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LANGUAGE REVIEW NOTES: GRAMMAR

These are notes for teachers to use with the students to explain some critical
language points. Teachers may ask students to draw diagrams or tables on
important grammar points after the language review activity to further reinforce
their understanding of some grammar rules. Students should further add in other
words that they found problematic to help them be more aware of what language
errors comprise.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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GRAMMAR
Some important grammar points to remember.
Preposit
ion
Verb
ing
Mo!a" Root Verb
#on"$%
#No &s'( &e!'(
&ing'%
To Root Verb
#on"$%
#No &s'( &e!'(
&ing'%
after
before
upon
of
in
for
at
from
checking can /
could
will /
would
shall /
should
may /
might
plan
walk
see
forget
read
to miss
besides *Use simple past modals for
narrative essay
Exception
! look forward to
seeing you.
Simp"e Present
S)b*e+t,Verb Agreement
Simp"e Past
S)b*e+t,Verb Agreement
S)b*e+t Verb W-en to )se. S)b*e+t Verb W-en to
)se.
"e
She
!t
#li
is
sings
Truth / $act
%outine / "abit
Ot-er -ints
Every day& Every
week&
Every month /
'onthly& Every year
/#nnually&
#lways& usually&
fre(uently& often&
sometimes& hardly&
never
"e
She
!t
#li
was
sang
)ompleted
past actions
Ot-er -ints
*esterday
+ast week
+ast 'onday
,ust now
# moment
ago
-e
They
#li and
#nna
are
sing
-e
They
#li and
#nna
were
sang
!
*ou
am&
sing
are&
sing
!
*ou
was&
sang
were&
sang
Present Per/e+t Past Per/e+t
S)b*e
+t
Verb W-en to
)se.
S)b*e
+t
Verb W-en to
)se.
-as past -a past
122
0
-a1
e
parti+ip
"e
! parti+ip"
e
"e
She
!t
has
participa
ted
attended
taken
forgotten
eaten
.ast action
happened at
an
unspeci/ed
time and
continue to
the present.
Ot-er -ints
already&
ever& never&
for& since&
once& many
times&
several
times&
before& so
far& yet0 still
"e
She
!t ha
d
participat
ed
attended
taken
forgotten
eaten
T2o past
actions0 one
before the
other
Ot-er
-ints
already&
ever& never&
for& since&
before& yet0
1ust0
-e
They have

-e
They
!
*ou
!
*ou
Passi1e 3orm
44 Use past parti+ip"e in Passi1e 3orm
W-en $o) 2ant to emp-asi5e t-e O67E8T in a senten+e( )se t-e passi1e
/orm.
e.g. .eter ate t-e app"e. 222 T-e app"e was eaten by .eter.
A+ti1e In+orre+t Passi1e
She takes the book.
The children ate the
sandwiches
The student did the
report.
The book is too93
The sandwiches 2ere
eat3
The report 2as !o 3
T-e 1erbs &-appene!'( &!ie!'( &o++)rre!'( &arri1e!'( &"i1e!'( &sta$e!' +annot be
)se! in t-e passi1e.
e.g. The accident was happened last night. 456
The accident happened last night 4/6
'y grandmother was died in her sleep last night. 456
'y grandmother died in her sleep last night. 4/6
7o not use 8about9 with the words :discuss;0 :consider;0 :describe;0 :study; and
:explain;.
e.g. -e will consider about your application tomorrow. 456
-e will consider your application tomorrow. 4<6
8ommon sing)"ar 0 p")ra" no)n errors 8ommon spe""ing
errors
In+orre+t 8orre+t In+orre+t 8orre+t
a students
many
teacher
two school
explaination
coperation
disatisfy
dissapprove
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a lot of
homeworks
many works
a children
dissappointm
ent
enviroment
goverment
8ommon +onne+tor errors:
A"t-o)g- he is wealthy b)t he is not arrogant 456 222A"t-o)g-3. but3.
4#lthough he is rich0 he is not arrogant.6
E1ent-o)g- he is wealthy b)t he is not arrogant 456 222 E1en t-o)g-: but3
6esi!e t-at 456222 6esi!es that0
3)rt-er more 456 222 3)rt-ermore0
8ommon no)n errors
I an! m$ /rien!s went to school last Saturday.456 222 M$ /rien!s an! I went to
school last Saturday. 4/6
"e and me went to school yesterday 456 222 "e and ! went to school yesterday. 4/6
'y teacher gave the test paper to m$ /rien!s an! me. 4/6
***
'y friends and ! 4used as a sub1ect6 vs my friends and me 4used as an ob1ect6
8ommon Prono)n errors ourself 456 222 ourselves 4/6& themself 456 222
themselves 4/6&
Prono)n errors M$ mot-er went to the market yesterday. ;e bought some
vegetables and /sh. 456
'y mother went to the market yesterday. She bought some
vegetables and /sh.

No)n errors: =ne of the gir" 456 222 =ne of the gir"s #0%
it;s > it is
its > belonging too
Ot-er errors:
?ow a days 456 222 ?owadays 4/6
LANGUAGE REVIEW: STRONG A8TION VER6S
@erbs energiAe. #n action verb generates more drama and emotion than a noun0
ad1ective or adverb of similar meaning.
SUGGESTE< VER6S 3OR &SAI<'
ANGER UN<ERSTAN<I
NG
IN=UISITIV
E
E>8ITE< SUGGESTIV
E
roared
fumed
snapped
barked
exploded
bellowed
growled
snarled
hollered
shrieked
4abuse6
chided
emphatised
sympathiAed
consoled
comforted
reassured
(uestioned
en(uired
(ueried
interrogated
exclaimed
raved
gushed
chirped
enthused
s(uealed 4with
delight6
shrieked 4with
laughter6
1abbered
babbled
hinted
implied
insinuated
intimated
suggested
indicated
proposed
recommende
d
advised
encouraged
urged
SO3T ANSWER
murmured
muttered
mumbled
whispered
responded
replied
acknowledge
d
3EAR3UL EARNESTL?
