
CoreLab M Huasaga 1X Maquia M 25.92 19.43 1.33 -29 0.86 0.94 1.19 0.66 0.34
CoreLab M Chambira Esta 124 Maquia M 28.51 17.79 1.60 -28.9 0.93 0.58 0.67 0.68 0.36
CoreLab M Yanayacu 61XCD Maquia M 30.68 21.05 1.46 -28.4 1.05 0.66 0.73 0.78 0.31
CoreLab M Samiria S1 Maquia M 42.11 25.86 1.63 -28.7 1.03 0.34 0.38 0.86 0.33
CoreLab U Campo Maquia 12 Maquia M 28.34 8.42 3.37 -28.5 0.7 0.31 0.46 0.71 0.40
CoreLab M Corrientes 6X Maquia M 18.93 16.66 1.14 -29.2 0.8 1.13 1.45 0.66 0.33
GeoMark PR-049 M Bretana Maquia M -24.80 1.25 1.28 1.1 0.63 0.62
GeoMark PR-132 M Capirona 2X 75.42 3.52 Chonta Maquia M 9548 0.218 0.32 0.68125 -29.22 1.05 0.57 0.65 0.54 0.54
GeoMark PR-183 M Capirona 2X 75.42 3.52 Chonta Maquia M 9557 2.87 1.43 2.006993007 -29.28 1.15 0.6 0.64 0.52 0.55
GeoMark PR-095 M Corrientes DST 1 28XCD 75.07 3.82 Chonta Maquia M 11364 0.02 0.049 0.408163265 -29.18 0.98 0.89 0.97 0.58 0.5
GeoMark PR-102 M Corrientes DST 3 10XC 75.07 3.82 Chonta Maquia M 9824 0.072 0.11 0.654545455 -29.24 0.96 0.97 1.05 0.52 0.54
GeoMark PR-104 M Corrientes 12XC 75.07 3.82 Chonta Maquia M 9892 0.24 0.25 0.96 -29.24 0.91 0.89 1 0.52 0.52
GeoMark PR-108 M Corrientes 16XCD 75.07 3.82 Chonta Maquia M 10500 0.5 0.51 0.980392157 -29.19 1.04 0.93 1.01 0.53 0.52
GeoMark PR-114 M Corrientes 6XC 75.07 3.82 Chonta Maquia M 9630 0.11 0.11 1 -29.16 0.92 1.09 1.16 0.52 0.59
GeoMark PR-135 M Corrientes 8-21-1X 75.06 3.81 Chonta Maquia M 9850 0.54 0.44 1.227272727 -29.2 0.99 1.08 1.14 0.5 0.54
GeoMark PR-182 M Corrientes 45XCD 75.07 3.82 Chonta Maquia M 10716 0.47 0.365 1.287671233 -29.16 0.99 0.9 0.98 0.5 0.58
GeoMark PR-191 M San Juan 77XD 75.21 3.69 Chonta Maquia M 10338 0.19 0.175 1.085714286 -29.22 0.97 1.16 1.31 0.5 0.61
GeoMark PR-039 M Sun 1z 1X Cushabatay Maquia M 16549 3.22 2.9 1.110344828 -29.21 1.33 0.62 0.54 0.59 0.69
GeoMark PR-099 M Yanayacu DST2 32XC 74.94 4.89 Maquia M 0.1 0.21 0.476190476 -29.14 0.94 0.85 0.96 0.49 0.51
GeoMark PR-090 U Campo Maquia MA-11 74.95 7.33 Maquia M 0.5 0.21 2.380952381 -28.68 0.92 0.3 0.36 0.48 0.55
GeoMark PR-144 U Campo Maquia 16 74.96 7.32 Cashiyacu Maquia M 2040 2.6 3.3 0.787878788 -28.59 0.95 0.3 0.37 0.63 0.6
GeoMark PR-072 U Campo Maquia 16 74.95 7.33 Maquia M 2136 0.29 0.11 2.636363636 -28.65 0.79 0.29 0.38 0.47 0.63
GeoMark PR-139 U Huaya 4X 75.19 7.11 Vivian Maquia M 904 0.9 0.2 4.5 -28.67 0.86 0.36 0.43 0.46 0.56
GeoMark PR-145 M Pauayacu 70XC 75.41 3.36 Vivian Maquia ? M ? 8335 9.4 4.6 2.043478261 -28.47 1.33 0.39 0.39 0.52 0.62
GeoMark PR-192 M Valencia 100D 75.74 3.18 Chonta Maquia ? M ? 10936 2.6 2.07 1.256038647 -28.38 1.59 0.3 0.27 0.5 1.13
GeoMark PR-080 M Valencia 25X 75.74 3.18 Vivian Maquia ? M ? 1.85 0.82 2.256097561 -28.52 1.35 0.3 0.29 0.57 0.56
CoreLab Sungachi 1 Tambo/Sungachi T/S 13.78 36 0.38 -25.3 1.15 1.02 1.02 0.19 0.64
CoreLab Piuntza 1 Tambo/Sungachi T/S 14.74 17.36 0.85 -28.1 1.29 0.41 0.37 0.34 0.95
CoreLab Tambo 1 Tambo/Sungachi T/S 17.97 26.46 0.68 -28.3 1.27 0.61 0.54 0.3 1.05
GeoMark PR-057 M Bartra 75.64 2.47 Vivian Tambo/Sungachi T/S 0.052 0.087 0.597701149 -26.88 1.10 1 0.79 0.25 1.49
GeoMark PR-122 M Bartra 1B-17-5 75.64 2.46 Vivian Tambo/Sungachi T/S 8503 0.02 0.068 0.294117647 -26.74 1.36 0.98 0.65 0.26 1.67
