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# 3D Transient FEM and Lumped Parameter

Thermal Models

Hung Vu
This presentation refers to Chapter 8 of my PhD thesis.
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Outline

Geometry model
Governing heat transfer equations
Transient FEM thermal model
Lumped Parameter Model (LPM)
Comparison of LPM and FEM simulations of
temperatures
Comparison of calculation and measurement
Conclusion
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Geometry
(a)

(b)

## Fig. 1. Configuration of a PM machine

system: (a) 3D geometry. (b) Cooling
plate and stator. (c) Parts of rotor.
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(c)

Geometry Modeling

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## Governing Heat Transfer Equations

Transient heat transfer equation in a domain is

T
C p
k T Q qsT C p u.T
t
Note : () div (), () grad ()
where,
T is temperature [K]
is mass density [kg/m3], = f(T, p) with p is presuure (Pa)
Cp is heat capacity [J/(kg.K)], Cp = f(T)
k is thermal conductivity [W/(m.K)], k = f(T)
Q is heat source [W/m3]
qs is absortion coefficient (W/(m3.K))
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## u is velocity vector of air, which causes thermal convection

Boundary conditions
n ( k T ) 0 for insulation or symmetry boundary
nu ( ku Tu ) n d ( kd Td ) 0 for continuity internal boundary
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n ( k T ) q0 h(Tinf T ) (Tamb
T 4 ) for heat flux
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nu ( ku Tu ) n d ( kd Td ) q0 h(Tinf T ) (Tamb
T 4 ) for heat source at a boudary

T T0

## for constant temperature at a boudary

where,
Suscripts u and d stand for up and down
n is normal vector, nu=-nd
e is the emissivity of surface
Tinf is ambient temperature of air around the convective surface
Tamb is ambient temperature of environment around the radiative surface
q0 is heat source [W/m2], at a boundary without heat source q0=0, no convection
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[W/m2]

## Natural Convective Heat Transfer

Coefficient
Relation among thermal convection coefficient and Nusselt number
Nu, Rayleigh number Ra, Prandtl number Pr, and Grashof number Gr:

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## Natural Convective Heat Transfer

Coefficient
Natural convection from a flat surface:

## where NuD is Nusselt number, Ra is Rayleigh number,

and Pr is Prandtl number
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## Forced Convective Heat Transfer

Coefficient
Forced convection from a cylinder surface due to
rotor rotating:

## where NuD is Nusselt number, Re is Reynolds

number, Pr is Prandtl number, is dynamic
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viscosity, and is kinematic viscosity.

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Meshing

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Tetrahedral
meshes

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## Principle to Build LPM

The studied PM machine system can be divided into twelve parts:
1. Shaft, 2. Stator yoke, 3. Stator teeth, 4. Stator slot winding, 5. End
winding, 6. Air gap, 7. Permanent magnets, 8. Rotor yoke, 9. Outer
rotor frame (flywheel), 10. Frame end side, 11. Interior parts of stator
hollow, 12. Cooling plate.
Each part has its own thermal model.
Circuit thermal model of a part is connected to the thermal model of
neighboring parts through thermal resistances such conductive or
radiative or convective thermal resistances to form the thermal
model of the whole PM machine.

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LPM of PM Machine

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## Comparison of FEM and LMP

Simulations of Temperatures

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## Temperature: FEM vs. LMP

100
Tooth, FEM
Slot winding, FEM
End winding, FEM
Magnet, FEM
Tooth, LPM
Slot winding, LPM
End winding, LPM
Magnet, LPM

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Temperature (C)

80
70
60
50
40
30
20

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0

2000

4000
6000
Time (sec)

8000

10000

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## Comparison of Calculation and

Experimental Measurement

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Experimental measurement

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## Comparison of calculation and

experimental measurement

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