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CHOCOLATE ANALYSIS

SUBMITTED BY:
SEBIN VINCENT
CENTRAL BOARD SECONDARY
EDUCATION, NEW DELHI

VIJAYAGIRI PUBLIC SCHOOL

(AFFILIATED TO CBSE, NEW DELHI-930543)


ANNALLUR PO, ASHTAMICHIRA
CHALAKUDY


VIJAYAGIRI PUBLIC SCHOOL

CERTIFICATE
Certified that this is the bonafide record of the project work ....
Done by. (Reg. No :..) of class XII in accordance with the
requirement for AISSCE examination in Chemistry during the year 2014-2015
DATE ..





INTERNAL EXAMINER EXTERNAL EXAMINER





PRINCIPAL


Acknowledgement
We owe a great many thanks to many people who helped and supported us
during the completion of this project.
First of all, we would like to thank to Ms .Beetha for her guidance throughout
this project. She has taken pain to go through the project and make necessary
corrections as and when required.
We express our thanks to Prof.P.C.Thomas for the confidence he has instilled in
us.
We express our thanks to Mrs.Ranjana Komboj, Principal, Vijayagiri public
school, Ashtamichira for extending her support
We would also thank our institution and our faculty members without whom
this project would have been a distant reality. We also extend my heartfelt
gratitude to my family and well-wisher.
Last but not the least; we would s. like to thank GOD Almighty, without whose
invaluable support this project would not have been materialized.









INDEX

INTRODUCTION
1. Varieties
2. Manufacture
3. History
CHOCOLATE and HEALTH
1. Good effects
2. Bad effects

AIM

CHEMICAL REQUIRED

PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS

1. Protein test
2. Fat test
3. Sugar test
4. Calcium test
5. Iron test
6. Magnesium test
7. Nickel test
CONCLUSION

BIBLIOGRAPY



INTRODUCTION

Chocolates have become one of the most popular flavours in the world of today.
They form the basics ingredient in very many pastries and cake. Chocolates can
also be used as hot and Cold Beverages. Each manufacture combines secret
formulas of the different varieties of the coca sweets to develop exclusive
chocolates and try to make the exotic teat. Gifts of chocolates moulded to
different shapes has become traditional on certain festivals and occasions.

Chocolates are made from the seeds of COCOA trees. Spanish mythology
consider these trees were grown in the garden of the PARADISE and believed
that the chocolates drink was Divine. The cocoa trees is a tropical plant,
sometimes living and producing for more than 200 years. Chocolates are made
from the seeds of these trees. There are many varieties cultivated today and
this farming is highly profitable.

Chocolates is a highly commercialised and money making programme. In the
modern factories tons of bitter cocoa beans are turned into one of the worlds
favourites confectionary. Today chocolates are made available to us much
guarded secret formula involving varying seeds, different ingredients,
combinations of fermentation-roasting timings-temperature etc. Flavours such
as mint, coffee, orange, strawberry etc. are some of the add ones. Also today
the chocolates can contain ingredients as peanut, different types of walnuts, dry
fruits, caramels, crisped rice etc.
Usually the chocolates can be categorized into one the following group.
1. Bitter
2. Bitter sweets
3. Unsweetened
4. Dark sweetened
5. Milk chocolates
6. Cocoa powder
7. Cocoa sauce/syrup

VARIETIES
There are three basic varieties of coca. criolo which has the best but the
mildest powder forester which is hardier plant and trinitario which is a natural
hybrid of the two mentioned already. Trinitario combines both flavour and
hardness. More hybrids are being developed worldwide to improve the quality
of the bean, the yield increase and also resist to disease.

MANUFACTURE
Pod pickers using long handled knives cut the ripe pods which grow on the both
branches of the coca trees. The pulp and beans are stalked into piles or boxes of
large trays. They are covered with banana leaves and left for fermentation over
next 7 days.
Fermentation happens in a temperature of 120 degree F and hence the beans
begin to develop the characteristic colour and aroma. After 7 days fermentation
beans are transferred to be dried either in the sunlight or artificially lightened
rooms. The ultimate brown colours of the beans indicate that they are finished
for being processed.
Now the good beans are collected for shipping immediately to various
manufactures to avoid any damages by heat or moisture.