AS@E<
8OMMAN< 8AUTION
124
thundered
snorted
lashed out
raged
retorted
stormed
muttered
4in annoyance6
stuttered
stammered
gasped 4in
horror6
pleaded
whispered
whimpered
begged
beseeched
implored
pleaded
appealed
ordered
instructed
dictated
insisted
demanded
warned
cautioned
noti/ed
alerted
SUGGESTE< VER6S 3OR &WAL@E<'
ANGER =UIET A
8ARE3UL
SLOW A
RELA>E<
WAL@
UNSTEA<IL?
WIT; S;ORT
STEPS
=UI8@( WIT;
<ETERMINATION
A PURPOSEPUL
stormed
stalked
paced up
and down
4in
exasperatio
n6
stomped oB
4to the
room6
Counced
out 4in a
fury6
stamped oB
strode
4furiously6
tiptoed
sneaked
trod
prowled
4in search of a
prey6
ambled
strolled
sauntered
wandered
rambled
4around the
village6
roamed
drifted along
meandered
around
dawdled 4idly6
perambulate
4walk through
D around a
place for
inspection or
leisure
staggered 4of a
drunk person6
wobbled
teetered 4after
him in her
highEheeled
sandals6
tottered
doddered 4of
someone aid6
toddled 4of a
young child
learning to
walk6
waddled4of
someone
clumsy6
marched
strode
strutted
power walked 4for
/tness6
<ELI8ATE( =UI8@(
S;ORT STEPS
minced
SLOW A
TIRE<
plodded 4up
the hill /
staircase
wearily6
trudged
lumbered
trailed4behind
0 whimpering6
tramped
4miles over
mountains0
pleasure6
PROU<(
8ON3I<ENT(
E>AGGERATE<
MANNER
SLOW A
WIT; A
S8RAPING
NOISE
paraded
swaggered 4swing on
the shoulders6
strutted
sashayed 4of models
doing catwalk at
fashion show6
WAL@E< IN
PU6LI8 3OR
PLEASURE
OR <ISPLA?
WIT;
<I33I8ULT? shuFed
scuBed
promenaded limped
hobbled
4around on
clutches6
LANGUAGE REVIEW NOTES: PUN8TUATING <IALOGUES
!nserting dialogues in narrative is a good techni(ue to show your character;s
emotions0 mood and actions. 7ialogues help create atmosphere of 1oy0 sadness0
excitement0 despair and tension. 7ialogues are also eBective in showing what
people are like G harsh or gentle& serious or comical& clever or stupid.
"owever0 you must make sure the dialogues serve those purposes and are
punctuated correctly.
125
Tea+-ing points: Spee+- Mar9
San!2i+-
The B pie+es o/ brea! are the spee+-
mar9s 0 in1erte! +ommas0 the C""ing
4tuna0 cheese0 lettuce0 tomato0 etc6 is the
spee+- #senten+e 0 D)estion%( and the
sa)+e is the p)n+t)ation.
!f we do not put H=T" 8pieces of bread9
around the /lling0 then it is not a complete
sandwich. The 8sauce9 has to be in the
sandwich. *ou don;t put the sauce outside0
do you<
This clears up many misconceptions and
mistakes about where the punctuation
being put after the last speech mark0 and
to always remember to include both
speech marks G like you would a sandwich.
Hy Ielly %yan
Source
http//www.teachingideas.co.uk/english/speechmarks
andwich.htm
. $ull stop ( comma .Juestion mark ;#postrophe E
Exclamation mark
: colon F semiEcolon 3 Ellipsis , dash G
H inverted commas
Remin!er: 7o not use too much dialogue or conversation. %emember you are
asked to write a narrative0 not a dialogue or conversation.
126
Inverted comma
Inverted comma
Filling refers to the
sentence/question.
Sauce refers to
, . ?
LANGUAGE REVIEW NOTES: A<7E8TIVES
#n ad1ective describes how something :is;. Two ways ad1ectives are usedE
K. #d1ectives can be used before a noun. They are placed before the noun.
A!*e+ti1e no)n
e.g. marvelous time
spectacular view
pictures(ue beach
glorious sunset
captivating sight
L. S)b*e+t 6e 1erb A!*e+ti1e
! am dissatis/ed. 4! am a dissatis/ed customer.6
She is intelligent. 4She is an intelligent girl.6
'y mother is hardworking. 4'y mother is a hardworking
person.6
Tom is shy. 4Tom is a shy teenager.6
The food is delicious. 4She cooks delicious food.6
The room is crammed. 4-e have crammed classrooms.6
127
A<7E8TIV
ES
Tel us about
a noun3
A<7E8TIV
ES
Tel us about
a noun3
;o2 man$
W-at
+o"o)r T-e si5e
;o2
somet-ing
/ee"s
;o2
somet-ing
so)n!s
;o2
no)n "oo9s
;o2
somet-ing
be-a1e
prett$
)g"$ "o)!
D)iet
so/t
ro)g-
tin$
-)ge
a1erage
anno$ing
9in!
