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10/23/2012

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Physics 111: Lecture 2, Pg1
Physics 111: Lecture 2 Physics 111: Lecture 2
Todays Agenda Todays Agenda
l Recap of 1-D motion with constant acceleration
l 1-D free fall
example
l Review of Vectors
l 3-D Kinematics
Shoot the monkey
Baseball
Independence of x and y components
Physics 111: Lecture 2, Pg2
Review: Review:
l For constant acceleration we found:
at v v
0
+ =
2
0 0
at
2
1
t v x x + + =
const a =
x
a
v
t
t
t
v) (v
2
1
v
) x 2a(x v v
0 av
0
2
0
2
+ =
- = -
l From which we derived:
Physics 111: Lecture 2, Pg3
Recall what you saw: Recall what you saw:
2
0 0
at
2
1
t v x x + + =
Physics 111: Lecture 2, Pg4
11--D Free D Free--Fall Fall
l This is a nice example of constant acceleration (gravity):
l In this case, acceleration is caused by the force of gravity:
Usually pick y-axis upward
Acceleration of gravity is down:
y
a
y
=- g
0
-
y y
v v gt =
2
y 0 0
t g
2
1
t v y y - + =
y
a
v
t
t
t
g a
y
- =
Physics 111: Lecture 2, Pg5
Gravity facts: Gravity facts:
l g does not depend on the nature of the material!
Galileo (1564-1642) figured this out without fancy clocks
& rulers!
l demo - feather & penny in vacuum
l Nominally, g =9.81 m/s
2
At the equator g =9.78 m/s
2
At the North pole g =9.83 m/s
2
l More on gravity in a few lectures!
Penny
& feather
Ball
w/ cup
Physics 111: Lecture 2, Pg6
Problem: Problem:
l The pilot of a hovering helicopter
drops a lead brick from a height
of 1000 m. How long does it take
to reach the ground and how fast
is it moving when it gets there?
(neglect air resistance)
1000 m
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Physics 111: Lecture 2, Pg7
Problem: Problem:
l First choose coordinate system.
Origin and y-direction.
l Next write down position equation:
l Realize that v
0y
= 0.
2
0y 0
gt
2
1
t v y y + =
2
0
gt
2
1
y y - =
1000 m
y = 0
y
Physics 111: Lecture 2, Pg8
Problem: Problem:
l Solve for time t when y = 0 given
that y
0
= 1000 m.
l Recall:
l Solve for v
y
:
y
0
= 1000 m
y
s 3 14
s m 81 9
m 1000 2
g
y 2
t
2
0
.
.
=

= =
2
0
gt
2
1
y y - =
y = 0
) (
0
2
y 0
2
y
y y a 2 v v - - =
s m 140
gy 2 v
0 y
/ - =
=
Physics 111: Lecture 2, Pg9
Lecture 2, Lecture 2, Act 1 Act 1
1D free fall 1D free fall
ll Al i ce and Bi l l are standi ng at the top of a cl i ff of hei ght Al i ce and Bi l l are standi ng at the top of a cl i ff of hei ght
HH. Both throw a bal l wi th i ni ti al speed . Both throw a bal l wi th i ni ti al speed vv
00
, Al i ce strai ght , Al i ce strai ght
down down and Bi l l strai ght and Bi l l strai ght up up. The speed of the bal l s when . The speed of the bal l s when
they hi t the ground are they hi t the ground are vv
AA
and and vv
BB
respecti vel y. respecti vel y. Whi ch Whi ch
of the fol l owi ng i s true: of the fol l owi ng i s true:
(a) (a) vv
AA
< < vv
BB
(b) (b) vv
AA
= = vv
BB
(c) (c) vv
AA
> > vv
BB
vv
00
vv
00
Bi l l Bi l l Al i ce Al i ce
HH
vv
AA
vv
BB
Physics 111: Lecture 2, Pg10
Lecture 2, Lecture 2, Act 1 Act 1
1D Free fall 1D Free fall
l Since the motion up and back down is symmetric, intuition
should tell you that v = v
0
We can prove that your intuition is correct:
vv
00
Bi l l Bi l l
HH
vv = v = v
00
( ) 0 H H g 2 v v
2
0
2
= - - = - ) ( Equati on: Equati on:
Thi s l ooks j ust l i ke Bi l l threw Thi s l ooks j ust l i ke Bi l l threw
the bal l down wi th speed the bal l down wi th speed vv
00
, so , so
the speed at the bottom shoul d the speed at the bottom shoul d
be the same as Al i ces bal l . be the same as Al i ces bal l .
y = 0 y = 0
Physics 111: Lecture 2, Pg11
Lecture 2, Act 1 Lecture 2, Act 1
1D Free fall 1D Free fall
ll We can al so j ust use the equati on di rectl y: We can al so j ust use the equati on di rectl y:
( ) H 0 g 2 v v
2
0
2
- - = - ) ( Al i ce: Al i ce:
vv
00
vv
00
Al i ce Al i ce Bi l l Bi l l
y = 0 y = 0
( ) H 0 g 2 v v
2
0
2
- - = - ) ( Bi l l : Bi l l :
same !! same !!