HISTORY
The story of the chocolates span more than 2000 years .chocolates were first
drunk rather than being eaten. Though started in the tropical rainforest of
central and South America were cocoa was first grown, the tales of chocolate
cultivation now circles the world.
The earliest usage of chocolates dates back before Olmec. The oldest known
cultivation and usage of cocoa was in Puerto Escondido Honduras as the history
data between 1100 BC and 1400 BC.



CHOCOLATES AND HEALTH
THE HEALTH effect of chocolates refer to the possible beneficial or detrimental,
physiological effects of eating chocolates mainly for pleasure. For example,
cocoa and chocolates may support cardiovascular health. Other effects under
preliminary research includes reduce risk of cancer, coughing and heart disease .
One interpretation on the potential health effect of dietary chocolates are may
be lower blood pressure improved vascular function and energetic metabolism,
and reduced platelets and aggregation and adhesion.
Unconstrained consumption of large quantity of any energy-rich food, such as
chocolates, without a corresponding increase in activity, increases the risk
obesity. Raw chocolates is high in cocoa butter, a fat removed during chocolate
refining, then added back in varying proportions during manufacturing.
Manufactures may add other fats, sugar and powder milk as well.

Good effects
Chocolate may be mild stimulant to humans cocoa has antioxidant
activity. Antioxidants helps to free your body of free radicals which cause
oxidative damage to the cell. Small but regular amounts of dark
chocolates are associated with lower risk of heart attack. Dark chocolates
contain THEOBROMINE, which has been shown to harden tooth enamel.
Cocoa percent of at least 74%, significantly improves the blood flow
which were tested on smokers. Some studies has also observed a modest
reduction in the blood pressure and flow mediated dilation after
consuming dark chocolates daily. Eating dark chocolates may also
prevent arteriosclerosis (Harding of the arteritis ). Thus the best type of
chocolates that is benefit for you is dark chocolates.

Bad effects
While chocolates have many good effects on consuming, it also has
many negative side effects. It contains too many bad ingredients
including, milk fats and saturated fats caffeine, oxalates and stearic acid.
And while sugar may give energy, too much of it can cause tooth decay
and gum disease if eating without regular and proper teeth brushing.
Sugar plays a harmful role in tooth decay by providing bacteria in your
mouth with energy. Bacteria begin to multiply faster, and plague begins
to grow in size and thickness on your teeth. Bacteria can also use sugar as
a glue to cling to your teeth, making it difficult to get rid of just a tooth
brush. Dark chocolates contain a higher amount of caffeine than milk
chocolates and this can affect your health. Too much caffeine lead to
hypertension anxiety dehydration and inability to concentrate.




























AIM

To find out the presence of
Proteins
Fats
Sugars
Calcium
Iron
Magnesium
Nickel
in chocolates.















CHEMICALS REQUIRED

1. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
2. Copper sulphate (CuSO
4
)
3. Molisclis Reagent C
10
H
7
OH)
4. Fehlings Solution A & B
5. Sulphuric acid (H
2
SO
4
)
6. Tollens Reagent
7. Ammonium Chloride (NH
4
Cl)
8. Ammonium Hydroxide (NH
4
OH)
9. Sodium Phosphate (Na
3
PO
4
)



















PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS

Organic tests and Inorganic tests done to find the presents of the different
in chocolates. Tests for identification of Calcium and Magnesium (Good
Substances) and also tests for identification of Lead and Nickel (Poisonous
Substances) were also done.
TEST FOR PROTEIN
EXPIRIMENT OBSERVATION INFERENCE
1. 5ml of each sample if
chocolate taken in
different test tube.
Add 1 pellet of NaOH to
each
Add 1-2 drops of CuSO
4

solution to each
Appearance of violet
coloration observed
Presence of
PROTEIN in
the sample

RESULT
All samples studied showed that they contain PROTEIN.
(dark chocolate..chocolate cream. Milky bar... milk chocolate bar..
Cadburys bar)