/ear/)"
C1e
se1era"
/e2
OR<ER O3 A<7E8TIVES
*ou can use more than one ad1ective to describe a noun. "owever0 you need to
know the correct order of ad1ectives. Helow is a table to help you learn about the
word order. The abbreviation that you should remember is OSAS8OMP
Determiner Opinion Size Age Shape Colour Origin Material Purpose Noun
a
/an/the
handso
me
youn
g
'alays
ian
man
=ne /
two/
three
hug
e
roun
d
metal bowls
This /
that
smart littl
e
girl
'y /
your /
his
old red sleepi
ng
bag
wonderf
ul
new restaur
ant
spectac
ular
ancie
nt
'ediev
al
castle
*** #void using all of them because this will make your description sound unnatural
AVOI<
VAGUE
A<7E8TIVE
S
USE STRONG A<7E8TIVES
4**#lways refer to the thesaurus and dictionary to help you use the
words correctly6
Mood /
?ice /great
/fun
Time: En1oyable& pleasant& satisfying& delightful& marvelous&
fabulous& terri/c& entertaining
Person: pleasant& personable& congenial& amiable& friendly&
charming& compassionate& sympathetic& amusing
Manners: polite& courteous& re/ned& polished& elegant
<a$: pleasant& sunny& warm0 mild
Had Terrible& horrible& horrifying& horri/c& horrendous& dreadful&
shocking& appalling&
.oor 4(uality6 !nferior& imperfect& substandard& below par& de/cient& defective&
imperfect
-ell $ine& healthy& robust& strong& vigorous& satisfactory&
Hig +arge& huge& massive& colossal& enormous& gigantic& substantial&
tremendous
Small Tiny0 teeny& petite& minute& miniature& diminutive
"appy ,oyful& delighted& glad& cheerful& blissful& elated& 1ovial& 1olly&
Sad /
unhappy
7e1ected& depressed& disheartened& forlorn& gloomy& glum& 1oyless
Easy / simple Uncomplicated& eBortless& manageable&
12
Heautiful S+ener$ 0 1ie2: magni/cent& stunning& superb& breathtaking&
splendid& spectacular& impressive& striking& glorious& ma1estic& aweE
inspiring& impressive& sumptuous
Person attractive& bewitching& charming& gorgeous& ravishing&
alluring& elegant& graceful& handsome& goodElooking
funny #musing& comical& entertaining& hilarious& humorous& whimsical&
witty
8OLOURS
Re! 6")e ?e""o
2
W-it
e
6"a+9 p)rp"
e
Gra$ 6ro2n Green
brickE
red
maroon
reddish
rose
scarlet
crimso
n
ruby
cranbe
rry
apple
sapphire
sky blue
aAure
cobalt
navy
a(uama
rine
royal
teal blue
gold
custar
d
banan
a
lemon
primro
se
snow
y
enam
el
ivory
chalk
y
silver
tar
midnig
ht
pitch
violet
indig
o
bruis
e
ashe
n
dull
slate
metal
amber
tan
beige
mahoga
ny
haAel
chocola
te
chestnu
t
fawn
emerald
olive
1ade
pea
green
lime
sea green
apple
%eminder #lways use a dictionary and thesaurus to make sure you use precise
vocabulary in context to your story.
LANGUAGE REVIEW NOTES: A<VER6S
+earn to use adverbs besides ad1ectives. Study the mind map of adverbs below and
learn the diBerent types of adverbs.
Source http//mappio.com/mindmap/gillianmarie/adverbs
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
-hat are adverbs< #dverbs tell us in what way someone does something. !t
describes the action. #dverbs can describe or modify verbs0 ad1ectives or other
adverbs.
A<VER6S
Mo!i/$ 1erbs Mo!i/$ A!*e+ti1es Mo!i/$ A!1erbs
Verb A!1erb A!1erb A!1erb
12!
A!1erb
drives carefully
play roughly
walked slowly
A!*e+ti1e
Extremely poor
!mmaculately clean
Terribly sad
%ather slowly
@ery (uickly
(uite cleverly
4done6
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNN
"ow do we use adverbs in a sentence< #dverbs can be positioned at the beginning0
middle or end of a sentence.
#dverb at the beginning of a
sentence
Imme!iate"$( #li dashed out of the door.
#dverb in the middle of a
sentence
#li dashed imme!iate"$ out of the door.
#dverb at the end of a
sentence
#li dashed out of the door imme!iate"$.
?ote
K. !n English we ?E@E% put an adverb between the verb and the ob1ect.
e.g. -e o/ten play football #0% -e play o/ten football.
#>%
L. !f there are more adverbs at the end of a sentence0 the word order is normally
Manner , P"a+e I Time
e.g. 7o-n greete! me +-eer/)""$ in s+-oo" $ester!a$ morning.
6e"o2 is a "ist o/ a!1erbs t-at $o) +an )se to 1ar$ $o)r 1o+ab)"ar$.
#bsolut
ely
#lmost
)omplet
ely
)asually
cautious
ly
clearly
curiousl
y
Entirely
Exclusiv
ely
irritably
+argel
y
'ainly
?early
Seriou
sly
meekl
y
.erfectly
Utterly
@irtually
"ysterica
lly
(uestioni
ngly
7readfu
lly
"ugely
!mmens
ely
Mrimly
teasingl
y
!ntense
ly
%ather
Slightl
y
%apidl
y
de1ecte
dly
Unusually
Unexpect
edly
-isely
Thoughtfu
lly
mirthlessl
y
$uriously
!nfuriatin
gly
Exubera
ntly
,ubilantly
ecstatical
ly
!t is better to use a strong verb than an adverb to strengthen a weak verb. @erbs
are stronger than adverbs.
e.g. She stro""e! into the room. vs She walked +as)a""$ into the room
She bo"te! from the chair. She stood D)i+9"$ out of the chair.
LANGUAGE REVIEW NOTES: VAR? ?OUR SENTEN8E STRU8TURES
#. "ow do we vary our sentence structures< +earn various types of sentence
structures and transitional phrases to make your writing interesting.
Study each of the examples in the mind map below.
13"
Source www.lylrine.blogspot.com
)ompare them with your sentences. )an you 1oin some of the sentences / ideas in
your essay and form one sentence<
Helow are some examples how two sentences can be combined to form a complex
structure without using a connector. ?otice how the pronoun in one of the
sentences is omitted.
Present
parti+ip"e
,ing
"e was /ghting for his life. "e tried to swim to the shore.
3ig-ting for his life0 he tried to swim to the shore.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNN
"e turned on the light. "e saw someone in the room.
T)rning on the light0 he saw someone in the room.
Past
parti+ip"e
She was /lled with sadness. She left the 1etty.
