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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

At first authors gratefulness goes to almighty Allah to give us strength and ability to
complete the thesis work.

The authors express their heartiest gratitude and sincere appreciation to their respected
supervisor Md. Ariful Islam, Assistant professor, Department of Industrial & Production
Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering & Technology, Rajshahi-6204, Bangladesh.
For his guidance, help, encouragement, and sympathetic cooperation in many ways
throughout this thesis work. Without his encouragement and careful supervision it would be
impossible to bring this thesis work to success.

Authors deepest appreciation goes to Dr. Md. Mosharraf Hassain, Head, Department of
Industrial & Production Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering & Technology,
Rajshahi-6204, Bangladesh, for his kind help and suggestions for the thesis work. Authors
wish to express their gratefulness to all the respected teachers of the Department of Industrial
& Production Engineering for their best wishes to the authors.

Authors deepest appreciation goes to Nikhil Ranjan Dhar, Professor, Department of
Industrial & Production Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology,
Bangladesh, for his kind help and suggestions for the thesis work.
Authors grateful acknowledgement goes to the entire Technician and the laboratory
attendances of the machine shop for their assistances and cooperation in carrying out the
thesis work.


RUET
Rajshahi, Bangladesh
September 05, 2012


Authors




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ABSTRACT

Drilling is well known material removal process used to produce cylindrical hole into a solid
metal body by using multi-cutting point tool. It is the most prominent material removal
process for which specialized techniques must be adopted to obtain optimum cutting
condition that alleviate the anxiety about the intricate relationship between the cutting
parameters affecting the drilling process and the drill hole quality among the manufacturers
and the customers. To keep pace with the global market, higher productivity and the product
quality at the lowest cost are the burning issue now-a-days. Higher cutting speed and In feed
rate lead to higher productivity. But it has adverse effect on the drill hole quality as well as
tool life. So it may lead to higher production cost. To minimize such contradiction an
experiment has been conducted to determine the effect of cutting parameters such as cutting
environment, cutting edge angle, in feed rate, and spindle speed on the drill hole quality such
as Hole Oversize at the entrance of the hole, Hole Oversize at the end of the hole, surface
roughness , and the Taper value and to determine the optimum cutting condition of AISI 1045
steel by using Full Factorial Analysis, Taguchi based Grey Relational Analysis, and the
multiple linear regression model. The experiment has been designed by using 2
K
factorial
analysis. In this work, the four drilling parameters have been designed into two levels. Thus
16 experimental runs have been conducted and their effects have been observed. It has been
observed that, by the Full Factorial Analysis individual parameters have greater detrimental
effect than interaction effect on the selected quality parameters. Therefore the main
concentration goes to individual parameters instead of their interactions. The causes that are
responsible for Hole Oversize at the entrance of the hole are prioritized in this way; Cutting
environment> Spindle speed> In feed rate> Cutting edge angle and for the Hole Oversize at
the end of the hole is Spindle speed> In feed rate> Cutting edge angle> Cutting environment.
Hole Oversize at the entrance of the hole reduces when Minimum Quantity Lubrication
(MQL) is used rather than Cutting Fluid (CF). Hole Oversize at the end of the hole also
reduces for MQL. But there is a minor distinctive effect of MQL and CF on the Hole
Oversize at the end of hole because high temperature generates in drilling operations. Taper
Value and the Surface Roughness reduce at higher amount when MQL is used instead of CF.
The desirable Hole oversize at the entrance and end of the hole are obtained when Spindle
speed is higher (670 rpm) rather than lower (440 rpm). In both cases, in feed rate provides
better result. Cutting edge angle, 118 degree is better rather than 140 degree for both Hole
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Oversize at entrance and end of the hole. The effect of cutting parameters on the Surface
Roughness is prioritized in this way: Cutting environment> Spindle speed> In feed rate>
Cutting edge angle. MQL is very effective instead of CF to reduce surface roughness at
higher amount. Higher Spindle speed (670rpm) instead of lower (440 rpm) is getting more
preference for reducing surface roughness. But lower in feed rate (0.1 mm/rev) instead of
higher (0.16 mm/rev) is getting more preference for reducing Surface roughness. The effect
of lower cutting edge angle (118 degree) is better than higher (140 degree) on surface
roughness due to higher sharpness of cutting edge. The effect of cutting parameters on the
taper value is prioritized in this way: Cutting environment> Spindle speed> In feed rate>
Cutting edge angle. If MQL is used instead of CF Taper value reduces at higher amount.
Higher Spindle speed (670rpm) instead of lower (440 rpm) is getting more preference for
reducing taper value. But lower in feed rate (0.1 mm/rev) instead of higher (0.16 mm/rev) is
getting more preference for reducing taper value. The effect of cutting edge angle on the taper
value is very negligible. It has been observed that, by the Grey Relational analysis the
experimental run 14
th
provides the higher grey relational grade that represents the correlation
between the comparability sequence and the reference sequence. Therefore experimental run
14
th
where cutting environment is CF, Cutting edge angle 140 degree, In feed rate 0.10
mm/rev, and spindle speed is 670 rpm provides the optimum result for multivariate. But the
cutting parameters are considered into level wise; it is observed that Cutting environment
MQL, Cutting edge angle 118 degree, in feed rate 0.10 mm/rev, and spindle speed 670 rpm
instead of Cutting environment CF, Cutting edge angle 140 degree, in feed rate 0.16 mm/rev,
and spindle speed 440 rpm provide the better result for multivariate. Multi linear regression
model has been adopted to generalize the cutting parameters on the basis of their effects. It is
very effective to determine the effect of causes.