TEST FOR FAT
EXPIRIMENT OBSERVATION INFERENCE
1. Take a small sample of
each chocolate on
different pieces of filter
paper.
Fold and unfold the paper
to crush the sample over
a flame
Appearance of
translucent spot
around the sample
which became larger
on heating was
observed
Presence of
FAT in the
sample


RESULT
All samples studied showed that they contain FAT. (Dark
chocolate..chocolate cream. Milky bar... milk chocolate bar.. Cadburys
bar)

TEST FOR SUGAR
EXPIRIMENT OBSERVATION INFERENCE
1. 5ml of each sample if
chocolate taken in
different test tube.
Add 1ml water to each
then add few drops of
molisclis reagent (alpha
naphthol in alcohol.)
Then add con. H
2
SO
4
drops
along inner edge of the
test tube.


A purple ring is formed
at the top.
Presence of
SUGAR in the
sample
2. Mix 2ml of Fehlings A & B
in different test tubes.
Add a pinch of the
chocolate into the each
test tube
Then the solution in the
water bath.
Red-brown precipitate
was obtained.
Presence of
SUGAR in the
sample
3. 2ml of Tollens Reagent
was taken in different tes
tube.
Add a pinch of the
chocolate into the each
test tube.
Then the solution in the
water bath.


A silver mirror surface
is formed.

Presence of
SUGAR in the
sample

RESULT
All samples studied showed that they contain REDUCING SUGAR.
(Dark chocolate..chocolate cream. Milky bar... milk chocolate bar..
Cadburys bar)


TEST FOR CALCIUM
EXPIRIMENT OBSERVATION INFERENCE
1. A mixture of NH
4
Cl +
NH
4
OH+(NH
4
)
2
CO
3

A white precipitate
was obtained.
Presence of
CALCIUM in
the sample
2. With help of a glass rod
each sample of chocolate
solution placed on
different watch glass.
Add a drop of con.HCl and
a paste is made on each
sample.
This paste from each
sample is taken on the tip
of new glass rod and
shown to blue flame of
spirit lamp.
Brick red colour flame
was obtained.
Presence of
CALCIUM in
the sample

RESULT
All samples studied showed that they contain CALCIUM.
(Dark chocolate..chocolate cream. Milky bar... milk chocolate bar..
Cadburys bar)

TEST FOR IRON
EXPIRIMENT OBSERVATION INFERENCE
1. A mixture of NH
4
Cl +
NH
4
OH is made.
This is added to each
sample of chocolate
solution taken in different
test tubes.

No brown precipitate
was obtained.
Absence of
IRON the
sample

RESULT
All samples studied showed that they do not contain CALCIUM.
(Dark chocolate..chocolate cream. Milky bar... milk chocolate bar..
Cadburys bar)


TEST FOR MAGNESIUM
EXPIRIMENT OBSERVATION INFERENCE
1. A mixture of NH
4
Cl +
NH
4
OH +Na
3
PO
4
is made.
This is added to each
sample of chocolate
solution taken in different
test tubes.

No white precipitate
was obtained.
Absence of
MAGNESIUM
the sample


RESULT
All samples studied showed that they do not contain MAGNESIUM.
(Dark chocolate..chocolate cream. Milky bar... milk chocolate bar..
Cadburys bar).

TEST FOR NICKEL
EXPIRIMENT OBSERVATION INFERENCE
1. A mixture of NH
4
Cl +
NH
4
OH is made.
This is added to each
sample of chocolate
solution taken in different
test tubes.
Pass H
2
S gas through the
solution.

No black precipitate
was obtained.
Absence of
NICKEL the
sample.
RESULT
All samples studied showed that they do not contain NICKEL
(Dark chocolate..chocolate cream. Milky bar... milk chocolate bar..
Cadburys bar).










CONCLUSION

SI.NO Substance Present/Absent
1. Proteins

Present
2. Fats Present
3. Sugars

Present
4. Calcium

Present
5. Iron

Absent
6. Magnesium

Absent
7. Nickel

Absent













BIBLIOGRAPHY

www.foodhealthinnovation.com
www.todaysdietition.com
www.teagasc.ie/research.com