3i""e! with sadness0 she left the 1etty.
"e /nished his homework. "e played a rough game of football.
3inis-e! with his homework0 he played a rough game of football.
"e was caught with his hand in the cookie 1ar. "e pleaded
innocence with his mother.
8a)g-t with his hand in the cookie 1ar0 he pleaded innocence with
his mother.
A!*e+ti1e "e was exhausted by the struggle to stay aCoat. "e /nally made it
to the shore.
EJ-a)ste! by the struggle to stay aCoat0 he /nally made it to the
shore.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNN
She was relieved. She left the police station.
131
Re"ie1e!0 she left the police station.
Source www. 'erced.cc.ca.us/faculty/pirov/sentvar.htm&
http//www.candyOwayphonics.com/varyPsentencesPKLPways.htm
6. Some +onne+tors t-at $o) +an )se to /orm +ompo)n! an! +omp"eJ
senten+es.
8ompo)n! Senten+es 8omp"eJ Senten+es
7o you have compound and complex sentences in your essay<
8. Transitiona" P-rases as senten+e starters /or Narrati1e
#ll of a sudden /
Suddenly /
out of the blue
#bruptly
#t once
Hefore ! knew it
,ust then
7)st as the teacher was
about to leave0 my
mobile phone rang3
!n a Cash / !n a nick of
time
#lmost instantaneously
!nstantly
+ittle by little
=ut of the blue
Shockingly
Slowly / Mradually
Eventually
-ithout warning
-ithout hesitation
To my surprise
!n the blink of an eye
# moment later
+ater that day / evening /
night0
The following day /
'onday / night0
'onths passed0
!t took a month but3
-ithin /fteen minutes0
-ithin seconds0
?ot long after0
Shortly after0
Soon after0
#t that unfortunate
moment0
#t that very moment0
#t the same time0
Simultaneously0
#fter what seemed like
an eternity0
Hy then0
?ot far away
Some distance away3
!n the meantime
Sooner or later
Upon seeing /waiting3
Secretly0 !
Subse(uently
Eventually
Mradually
$rom then on
#t that point
!n a state of 1oy / alarm /
apprehension0 3
$illed with 1oy /
apprehension / alarm0
?ever again will !
-hen all was said and
done0
-hen ! realiAed what
had actually happened
To my consternation0
To my surprise0
-hat surprised /
saddened / angered /
irritated me was
! wonder
! remember
-hat if3
This reminds me of3
!n reality0 3
#s a result /
)onse(uently
#s time passed0
132
SENTEN8E EN<ERS
! felt a presence nearby and m$
imagination ran 2i"!.
The paramedic tried to revive her b)t to
no a1ai".
-hen ! /nally stopped and looked
around0 m$ /rien!s 2ere no2-ere in
sig-t.
The paramedic tried to revive her but
t-eir eKorts 2ere /)ti"e.
%eview your essay. 7o you use a variety of sentence structures and sentence
starters< %ewrite your sentences by combining them wherever suitable.
LANGUAGE REVIEW NOTES: 6EGINNINGS AN< EN<INGS
The story should begin as close to the main event as possible. !f the main event in a
story takes place on a beach0 do not begin the story at home waking up. Hegin your
story at the beach. !t is not necessary to have your main characters get dressed0
plan their day at the beginning of the story. -e can assume they are awake0
dressed0 and fed unless it is important to the story;s main event.
A8TIVE 6EGINNINGS
!n order to capture your reader;s attention0 the beginning of your story must be
interesting and lively enough to make your reader want to keep reading. *ou can
begin with an action0 dialogues0 character;s thoughts and sensory details.
6oring 6eginnings
#Te""%
A8TIVE 6EGINNINGS #S-o2( not Te""%
=ne rainy day0 ! went to
the mall.
A8TION
! splashed across the parking lot0 yanked open the tall
glass door and dripping wet0 stepped into the mall.
She promised herself
that she would not allow
him to treat her like a
slave.
<IALOGUE AN< T;OUG;TS
8!;m not going to allow him to treat me like a slave09 she
muttered adamantly under her breath.
8'aria0 wait309 he cried out.
She was angry. She
drove away.
SENSOR? <ETAILS
Shaking like a leaf0 her whole body (uivered with an
uncontrollable rage. Salty warm tears streamed down
her pale soft cheeks only stopping when they reached her
swollen dry lips. She stormed out of the house and leapt
into her .roton. "er foot stomped onto the small
accelerator0 tyres s(uealing as she sped away leaving an
odour of burnt rubber lingering in the air.
! am extremely nervous. SOUN< E33E8T
"iss. ! shuddered at the strange noise coming from the
room of the abandoned house. 'y hands trembled as !
turned the knob of the creaky old door. 8! hope this place
isn;t haunted or infested with snakes39 ! thought
nervously as ! peered inside.
Meaning/)" En!ings:
-riters use the ending of a story to show how the main character has grown or
changed in some way as a result of his or her experiences. To do this0 writers use a
combination of techni(ues that include describing the main character;s memories0
decisions0 actions0 feelings0 hopes or wishes as a result of the events in the story.
133
O1er)se! En!ings MEANING3UL EN<INGS
!t was all a dream. /
Suddenly ! woke up and
realiAed that no such
thing had happened as !
had been dreaming.
They lived happily ever
after.
Memor$: !;ll never forget the time ! explored the old
cave.
3ee"ings:
* ! can still feel the chill tingling down my spine when !
remember getting lost in the cave.
* #s ! remembered 30 ! felt a sense of fear.
* -henever ! thought of 3.0 ! would always shudder with
fear.
;ope or 2is-:
* ! hope that the next time ! am out exploring0 ! do not
/nd myself in a caveQ
* ! certainly hope ! would be more careful3in the future.
* ! certainly hope that 33 had learnt his / her lesson and
would not 3 ever again.
* ! fervently hoped that nothing of such sort would
happen to me ever again.