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CONTENTS
Page No.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT i
ABSTRACT ii
CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 1-7
1.1 INTRODUCTION 2
1.2 FULL FACTORIAL ANALYSIS 3
1.2.1 Preparation of Combinatorial Matrix 4
1.2.2 Preparation of ANOVA Table 4
1.3 GREY RELATIONAL ANALYSIS 5
1.3.1 Original Sequence 5
1.3.2 Comparability Sequence 5
1.3.3 Deviation Sequence 5
1.3.4 Grey Relational Coefficient 5
1.3.5 Distinguishing or Identification Coefficient 5
1.3.6 Grey Relational Grade 6
1.3.7 Flow Diagram of Grey Relational Analysis 6
1.4 MULTIPLE LINEAR REGRESSION MODELS 7
CHAPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW 8-16
2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW 8
2.2 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES 15
2.3 METHODOLOGY 16
CHAPTER III: PROBLEM FORMULATION 17-19
3.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT 18
3.2 FULL FACTORIAL ANALYSIS 18
3.3 GREY RELATIONAL ANALYSIS 18
3.4 MULTIPLE LINEAR REGRESSION MODEL 19
CHAPTER IV:EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION 20-37
4.1 EXPERIMENTAL CONDITION 21
4.2 PHOTOGRAPHIC VIEW 22
4.3 FULL FACTORIAL ANALYSIS 25
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4.3.1 Hole Oversize at the Entrance of the Hole 25
4.3.2 Graphical Representation of Main & Interaction Effect for
Hole Oversize at the Entrance of the Hole
26
4.3.3 Hole Oversize at the End of the Hole 27
4.3.4 Graphical Representation of Main & Interaction Effect for
Hole Oversize at the End of the Hole
28
4.3.5 Surface Roughness 30
4.3.6 Graphical Representation of Main & Interaction Effect for
Surface Roughness
31
4.3.7 Taper Value 32
4.3.8 Graphical Representation of Main & Interaction Effect for
Taper Value
33
4.4 GREY RELATIONAL ANALYSIS 35
4.4.1 Grey Relational Grade and Order 35
4.4.2 Effect of Machining Parameters on Multivariate 36
4.5 REGRESSION ANALYSIS 37
4.5.1 Hole Oversize at the Entrance of Hole when CF is used 37
4.5.2 Hole Oversize at the End of the Hole when CF is used 37
4.5.3 Surface Roughness when CF is used 37
4.5.4 Taper Value when CF is used 37
4.5.5 Hole Oversize at the Entrance of Hole when MQL is used 37
4.5.6 Hole Oversize at the End of the Hole when MQL is used 37
4.5.7 Surface Roughness when MQL is used 37
4.5.8 Taper Value when MQL is used 37
CHAPTER V: EXPERIMENTAL RESULT & DISCUSSION 38-42
5.1 HOLE OVERSIZE AT THE ENTRANCE OF THE HOLE 39
5.2 HOLE OVERSIZE AT THE END OF THE HOLE 39
5.3 SURFACE ROUGHNESS 40
5.4 TAPER VALUE 40
5.5 MULTIVARIATE EFFECT 41
5.6 GENERALIZATION 41
5.7 MICROSCOPIC INVESTIGATION 42

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CHAPTER VI: CONCLUSION 43-45
6.1 CONCLUSION 44
6.1.1 Full Factorial Analysis 44
6.1.2 Grey Relational Analysis 44
6.1.3 Multiple Linear Regression Models 44
6.2 RECOMMENDATION 45
REFERENCE 46-47
APPENDIX 48-66



LIST OF TABLES
Page No.
Table 4.1: Machining Condition 21
Table 4.2: Response machining parameters and their levels 21
Table 4.3: Experimental design of four machining parameters with two levels 22
Table 4.4: ANOVA table for Hole Oversize at the Entrance of the hole 25
Table 4.5: ANOVA table for Hole Oversize at the End of the hole 27
Table 4.6: ANOVA table for Surface Roughness 30
Table 4.7: ANOVA table for Taper Value 32
Table 4.8: Summary Table of Grey Relational Coefficient 35
Table 4.9: The response table for Average Grey Relational Grade 36







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LIST OF FIGURES
Page No.
Fig 1.1: Flow Diagram of Grey Relational Analysis for Optimization 06
Fig 4.1: Photographic view of workpiece after slice 22
Fig 4.2: Microscopic view in the hole representing surface condition in CF 23
Fig 4.3: Microscopic view in the hole representing surface condition in MQL 24
Fig 4.4: Effect of cutting environment on Hole Oversize at Entrance of
the hole
26
Fig 4 .5: Effect of cutting edge angle on Hole Oversize at Entrance of the
hole
26
Fig 4.6: Effect of In feed rate on Hole Oversize at Entrance of the hole 26
Fig 4.7: Effect of spindle speed on Hole Oversize at Entrance of the hole 27
Fig 4.8: Effect of cutting environment on Hole Oversize at End of the
hole
28
Fig 4.9: Effect of cutting edge angle on Hole Oversize at end of the hole 29
Fig 4.10: Effect of In feed rate on Hole Oversize at End of the hole 29
Fig 4.11: Effect of spindle speed on Hole Oversize at End of the hole 29
Fig 4.12: Effect of cutting environment on Surface Roughness 31
Fig 4.13: Effect of cutting edge angle on Surface Roughness 31
Fig 4.14: Effect of In feed rate on Surface Roughness 31
Fig 4.15: Effect of spindle speed on Surface Roughness 32
Fig 4.16: Effect of cutting environment on Taper Value 33
Fig 4.17: Effect of cutting edge angle on Taper Value 33
Fig 4.18: Effect of In feed rate on Taper Value 34
Fig 4.19: Effect of spindle speed on Taper Value 34
Fig 4.20: Scatter Diagram of Grey Relational Grade 35
Fig 4.21: Average Grey Relational Grade with respect to levels 36