Physics 111: Lecture 2, Pg12
Vectors (review): Vectors (review):
l In 1 dimension, we could specify direction with a +or - sign.
For example, in the previous problem a
y
= -g etc.
l In 2 or 3 dimensions, we need more than a sign to specify the
direction of something:
l To illustrate this, consider the position vector rr in 2 dimensions.
Example Example: Where is Chicago?
Choose origin at Urbana Urbana
Choose coordinates of
distance (miles), and
direction (N,S,E,W)
In this case rr is a vector that
points 120 miles north.
Chicago
Urbana
r r
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Physics 111: Lecture 2, Pg13
Vectors... Vectors...
l There are two common ways of indicating that something is
a vector quantity:
Boldface notation: AA
Arrow notation:
A A =
r
A
r
A
Physics 111: Lecture 2, Pg14
Vectors... Vectors...
l The components of rr are its (x,y,z) coordinates
rr =(r
x
,r
y
,r
z
) =(x,y,z)
l Consider this in 2-D (since its easier to draw):
r
x
= x = r cos q
r
y
= y = r sin q
y
x
(x,y)
q
where r = |rr |
rr
q =arctan( y / x )
Physics 111: Lecture 2, Pg15
Vectors... Vectors...
l The magnitude (length) of rr is found using the Pythagorean
theorem:
r = = + r x y
2 2
rr
y
x
l The length of a vector clearly does not not depend on its direction.
Physics 111: Lecture 2, Pg16
Unit Vectors: Unit Vectors:
l A Uni t Vector Uni t Vector is a vector having length 1
and no units
l It is used to specify a direction
l Unit vector uu points in the direction of UU
Often denoted with a hat: uu =
l Useful examples are the Cartesian
unit vectors [ i , j , k i , j , k ]
point in the direction of the
x, y and z axes
UU
x
y
z
ii
jj
kk

Physics 111: Lecture 2, Pg17
Vector addition: Vector addition:
l Consider the vectors AA and BB. Find AA +BB.
AA
BB
AA
BB
AA
BB
CC = AA + BB
l We can arrange the vectors as we want, as long as we
maintain their length and direction!!
Physics 111: Lecture 2, Pg18
Vector addition using components: Vector addition using components:
l Consider CC = AA + BB.
(a) CC = (A
x
ii + A
y
jj ) + (B
x
i i + B
y
jj ) = (A
x
+ B
x
)ii + (A
y
+ B
y
)jj
(b) CC = (C
x
ii + C
y
jj )
l Comparing components of (a) and (b):
C
x
= A
x
+ B
x
C
y
= A
y
+ B
y
CC
B
x
AA
B
y
BB
A
x
A
y
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Physics 111: Lecture 2, Pg19
Lecture 2, Lecture 2, Act 2 Act 2
Vectors Vectors
l Vector A =(0,2,1)
l Vector B =(3,0,2)
l Vector C =(1,-4,2)
What is the resultant vector, D, from
adding A+B+C?
(a) (a) (3,5, (3,5,--1) 1) (b) (b) (4, (4,--2,5) 2,5) (c) (c) (5, (5,--2,4) 2,4)
Physics 111: Lecture 2, Pg20
Lecture 2, Lecture 2, Act 2 Act 2
Solution Solution
D =(A
X
i +A
Y
j +A
Z
k) +(B
X
i +B
Y
j +B
Z
k) +(C
X
i +C
Y
j +C
Z
k)
=(A
X
+B
X
+C
X
)i +(A
Y
+B
Y
+C
Y
)j +(A
Z
+B
Z
+C
Z
)k
=(0 +3 +1)i +(2 +0 - 4)j +(1 +2 +2)k
={4,-2,5}
Physics 111: Lecture 2, Pg21
33--D Kinematics D Kinematics
l The position, velocity, and acceleration of a particle in 3
dimensions can be expressed as:
rr = x ii + y jj + z kk
vv = v
x
ii + v
y
jj + v
z
kk (ii , jj , kk unit vectors )
aa = a
x
ii + a
y
jj + a
z
kk
l We have already seen the 1-D kinematics equations:
a
dv
dt
d x
dt
= =
2
2
v
dx
dt
= x x(t = )
Physics 111: Lecture 2, Pg22
33--D Kinematics D Kinematics
l For 3-D, we simply apply the 1-D equations to each of the
component equations.