* ! hope that ! would never encounter such a terrifying
incident ever again in the future.
* ! hoped that ! would not be caught in such a tricky /
perilous / dangerous situation every again.
* ! hoped that such an episode would not occur ever
again
* ! hoped that ! would not have to go through such a
nerveEwrecking episode again.
<e+ision:
$rom that day on0 ! decided ! would never go exploring
alone.
So)r+e:
http//teacher.scholastic.com/lessonrepro/reproducibles/profbooks/activebeginnings.pdf
http//empoweringwriters.com/content/wpE
content/uploads/LRKL/RL/web..arentsP)ornerP?arrative.pdf
S;OW( NOT TELL TE8;NI=UE
134
Te""ing S-o2ing
! am not a
morning person.
%ing. The alarm went oB. !t was only S a.m. 'onday
morning. 8!t;s still early09 ! mumbled to myself.
Suddenly0 my mom knocked on my door and called out0
8Time to get up0 ,oeQ9 ! sighed0 pulled the covers over
my head and s(uirmed. 'inutes later0 my ad came in
and ripped the covers oB me. 8Met up and get ready for
schoolQ9 ! groaned and lumbered out of bed to get
breakfast.
USE3UL E>PRESSIONS: S;OW( NOT TELL 3EELINGS
+earn some useful expressions to show feelings.
Te"" S;OW
;app$ "e grinned from ear to ear.
"is heart leapt with 1oy.
"e 1umped up and down with 1oy. / "e screamed with 1oy.
"ands clapped0 eyes wide opened3
=verwhelmed with 1oy0 his eyes lit up. / "is eyes lit with 1oy.
"is eyes twinkled with happiness.
Tears of 1oy welled up his eyes.
7elight was written on his face.
"is mouth curled into a pleasant smile.
"eart was thumping wildly3 / "is heart swelled with happiness3
$loating on air3
Sa! "e felt wretched with grief.
"is eyes welled up. / Tears formed in his eyes. / Tears trickled down
his face3
"is lips (uivered / trembled.
"is heart dropped beat.
"e wrung his hands.
"ead hanging low / "ead hung low0 he dragged his feet.
$illed with misery3
!t was heartErending to see him3
135
'y heart shattered when3 / 'y heart sank when3
=vercome / =verwhelmed by melancholy / grief3
-ith a tinge of sadness3
"er eyes were puBy with a trace of wetness around the lids3
She buried her face in her hands and sobbed (uietly
Sitting there in mute misery0 his face was in his hands3
Angr$ "is eyebrows furrowed together3
"is forehead creased. / #n angry frown creased his forehead.
$ists clenched0 3 / $ists clenched open and shut3
)racking his knuckles3
Mritted his teeth and clenched his /st3/ "e muttered through gritted
teeth3
"e slammed his /st on the table3
"e stormed oB towards the door / exit3/ Stamping his feet in anger0
he3
"is heart pounded3
=verwhelmed with rage3 / "is mind was engulfed by rage3
@eins popping out on the forehead3
Hoiling with rage3 / %age Camed his face0 Caring wide his nostrils3
"e looked daggers at her3
"e saw red3
"e hit the roof3
"is face contorted with rage and fury3
%olling up sleeves of shirt with 1erky movements0
$ace turned red3/ 'ad as a hornet / "e was like a bull in a china
shop3
The man bellowed with rage and stared at me in a threatening
manner.
@oice became louder3 / "e raised his voice3 / he scolded me in a
thunderous voice3
+oud sighs0 he drew in his breath with a long hiss3
Soon0 all that suppressed0 belated anger began to erupt3
"e started calling me names and hurled curses at me3
6ore! "e was lulled oB to sleep as the teacher droned on rocks and
minerals3
7rool was dripping out his mouth.
Tire! Slump against the wall0 he shut his eyes3
*awning0 his eyes drooped / his eyelids began to feel heavy3
Mray circles under the eyes3
+egs felt heavy0 he moved slower than usual3
"e Copped down into the chair3
# slow0 dull ache gnawed on the muscles of my lower back.
'y entire body begged for the soft comfort of my bed3
7roopy red eyes0 he could not help yawning3
%ubbing his eyes0 he was worn out with fatigue3
"e could not muster up a single ounce of energy any more3
"is limbs felt as if they were chained to iron shackles3
Embarrass
e!
She went as red as a beetroot / crimson red / Cushed bright pink /
glowed red / turned scarlet3
-as blushing from head to toe3
)heeks burning with heat0 he did not know where to conceal himself3
Tingled with embarrassment0 3
Re"ie/ She took a deep breath of fresh air and felt her heart rising like a kite
that some child had 1ust released to the heavens.
136
"e felt a great load lifted oB her chest3
Am)se! "e burst out laughing3
"e had everyone in stitches.
"e became hysterical3
S-o+9e! ,aw dropped open0 eyes opened wide0 heart pounded3
"e 1umped back / "e nearly 1umped out of his skin3
"e stood dumbfounded3
She gave a startled exclamation3
She raised her eyebrows and stared openEmouthed.
"e stood trans/xed03
$labbergasted / #ghast / #stounded0 he3
;ot Sweat beads on the forehead3
$ace turned red like a cooked lobster3
-iped his brown3 / 'oved slowly3/ $anning himself
$eeling hot and bothered 03 / "ot and clammy03
8o"! 3 shivered3
Teeth chattered3
3rubbed hands together
8o)rage 0
6ra1er$
"e plucked up his courage3
$eeling indomitable0 fearless and unCinching3
"e had nerves of steel3
"e was undeterred3
3rig-tene! Terror gripped his whole being and perspiration started dripping from
his forehead3
"eart pounded wildly0 eyes wide opened3
"eavy0 fast breathing3
"ands shaking3
Inees felt weak / Inees like rubber3
.aralysed with fear0 he was speechless3
$ace went as white as a sheet3 / "er face turned ashen white3
=verwhelmed / Trembled / =vercome with fear03 / $roAen with
terror3
Tears of horror streamed her face3
$roAen to the spot / Stood rooted to the ground3
# shiver ran down her spine3
"is skin felt cold and clammy.