GeoMark PR-123 M Bartra 1B-17-2 75.65 2.48 Vivian Tambo/Sungachi T/S 7850 0.018 0.036 0.5 -26.82 1.2 0.96 0.7 0.25 1.29
GeoMark PR-119 M Capahuari 1A-43-14 76.43 2.80 Vivian Tambo/Sungachi T/S 12200 0.1 0.8 0.125 -28.1 1.38 0.65 0.54 0.23 2.31
GeoMark PR-121 M Capahuari 1A-43-13 76.43 2.80 Vivian Tambo/Sungachi T/S 12551 0.53 1.7 0.311764706 -27.98 1.41 0.6 0.49 0.16 2.22
GeoMark PR-131 M Capahuari 11 76.50 2.69 Vivian Tambo/Sungachi T/S 13339 5.6 7.8 0.717948718 -28.29 1.37 0.71 0.6 0.21 1.52
ChemTerra Intl. Confidential 29/10/2002 Page 1
CoreLab & GeoMark WholeOils
Lab # Sample ID Basin Field/Loca Sample Type Well xCoordin.W yCoordin.S Formation Oil Family Form.Lith. Age Depth (ft) nC7 MCH nC7/MCH 13Csat pr/ph pr/17 ph/18 tet/26 S/H
GeoMark PR-073 M Capahuari -54 54 76.43 2.80 Chonta Tambo/Sungachi T/S 12877 0.24 0.78 0.307692308 -24.3 1.43 0.96 0.71 0.2 0.42
GeoMark PR-147 M Capahuari S V-4 RFT V-4 76.43 2.80 Vivian ? Tambo/Sungachi T/S 2.05 2.55 0.803921569 -28.13 1.49 0.6 0.46 0.21 2
GeoMark PR-062 M Capahuari S-27 27 76.43 2.80 Chonta Tambo/Sungachi T/S 3.4 5 0.68 -24.94 1.39 1.14 0.93 0.17 0.76
GeoMark PR-053 M Dorissa 76.21 2.75 Chonta Tambo/Sungachi T/S 11705 1.18 1.36 0.867647059 -26.82 1.33 0.67 0.66 0.19 0.75
GeoMark PR-054 M Dorissa 76.21 2.75 Vivian Tambo/Sungachi T/S 2.61 4.18 0.624401914 -28.54 1.37 0.68 0.57 0.26 1.35
GeoMark PR-070 M Dorissa 1 76.21 2.76 Vivian Tambo/Sungachi T/S 2.6 6.8 0.382352941 -28.55 1.41 0.79 0.63 0.24 1.21
GeoMark PR-111 M Dorissa 1A-49-1 76.20 2.77 Vivian Tambo/Sungachi T/S 10747 1.34 2.5 0.536 -28.45 1.40 0.65 0.54 0.23 1.24
GeoMark PR-059 M Forestal V 76.23 2.31 Vivian Tambo/Sungachi T/S 0.033 0.1 0.33 -27.23 1.44 0.77 0.62 0.24 1.73
GeoMark PR-136 M Forestal CH-10 76.16 2.34 Chonta Tambo/Sungachi T/S 4.25 5.9 0.720338983 -26.33 1.41 0.92 0.79 0.19 0.7
GeoMark PR-137 M Forestal 5 76.16 2.34 Vivian Tambo/Sungachi T/S 9760 0.31 0.92 0.336956522 -27.26 1.40 0.66 0.51 0.22 1.71
GeoMark PR-060 M Huayuri 13 76.23 2.62 Chonta Tambo/Sungachi T/S 11641 1.86 2.2 0.845454545 -26.11 1.35 0.84 0.79 0.2 0.69
GeoMark PR-140 M Huayuri V-3 76.23 2.63 Vivian Tambo/Sungachi T/S 0.17 0.57 0.298245614 -28.02 1.44 0.65 0.51 0.23 1.62
GeoMark PR-141 M Huayuri 2 76.23 2.62 Vivian Tambo/Sungachi T/S 10318 3.1 4.3 0.720930233 -28.19 1.41 0.65 0.54 0.2 1.72
GeoMark PR-190 M Huayuri 1A-48-1 76.23 2.62 Chonta Tambo/Sungachi T/S 10783 4.5 5.55 0.810810811 -26.39 1.41 0.87 0.73 0.18 0.67
GeoMark PR-055 M San Jacinto B 75.88 2.30 Chonta Tambo/Sungachi T/S 8510 1.3 2.4 0.541666667 -26.21 1.28 1.16 1.04 0.19 0.7
GeoMark PR-071 M San Jacinto A 75.87 2.32 Vivian Tambo/Sungachi T/S 0.1 0.25 0.4 -26.74 1.31 1.05 0.85 0.26 1.3
GeoMark PR-051 M Shiviyacu 76.14 2.50 Vivian Tambo/Sungachi T/S 0.096 0.024 4 -27.89 1.28 0.58 0.52 0.21 1.55
GeoMark PR-146 M Shiviyacu V-26 76.14 2.49 Vivian Tambo/Sungachi T/S 0.55 1.3 0.423076923 -27.83 1.47 0.61 0.47 0.25 1.51
GeoMark PR-044 S Dominguza 1 77.82 4.39 Puca Tambo/Sungachi T/S 2935 1.1 2.07 0.531400966 -28.28 1.67 0.65 0.43 0.35 0.9
GeoMark PR-045 S Piuntza DST 1 1 77.79 4.11 Vivian Tambo/Sungachi T/S 12811 3.85 4.5 0.855555556 -28.44 1.48 0.54 0.42 0.36 1.19
ChemTerra Intl. Confidential 29/10/2002 Page 2