l Which can be combined into the vector equations:
rr = rr(t) vv = drr / dt aa = d
2
rr / dt
2
v
dx
dt
x
=
x x(t = )
v
dy
dt
y
=
y y t = ( )
v
dz
dt
z
=
z z t = ( )
a
d x
dt
x
=
2
2
a
d y
dt
y
=
2
2
a
d z
dt
z
=
2
2
Physics 111: Lecture 2, Pg23
33--D Kinematics D Kinematics
l So for constant acceleration we can integrate to get:
aa = const
vv = vv
0
+ a a t
rr = rr
0
+ vv
0
t +
1
/
2
aa t
2
(where aa, vv, vv
0
, rr, rr
0
, are all vectors)
Physics 111: Lecture 2, Pg24
22--D Kinematics D Kinematics
l Most 3-D problems can be reduced to 2-D problems when
acceleration is constant:
Choose y axis to be along direction of acceleration
Choose x axis to be along the otherdirection of
motion
ll Exampl e Exampl e: Throwing a baseball (neglecting air resistance)
Acceleration is constant (gravity)
Choose y axis up: a
y
= -g
Choose x axis along the ground in the direction of the
throw
lost marbles
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Physics 111: Lecture 2, Pg25
x and y components of motion are x and y components of motion are
independent. independent.
l A man on a train tosses a ball straight up in the air.
View this from two reference frames:
Reference frame
on the moving train.
Reference frame
on the ground.
Cart
Physics 111: Lecture 2, Pg26
Problem: Problem:
l Mark McGwire clobbers a fastball toward center-field. The
ball is hit 1 m(y
o
) above the plate, and its initial velocity is
36.5 m/s (v ) at an angle of 30
o
(q) above horizontal. The
center-field wall is 113 m(D) from the plate and is 3 m(h)
high.
What time does the ball reach the fence? What time does the ball reach the fence?
Does Mark get a home run? Does Mark get a home run?
q
vv
h
D
y
0
Physics 111: Lecture 2, Pg27
Problem... Problem...
l Choose y axis up.
l Choose x axis along the ground in the direction of the hit.
l Choose the origin (0,0) to be at the plate.
l Say that the ball is hit at t = 0, x = x
0
= 0
Equations of motion are:
v
x
= v
0x
v
y
= v
0y
- gt
x = v
x
t y = y
0
+ v
0y
t -
1
/
2
gt
2
Physics 111: Lecture 2, Pg28
Problem... Problem...
l Use geometry to figure out v
0x
and v
0y
:
y
x
g
q
vv
v
0x
v
0y
Find v
0x
= |v| cos q.
and v
0y
= |v| sin q.
y
0
Physics 111: Lecture 2, Pg29
Lecture 2, Lecture 2, Act 3 Act 3
Motion in 2D Motion in 2D
l Two footballs are thrown from the same point on a flat field.
Both are thrown at an angle of 30
o
above the horizontal.
Ball 2 has twice the initial speed of ball 1. If ball 1 is caught
a distance D
1
from the thrower, how far away from the
thrower D
2
will the receiver of ball 2 be when he catches it?
(a) D
2
= 2D
1
(b) D
2
= 4D
1
(c) D
2
= 8D
1
Physics 111: Lecture 2, Pg30
Lecture 2, Lecture 2, Act 3 Act 3
Solution Solution
l The distance a ball will go is simply
x = (horizontal speed) x (time in air) = v0x t
2
y 0 0
t g
2
1
t v y y - + =
l To figure out time in air, consider the
equation for the height of the ball:
0 t g
2
1
t v
2
y 0
= - l When the ball is caught, y = y0
0 t g
2
1
v t
y 0
=

- g
v
2 t
y 0
=
t =0 (time of throw)
(time of catch)
two
solutions
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Physics 111: Lecture 2, Pg31
Lecture 2, Lecture 2, Act 3 Act 3
Solution Solution
g
v
2 t
y 0
= l So the time spent in the air is proportional to v0y :
l Since the angles are the same, both v0y and v0x for ball 2
are twice those of ball 1.
ball 1
ball 2
v
0y ,1
v
0x ,1
v
0y ,2
v
0x ,2
v
0,1
v
0,2
l Ball 2 is in the air twice as long as ball 1, but it also has twice
the horizontal speed, so it will go 44 times as far!!
x = v0x t
Physics 111: Lecture 2, Pg32
Shooting the Monkey Shooting the Monkey
(tranquilizer gun) (tranquilizer gun)
l Where does the zookeeper
aim if he wants to hit the monkey?
( He knows the monkey will
let go as soon as he shoots ! )
Physics 111: Lecture 2, Pg33
Shooting the Monkey... Shooting the Monkey...
l If there were no gravity, simply aim
at the monkey
r = r
0
r =v
0
t
Physics 111: Lecture 2, Pg34
Shooting the Monkey... Shooting the Monkey...
rr = vv
0
t -
1
/
2
gg t
2
l With gravity, still aim at the monkey!
rr = r
0
-
1
/
2
gg t
2
Dart hits the
monkey!
Physics 111: Lecture 2, Pg35
Recap: Recap:
Shooting the monkey... Shooting the monkey...
x x = = xx
00
yy = -
1
/
2
gg t
2
l This may be easier to think about.
Its exactly the same idea!!
xx = = vv
0 0
tt
yy = -
1
/
2
gg t
2