$rightened thoughts raced through his mind.
"e shivered and closed his eyes despairingly as the cold blade of knife
touched him3
The distressed girl was gesticulating wildly towards the beach.
Someone was drowningQ
;)ngr$ Stomach gurgling and growling3
'outh watered at the smell of my favourite3
7igging into a plate of calamari rings / curry / 3.
USE3UL E>PRESSIONS
DESCRIBING A PERSON: ADDING DETAILS
3a+e S-ape S(uare0 oval0 round0 triangular0 heartEshaped
S9in03a+e08omp"e
Jion
4)omplexion is the
natural appearance
3re+9"e!: sprinkled or covered with light brown spots
Ros$: pinkEcheeked& fair complexion that glows with a hint of
pink
R)!!$ skin that has a healthy reddish tint& may have the
137
and color of the
skin0 especially of
the face& e.g. 'ary
has a soft0 creamy
complexion.
appearance of sunburn
Tanne!: skin with a healthy goldenEbrown tint
Wrin9"e!: full of or covered with lines or loose folds of skin&
often associated with age
Ot-er s9in,re"ate! a!*e+ti1es: pale0 spotless0 silky0 smooth0
creamy0 babyEsoft0 glowing0 paperEthin or translucent 4as with
a very old person6& rough0 callused0 dry
$air complexion& $lawless complexion
E$es Genera" HrownEeyed mother0 brightEeyed sister0 wideEeyed
child
E$e eJpressions A!*. eyes piercing0 mesmeriAing0 sad0
sorrowful0 tearE/lled0 gentle0 sympathetic0 warm0
compassionate0 expressive0 twinkling0 lively0 dancing0 laughing
E$e S-ape an! Si5e +arge0 small0 almondEshaped0 round0
slanted0 s(uinty0 crinkly
Mo)t-0Lips: Thin lips0 full lips0 pouting lips0 pursed lips
4puckered up0 like when someone is concentrating6& +augh0
smile0 beam0 grin0 frown0 grimace0 scowl
;air TeJt)re0Appearan+e: wavy0 curly0 straight0 spiky0 stiB0
buAAed0 shaved0 parted0 neatlyEcombed0
tamed0 long0 short0 cropped
;air St$"es: braids0 ponytail0 pigtails0 bun0 twist0 bob0
ringlets0 Cip0 bangs0 buAA layered0
feathered0 chopped0 gelled0 spiked0
slicked down
Lots o/ -air: thick0 full0 lustrous0 bushy0 coarse0 wiry
4stiB6
Litt"e -air: thin0 scraggly0 /ne0 babyE/ne0 wispy0
limp0 Cat0 balding0 bald0 bald spot0
receding hairline 4gradual loss of hair at
the front of the head6
Treate! -air: permed0 dyed0 bleached0
highlighted0 weaved
;air +o"or: black0 brunette0 brown0 chestnutE
brown0 honeyE
blond0 blond0 goldenEblond0 ashE
blond0 auburn0 red0
strawberryEblond0 gray0 silver0
white0 saltEandEpepper
3a+ia" ;air * Heard0 goatee0 mustache0 sideburns
* $ive o;clock shadow new beard growth0 shadowy in
appearance0 that can be seen late in the day on the 1aw0 chin0
or cheek area 4also known as stubble6
* #d1ectives bearded0 unshaven0 cleanEshaven0 trimmed0
neatlyEtrimmed
8"ot-ing 3abri+ denim0 twill0 wool0 cotton0 tweed0 polyester0 corduroy0
Ceece0 spandex0 leather
6ottoms: 1eans0 cargo pants0 CatEfront pants0 pleated pants0
slacks0 trousers0 overalls0 sweatpants0 crop pants0 capris0
skirt0 culottes0 shorts0 board shorts
Tops: sport shirt0 dress shirt0 polo shirt0 buttonEdown shirt0
tank top0 blouse0 longEsleeve0 shortEsleeve0 sleeveless0
13
collared0 TEshirt0 sweatshirt0 hoodie0 pullover0 sweater0
cardigan
Ot-er +"ot-ing: dress0 uniform0 costume0 pa1amas0 bathrobe0
robe0 vest0 1acket0 blaAer0 coat0 socks0 stockings0 gloves0 hat0
cap0 shoes0 boots0 slippers0 sandals0 CipECops0 heels0 pumps
Senten+e Starters
<es+ribing
8"ot-es
* Smartly dressed in 4name of garment60 she...
* )asually attired in 4name of garment60 ,olene3
* Simply clad in 4name of garment60 'ark...
* 7ennis sports a 4name of garment6
Source Iim IautAer and 7ebbie =ldar 4http//www.writeshop.com/articleT.htm6
USE3UL E>PRESSIONS: <ES8RI6ING SETTINGS #TIME%
TIME 8OMMON A<VAN8E<
'orning !n the early
morning0
Early morning0
=n a sunny day03
#t dawn0
#s the sun slowly
rose0
!n the wee hours
of the morning0
6rig-t morning
K. #s the sun peeped out from behind the
horiAon0...
L. #s the skies slowly brightened0
T. #s the sun beamed magni/cently0
O. #s the sun slowly showered the skies in a
warm glow0
S. #s the sun popped its head out from between
the clouds0
U. The golden glow appeared on the horiAon0
spilling light all over the land and the white
clouds.
V. The sky was full of cottonEwool clouds. The
glorious morning air /lled my lungs.
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
Wet 0 O1er+ast morning
K. The morning was cold and wet with a brisk
wind sweeping the rain across the land.
#fternoon !n the afternoon0
#t midday0
!t was a blistering
hot afternoon.
=n a warm
'onday
afternoon0
=n a scorching
hot afternoon0
=n a /ery hot
afternoon0
K. =n a swelteringly hot afternoon0 ...
L. =n a blisteringly hot 'onday afternoon0
T. #s the scorching sun beat down mercilessly3
O. #s the sun hung high0...
S. #s the sun glared down0...
U. #s the sun cast its yellowing rays of sunlight
across the skies0...
V. #s the blaAing sun shone /ercely0
W. !t was a scorching day. ! could feel the sun
burning the top of my head3
X. The afternoon sun was glaring. The sky was
clear0 revealing a wide vast of pale blue.
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
-et / O1er+ast a/ternoon
K. !t was a grey afternoon with a dull sky
threatening rain.
L. # cloud0 ominous and black0 drifted over the
mountain and released a sudden shower.
13!
Evening !n the evening0...
#t dusk0
#s the sun slowly
set0...
#s the skies
slowly
darkened0...
#s the sunYs glow
slowly faded0...
K. #s the sun slowly disappeared from the
horiAon0... / #s the sun sunk below the horiAon0...
L. #s the sun slowly dimmed in the horiAon0...
T. #s the sun slowly lost its radiance0...
O. #s the evening spread across the sky0...
S. #s the diminishing rays of the sun announced
the end of the day0...
U. #s the sun set0 the few thin strips of clouds on
the horiAon turned shimmering gold.
V. The sunset was glorious0 all rosy and salmonE
pink.
W. !t was a lovely walk0 with the sun setting
behind the mountain in a sea of li(uid gold.
?ight #t nightfall0...
+ate at night0...
!n the still of the
night0...
!n the middle of
the night0...
=n a chilly
night0...
***!t was a full
moon3
!t was pitch
dark3
K. =n a dusky night0... / =n a dusky damp night0...
L. =n a soundless surreal night0...
T. #s the moon gave an eerie glow0...
O. #s darkness descended0...
S. #s the moon peeked out from behind the
clouds0...
U. #s the moon hung high on a cloudless night03
V. )loaked in darkness03
W. #s night fell0 the clock struck eight 3
X. ?ight fell. The setting sun cast an orange glow
over the evening sky
KR. The moon was abnormally large and it bathed
the earth with its luminous glow.
KK. !t was chilly night. The moon had appeared
out of the horiAon and the skies were /lled with
stars.
USE3UL E>PRESSIONS <ES8RI6ING T;E WEAT;ER
Helow are some useful expressions to describe the weather. *ou can pick any one of
the expressions and combine it with the above statements to show the weather
during diBerent time of the day.
6a!
Weat-er
!t was cloudy. 4a6 )louds
K. The high sunlit clouds drifted across a
clear blue sky.
L. The sky above was full of tumultuous0
dark0 ragged clouds.
T. =minous black clouds covered the sky
and released a sudden shower.
O. The dark clouds grew ominous.
S. # sky of mackerel clouds0 crimson and
amberEtinted0
U. The sun disappeared from the heavy
clouds.
U. 'asses of heavy black clouds opened
their gates and drenched us with a wall of
rain
V. The gloomy sky was shrouded with dark
and heavy clouds.

14"
There was lightning
and thunder.
4b6 +ightning and thunder
K. Thunder came marching from afar away
with increasing tread.
L. +ightning and thunder raged with fury.
T. # Cash of forked lightning and a great
clap of thunder came close upon each other.
O. Thunder roared and lightning Cashed
across the sky.
S. # bolt of lightning tore across the sky
and a peal of thunder followed.
U. Thunder rolled in from the west and rain
began to fall.
V. # loud peal of thunder woke him up from
his restless sleep.
The wind was strong.
The rain was heavy.
4c6 -ind and rain
The wind was sighing and thrashing in the
treetops and the boughs moaned.
The howling of the wind frightened us all.
# curtain of rain beat down from the
heavens.
The rainEpattered on the roof.
%ain pelted down from the sky.
# curtain of rain beat down from the
heavens.
The howling and the roaring of the wind
frightened us
Goo!
Weat-er
!t was a bright and
sunny day.
K. The sun shone brilliantly and the water in
the pond glittered invitingly.
L. The sun /ltered through the clouds0
signalling the end of the rain.
T.# golden glow spread across the sky as
the sun chased the dark clouds away.
O.The whole landscape was bathed in the
warm glow of the rising sun.
S..alm trees swayed gently in the breeAe in
the warm tropical sunshine.
U.$resh air /lled my lungs and ! felt
refreshed and exhilarated.
V.The breathEtaking scenery captivated
everyone.
W.The pond was bathed in a golden hue by
the gentle sunlight and the water was as
clear as crystal.
X.The sunlit clouds drifted across a clear
blue sky.
KR.The sun rose in a pool of crimson and
gold0 spilling light all over the land and the
white clouds.
A!apte! /rom:
Thinking -riters; "andbook -riting Tips0 Tricks and Skills .rimary T G U
www.gcestudybuddy.com/usingEimages/vocabulary
http//www.scribd.com/doc/XWOWULXU/UsefulE.hrasesE7escribingE-eather
141
List o/ Sensor$ p-rases
8OMMON A<VAN8E<
3EELINGS SENSOR? P;RASES
+o"! K. T-e +-i""$ nig-t air sent shivers down my spine.
L. T-e /rigi! nig-t air +-i""e! me to t-e bone as ! walked home
from tuition class.
T. A g)st o/ +o"! 2in! -o2"e! as 'imi trudged home.
O. She was str)+9 b$ t-e strong bitter"$ +o"! 2in! as she
tramped home.
S. T-e biting 2in! 2-ippe! my face and made me shiver.
U. #s he walked home in the heavy rain0 he was /ree5ing an! -is
teet- 2ere +-attering.
V. #fter sipping an icy cold glass of orange 1uice0 a +-i"" ran !o2n
m$ spine and goosebumps appeared on my forearms.
+oo" ! en1oyed the gentle morning breeAe0 which wafted through the
streets.
# pleasant breeAe could be felt as ! walked to school.
# soothing breeAe blew as ! 1ogged in the park.
# warm breeAe Coated into the room.
The coolness of the air conditioner could be felt.
2arm K. !t was a balmy and pleasant morning which ! en1oyed as ! walked
to school.
L. ! basked in the radiant warmth of the sun as ! strolled in the park.
T. !t was a stiCing hot 'onday as we hurried to school.
O. =n a warm and humid day0 ! soaked in perspiration as ! rushed to
school.
D)iet K. The house was eerily silent when the burglar sneaked in.
L. The neighbourhood was a picture of tran(uillity.
T. The neighbourhood was mostly deserted and the corridors were
empty.
O. The night was almost soundless and the streets were empty.
S. The neighbourhood was deserted.
U. The corridors were lonely.
nois$ K. The school canteen was /led with the noisy chattering of pupils
who were having their lunch.
L. The shopping centre was a hive of activity on a Saturday evening.
T. The hawker centre was a Curry of activity on a busy Saturday
morning.
O. #fter the bell rang0 the whole school was /lled with the hustle
and bustle of pupils rushing home.
S. The students chattered loudly as they waited for the school bus.
U. -e were met with a cacophony of animal sounds as we trudged
along the forest trail.
!e"i+io)s K. Tom;s mouth watered at the delicious smell0 wafting form the
kitchen as his mother prepared dinner.
L. The aroma of 'other;s cooking made my stomach growl.
T. The fragrant smells of the pipingEhot dishes made ,ane drool.
4b6 Sunrise and sunset
The sun rose in a pool of crimson and gold0 spilling light all over the land and the
white clouds.
$rom freeAing night0 it turned to scorching day as the sun climbed towards its
142
Aenith.
#s the sun set0 the few thin strips of clouds on the horiAon turned shimmering gold.
S;OW( NOT TELL TE8;NI=UE: POWER3UL P;RASES
Storm$ Weat-er. 4OV words6
Hlack ominous clouds blanketed the dark grey sky0 threatening everyone with a
heavy downpour. # fork of sparkling bright lightning Cashed0 causing a crack to
form in the sky. # great clap of thunder then came close upon each other and soon0
a sudden shower was released.
Strong Win! 4OX words6
The wind was thrashing against the trees0 causing the branches to whip and sway
about in the storm. )ountless of leaves were shed and came twirling and swirling in
midEair. Trees were bent double and one of them had its roots uprooted. !t came
crashing down onto the road.
3ear 0 S-o+9 on 2-at $o) -a1e seen
Samp"e L: ! shrieked in fear and shoved my /st into my mouth. ! froAe0 mouth
troutElike0 agape in anticipation and heart racing. ! could feel my stomach knot up
and hair standing on its end. The sight of seeing a ***** sent shudders down my
spine. Then 4describe what you did next63
Samp"e B: -hen ! saw ***** 4state what you saw60 ! Cinched. ! stood rooted to the
ground and the sight had robbed me of my speech. )upping my hands over my
agape mouth0 ! tried to scream but nothing came out. !t took me what seemed like
ages to recover from my stupor. Then 4describe what you did next63
Samp"e M: 'y eyes gleamed wide with horror0 mouth agape. )upping my hands
over my mouth0 ! tried to suppress the fear rising within me. ! was powerless and
frantic with horror. !t took me a while to regain my composure and 4describe what
you did next63
Samp"e N: ! cringed at the sight of ***** 4state what you saw6. ! was paralysed
with fear and stood petri/ed with fear. %egaining my composure0 4describe what
you did next63
Sa!ness 0 S-o+9 on 2-at $o) -a1e -ear!.
Samp"e L: -hen ! heard the news0 all ! could do was to cup my pair of hands over
my agape mouth and gleamed wide at her. ! 1ust could not believe what ! had heard.
! was speechless and fringed. !t took me a while to regain composure and 4describe
what you did next63
Samp"e B: 'y eyes were glued to her and then looked away. Mritting my teeth and
creasing my eyebrows into a row0 ! tried to suppress the emotion and the tears
143
rising within me. Soon0 the dam of ears within me exploded and it Cushed down my
pair of red and puBy eyes.
Samp"e M: -hen ! heard the piece of unwelcoming news0 ! was stunned and
speechless. ! searched hard for words to say but utter not a word except for sobs.
Source )opyright G Stepping Stones Study )entre 4.repared by
'r -ong6
Upper .rimary G )omprehension D -riting 4.owerful .hrases6
www.steppingstones.edu.sg
;appiness
Samp"e L: -hen ! heard the news0 ! punched the air in delight and shouted aloud
:"urrayQ; ! 1ust could not believe ! was that lucky3
Samp"e B: ! was over the moon the moment ! heard that ***** 4state what you have
heard6. ! ran up to him and wrapped my arms around his waist. Tears of 1oy and
happiness gushed down from my pair of eyes.
Samp"e M: 'y eyes glittered with tears of 1oys. ! was (uivering with excitement
and a wide grin beamed across my face. !n fact0 the grin was so wide that ! could
almost eat a banana sidewaysQ
Samp"e N: -e laughed till our sides hurt. !n fact0 we were bending double to
release the roar of laughter exploding inside usQ
Samp"e O: ! was saturated with happiness. The happiness within me could not be
described. # smile of relief beamed on my face. )losing my eyes and with a smile of
gratitude0 ! clasped my hands in prayer. 8Thank you0 Mod0 thank you so much for
***** 4state what you are thankful for6. Thank you and ! remaining loving you
forever.9
Source )opyright G Stepping Stones Study )entre
4.repared by 'r -ong6
Upper .rimary G )omprehension D -riting 4.owerful .hrases6
Hukit .an1ang )entres U VUL KSOU / U WXLLOKL "otline XRKRETSLS
www.steppingstones.edu.sg
144
145